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NET ZERO BUILDINGS • Highlighting the Path Toward Net Zero Building Design

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WATER: LOWDOWN ON LOW FLOW ENVELOPE: ROOFS AND SKYLIGHTS DAYLIGHTING: A NET ZERO SURVEY

NET ZERO BUILDINGS November 2016

 Volume 5, Number 5

24 34 38

| NZB: HVAC | A criterion that separates net zero projects from LEED

Passive strategies, including of outside air, certifi ed facilities is verifigreater cation ofuse system performance. can be key in delivering net zero and near net zero results; Of course, that’s easier said than done. Turn inside for but its criteria some must examples be weighed carefully. of how it’s being done and why.

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

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08

Natural materials, including wood and stone, as well as natural concepts, including daylighting and rainwater harvesting, drive the Living Building Challenge-certified RW Kern Center at Hampshire College. That said, the Bruner/Cott design team borrowed promising products from across both oceans to deliver net zero in Amherst, Mass.

project zero OBSERVATIONS

R.W. Kern Center at Hampshire College

A goal of being carbon neutral opened a door to advanced design that would adopt the “stringent and holistic” requirements of the Living Building Challenge to deliver onto the college a building that ups the sustainable ante.

Apathy reflects the challenge—a need to enlighten the mainstream to understand what the net zero movement is.

By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett

By Jim Crockett

08 

44 End Point

Amherst, Mass.

ON THE COVER Going with the flow may not be bad advice when it comes to passively ventilating net zero buildings. Orientation, climate, and the percentage of HVAC it will contribute, are key considerations.

06 Toward Zero

Taking a stand for net zero involves being more than just vocal about it; we need to take action. By John Mesenbrink

02 | 11.16 | NET ZERO BUILDINGS

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H VAC

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Natural ventilation can certainly reduce HVAC loads in warmer, drier climates, but can it be used for all applications? NZB examines some case studies. By John Mesenbrink

Passive Strategies Air Flow & Architecture u AHR Education u HVLS Fans u u

LIGHTING

WAT ER

P OW ER

EN V ELO PE

DAY L I G H T I N G

20

24

30

34

38

Room Ratios Matter

Restroom Efficiency

Hybrid Approaches

Integrating Roofs

Daylight a Driver

Due to differences in performance of actual fixtures, even between similar lighting products, lumens and watts fall short, thus creating less-than-ideal results. There are methods that can be valuable in evaluating products, provided they are applied carefully.

Commercial building restroom’s water usage is literally lost down th drain. Low-flow plumbing fixture usage is examined. Low-flow toilet flush volume would not impact customer satisfaction and could save millions of gallons of water every day.

Project developers should not be so myopic when it comes to onsite power methods. Developers should consider a hybrid design, one that brings together more than a single resource or one that addresses multiple energy needs at the same time.

The performance and integrity of roofs on net zero projects are a serious matter, yet the integration of skylights makes a lot of sense in the bigger picture. The good news is there are strategies that allow for light from above without bringing the whole roof down.

According to the latest CABA report, nearly 75% of the building occupants polled said that they are satisfied with their facility’s daylighting system. Surveying 23 net zero projects, the CABA report offers insight into some interesting daylighting trends.

u

LED Luminaires Pendant Lighting u IoT-Enabled Devices u Downlighting

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Rainwater Collection Macerating Toilets u Lo-Flow Fixtures u Pumping Solutions

u

u

u

Solar Charging Stations u Generators u Battery Storage

u

u

u

u

u

By Kevin Willmorth

www.nzbmagazine.com

Airing Out Comfort Concerns

By John Mesenbrink

By Chuck Ross

Duke’s Penn Pavilion Modular Skylights u BIPV u Roofing By Alan Weis

Windows & Doors Glass Façades u Skylights u Light Shelves By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 11.16 | 03

11/3/16 12:57


NOVEMBER 2016

Re-Introducing…

THE ANNUAL NZB AWARDS

VOL. 5, NO. 5

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

Gary Redmond

Managing Partner Director Publishing Operations gredmond@cbmedia.us.com

NET ZERO BUILDINGS Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

Tim Shea

Managing Partner Director Business Development tshea@cbmedia.us.com

Dave Pape

Jim Crockett

Vice President Director, Art & Production dpape @cbmedia.us.com

Editorial Director jcrockett@cbmedia.us.com

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

NET ZERO BUILDINGS

EDITORIAL

Premier Issue: Jan. 2013

E NVE LO PE

DAYL IGHT IN G

POW ER

Alan Weis

Barbara Horwitz-Bennett Contributing Writer

Chuck Ross

Contributing Writer

L IGHT ING

WAT E R

HVAC

Contributing Writer

Kevin Willmorth

John Mesenbrink

Contributing Writer

John Mesenbrink

Contributing Editor

Contributing Editor

Megan Mazzocco

Senior Editor mmazzoco@cbmedia.us.com

One of the major criteria that differentiates net zero projects vs. say, a LEED-certified project, is that net zero certification typically requires verification of performance for at least a year’s worth of operation. In that spirit, for NZB’s inaugural awards program later this year, we’d like to highlight outstanding examples of product and technology in application, whether included as part of an efficient system or for more singular performance. In concert with our established “pillars,” we’ll be looking at technology applications within the categories of the building envelope, daylighting, lighting, HVAC, water/plumbing, and on-site power/renewables. These system-level entries do not necessarily have to be associated with a net zero project, but should be associated with a high-performance design.

ART + PRODUCTION Dave Pape

Art Director dpape@cbmedia.us.com

Lauren Lenkowski

Alex Mastera

Associate Art Director llenkowski@cbmedia.us.com llenkowski @cbmedia.us.com

Associate Art Director amastera@cbmedia.us.com

On the net zero level, we will also recognize a net zero project of the year, which may be a project already certified, or one under consideration. And to recognize the effort and work that goes into creating a net zero ADVERTISING SALES

project we will also be issuing citations for:   

BEST INTEGRATED PROCESS BEST ENERGY MODELING EFFORT BEST CONTINUOUS COMMISSIONING EFFORT

On a product level, we’d also like to recognize R+D and efforts to create products that will help further the net zero movement, in the following categories: MOST PROMISING NEW TECHNOLOGY  BEST HYBRID PRODUCT PARTNERSHIP—Where two or more manufacturers have worked together to develop a single product that will better serve the part  MOST PROMISING ELECTRONIC DESIGN TOOLS 

Details and deadline information will be available soon. Questions should be directed to Jim Crockett: jcrockett@cbmedia.us.com

Gary Redmond

847 359 6493 gredmond @cbmedia.us.com

Bob Fox

917 273 8062 bfox@cbmedia.us.com bfox @cbmedia.us.com

David Haggett

847 934 9123 dhagg dha ggett gg ett@cbmedia.us.com ett @cbmedia.us.com

Tim Shea

Michael Boyle

847 359 6493 tshea@cbmedia.us.com tshea @cbmedia.us.com

847 359 6493 mboy mbo yle le@cbmedia.us.com @cbmedia.us.com

Jim Führer

Jim Oestmann

503 227 1381 jfuhrer fuhrer@cbmedia.us.com @cbmedia.us.com

847 838 0500 joestmann@cbmedia.us.com

Ted Rzempoluch

609 361 1733 ted@nzbmag ted@nzbma gazine.com

Net Zero Buildings (NZB), Vol. 5, No. 5. Published five times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; www.nzbmagazine.com. (Copyright © 2016 by Construction Business Media) A Publication of Construction Business Media

www.nzbmagazine.com

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Every day, we waste over 18 trillion lumens. Isn’t it time to look at light in a whole new way?

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CIRCLE 25

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| TOWARD ZERØ |

JIM CROCKETT

To a Mouse: Ruminations on Net Zero Just as in the early days of Greenbuild, when it had to be communicated there was no such thing as a “green” product, there’s not really a “net zero” product. So long as your product helps deliver performance it—and your involvement in this movement—is welcome.

Daniel Burnham implored all to “make no small plans.” Robert Burns, in his poem, To a Mouse, also reminded us the “best laid schemes of mice and men often go awry.” We here at NZB have found ourselves in the latter situation. In wishing to better involve the community into the pages of the magazine, we launched an ambitious program, the Building, Energy and Systems Technology—BeST— Awards, to reflect the kinds of best practices we discuss in our pillar and project coverage. But like the lofty goal of zero net energy, we wanted to reserve honors for those projects, systems and technology that, indeed, delivered measured performance. In fact, we wanted to see older projects—particularly stand-out case studies at a system level where product and design came together with proven results.

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For just as with net zero projects, certification only comes after verification. Alas, be it poor communication on our part, or trying to execute something not exactly in the box, we did not get the turn out we hoped. Still, we did get noteworthy submissions, and as soon as we can, we will highlight a pair of excellent projects and a handful of products we felt were difference makers. Although our plan didn’t turn out the way we foresaw, I’m hopeful for 2017, as I’m reminded of another literary moment from my youth; back in the third grade, I had an English teacher who brooked none of my rambunctious nature. Instead, she put books in my hands, one a Norse tale about Thor and Loki in the land of the giants. Cutting to the chase, the pair and their companions were challenged—and then soundly humiliated—in various contests at the hands of a lad, a cat and an old lady.

At the end of the story, the giant revealed he had placed illusions on the group, and their efforts were nothing to be ashamed of, as their contests involved a race against the speed of thought (the lad); an attempt to lift the gargantuan serpent that surrounded the earth (the cat); and wrestling Old Age who was disguised as the crone. What I’m trying to say is that it’s easy to get discouraged by unrequited results, whether it’s this competition or the general advancement of the movement. The apathy reflects the challenge— a need to enlighten the mainstream to understand what the movement is all about. For I know impressive results are being delivered. So as 2017 looms, we’ll put the call out again with the goal of being able to delve deeper into the NZB process, be it design integration, energy modeling, commissioning or individual efforts.

To manufacturers, you have a big part in this play: send in system examples. Tell us also about what you might be developing on the product front, especially that relate to the advancement of net zero energy, water and carbon goals. Tell us about the partnerships and hybrids you’re developing. This is my New Year’s wish. I hope it might become yours too.

When Will ZNE Be Mainstream? 2020

8%

2030

36%

2040

34%

2050 Never

20% 2%

DATA POINT: At the the New Building Institute’s recent “Getting to Zero” national forum in Denver last month, the organizers did an improptu phone poll of the event’s attendees on a variety of issues facing the movement, including when it will become mainstream.

