NET ZERO BUILDINGS • Highlighting the Path Toward Net Zero Building Design
HVAC: BAS THE KEY TO INTEGRATION POWER: SUBMETERING SOLUTIONS ENVELOPE: REFLECTING ON GLAZING
NET ZERO BUILDINGS June 2014
Volume 3, Number 2
52 28 36
RAINWATER OPTIMIZATION Roughly 70% of a building’s water consumption is used for nonpotable purposes, such as landscape irrigation. Collecting and using rainwater for said purposes surely makes more sense.
NET ZERO BUILDINGS Premier Issue: Jan. 2013
Righting the Ship. As water issues continue to vex many parts of the country, conservation efforts must evolve beyond more efficient plumbing fixtures. A more holistic, building-level approach is necessary. Marrying rainwater catchment and stormwater management may be that solution, as the strategies allow building owners to benefit beyond regulatory fulfillment with monetary gains.
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N E E R C SUNS
R A L & SOECTION
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DPR Construction reinforced its commitment to environmental stewardship and proved to the industry that turning its Phoenix regional office—an adaptive reuse—into a net-zero facility is possible, especially in the desert.
project zero DPR Construction Regional Office
06 Toward Zero
The readers have spoken and the consensus is for more NZB how-to, especially in terms of fiscal solutions. By Jim Crockett
DPR’s goal was to find an underutilized building and through implementation of long-term, cost-saving sustainable strategies, demonstrate the impact revitalization may have on an urban environment.
ON THE COVER Rainwater catchment coupled with a stormwater management plan makes sense in terms of sustainability and the overall bottom line.
02 | 06.14 | NET ZERO BUILDINGS
Passive ventilation strategies and a large daylighting system helped reduce AC and lighting loads at its Phoenix regional office. Innovative features such as the distinct “shower towers,” are tied to the building's management system and are programmed to turn on in order to help regulate building temperature.
By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett
72 End Point The more we concentrate on energy and water efficiency, the more we should look at the effects they have on sanitation. By John Mesenbrink
Imperfect Storm More than 70% of water consumed in commercial buildings is for non-potable use. It’s time to start looking at an effective rainwater collection and stormwater management plan.
Smart Irrigation Pumping Options Rainwater Systems Green Roofing
By John Mesenbrink
P OW ER
EN V ELO PE
DAY L I G H T I N G
An Office Plan
Building owners looking to boost efficiency turn to submetering as a way to understand baseline energy use, and to provide verifiable data. For those seeking to track their energy use, equipment is becoming less expensive and easier to install in both new and existing buildings.
To achieve high levels of occupant comfort, optimizing a building’s glazing system includes getting familiar with energy codes, computer modeling and orientation, thermal bridging, and finding the balance between positive and negative aspects of the sun.
The state of daylight modeling in commercial projects is seeing newer metrics and advanced software to assess illumination and glare, which can offer accurate daylight simulations. However, end-user expertise to compute those simulations have not been keeping pace.
As the global demand for energy rises, sustainability and energy efficiency aren't just financial goals, they’re becoming mandates, creating real business challenges. Building automation systems are becoming more holistic in their approach. Where are we in terms of BAS?
Taking lighting to the next level requires not only controls and energy-efficient technology, but a proper understanding of where—and where not—to put lighting in an office space, and how much light is needed to create a productive environment.
Thermal Bridging Dynamic Glass Insulation Rainscreens
Plug Loads Cogeneration Vampire Loads Fuel Cells By Chuck Ross
By Alan Weis
Channel Glass Daylight Metrics Double-skin Facade Shading Systems
By Barbara HorwitzBennett
Heat Pumps Geothermal Report Solar Air Heating Natural Ventilation
By John Mesenbrink
A Smart Light Grid Office Strategies Dimming + Controls Latest Products By Kevin Willmorth
NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 06.14 | 03
Check your design compliance? • Net Zero • LEED® • ASHRAE 90.1 • IgCC • Standard 189.1
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subscription Inquiries There is no charge for subscriptions to qualified requestors in the U.S. All other annual subscriptions will be charged $39 for standard delivery or $55 for air mail delivery. For subscriptions, inquiries or address changes, call 630 739 0900 ext. 100. Net Zero Buildings (NZB), Vol. 3, No. 2 (ISSN# 2329-065X) is published four times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; www.nzbmagazine.com. (Copyright © 2014 by Construction Business Media) POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Net Zero Buildings Magazine, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. A Publication of Construction Business Media
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Dreams and Reality Can Intersect Construction attorney Barry B. LePatner, in his book “Broken Buildings, Busted Budgets,” reports that 85% of buildings are late, over budget— or both, wasting at least $120 billion each year. In other words, there’s got to be a better way.