Jim Crockett, Editorial Director

jcrockett@cbmedia.us.com

www.nzbmagazine.com

11/3/16 17:40


DESIGNED WITH

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WHY DRI-DESIGN? Distinction isn’t just about standing apart from the crowd, but is more about elevating yourself above the crowd. Dri-Design’s nearly unlimited palette of design options, which includes materials, colors, finishes, textures, etc., make Dri-Design unique. What makes Dri-Design distinct, is that it provides this unique range of design options, in a system that installs and performs even better than it looks. A combination of form and function that is truly distinct. • No sealants, gaskets or butyl tape means no streaking and no maintenance for owners. • Not laminated or a composite material, so panels will never delaminate. • At Dri-Design, we have a strict policy of recycling and creating products that the world can live with. • Fully tested to exceed ASTM standards and the latest AAMA 508-07. • Available in a variety of materials, colors, finishes, dimensions and textures. Pittsburg State Univ. - Bicknell Family Center for the Arts - Pittsburg, KS Architect of Record: ACI BOLAND ARCHITECTS Design Architect: WILLIAM RAWN ASSOCIATES, Architects, Inc.

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Hampshire College

| PROJECT ZERĂ˜ |

Amherst, Mass.

R.W. KERN CENTER

Market: Higher Education Size: 15,000 sq. ft. Owner: Hampshire College Architect: Bruner/Cott & Assocs. Construction Manager: Wright Builders Electrical Engineering: RW Sullivan Mechanical, Plumbing & Controls: Kohler & Lewis Engineers Lighting Design: Lewis Lighting Design Fire Protection: Rybak Engineer Structural Engineering: Foley Buhl Roberts & Assocs. Environmental Engineer: South Mountain Company Landscape Architect: Richard Burke Assocs. Code Consultant: Cutler Consulting Key Team Members: Bruner/Cott & Assocs.: Jason Forney; Jason Jewhurst; Christopher Nielson; Sara Draper Text: Barbara HorwitzBennett Photos: Robert Benson Photography

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AMHERST,MASS.

A Sustainable Trifecta of Goals The zero energy, zero water, Living Building Challenge-certified Kern Center at Hampshire College has officially upped the ante in sustainable building.

T H E 1 6,0 00-S Q.- F T. BUIL D IN G IS D ESIG N E D TO CRE AT E I TS OW N E N E RGY, H A RV EST IT S OW N WATE R AND T R E AT IT S OW N WA ST E .

“Any one of these accomplishments would make a project transformative on its own,” observes Jason Forney, AIA, LEED AP, principal, Bruner/Cott & Assocs., Cambridge, Mass., whose firm designed the 16,000-sq.-ft. facility. Constituted of an admissions office, a welcome center, a campus store and shared learning areas, the program sounds simple, but it was far from the case. Take the water angle, for example: the Kern Center features a treatment system that purifies water without the use of harmful chemicals. However, the cuttingedge system could only be pursued if the center was granted pilot project status, which ultimately required an involved process with the local and state regulatory bodies. But to be a pioneer, Bruner/Cott’s Jason Jewhurst says one must be prepared for hardship, but the result was worth it. “Harvesting rainwater for potable use and ecologically treating all storm and wastewater on-site is a big step forward for water policy

in Massachusetts,” says Jewhurst, AIA, and a senior associate with the firm. As if meeting the requirements of net zero were not enough, the Kern Center also fulfills LFI mandates, satisfying Red List materials requirements. Part of achieving this lofty goal meant all materials had to be meticulously screened to assure that they didn’t harm the people who produced them or those that use them—and most were sourced within 200 miles of the site. “Material documentation was the most time-consuming challenge,” says Will Lewis, IALD, MIES, LC, Lewis Lighting Design, Boston. “Manufacturers are not used to providing detailed ingredient lists for all levels of their supply chain. It took some time to first identify those who were willing to participate, in principal, and the list of suppliers who were actually able to drill down and provide the ingredient lists and certifications was even smaller.” In the end, it was worth it, according to college president Jonathan Lash. “We have had scores of visitors from design firms and organizations considering new building designs, as well as industrial firms and other institutions of higher education who consistently tell us the building has stretched their idea of what is possible,” he says.

 FLOOR PLAN

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TIMELINE

 IN THE DETAILS Low-E coatings were fine-tuned, through the use of energy models, to identify the best coating combinations. The glazing also employed warm-edge spacer technology to reduce thermal bridging at the perimeter of the glass.

 July 2013: Design competition selection process  August 2013: Design start date  August 2014: Design completion date  November 2014: Construction start  June 2016: Substantial completion According to Hampshire College President Jonathan Lash, the initiative began with a goal of being carbon neutral, which opened the door to advanced design standards and eventually led to taking on what Lash describes as the “stringent and holistic” Living Building Challenge. This informed many decisions moving forward and notably reduced the selection of materials available to the building team. For those that remained as possibilities, the designers selfimposed yet another requirement—ensuring that the product was both visually compelling and could handle more than one function at a time. For example, Forney explains that the selected laminated timber decking was a unique visual component, which also provided the floor structure, the armature that the mechanical, plumbing and electrical systems were anchored into and a ceiling finish for the 1st floor. Extremely proud of the facility’s sustainable aspects, from local quarried stone to the floor boards salvaged from a 125-year-old mill, Lash describes the space as functional, beautiful and filled with symbols of the commitment to sustainability.

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“SMART ORIENTATION, DAYLIGHTING, SUPER-INSULATION AND AIR SEALING HAVE ALL BECOME FUNDAMENTAL TO OUR CRAFT.” ENVELOPE

Targeting R-40 for the walls and R-60 on the roofs, Bruner/Cott Project Manager Christopher Nielson describes these values as the “sweet spot” in the colder northeast region. “If a building can achieve this high level of thermal resistance, more value can be added by increasing renewable energy generation than providing additional insulation,” he explains. By super-insulating the envelope, in addition to fine-tuning the right quantity of tall windows, i.e., windowwall ratio, this effectively maximizes the building’s energy efficiencies. Using a double-stud exterior wall, the wall’s R40 levels were achieved with conventional, woodbased products.

“Similarly, the roof is critical for reducing thermal transfer,” he adds. In order to enhance performance, the architects employed 32-in.-deep wood trusses as the roof structure, creating a deep cavity to fill with cellulose insulation. Even though thermal plastic foams would have delivered higher levels of insulation per thickness, the designers opted for cellulose insulation as it is not a greenhouse gas emitter, does not offgas, reduces the building’s carbon footprint and is 100% biodegradable. Another key enclosure element was stone and wood-clad rainscreen assembly, which provides a drainage plane behind the exterior cladding.

“This strategy eliminates any capillary action and allows the materials to dry more effectively, protecting the interior from moisture penetration” explains Jewhurst. “The cavity also reduces the heat transfer through the assembly. And the rainscreen strategy improves the moisture movement through the air and water barrier, which is a liquid-applied variably vapor-permeable membrane.” This means that when conditions require, moisture vapor in the cavity can pass through the membrane, whereas liquid water cannot, thereby protecting the wall from moisture damage and mold growth.

Jewhurst also notes that the stone wraps into the interior public spaces where it can absorb some of the solar gains during winter days, when the sun’s angle is low, later releasing warmth into the space throughout the night.

 EXPERIENCE PAYS The firm’s decade-long experience with lowenergy envelopes in cold climates made work “easy,” at least compared to the LFI mandates.

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WATER

DAYLIGHTING

In order for the Kern Center to meet the Living Building Challenge, the vast majority of the materials and products had to be sourced locally. However, the building team made an allowable exception to specify the German manufacturer Schuco’s FW-50 super insulation curtainwall system as it’s the highest thermally performing aluminum curtainwall system on the market, according to Nielson.

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While the aluminum components were manufactured in Europe for quality control, the triple-paned glazing, which accounted for more than 80% of the overall assembly weight, was sourced locally.

Tweaking the glazing package, the design team optimized the visible light transmittance and solar heat gain coefficient to accommodate the daylighting strategy, minimizing the thermal losses and solar gains.

Furthermore, the final curtainwall assembly was completed within 10 miles of the site, and final assembly of the system was fabricated on site.

“Low-E coatings were fine-tuned to identify the best coating combinations. The glazing also employed warm-edge spacer technology to reduce thermal bridging at the perimeter of the glass,” explains Nielson. “The result is R6 performance for the assembly.”

Additionally, building depth was limited to 40 ft. in order to deliver even daylighting throughout the floorplate at all times of the year. “Workstations were designed around the windows to limit the need for electric lights, and the design included interior and exterior shading systems to control for glare,” he adds.

INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE For the potable water system, the overhanging roof serves as both a design statement and the catchment area for all of the water used in the building.

To meet the LFI net zero water requirement, all water had to be captured on site for use; wastewater had to be treated on site, and all water falling on the grounds had to be reabsorbed on the site. For the potable water system, water is channeled from the roof to concrete cisterns, 3/4th of which is buried, with the overflow going into the landscape. Traveling on to a water purification room in the basement, the water is filtered with charcoal and UV filtration, with monitoring for turbidity. In terms of re-use, the center’s nonpotable requirements are minimized, thanks to the composting toilets significantly reducing water use from 150 gal/ day, with conventional toilets, to only 75 gal/ day. A direct-drop system was selected for the composting toilets, rather than a foam flush, to remove the need for power. The toilets also remove the requirement of treating blackwater. As a result, all wastewater is considered graywater, which is initially filtered via a series of polypropylene screens in the basement, with a secondary filter performed upstairs in the commons space, in indoor planters adjacent to the curtainwall. Any remaining water which hasn’t evaporated is drained back to the basement for another round of filtration.

GRAYWATER Filtered water, upon testing, is eventually sent to the site’s constructed wetland. If it does not pass, it goes through another cycle of filtration.

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LIGHTING

“WITH MONITORING, WE HOPE TO GET AHEAD OF SYSTEM DEFICIENCIES OR ROGUE POWER DRAINS THAT COULD IMPACT OUR ABILITY TO ACHIEVE NET ZERO ENERGY IN THE FIRST YEAR.”

MEASUREMENT AND VERIFICATION The building features a detailed metering system—broken down by the different mechanical systems including heat pumps, condensers, fan power, hot water and pumps—in addition to plug loads and lighting loads, by department.

p

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To optimize the efficiency of the building’s illumination system, lighting designer Lewis Lighting’s approach was to not overdesign the space. By taking a holistic approach to the visual environment in responding to the occupant’s visual needs, “this process inherently eliminated excess cost, materials and energy consumption. Only those light fixtures that provide direct value to the space were added to the project,” explains Lewis.

Both the space planning and the architecture was designed to capitalize on the natural light flowing into the space. In order to support this, zoned lighting fixtures make it easy to turn lights off high efficiency LED lighting when not in use. In addition, light-sensing photocells respond to daylight and motion-detecting sensors detect when the space is occupied.

“On the materials side, we focused on selecting fixtures with a simple beauty to them in order to limit the number of potential ingredients, in addition to limiting the number of separate manufacturers to simplify materials documentation,” he adds.

“In the materials vetting world, simpler is better,” relates Nielson. “Our design team began pulling together documentation on the entire lighting package three months before the contractor submitted the products.”

On that note, the design team selected products comprised of fewer materials to support the materials vetting process. For example, lighting fixtures predominantly constructed of aluminum, and carrying RoHS certification were selected.

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11/3/16 13:04


t ROBUST EFFICIENCY The VRF heat pump system is capable of operating to -4°F, without the need for supplemental heat, and the use of inverter-driven compressors eliminates cycling and greatly increases efficiencies.

HVAC

A critical component to meeting net zero energy in a cold climate, were heat pumps. Based on their best-in-class performance and ability to perform at low temperatures, air-source Mitsubishi heat pumps were specified to support HVAC requirements. In fact, the Japanese-manufactured heat pumps are excluded from the “Buy American” requirements for federally funded projects as the U.S. has acknowledged that there is no domestically manufactured heat pump equivalent. Nielson also points out that the heat pumps are a very efficient way to heat the building as the system often moves heat around the building, and from the outside, as opposed to generating it, thereby reducing overall energy use.

POWER

Also selected for its optimized thermal performance, the engineers went with RenewAire heat recovery ventilators, which are ducted to the different spaces for fresh air ventilation. The incoming air is preheated or pre-cooled by the exhaust air that leaves the building. Multiple zones and CO2 monitors direct the fresh air, as needed.

The design de-couples the heating/cooling system from natural ventilation to reduce energy demand, explains Nielson, so heat/cooling and ventilation are only provided when required, as opposed to simultaneously operating both conditioning features, when only one is required at the time.

Spread out in 19 acres over two sites, Hampshire College’s PV system will allow the Kern Center to turn the corner from net zero ready to net zero. A total of 15,000 solar panels, generating 4.7 DC/3.5 AC MW, will imminently start saving the college up to $400,000 a year by purchasing electricity from the utility at a fixed rate roughly half of which the college is currently paying. To optimize PV generation, Bruner/ Cott worked with energy consultant, South Mountain Co. to study rooftop solar production. Taking into account optimal east-west orientation, and pitching the roof to the south, the team discovered that 1- and 2-story solutions would work best based on rough energy use and roof array size. “Once a 2-story solution was selected, we worked backwards to hone energy use, and provide a 20% energy ‘contingency’ for changes during design and construction,” says Jewhurst. In addition, design changes and decisions that impacted energy— such as the envelope, mechanical systems— were also evaluated in light of the PV system.

SOLAR SPREAD Solar panels will save the college up to $400,000 by purchasing electricity at roughly half the rate it is currently paying.

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Meanwhile, the architectural team coordinated the standing seam roof— i.e., its pitch, PV rack clip attachments, and major conduit runs to DC/AC inverters in the basement—in order to accept the PV system.

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JOHN MESENBRINK

| NZB: HVAC | As a way to address ever-increasing energy costs, many builders, facility managers and architects are now including natural ventilation systems in their plans for both new and remodeling construction projects. NZB crosses the country in search of projects which utilize natural ventilation.

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NATURAL VENTILATION

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11/3/16 19:04


Island breezes, El Niño winds and generally dry, balmy climates are all conditions conducive to a more natural ventilated HVAC system. Taking advantage of site location and building orientation in terms of sunlight and wind direction are important factors when looking to alleviate HVAC load.

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Yet the majority of commercial buildings in the United States don’t have the benefit of being situated on a coastline or in relatively temperate climate. And, “with natural ventilation in the downtown metropolitan areas, key concerns such as air quality and acoustical issues can arise,” says David Croteau, president, AIA, LEED AP, Flansburgh Architects.

Nevertheless, keep in mind the overall objective of HVAC systems: they are designed to meet human comfort range. “One of the keys to natural ventilation is to dehumidify with cooling, in which you do not need volumes of air that you need with mechanical cooling,” says Croteau. “Natural ventilation will work pretty much everywhere in the world. The question becomes what times of the day and year will it work, and how thermally comfortable will we be,” says Charles Chaloeicheep, a project team member and senior associate with WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff.

According to Chris Flint Chatto, associate AIA, LEED AP BD+C, principal, ZGF Architects LLP, the principles with natural ventilation are the same, but the implementation might change in different locations. Humid summer locations, for example, would make it extremely challenging to maintain “traditional” narrow comfort zones for temperature and humidity, but natural ventilation could at least work in the shoulder seasons. Following are a handful of case studies where the concept was successfully applied.

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HVAC

AHR 2016

Keep Pace at AHR Vegas

TAKING ADVANTAGE OF SITE LOCATION AND BUILDING ORIENTATION IN TERMS OF SUNLIGHT AND WIND DIRECTION ARE CRITICAL FACTORS WHEN LESSENING LOAD.  15

Keeping up with the latest trends and technology is critical for facility managers trying to stay ahead of the technology curve and with the ever-evolving industry. At next year’s AHR show in Las Vegas—Jan. 30-Feb. 01—there is much to be learned. The education program is designed to help professionals keep current and in the now. Here are some can’tmiss tracks:

Hawaii Preparatory Academy Energy Lab The goal at the new 6,100-sq.-ft. Hawaii Preparatory Academy Energy Lab was for students to research renewable energy technology and its immediate impact on the environment, says Flansburgh’s Croteau. “The building’s donor said that ‘conflict is caused by a lack of resources,’” says Croteau. “He challenged us to develop a building that is powered by alternative means.” Featured in Brad Liljequist’s book, The Power of Zero: Learning from the World’s Leading Net Zero Energy Buildings, the energy lab is located in a unique microclimate at 2,500 ft. on the north tip of the Big Island of Hawaii. The school is situated in a dry-warm climate, where a consistent north wind blows, coming off the Pacific and over the Kahola range to the school.

GLOBAL TRENDS IN THE HVAC MARKET

Mon., Jan. 30, 8:00 am, N235/237 BSRIA will present the latest global trends from the HVAC markets, identifying the global hot spots and the key drivers for growth for HVAC, heating, renewable, and intelligent and smart control technologies. This presentation will give a global overview and detailed looked at the US and wider Americas markets.

ROOF DESIGN The lab was designed with a single high roof peak running perpendicular to the wind.

Implementing a wind driven ventilation system, the building was designed with a mixed mode cooling and ventilation system, which combined simple and mechanized systems. The prep academy was intentionally located at the windward edge of the campus to take advantage of the northern trade winds. High-efficiency air conditioners, as well four ventilation fans, were included as back-up to the natural ventilation-based systems. “The building harnesses the sustained trade winds 90% of the time and the other 10% was supplemental mechanical,” says Croteau. The lab was designed with a single high roof peak running perpendicular to the wind, states Liljequist in the book. As the wind currents are forced up and over the peak, the air velocity increases, creating a natural vacuum on the south side of the roof peak. In the evening, the project includes radiant cooling, whereby water is circulated through thermal roof panels and cooled via lower evening temperatures and night sky radiance.

VACUUM EFFECT As wind currents move up the peak, air velocity increases, creating a vacuum on the roof’s south peak.

BREATHTAKING VIEWS In addition to the striking views, the lab takes advantage of the consistent wind coming off the Pacific.

KAMUELA, HI.

NO SWEAT RADIANT COOLING CASE STUDIES

Mon., Jan. 30, 10:00 am, N234 Industry experts will present project profiles from various applications of radiant cooling from a variety of different climate zones. The panel will present a mix of techniques so you’ll be able to decide which is best suited for your next project.

CASE STUDY

HAWAIIAN BREEZE The energy lab features its own microclimate, located at 2,500 ft. on the north tip of the Big Island of Hawaii.

HAWAII PREPARATORY ACADEMY ENERGY LAB Kamuela, Hawaii

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HVAC

CASE STUDY

OLYMPIA, WASH.

1063 BLOCK REPLACEMENT Olympia, Wash.

PASSIVE SOLUTIONS  The 1063 Block Replacement building features a number of low energy solutions because of the mild, drier climate.

1063 Block Replacement 1063 is a 215,000-sq.-ft. office building—which will house the Washington State Patrol among others—that will be in the top 1% of office buildings nationally in energy efficiency. The building is an occupant-enabled system where occupants enable increased fresh air and decreased energy usage. The system approach detaches the heating and cooling system from the ventilation system—a dedicated outside air unit provides fresh air for people to breathe and in zone fan coil units provide heating and cooling for occupant comfort. On mild days, the in-zone units shut off, encouraging occupants to use their windows for thermal comfort/cooling and to increase fresh air. If occupants decide to not use their windows—possibly due to noise issues or outside air quality—they can manually turn on the in zone unit via a wall mounted switch or a WiFi controller. “This ‘mixedmode’ approach is simple and easy for occupants to understand. It gives them control, which we believe will result in a high-performance building with highly comfortable and highly productive occupants,” says Chaloeicheep.

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MODULE WITH SMARTS Big Ass Fans’ premier commercial fan, Essence, is now available with SmartSense, the company’s patented smart-control system. SmartSense changes the fan’s speed automatically based on ambient conditions. In Summer Mode and Winter Mode, the fan will operate at peak efficiency and effectiveness based on the temperature in the space, reducing or eliminating the need for traditional HVAC depending on climate. In Manual Mode, the fan can be freely controlled. Big Ass Solutions www.bigasssolutions.com CIRCLE 307

The mild, drier climate of Olympia, Wash. offers a number of low energy solutions. With respect to HVAC, these solutions include air side economizer, water side economizer and natural ventilation/ passive cooling. “The simplest, and lowest energy solution is, of course, natural ventilation/passive cooling; however, this requires occupant engagement—a wild card that requires thoughtful consideration to be successful. Given the appropriateness of the solution for the Washington climate, we felt that the opportunity far outweighed the risks and developed a solution that we feel can engage occupants while maintain control of the building,” says Chaloeicheep.

18 

LOAD ALLEVIATION The use of ceiling fans can contribute greatly to increased circulation, alleviating the HVAC load.

SITE ORIENTATION Shades block direct sunlight while redirecting diffused daylight back into the office; shades shield the glass from the cold winter winds from the south; and cool summer breezes from the north are captured by the building shades.

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HVAC

AHR 2016

HUMIDITY AND OCCUPANTS: WHAT THE LATEST IN HUMIDITY RESEARCH MEANS FOR YOU

Mon., Jan. 30, 11:00 am, N241 Updated evidence is showing increased links between indoor air humidity levels and occupant health. Learn about some of the recent research results and what they mean for your buildings. Attendees can expect to gain more in-depth knowledge on the effects of humidity levels on occupants, and benefits of maintaining humidity levels year round.

86ING HVAC  Because AP+I has reduced the need for forced air HVAC, AP+I Design has eliminated its own energy bill.

OFFICE BREEZES  The Colt louvers on enclosed office and conference room spaces allow for natural ventilation.

INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS TOWN HALL

Tues., Jan. 31, 11:00 am, N243 This presentation will provide an overview of the key findings from a large CABA Landmark Research study on “Intelligent Buildings and the Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT).” This study examined: the IoT market, building IoT trends, business opportunities, technical barriers, future market direction and industry recommendations. An executive summary of this CABA Research project will be provided to all attendees.