“Aim for success, not perfection. Never give up your right to be wrong, because then you will lose the ability to learn new things and move forward with your life.” These are the words of Stanford professor emeritus and psychiatry author, David M. Burns, and when it comes to this publication, this is the philosophy I’ve chosen to adopt in reporting on the net zero building movement. It is a particularly timely decision, as the first wave of carrier pigeons have returned to the ship, so to speak, in delivering the results of a survey we conducted of NZB’s readership. First a little perspective on reader attitudes and perceptions: Percentage of those involved in an increasing amount professional conversations about high performance design (HPD): 59%
Percentage who felt there is an increased need for professional collaboration in planning and designing high-performance buildings: 74%
Percentage who felt there is an increase in the seriousness of clients desiring high-performance outcomes: 57%
Percentage who felt there is an increased need in the amount of preparedness to make a business case for HPD: 60%
Percentage who felt there is an increased need for professional education on HPD: 87%
How about their thoughts on the magazine? Beyond a universal desire to see more case studies, and examples that help readers keep pace with new technologies, here are some key comments:
The Good: “Keeps the pressure on [for people to consider net zero.]” “The information and the imagery all contribute to a larger view. In other words, everything informs everything else.” “I look for project team information for potential collaborators for future projects, and for information on key products that are leading the change toward efficiency.” The Bad: “Needs more comprehensive articles on energy and environmental systems.” “We need more detailed information to engage and convince clients to go net zero.” The Ugly: “I’ve looked at it, but most of my clients are overly cost conscious and leery of many of the systems.” That’s great feedback for us to adjust our charts. Of course, our greatest mission
right now is creating awareness, but as nearly 90% of the survey respondents intoned, there’s a need for more how to, especially on the cost side. From conversations I've had with people in the know, three important subjects I plan to study further are energy modeling, energy metering, and tools that facilitate project management and interaction— things that will help mitigate cost & waste.
Data Point: Between now and 2050 the global population is expected to increase from 6.9 billion to more than nine billion, according to UN estimates. As a result, a McKinsey Research report says we’ll have to duplicate the current number of buildings in the built environment.
6.9 billion Global Population 2014
Given the cynicism that’s still a barrier in many cases, I offer these words from John F. Kennedy: “Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation.”
Jim Crockett, Editorial Director email@example.com
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SETTING THE STANDARD AGAIN
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DPR Construction Regional Office Phoenix, Ariz. Market: Office Size: 16,533 sq. ft. Owner: DPR Construction Architect: SmithGroupJJR M/E/P Engineer: SmithGroupJJR Structural Engineer: PK Assocs. Consulting Structural Engineers Sustainability Consultant: DNV KEMA Energy & Sustainability (now DNV GL)
| PROJECT ZERĂ˜ |
DPR CONSTRUCTION REGIONAL OFFICE
General Contractor: DPR Construction Key Team Members: DPR: Cassie Robertson, Dave Elrod, Ryan Ferguson, Andy Hill SmithGroupJJR: Mark Roddy, Jay Robins DNV KEMA: Shayne Rolfe Text: Barbara HorwitzBennett Photos: Gregg Mastorakos
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Net Zero in the Desert Heat An innovative passive ventilation system and large daylighting installation trim down AC and lighting loads to make net zero a reality for DPR in Arizona.
DPR CO NS T RU CT I O N CH A L L E N G E D IT SE L F BY TURN I NG I T S REG I O NAL O F F IC E IN PH O E N IX—A N A DA P T I VE RE U S E—I N TO A N E T - Z E RO FAC IL IT Y, DES P I TE TH E H OT, A R ID C L IM AT E .
After building their first net-zero office in San Diego, DPR Construction decided to do it again in Phoenix to both reinforce its commitment to environmental stewardship and prove to the industry that turning an adaptive reuse into a net-zero facility, in the desert, is indeed possible.
“It was challenging to work within the constraints of an existing shell,” admits Ryan Ferguson, LEED AP BD+C, energy specialist, net-zero certification leader, DPR Construction, Phoenix, “but not as challenging as one would think. In fact, the building orientation leant itself to a path of design.”
“For a contractor, we have the highest ratio of LEED certified professionals in the country, so it was a natural fit,” relates Dave Elrod, LEED AP, regional manager, DPR Construction, Phoenix.