 17

AP+I Design AP+I Design, a full-service architectural, planning and interior design firm in Mountain View, Calif., was looking to increase ventilation in their building’s new office without adding energy costs. The firm purchased a 30-year-old building for its new headquarters, and challenged themselves with the audacious goal of retrofitting it into a net zero energy building. As part of the net zero solution, “we used louvered ventilators from Bilco to facilitate crossflow between offices built around their open floor plan.”

LOUVER ADVANTAGE Natural ventilation systems harness wind and heat to create a comfortable and healthy internal environment, with optimal temperature and humidity levels, and good air quality. Coltlite is a natural louvered ventilator that installs easily in the façade of a building. Bilco www.bilco.com CIRCLE 306

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Doing a zero net energy building lessens the HVAC load because of the super insulation around the perimeter of the building and on the roof. This insulation plays a huge part in keeping the building cool in the summer and warm in the winter. And, keeping the set point for the thermostats a bit higher helps. “We have large fans throughout that create air movement and help keep the building cool. We also have a large glass garage door to our patio that often remains open to the office where temps do not exceed 80ºF,” says Carol Sandman, LEED AP, Principal, AP+I Design. The building has operable skylights and half of its perimeter windows are operable, and can be opened for fresh air and the skylights open each night for its CO2 night flush, as well as reducing the heat in the building. “Due to the desire to reduce the amount of mechanical HVAC required, we installed the Colt louvers on the interior of the building in most of our enclosed office or conference room spaces,” says Sandman.

More Research Needed These case studies exemplify the use of natural ventilation to reduce HVAC load and mechanical cooling, yet the debate will continue as to whether buildings in specifically colder or more humid climates are ideal for a more passive approach.

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12/1/16 12:14


The smart choice for your building

LG innovation provides VRF solutions with industry-leading capacity, efficiency and cost-reducing design options. LG VRF brings you engineering choices you never thought possible. Capacity: Up to 42 tons with only 3 chassis – only LG VRF1 can offer this performance advantage.

Efficiency: Up to 38.5 IEER – an industry-leading efficiency rating.

Support: LG’s nationwide network of VRF experts is ready to assist with design, engineering and installation support.

Lower Total Cost of Ownership: Contact your LG VRF representative to learn how LG can help lower total cost of building ownership.

Design Innovation: LG VRF eliminates the need for oversized equipment, costly mechanical rooms, and provides superior zone control.

Visit www.lg-vrf.com today for more information and your nearest LG VRF representative.

Data current as of 5.11.16 www.AHRIdirectory.org ©2016 LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. All rights reserved. LG Life’s Good is a registered trademark of LG Corporation. Product image is for illustrative purpose only.

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LIGHTING

KEVIN WILLMORTH

| NZB: LIGHTING |

LED Key: Room Cavity Ratios When comparing products for equivalency, lumens per watt and raw lumens alone, without considering applied zonal light performance, are inadequate for comparisons. That said, there are non-modeling methods—applied carefully—that can be valuable in evaluating products.

Kevin Willmorth is a lighting professional who has emphasized lighting conservation for more then 30 years. He helped create Architectural SSL magazine and remains its editor. He is also the owner of Lumenique, a consultancy focused on deploying SSL products.

A

ccurate luminaire performance evaluation requires lighting software that includes room conditions. However, qualification of products to be included in simulations, and comparing others later as equals can be accomplished with simple metrics. For the purposes of general illumination, the most common metric for evaluation are lumens and watts, which also produce the frequently referred to lumenper-watt value. However, due to differences in actual fixture performance, even between similar products, lumens and watt falls short, creating invalid results. Lumens per watt is a simple metric that indicates raw conversion of electrical energy (watts) into light (lumens), which applies to any light source technology. However, lumen values only represent raw light emitted from a product, with no indication of light distribution. For this reason, it is also necessary to compare luminaire zonal lumen distribution.

comparison fails to take into consideration product performance in actual application, which demands one more factor be included. Coefficient of Utilization (CU) provides an approximation of a products applied performance within a closed space, represented as a percentage applied to the fixtures output. This is provided in catalog data, and is based on RCR (Room Cavity Ratio). RCR for a specific space can be calculated from room dimensions, or for simple comparison a value can be chosen and applied for simple (anything from 7 to 4 is fine) applied universally to all products. If an RCR of 4 is used for comparison of the seemingly identical T5 to LED products, important differences are revealed. the T5 fixture has an CU of 52%, while the LED product has a CU of 71%. This means the LED product will initially deliver 21% more of its raw lumens into the applied space.

22 

Zonal lumens generally represent how a product distributes light. This is provided in catalog specification sheets and photometric files. A typical recessed 2×2 troffer with (2) T5 lamps and prismatic lens consuming 35 watts, delivering 3983 lumens (calculated to 113.8 lm./W) distributes 79% of those lumens in the 0-60° zone and 45% in the 0-40° zone. A 2×2 LED product consuming 37 watts, delivering a total of 4061 lumens (calculated to 109.8lm/W), also delivers 79.8% in the 0–60°zone and 46.6% in the 0–40°zone. Superficially, this appears a valid comparison, since the light distributions of the two products are very similar. It might also be assumed that the LED system will consume slightly more energy total than the T5 lighting system due to the 2W difference in power consumption. However, this

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90%

less energy consumption

powers smart solutions for big data Managing data center capacity and reliability is complex. That’s why Inertech developed its innovative, modular data center cooling solution that enables expansion without compromising security or operations. Partnering with Danfoss for its energy-saving technologies, like oil-free variable speed compressors, variable frequency drives, controls and heat exchangers, enables Inertech to provide the world’s largest data centers with a flexible cooling solution that consumes less energy and water and costs less than a traditional chiller plant. Through innovative solutions, Danfoss and Inertech are changing the future of data center cooling and operations.

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LIGHTING

CASE STUDY

MÜNZING CHEMIE HQ Abstatt, Germany

For the new facility, German lighting manufacturer Sattler created a holistic solution for representative areas of the building in coordination with the project’s design firm Müller. Its ringshaped ANELLO luminaires—some as wide as 6 ft.—are used as stylistic elements throughout, harmonizing with the architecture of the building, which itself features a semi-circular shape. The LED luminaires are integrated in a DALI control system and can be dimmed. Furthermore, to reduce the sound level and to optimize the room acoustics of the entrance area, more than 60 round acoustic screens were integrated into the lights on the ground floor.

ABSTATT, GERMANY

SOUND DESIGN Sound-absorbing acoustic membranes are partly backlit and integrated into the fixtures, resulting in improved acoustics with an additional indirect light component for a homogeneous illumination of the room. As a bonus, they enable an elegant concealment of technical components.

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To address this, a more comparable LED product delivering 3371 lumens, consuming 29.9W (112.7lm/W) is more suitable. Due to the higher CU value, the reduction of 18% in total lumens will deliver 3% more light while using 15% less energy. To visualize this, multiply raw lumens x CU to attain Effective Applied Lumens (EAL). In the comparison, the T5 fixture = 2071 EAL, the 3300 LED = 2343 EAL, and the 4061 LED = 2883 EAL. Another approach is to multiply lm/W x CU to find an Effective Applied Efficacy (EAE). In the comparison, the T5 product delivers an EAE of 58 (113.8lm/W x 0.51), the 3300 lumen LED product 80, and the 4061 lm product 78. This means that the 3300 lumen LED product delivers the highest applied efficacy of these three, which is significantly different than the first assumption. Qualifying and evaluating products offered as submitted equals can be quickly accomplished:

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Do the products have similar zonal lumen distributions? Mismatches create errors.  What is the CU of each fixture (at a selected RCR value)? Higher = fewer lumens needed.  What is the EAE of each fixture? Higher = fewer fixture lumens required.  What is the EAL of each fixture? Higher = fewer fixture lumens required. 

When comparing products for equivalency, lumens per watt and raw lumens lone, without considering applied zonal light performance, are inadequate for comparisons. There are other factors—such as lumen depreciation, light loss factors, uniformity, exact illuminance—accomplished using simulation software. However, simple methods can be valuable in evaluating and comparing products, as long as they are applied carefully.

WHITE SOLVED? Philips Lightolier’s color-tunable, dimmable Calculite LED Generation 3 downlights produce exceptional, uniform and glare-free color. The line’s component design eliminates imperfections found in lesser sources, such as hotspots and dark rings. Calculite Gen 3 lightingproducts.philips.com CIRCLE 305

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LIGHTING

CASE STUDY

IOT-Enabled Lighting Delivers 82% Savings HITTING THE RIGHT NOTE The NOTE 67L Pendant by Litecontrol, a Hubbell brand, brings direct illumination, performance and versatility, all within a slim profile and a fresh, contemporary style. The fixture features variable Intensity technology provides specifiable output or wattage; Up to 127 LPW; an output range from 550-1800 lumens/ft. It also includes a removable lens for maintenance. Litecontrol www.litecontrol.com CIRCLE 304

EVERY SPACE IS CONNECTED TO A DIMMING SYSTEM, WITH SCENES TRIGGERED BY A TIMECLOCK. DAY AND NIGHT LIGHT LEVELS ARE BALANCED AND TUNED FOR THE RIGHT AMBIENCE IN A SPACE TOTALLY DEVOID OF DAYLIGHT.

Cheshire Schools installed an advanced lighting system from Mustone LED Illuminations featuring Enlighted Smart Sensors in all seven of its schools. Specifically, the latter’s system delivers a 62% energy reduction over the new LED baseline by providing task tuning, occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting and offering utility grade metering to verify energy use. It configures and manages lighting behavior by adjusting software profiles while retaining lighting data up to 36 months. The system also generates reports on lamp and fixture outages,

carbon reduction, energy and financial savings. According to Mike Xenakis, VP of Education Sales at Enlighted, the school is not only reaping the benefits of controlled LED lighting, it has unlocked the opportunity to better manage all its schools with the Internet of Things. “IoT allows us to support the development of the next generation of schools, offering energy efficiency, HVAC management, space utilization, micropersonalization and security. This leads to a truly enhanced environment for the students, faculty and staff,” says Xenakis.

SMART  A network of sensors gather data on things like light, heat, occupancy, security and asset location. Data is sent to a suite of proprietary apps that can harvest it for insights.

CASE STUDY

MININIMAL  Wherever possible decorative features were designed to provide sufficient illumination without the need for additional fixtures.

REBORN  A new custom chandelier is the focal point of the lobby mezzanine; recessed LEDs highlight the marble walls.

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NBCUNIVERSAL LOBBY Manhattan, New York

An IALD “Sustainability” award winner, the restoration of the art deco space by lighting designers Cooley Monato Studio, captures the essence of the original while renewing it with contemporary technology. Lighting power density was 0.6W/sq. ft.—half the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 allowance for a lobby space. Recessed downlights, accents, and wall washers use the same LED module, easing maintenance. This consistency of source also ensures matching colors.

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WATER

JOHN MESENBRINK

| NZB: WATER |

Efficiency Starts in the Restroom A high percentage of water usage comes in the form of a commercial building’s plumbing fixture inefficiency. What are some of the solutions? From inefficient water-guzzlers to macerating toilets, low-flow plumbing case studies are examined in projects across the country.

John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries—including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.

A

question overheard at a recent plumbing manufacturing facility tour revolved around the manufacture of WaterSense toilets to which the tour guide answered that they did indeed make a few. A few? Why isn’t the industry moving full throttle to produce, sell and consume more water-efficient products? According to MaP-Testing, most toilets sold today flush with 1.28 gallons (4.8L) or less and yet easily out-perform and out-flush older 1.6 and 3.5 gallon models. Mandating a maximum flush volume of 1.28 gallons would not impact consumer satisfaction but could save hundreds of millions of gallons of water every day. A study conducted by GMP Research Inc. found that only 5.5% of California’s 33.5 million installed residential and commercial toilets are highefficiency toilets using 1.28 gallons per flush—the EPA’s WaterSense standard for toilets evaluated to be 20% more water-efficient than other plumbing products meeting federal standards. Despite the recent drought conditions in California, only 21.1% of bathroom faucets meet the WaterSense standard of 1.5 gallons per minute (gpm) and 23.9% of showerheads meet the WaterSense standard of 2.0 gpm. The study further found that, on average, 7.0% of the toilets installed nationwide are WaterSense toilets, 25.4% of bathroom faucets are WaterSense certified, and 28.7% of showerheads are WaterSense certified. New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania have the highest WaterSense toilet installation rates (averaging 10.0%), and Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi the lowest (averaging 5.1%). Texas has the highest WaterSense showerhead installation rate (39.5%), and Arkansas the highest WaterSense bathroom

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faucet installation rate (35.1%). Connecticut has the lowest installation rates for both WaterSense bathroom faucets (12.7%) and WaterSense showerheads (13.6%). The numbers do show a glaring perspective for the use, or lack thereof, of efficient plumbing fixtures still used in today’s projects. However, as building owners and architects alike become more educated and up to speed on the some of the latest case studies, technology, methods and products, there could be a sea change coming. For instance, the Brock Environmental Center serves as the hub for the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s (CBF) Hampton Road office and supports their education, outreach, advocacy and restoration initiatives. In addition to offices for CBF and partner groups, the Center provides meeting rooms and an 80-seat conference room designed to express CBF’s mission of collaboration to protect one of the nation’s most valuable and threatened natural resources—Chesapeake Bay.

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GET SMARTER An industry-wide change of view is needed when it comes to a building’s outdated plumbing fi xtures. Low-fl ow is the way to go.

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GeodesicTopChoice-NetZeroAd-final_DuraCoat 2/2/16 11:17 AM Page 1

The geodesic dome encloses the greatest volume with the least surface area.

Top Choice A P P L I E D

S C I E N C E

Durapon 70™ fluorocarbon easily withstands post forming of shingles and shakes.

DURA COAT PRODUCTS, INC. RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA (951) 341-6500 HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA (256) 350-4300 www.duracoatproducts.com

OVER THE PAST CENTURY, THE GEODESIC DOME HAS EVOLVED FROM ITS ORIGINAL USE AS A PLANETARIUM TO A TOURIST-ATTRACTING PAVILION FOR EXHIBITS, to specialty buildings for events, to the most energy, material and space-efficient housing for dome dwellers all over the world. Covered with copper-painted metal shingles, the angled roof and dormers of this building make it a standout. A noteworthy design that deserves a noteworthy finish. For this home, Durapon 70 was the top choice. Chosen for its flexibility, durability and long-term performance, Dura Coat’s colorfast, cool pigments deflect UV rays to retain color and gloss. The tough surface of the premium coating resists installation scratching, scuffing, marring, staining and transit abrasion. A primary choice for galvalume, hot-dipped galvanized and aluminum substrate, when Durapon 70 is paired with Dura Coat’s thick-film primer for coastal and heavy industrial environments, the result is a top-of-the-line coil coating. Make the top choice for your building. For more information about this naturefriendly formulation that complies with the Cool Roof Rating Council, Energy Star and LEED standards, and reduces the carbon footprint, call 951-341-6500 or 256-350-4300.

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WATER MANDATING A MAXIMUM FLUSH VOLUME OF 1.28 GALLONS ON TOILETS WOULD NOT SEVERELY IMPACT CONSUMER SATISFACTION BUT COULD SAVE HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF GALLONS OF WATER EVERY DAY.

RAIN COLLECTION The Brock Environmental Center features a graywater system that collects and filters rainwater.

 24

“Brock is truly net-zero water, possibly the first in the U.S. to receive a commercial permit for drinking treated rainwater in accordance with federal requirements,” Greg Mella, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C, director of sustainable design at SmithGroupJJR. The primary strategy to reduce water consumption was the use of composting toilets. Flush fixtures represent the majority of water use for office buildings. Composting toilets are completely waterless. These low-flow—or waterless— plumbing fixtures reduce the regulated water demand of the project by approximately 90%. Net-zero water was achieved by meeting the entire—potable and non-potable—demand using treated rainwater.

VIRGINIA BEACH, VA.

FIRST THINGS FIRST According to Greg Mella, director of sustainable design at SmithGroupJJR, while it isn’t necessary to use recycled water to benefit from low-flow fixtures, low-flow fixtures are a necessary benefit to water harvesting.

Low-flow fixtures make sense regardless of whether or not a water recycling regime is incorporated into a design.” Using low-flow fixtures including dual-flush or high-efficiency toilets, we are routinely achieving a 30-40% reduction in regulated water use. Using low-flow fixtures with waterless toilets can result in a 80-90% reduction in water use,” says Mella. Often there are no cost impacts to using low-flow fixtures, and as water scarcity becomes an increased concern, these strategies and fixtures are part of SmithGroup JJR’s standard design practice. “Last year, 83% of SmithGroupJJR projects on the boards achieved a 20% reduction or greater in regulated water-use. While it isn’t necessary to use recycled water to benefit from low-flow fixtures, low flow fixtures are a necessary component to water harvesting. By reducing water demand, you can reduce the size of water storage and filtration equipment, thus reducing the cost and scale of rainwater harvesting components,” continues Mella.

TO SERVE AND PROTECT The Brock Environmental Center serves as the hub for the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s (CBF) Hampton Road office and supports their education, outreach, advocacy and restoration initiatives. The Center provides meeting rooms designed to express CBF’s mission to protect one of the nation’s most valuable and threatened natural resources–Chesapeake Bay. CASE STUDY

BROCK ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER Virginia Beach, Virginia

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WATER

 SURNAME ‘GREEN’ Green has to be in the namesake for the New York Botanical Garden, with its new Edible Academy expansion to the Ruth Rea Howell Family Garden.

NEW YORK CITY

SUSTAINABLE CLASSROOM The classroom building is a LEED Gold-targeted environmentally sustainable structure with, a green roof, porous pavement and geothermal heat.

FREESTANDING PAVILION The pavilion will provide a comfortable shaded space for classes and special programs. Solar panels on the roof of the pavilion will capture energy to offset energy use.

Compost Much? To meet a growing interest in urban edible gardening, particularly for New York City’s young learners, Cooper Robertson has designed an expansion to The New York Botanical Garden’s Ruth Rea Howell Family Garden. The new facility, called the Edible Academy, will expand programs for children as well as teachers, families, and adults into a year-round teaching center focusing on the fundamental relationships between plants, gardening, sustainability, nutrition and health. “To enhance its role in demonstrating sustainable technologies—as a practical response to the difficulty of reaching distant sewer lines and due to the challenge of finding soil suitable for a septic system—the Edible Academy has incorporated composting toilets in lieu of standard fixtures discharging to a sanitary system,” says Bruce Davis AIA, LEED AP, Partner, Cooper Robertson.

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LOW-FLOW FIXTURES MAKE SENSE REGARDLESS OF WHETHER OR NOT WATER RECYCLING IS INCORPORATED INTO A DESIGN. The toilets will be provided in the classroom building and as well as a separate, free-standing comfort station for the use of general Garden visitors. A total of 10 foam-flush toilets and three waterless urinals will be connected to composters located in the cellar areas below the restrooms. A special approval for the composting toilet system was required by a division of the New York City Dept. of Buildings, who were receptive to the innovative approach as well as the important environmental benefits.

METERING FAUCETS The 3600 Series is the latest addition to the Metermix line of metering faucets. All 3600 Series faucets feature user-adjustable temperature control for a superior hand washing experience. Chicago Faucets’ popular MVP metering cartridge, the heart of the 3600 Series, provides precise water flow, automatic shut-off, and adjustable run time to save water with every use. A choice of flow rates from 0.35 GPM (1.3 L/min) to 1.5 GPM (5.7 L/min) allows specifiers and building owners to strike the right balance between water savings and user comfort. Chicago Faucets www.chicagofaucets.com CIRCLE 303

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WATER USGBC HEADQUARTERS Washington, D.C.

MACERATE THIS SFA Saniflo U.S.A. has unveiled two new, vitreous china, floor-mounted toilet bowls with an updated and contemporary styling, the better to complement modern bathroom design. Available in white with either an elongated or round front, the new bowls are being combined with Saniflo macerating plumbing systems. Both toilets are high-efficiency, meeting the WaterSense labeling criteria) and using only 1.28 GPF.

Far too often government agencies preach one thing and do another, but for the USGBC they have truly put their words into action with their new headquarters in the Foggy Bottom district of Washington DC. Completed in 2007 the building has one purpose, to showcase to the public what green building could do. The first building to achieve Platinum Certification under LEED’s 3 new guidelines, it exemplifies high performance and energy efficiency

blending together to create a healthy and productive environment. Architects, engineers and other professionals strictly adhered to LEED and other green building guidelines to produce a design. Goals such as reducing water usage by 40% and overall energy use—as compared to the average office building—by 50% were set to ensure the building met expectations. Led by designer Perkins + Will, the building renovation would incorporate principles of reclamation, recycling and efficiency into every hallway, office and bathroom.

For the bathrooms, careful attention was given to water and energy savings. Utilizing new technologies like waterfree urinals, low-flow faucets and dual-flush fixtures would be essential. The strategies combined to create one of the most efficient office building in the U.S. Achieving the distinction of the first Platinum certified building in America, the building earned 45 out of a possible 57 LEED points. More importantly, Sloan products contributed to the building receiving a perfect ranking in the water efficiency category, an overall reduction of water use by 40%.

 EFFICIENCY FIT All of the bathrooms feature Sloan faucets, urinals, hand dryers and flush valves.

AS BUILDING OWNERS AND ARCHITECTS ALIKE BECOME MORE EDUCATED AND UP TO SPEED ON THE SOME OF THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY, METHODS AND PRODUCTS, THERE COULD BE A SEA CHANGE COMING.

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Supply House Solution

 BEHIND THE WALL A grinder located behind the toilet reduces waste into a slurry and pumps it through small diameter tubing to the drain line.

 OUT OF SIGHT… The macerating toilet flush water is moved to a sealed macerator pump located in a small box between the toilet and the wall.

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An Elkhart mainstay since 1947 has been MidCity Supply Company, a family-owned wholesaler that deals primarily in plumbing, HVAC and refrigeration supplies. Growth has been a constant for Mid-City Supply throughout its history. The company currently boasts around 100 employees. When the main branch in Elkhart outgrew office space, something had to be done. “We looked at various places to put new office space, including the front of the building and the warehouse. We finally settled on putting it upstairs near some existing training classrooms,” recalls Dan New, vice president of Operations and the third generation of family management at Mid-City. Naturally, the new office space needed new restrooms to save employees the hassle of running up and down the stairs. The decision of which plumbing system to install was rendered relatively quickly, according to New. “We really did not want to drill through the concrete floor to install the plumbing,” he says, “As a result, we turned to a solution that we have been stocking at our supply house for the better part of 10 years—the above-floor plumbing option from Saniflo.”

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WATER

LAB CERTIFIED ENERGY CODE COMPLIANCE

CASE STUDY

66% lighter than traditional precast panels

NISSAN AMERICA Franklin, Tenn.

MOVING WATER The original plans for the Nissan building called for a pumping system from another manufacturer. The design team ultimately went with Armstrong’s packaged system. p

Above-floor plumbing systems eliminate the need to break through a concrete floor to install drainage below. A macerator or a grinder located behind the toilet reduces the waste into a slurry and pumps it through small-diameter tubing straight to the drain line. Instead of routing waste through a drain in the floor like a conventional toilet, the macerating toilet flush water is moved to a permanently sealed macerator pump located in a small box between the toilet and the wall. The pump can also be hidden behind the wall. The macerator pump uses a fast-rotating cutting blade to break up waste and toilet paper and convert the water and waste into a fine slurry that is discharged under pressure through piping and expelled into the sewer or septic tank. Ryan Hendershott, a licensed plumber with Schreiner & Sons and the installing contractor on the Mid-City job, says the restroom application was well-suited to an above-floor installation. “In this case, short of choosing a different location for the restrooms altogether, above-floor plumbing was the least-complicated solution, due to the concrete being there.” New ended up choosing the Sanibest Pro heavy-duty grinding system for both the men’s and women’s restrooms. The 1-HP grinder can pump up to 25 feet vertically when it is installed below the sewer line; or nearly 150 feet horizontally to the sewer stack. It is specifically engineered to handle the accidental flushing of larger sanitary articles and other items a conventional plumbing system might struggle to handle. “Working in a commercial setting, we wanted to ensure that anything we flushed, intentionally or unintentionally, got taken care of,” explains New.

Prior to building the facility the 10-story headquarters office building, Nissan America already operated two assembly plants and a forging plant in Tennessee, so it was an easy decision to locate the new office building in Franklin.

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CONTROLLED LOGIC Through the Design Assist service, Armstrong was able to optimize the mechanical layout and save an estimated $70,000 in piping costs.

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The cooling system called for 1,350 tons of cooling, using two chillers and two cooling towers. Armstrong designed and delivered a complete packaged system including three condenser water pumps, three chilled water pumps, a PFX heat exchanger for free cooling and the IPC 11550 automated plant control system. The IPC 11550, uses patented control logic to monitor and adjust the operating speed of each component. The IPC 11550 is constantly adjusting the output of all components to meet HVAC requirements and minimize energy usage.

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POWER

CHUCK ROSS

| NZB: ONSITE POWER |

Hybrid Approaches to Onsite Power Project developers shouldn’t be so myopic when it comes to onsite power approaches. Instead of a one-or-nothing mentality, developers should consider a hybrid design—one that brings together more than a single resource or one that addresses multiple energy needs simultaneously.

Chuck Ross is a freelance writer covering building design and technology topics. He has been writing about building efficiency issues, including onsite energy and demandside management topics, for more than 20 years.

T

o meet the onsite power needs of net zero projects, developers often focus on a single resource—primarily, onsite solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays—to generate the electricity needed to offset a facility’s demand. But such single-mindedness can maximize the impact of that technology’s downsides—such as the fact PV can’t meet electricity needs after the sun goes down—and limit overall usefulness toward reaching net-zero goals.

While it is dependent on fossil fuel to power the generator, the fact that it captures heat that otherwise would be wasted makes it a highly efficient means for meeting total onsite energy needs. Where a natural gas or diesel-powered generator might only capture 45% to 50% of the energy available in its natural gas fuel for use as electricity, making use of the associated heat raises its operational efficiency as high as 80%.

To address the shortfalls of such all-eggs-inone-basket dependency, project developers might want to, instead, consider a hybrid approach to onsite-energy design, one that brings together more than a single resource or addresses multiple energy needs simultaneously. In this way, the energy generated locally could potentially be useful both day and night, and related capital investments could be amortized across multiple business operations and not simply applied against a monthly electricity bill.

Because capturing the full benefits of CHP means making the most of the waste heat, systems generally are sized to a facility’s heat load, rather than electrical demand. Previously, economies of scale meant such applications were primarily large hospitals or industrial plants. As U.S. manufacturing has slowed, so has the CHP market, which has stagnated for the last decade. The nation’s current combined CHP and fuel cell (a similar technology) capacity is still significant, though, at 84 gigawatts (GW).

Investigators in university laboratories and venture-backed startups are actively pursuing hybridized systems, including designs linking PV panels to hydrogen fuel cells, or fuel cells to microturbines. Here we present three options now at, or near to commercialization, for looking beyond the standalone solar array.

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SHARING THE HEAT

Cogen captures heat that otherwise would be wasted, making it a highly efficient means for meeting on-site energy needs.

Combined Heat and Power The most fully developed hybrid approach to meeting facility-wide energy needs is combined heat and power (CHP), also called “cogeneration,” or “cogen,” for short. This technology involves capturing the waste heat from an onsite generator set for use in other applications, such as process heat for a manufacturing plant or hot water for a college campus.

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1.5 years

over 20%

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POWER

THE SCIENCE IS IN THE SOLAR Florida’s SunSmart E-Shelter program has brought solar-plus-storage systems to 100 schools designed as storm shelters throughout the state. In addition to added resiliency, the installations also serve as science labs for students. Schools have received a curriculum kit for teaching how PV works and the relationship between energy and the environment.

IN THE NEWS

Pot Farms Face Energy Munchies While this issue went to press before results on a number of state-level medical and recreational marijuana referenda could be known, supporters of its legalization certainly have reason to feel bullish–and so should their electric utilities. According to a recent report, indoor growing operations can rival data centers in energy intensity, utilities serving legal operations in Colorado, and Washington State have seen significant load growth since state residents voted to allow themselves to light up legally. Growing facilities in Colo. consumed as much electricity as 35,000 households in 2014.

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According to a May 2016 GTM Research Report, “CHP and Fuel Cells 2016–2026,” this represents 8% of all U.S. electricity generation, or twice the total of U.S. wind capacity and 10 times the capacity of distributed solar. A new generation of turbines and reciprocating engines could grow CHP capacity by 11% over the next decade, GTM Research predicts, by making the installations more practical for electrical loads down to 50 kilowatts or less. “What looks like a stagnant market on the surface is actually smoldering with a significant number of technology and fuel options, capable vendors and a new batch of customers who are ready to adopt fuel-based distributed generation (DG) systems,” says Mei Shibata, lead author of the GTM Research Report. “We may be close to a tipping point for the market to start growing again, but among new customer segments and applications.”

POWERING MORE THAN CRITICAL LOADS Smaller businesses often are forced to choose which loads to cover when backup generators are installed, but Kohler’s new 30RCL could make this decision easier. The 30kW output means more circuits can be protected during outages. It also provides the voltage and frequency regulation. Kohler Power www.kohlerpower.com CIRCLE 301

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Combined Solar and Storage The off-grid possibilities of a system combining PV panels and onsite batteries have had distributed-generation advocates calling affordable energy storage the “holy grail” of renewable energy for close to a decade. Most such installations now are used to hedge against high electric-utility demand charges. However, local governments also are beginning to see such pairings as a valuable tool in their efforts to build greater resiliency into their communities. The financial benefits of shifting some electrical load over to onsite PV and storage systems can offer a quick payback for owners of hotels, office buildings and other commercial facilities. And, in California and Midwestern and Eastern states served by the PJM Interconnection, those owners also can bid battery capacity into a transmission system operator’s energy markets for yet another revenue stream. Resiliency—the ability to maintain critical building systems in the case of an electrical outage—can be a more difficult advantage to monetize. But falling PV and battery prices, along with the well-publicized damage wrought by Hurricane Sandy, now have some communities seeing the potential for off-grid operation as a possible lifesaver for vulnerable residents.

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“It’s not an easily monetizable idea,” says Seth Mullendore, a project director with Clean Energy Group, a nonprofit clean-energy advocacy and development group, speaking of resiliency. The organization recently launched the Resilient Power Project (www.resilient-power.org) as a resource for developers and city officials interested in building resiliency into affordable housing, community centers and schools that might serve as shelters during extreme weather events. “We’ve tried to stay away from a way to value it—when you’re talking about a healthcare facility or a senior building, that really changes the equation.”

Vehicle to Grid

Florida has become a big adopter of PV-plusstorage systems through its SunSmart E-Shelter program, which has installed such designs in 100 public schools across the state since 2012. The schools, with retrofitted interior spaces hardened against potential hurricane damage, now serve as community shelters during and after dangerous storms. Newly installed PV panels and batteries support critical loads, including lighting and electrical outlets supporting communications equipment and device charging.

NREL has been focused on this topic for almost 10 years, Markel says, with current efforts directed toward understanding the scenarios in which calling on an EV’s battery offers a financial or operational benefit to drivers and utilities. EV batteries are both highly distributed and, individually, not much use to utilities as a demand resource. The batteries’ value comes as their operations can be aggregated so they become a potential contributor during periods of peak demand.

POWER

Somewhat farther down the road, so to speak, lies the possibility of drawing on the batteries of connected electric vehicles (EVs) as an energy resource for local distribution systems and onsite use. Such vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capabilities are technically feasible now, but recognizing their value remains a more challenging task. “Technology-wise, you can do it,” says Tony Markel, a senior engineer with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colo. “The question is, how do you balance the value streams of the various stakeholders who are engaged?” CHILLER SCALE-DOWN Tecogen, a leading manufacturer of larger CHP and chiller systems, has brought the European Tedom line of CHP products to the U.S. through the new TTCogen joint venture. This portfolio includes the Micro Series, with capacities down to 35 kilowatts. Such smaller-scale units could help meet the combined hot water and electricity needs of multifamily and small commercial facilities.

ENERGY GENERATED LOCALLY COULD BE USEFUL BOTH DAY AND NIGHT, AND RELATED CAPITAL INVESTMENTS COULD BE AMORTIZED ACROSS MULTIPLE OPERATIONS AND NOT APPLIED AGAINST A MONTHLY BILL.

 CHARGE IT The charged cars are earning more than $100 per month to provide at least 100 kilowatts at a time.

AGGREGATION OF POWER Researchers at the University of Delaware’s Center for Carbon Free Power Integration recognized the value of such aggregation in the 13-vehicle pilot project they’ve had running for several years on the school’s campus. Through an agreement with PJM, the regional transmission operator, the cars are earning up to a reported $110 per month, each, to provide a minimum of 100 kilowatts, in total, at a time.

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Tecogen www.tecogen.com CIRCLE 300

ENERGY STORAGE Zerocell’s storage system uses nanobatteries, which the manufacturer, Houze Advanced Building Science, claims are safer than traditional lithium-ion units. Mass-market electronics retailer Euronics will be selling the devices in Europe. Sales information for the United States wasn’t available at press time, though the company says it will begin accepting U.S. reservations in December. Zerocell www.zerocell.world CIRCLE 299

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ENVELOPE

ALAN WEIS

| NZB: ENVELOPE |

Sky Not the Limit: Ratios Rule Roofs In calculating an envelope’s maximum performance, the ratio of fenestration and wall are often at odds. The same is true when it comes to roofs and skylights; but if one considers a more holistic picture, a calculated addition of natural light does not have to translate into denigrated performance.

Alan Weis, a contributing writer for Architectural Products, covers thermal management issues, including building envelope and HVAC systems.

u

nquestionably, those seeking to deliver a net zero building will seek to somehow incorporate as much natural light as possible for both biophilic and energy reduction purposes. But be it through windows or skylights, glass will have detrimental effect on envelope performance. And when it comes to the latter, introducing any kind of opening in a roof raises red flags to those literally desiring to run a tight ship. Natural light, however, is a necessary energy trade off, but if done right, skylights don’t have to negatively impact a building’s overall performance. According to Stephan Moyon, director of sales with VELUX America, you have to take in a much bigger picture—skylights, he claims, can deliver twice as much light as windows in many cases, and as much as three times the light produced by dormers. In other words, the addition of properly placed skylights can translate into a reduction in overall glazing while still delivering similar daylighting levels. “Less glass in the building envelope means better thermal performance overall,” argues Moyon. And it’s not just about maintaining daylight levels, but maximizing it by bringing it as far as possible into the building as possible. “Skylights bring twice as much light as vertical windows per square foot of glass, says Moyon.

best to use a high compressive strength cover board, set in adhesive if possible, when there is going to be overburden on the roof. It’s also important to make sure the life expectancy of the roof system lines up with that of the other components. If you expect your solar panels to last 25-30 years, you should make sure your roof is designed and warranted to last at least that long.” Watertightness is another concern. Well-constructed and properly installed skylights should not compromise the performance of the roof system in terms of water tightness, Burzynski notes, though they may have a lower insulating value than the rigid insulation installed under the roofing membrane.

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MAXIMIZING ROOFS Th e right combination of elements can elevate the roofi ng system from simply being one side of the box to an energy-saving asset that trickles down to the rest of the building.

Of course, there are many considerations when designing natural daylighting solutions on a rooftop, including structural, thermal and electrical discussions. No matter what components are used, structural considerations are paramount. “As far as the roof performance, any penetration or overburden, such as PV panels, should be taken into account when designing the roof system,” says Adam Burzynski, skylight product manager with Carlisle Construction Materials. “It’s always

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E NVE LOPE INTEGRATING PV INTO COMPONENTS  “BIPV offers building owners something that rooftop panels alone cannot,” says Udi Paret with Solaria. “It allows them to transform building façades into energygenerating assets.” Pictured are Solaria’s PowerView units.  34

This should be taken into account when deciding how many skylights are needed. Another factor to consider in maximizing the roof’s potential as a light source, at least where net zero buildings are concerned, is the battle for space on the roof between skylights and PV panels. However, according to Udi Paret, general manager of building solutions with Solaria, new technology in the mix—specifically new products combining proven PV and glass technologies—means the desired combinations of structural, thermal, daylighting, power and cost performances can be optimized according to individual project requirements. “Hence, the idea of a unique ‘sweet spot’ between the amount of space dedicated to PV and skylights is becoming less relevant,” says Paret.

CASE STUDY

Burzynski notes there is no magic formula when it comes to how much rooftop space to dedicate to PV or skylight products, though the rule of thumb has always been to multiply the ceiling height by 1.5 and equally space the skylights that distance apart to provide uniform daylighting. That said, he also notes that there are other factors that should be taken into account such as interior surface colors and what tasks are being performed in the spaces below. For example, a warehouse with low racking and highly reflective walls and floors should need fewer skylights than the same sized retail space with tall racking and darker surfaces. “The key is concurrent engineering early on in the process such that proper system design considerations are accounted for, says Paret. “In many cases, this would minimize or eliminate structural and/or functional elements altogether—e.g. lighting systems replaced by effective daylighting.”

Optimal Gains A greenhouse at a college prep school in Massachusetts does more than just facilitate plant growth. This innovative facility features a row of PV panels manufactured by Solar Innovations Architectural Glazing Systems. The structure is composed of a vertical wall that slopes and extends past the walls, creating overhangs. It also incorporates a solar chimney effect with eave and ridge vents, allowing warm air to escape through the top.

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CASE STUDY

Activating the Atrium Located in Buffalo’s emerging Hydraulics District and housed in the renovated F.N. Burt box factory, 500 Seneca is a now a vibrant mixed-use space on five floors, including retail space, a unique cultural space and a large multi-story atrium. To create the latter, approximately 3,314 sq. ft. of new openings were cut out of the existing roof deck to accommodate the integration of five large Velux Modular Skylight units; three skylights approximately 48 ft. long, each including 28 modular glazing units, and two skylights approximately 36 ft. long, each incorporating 22

modular units. With glass insulated units nearly 1.5 in. thick, the system can achieve a 0.24 SHGC. Coupled with numerous venting skylight modules that can easily be integrated into the building’s

HVAC for automatic climate control and rain/ heavy wind sensor override functionality, the system helps achieve an accelerated ROI by reducing overall building HVAC loads.

 SKY’S THE LIMIT Roughly 3,314 sq. ft of new openings were cut out of the existing roof deck to make way for the skylights.

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E NVE LOPE

CASE STUDY

PENN PAVILION, DUKE UNIVERSITY Durham, N.C.

Architects from Shepley Bulfinch have completed the glass “Penn Pavilion,” planned as the inaugural project within the scope of a broader initiative to update the campus. The structurally glazed system provides a light counterpoint to the Gothic Revival motif of the older buildings.

SLIM PROFILE The rear of the building incorporates panes up to 4.41 m in height and 2.10 m in width.

p

For example, Solaria’s PowerView architectural glass skylights complement the energy generation of rooftop PV such as Solaria’s PowerXT high-performance, high-density solar panels. By introducing an additional source of power as well as effective daylighting to the design, the overall performance is improved.

ALL PENETRATIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT AND IT’S ALWAYS BEST TO USE A HIGH-COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COVER BOARD, SET IN ADHESIVE.

According to Mike Sexton with Firestone Building Products, any additional energy consumption brought on by skylights should also be considered in context of what’s being offset by a reduced electric lighting load. “Oftentimes, photo and motion sensor technology is implemented, which accounts for the strategic reduction in electrical lighting usage based on the ambient lighting levels achieved through the daylighting unit,” says Sexton.

“Energy code officials recognize that lighting energy costs can typically account for the greatest energy consumption in a commercial building, so the most recent energy codes allow a 5% skylight area if qualifying automatic lighting controls are installed,” he says.

To this point, John Lawton, VELUX’s manager of skylight global product management, points out that the use of controls allows some wiggle room over the code-mandated 3% maximum.

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To that point, Burzynski adds that given PV’s cost, the electricity saved by using skylights can outweigh the amount of energy generated by an equivalent sized solar panel if the skylights are placed and constructed appropriately. Given such considerations, the future for skylights is certainly looking up.

The building’s long layout allows it to be repurposed for optimum, flexible use either as a single-event space or three smaller partitioned spaces. The self-supporting façade was constructed using SCHOLLGLAS products and incorporates a concave glass shell that seems almost to disappear, allowing views from the inside out and vice versa. This maximum transparency was achieved using frameless glazing and vertical silicone joints that are only 15 mm wide. The sheets, made from GEWEtherm heat-insulating glass, are horizontally layered with only one subdivision across their height, making it possible to achieve panes approximately 4.19 m tall with varying widths up to 2.15 m. In addition, a solar coating on the south side prevents overheating, achieving a light transparency of 65% while only allowing 34% of solar energy to pass through. This coating combination ensures maximum daylight penetration while simultaneously keeping heating of the façade to a minimum.

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DAYLIGHTING

BARBARA HORWITZ-BENNETT

| NZB: DAYLIGHTING |

Daylighting Ranks High in Survey According to the latest Continental Automated Buildings Assn. survey, nearly three quarters of the building occupants polled claimed to be satisfied with their facility’s daylighting system. Surveying 23 net zero projects, the recent CABA report offers insights into daylighting trends.

Barbara HorwitzBennett has been reporting on the architectural industry for the past 15 years. She covers glazing and daylighting for Architectural Products, and in 2011 contributed to an important industry white paper on net-zero buildings.

T

he results are in: occupants are notably satisfied with the daylighting features in their zero net energy (ZNE) buildings—so says the Continental Automated Buildings Assn., who, following an extensive review of 23 zero net energy buildings in North America, released Zero Net Energy Building Controls: Characteristics, Energy Impacts and Lessons. In fact, according to the report commissioned by the New Buildings Institute, 75% of occupants stated that they were moderately or very satisfied with the daylighting efforts.

Shades, Blinds Renaissance

According to Alexi Miller, senior project manager, New Building Institute, Vancouver, Wash., who worked on the report, overall, daylighting plays an essential role in net-zero building designs. “Nearly every ZNE building we have come across in our experience uses some kind of strategy to harvest natural light,” he reports.

Dean also sees standard systems, that automatically rise and lower the blinds based on direct-sunlight and overall light sensors with no need for user control, as the most effective systems.

Drilling down to some specific daylighting systems, the CABA report describes interior shades and blinds as experiencing some renaissance with new designs and automation. In fact, the research team interviewed architects, engineers, and others involved in specifying building systems and components— in addition to surveying building occupants— and learned that several designers appreciated the flexibility and performance that modern automated interior shading systems provide.

40 

Hypothesizing as to why daylighting ranked so high, Edward Dean, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C, PhD, principal, Bernheim + Dean, Sustainable Building Consultants, San Francisco, suggests that it’s due to natural lighting’s inevitable connection to the outdoors, views of nature and views beyond the immediate enclosed space. In addition, Dean, who was involved on the project, notes that daylight design is usually very well designed, free from glare and well matched to the tasks inside the space. “There is no doubt that for any part of the country, well-designed daylighting can have the largest impact on reduced energy demand and therefore, the cost of the renewable energy system to zero-out the energy use over the course of a year,” he states.

BEYOND THE SPACE

Daylighting’s success can be attributed to natural lighting’s connection to the outdoors beyond the immediate space.

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DAYLIGHTING

IN THE NEWS

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“One of the greatest reasons shades are so popular is not related to visual comfort, but instead thermal comfort,” suggests Kera Lagios, LEED AP, Assoc. IALD, associate principal, Lighting, Integral Group, San Francisco. “Interior shades are very effective at improving occupant thermal comfort because they prevent direct solar radiation from hitting people and surfaces.” That said, the report actually found exterior shading systems to be more popular with 74% of buildings utilizing some more of exterior shading, 52% incorporating interior shading and 34% employing automated systems, or a combination of automated and manual. Much more effective at sun control than interior shades, exterior systems promote better daylighting and offer better protection against glare and direct sun entering the space, says Dean.

CASE STUDY

t LIFE CYCLE This test method models the normal wear during the life of a typical AW product.

AAMA Releases Updated Architectural Class Windows and Doors Document American Architectural Manufacturers Assn.’s updated document detailing the test procedures and specifications for Architectural Class windows and doors is now available. With rigorous accelerated life cycle testing covering operating and thermal cycles; and structural, air and water tests, this latest document—AAMA 91016, Voluntary “Life Cycle” Specifications and Test

Methods for AW Class Architectural Windows and Doors—last updated in 2010, addresses the latest marketplace developments such as longer warranty periods, sustainable design, more durable finishes and increasingly stringent code requirements. American Architectural Manufacturers Assn. www.aama.com CIRCLE 298

MAGNIFICENT CITY VIEWS Designed by architecture firm Weiss/Manfredi, Columbia’s seven-story, multi-use arts center features a glass façade and an ascending, double-height atrium that allow natural light to flood the building interior and provide beautiful city views.

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BARNARD COLLEGE New York City

The new seven-story multi-use arts center at Columbia University’s Barnard College in New York features a glass façade and ascending, double-height atrium, thanks, in part, to PPG’s Starphire Ultra-Clear glass. The Diana Center’s glass panels incorporate vertical opaque-to-transparent Walker Textures striations acid-etched on the first surface and terra cotta coloring from Goldray on the second surface. The panels are set in front of a bright red-painted metal pan, with changing hues based upon the sun’s angle. PPG www.ppg.com CIRCLE 297

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11/3/16 17:26


DAYLIGHTING CASE STUDY

522 LADY STREET Columbia, S.C.

Taking an 1930s-era cigar/candy store/ warehouse and turning it into a trendy office space in Columbia, S.C., expansive glass creates a contemporary look and complements the legacy building’s red brick walls and white stucco surfaces. “We wanted glass that would showcase the building’s historic features while creating a modern office space that is comfortable and full of natural light,” explains Architect Josh Boltinhouse, AIA, LEED AP. “Guardian SunGuard SNX 51/23 glass delivered, with exceptional energy performance and clarity—and without added tint or reflectivity that might distract from our design.”

MIXING MODERN WITH HISTORIC  The glass creates a contemporary feel that sets off structural elements of the legacy buildings. Natural light permeates deep within the space, while solar heat gain is managed.

Even so, Dean actually prefers interior systems and suggests that a well-designed system can be very effective with tall windows because solar protection is provided, when the sun is at certain orientations, and the tall windows deliver full view of the daylit sky hemisphere while maximizing the daylight design for two-thirds of the day. “This is likely to be the least expensive solution, as well as giving the architect the most freedom with the façade design,” he says. “Just make the windows tall!”

DATAPOINT

CASE FOR A VIEW According to a recent study of the workplace by SaintGobain and SageGlass, 65% of those with access to sunlight block light with blinds at least some of the day. As a result, 23% of others feel disappointed because they miss the sun.

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SEVENTY-FIVE PERCENT OF OCCUPANTS STATED THAT THEY WERE EITHER MODERATELY OR VERY SATISFIED WITH THE DAYLIGHTING CHARACTERISTICS IN THEIR FACILITIES. Light Shelves, Louvers Coming as a bit of a surprise, light shelves and louvers were only employed in a few of the buildings surveyed. Offering some perspective here, NBI project manager Mark Lyles points out that most of buildings included in the study had relatively narrow floor plates, whereas light shelves are best suited for bringing light deep into the inner regions of a building. Furthermore, light shelves are more commonly used in K-12 buildings, while the report chose to exclude schools and focus on other building types instead. Furthermore, Lagios points out that designing an interior light shelf can be tricky as it divides the window into two parts and if interior shades are required, they either have to be provided at both the upper and lower portion of the window, or shades cannot be included in the upper half, which might not be desirable.

REPORT DETAILS MAJOR SKYLIGHT SAVINGS

A detailed report, compiled by the Eneref Institute, analyzes the daylighting savings delivered by a total of 73 Sunoptics prismatic skylights at the Karndean U.S. headquarters and warehouse near Pittsburgh. The report interviews key stakeholders involved in the lighting project.

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SKYLIGHT BRIGHTENS OUTPATIENT FACILITY A welcoming Super Sky skylight system ushers staff, patients and visitors into the Penn Family Medicine Southern Chester County’s new 72,000-sq.-ft. outpatient facility in West Grove, Penn. Designed by Array Architects, a 23-by-23-foot skylight with aluminum framing, finished by Linetec, is flanked by a glass area—made from Oldcastle insulated, low-e glass— spanning 1,016 square feet with a 14-ft., 4-in. vertical. Super Sky www.supersky.com CIRCLE 295

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“In addition, while light shelves can provide daylighting benefits, they don’t provide as many benefits as an exterior overhang, which helps limit solar gains from entering the building,” she adds. As a side note, Lagios points out that for some reason, skylights were not included as an analyzed daylight feature in the CABA report. Not to be overlooked, she notes that skylights can be very effective daylighting devices and may have even played a significant part in the satisfaction of the occupants surveyed in this survey.

Daylighting and ZNE Delivering one of the most desirable features to occupants, the CABA report confirms daylighting as playing a major role in ZNE buildings. “Good daylighting provides benefits ranging from visual and thermal comfort to views and circadian health,” says Lagios. “It is not by accident that among these zero net energy buildings, 75% of occupants were satisfied with the daylighting and lighting of their spaces.” In fact, Dean suggests that a well-designed daylighting system is a vastly underutilized resource for free energy in buildings and more important than energy-efficient HVAC equipment, higher levels of insulation, LED lighting and even plug load management and automated natural ventilation systems. “Controlling daylighting is intrinsically linked to controlling energy use on in buildings,” concludes Lagios. “Daylighting plays several key roles in net-zero building design.”

www.nzbmagazine.com

11/3/16 17:49


| AD INDEX | AHR Expo 2016

www.ahrexpo.com

39

Airius

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42

Amerlux

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05

Daikin

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Danfoss

www.danfoss.com

21

Dri-Design

www.dri-design.com

07

Duracoat

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25

Easi-Set / Slenderwall

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29

Fujitsu

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01

Guardian Sunguard

www.sunguardglass.com

IFC

Kawneer

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BC

LG Electronics

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19

Mitsubishi Electric

www.mitsubishipro.com

31

Net Zero Buildings magazine

www.nzbmagazine.com

04

The Continuing Architect

www.thecontinuingarchitect.com

35

NEXT ISSUE

You asked for it, you got it: In our first issue of next year (March), we’re actually going to warp back to 2004 and examine NRG’s net zero operation in Hinesberg, Vt. If you have read it— don’t waste time, order it now—the project was featured in Bill Maclay’s excellent, dare I say perfect book, The New Net Zero. Having met the author recently, and having had requests from the readership to show more cost and actual performance information, we’ll be profiling this project designed by Bill and his firm 12 years ago. He’s got plenty of great details and cost data to share, as well as plans by the company to create a net zero campus.

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IBC

“THE SECOND BUILDING CAPITALIZED ON THE LESSONS LEARNED DURING THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIRST BUILDING AND IS EVEN SMARTER AND MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT.”

NRG SYSTEMS HEADQUARTERS Hinesburg, Vermont

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| END POINT |

JOHN MESENBRINK

60%

Taking A Stand for Net Zero Net zero, while facing its obstacles, needs its battle cry. The net zero fight needs to start with goals and a budget, and a plan that includes integrated and collaborative design.

Having recently traveled to San Antonio for a conference, which included a number of trips past the Alamo to and from the event, I was reminded sometimes one must take a stand. Granted, the fight for net zero is not quite the life-ordeath stake of what occurred back in 1836, but the courage of one’s conviction remains the same. In examining 2016, there has been good news and there has been disappointing news on the net-zero front. Like the San Antonio sun, a bright spot has been an increased installation of renewables. By the end of this year, according to Rhone Resch, president of the Solar Energy Industries Assn., solar is expected to offset nearly 45 million metric tons of carbon emissions—the equivalent of removing 10 million cars off our roads or shuttering 12 coal-fired plants.

Yet, there are glaring deficiencies. Installation of solar thermal, the PV option for heating domestic hot water, is down as costs are on the rise, while natural gas prices are decreasing. In fact, in spite of continuing federal tax credits, the market is soft and finding its way has proven difficult. Another personal disappointment, despite a lot of mainstream media, is water conservation, where only 7% of residential and commercial toilets are WaterSense certified. So why aren’t we being more proactive when it comes to pushing net zero solutions? Like Santana’s advancing army, the continuing debate centered around the cost of implementing net zero is not going to go away any time soon, so we must “Remember the Alamo” and arm ourselves with better facts and financing options. The question is how?

Many moons ago, myself and NZB editor Jim Crockett—an actual distant relation to the noted Alamo defender of the same surname—worked with a frustrating former manager who almost never offered a solution to a problem, but would merely say “do it.” He would repeat the mantra until we went away. Such a directive, despite a clever Nike marketing campaign, is pretty useless. Rather, I like to remember the words of New Buildings Institute Executive Director, Ralph DiNola, who argues we need to change the “calculus” in the way we think about our buildings. That begins with true design collaboration, with of course, a healthy mix of advanced, integrated technology that, theoretically, will result in buildings that can be monitored for future fine-tuning. But to the “do it” directive— how?

At NBI’s most recent “Getting to Zero Forum,” the movers and shakers at the University of California at Santa Barbara have some good ideas. Not only is it integrating design, the university has actively integrated its operations and finance people into the mix, and more importantly, has a plan. One of the results has been the creation of a utilities budget. This is not a services budget to pay utility bills, but a rather a funding pool dedicated for various energy improvements, such as LED, that over the long-term operation of the campus will bring down the school’s ultimate costs. Once such a plan was outlaid, UCSB’s CFO said it was a no brainer to commit to net zero initiatives—the beans lined up. Have a plan, set an EUI goal and establish a budget.

37%

End-use of water in offices

NIPPING IT IN THE BUD According to information from WaterSense, restrooms account for approximately 37% of end use of water in office buildings. 

But that’s their mantra. I ask you, “What’s your battle cry?”

John Mesenbrink Contributing Editor john@nzbmagazine.com

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Net Zero Buildings - November 2016