For example, working with SmithGroupJJR as the A/E, and DNV KEMA Energy & Sustainability—now DNV GL—as the sustainability consultant, the team placed all the perimeter glazing inside previous openings on the east and north facades; designed an innovative passive ventilation system with operable windows, industrial fans, shower towers and a solar chimney; installed dozens of Solatube daylighting fixtures; and tied the water, electrical, lighting and PV systems into a Lucid building dashboard.
Taking a former, adultthemed boutique, DPR set out to transform the building into a highly efficient and inspiring workplace.
The end result? A net energy use intensity (EUI) of 28.85 kBTU/ sq. ft./yr and a lighting power density (LPD) of 0.96 watts/sq. ft., LEED Platinum certification, Energy Star Certification and Net Zero Energy Building Certification from the International Living Future Institute. FLOOR PLAN
The building also houses a fitness room, zen room, courtyard, kitchen and conference rooms.
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TIMELINE January– October 2011: Design March– October 2011: Construction October 10, 2011: Occupancy July 2012: LEED-NC Platinum certification May 2013: International Living Future NetZero Energy Building certification The biggest key to executing a net-zero project is early buy-in from the entire team, says Dave Elrod, LEED AP, regional manager, DPR Construction, Phoenix. Drawing from his experience, Elrod found that the most challenging part of the project took place early on before expectations were clearly defined. “It’s about challenging people to think differently and then establishing clear goals, which are built around aligning to expectations,” he explains. Once the building team was all on the same page, it was then time to educate DPR’s staff– the building occupants– about things such as a greater variance in temperature range throughout the day and seasons. “We were significantly changing how people operated and that required a lot of PR work up front, helping people try to understand what we were going to do,” he relates. “Ultimately, it was very effective. When we moved in, there was very little disruption to our daily workflow.”
A connection to the outside and passive systems were major project goals. Air conditioning exists, but is secondary to the natural ventilation scheme.
In the hot Arizona desert climate, the underlying premise of DPR’s HVAC system was not fully eliminating air conditioning, but rather minimizing its use by capitalizing on passive strategies.
At the core of the building’s natural ventilation program is a system of operable windows and custommade “shower towers,” which draw cool air in and through the open floor plan, with the aid of large Big Ass fans.
Capped with showerheads to mist and cool the air entering the building, these shower towers, which are ganged together with a sump pump, recirculate domestic cold water. The hot air is then expelled through a large solar chimney.
SOLAR CHIMNEY SHOWER TOWER
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Natural Ventilation on Steroids
In order to make this work within the office environment, the building team worked with the DPR staff—i.e., the building occupants—to affect a cultural change in their expectations of what an office environment should be. Because achieving net-zero in Phoenix would not be possible if the office had to maintain a conventional 72-degree environment, the office would have to operate outside of the typical protocol, which meant extending the comfort ranges inside the building to between 63°F and 83°F.
The key to the ventilation scheme is the “solar chimney,” which draws warmer air through, and then, out of the office via stack effect.
The passive ventilation system also creates a rather windy environment, causing effects such as papers blowing off the desk, explains Elrod. This took getting used to, acknowledges Elrod, but in the spirit of sustainability, the occupants adjusted.
LARGE DRIP SHOWER HEAD WATER DIVERTER
FLOOR LEVEL PUMP BASIN
The unusual “shower towers” generate a mist as water descends the tubes, helping cool incoming air into the space.
Perhaps one of the most innovative design aspects of DPR’s netzero Phoenix office is an expertly crafted passive ventilation system which pulls pre-cooled air inside the building through 87 strategically placed operable windows and four shower towers, made from HDPE pipe and sheet metal. Capped with showerheads to mist and cool the air being drawn into the building, the shower towers are tied into the building management system and programmed to turn on, when the conditions are right, in order to help regulate building temperature. As the fresh, cool breeze sweeps through the office’s open layout, a dozen 8-ft.-diameter Isis Big Ass Fans help enhance air circulation and cooling. Finally, an 87-ft.-long solar chimney, clad in zinc panels salvaged from the original building, exhaust the air. “In Phoenix, the wind can change direction multiple times as there is no predominant wind direction, so the most difficult component was stopping the potential for backdraft, which would short circuit the whole process,” relates Shayne Rolfe, principal, sustainable engineering design, energy design & building, DNV GL, San Diego. “We wanted users to feel that breeze so location of the shower towers was crucial,” states Cassie Robertson, LEED AP BD+C, project manager and estimator, DPR Construction, Phoenix.
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| PROJECT ZERO | T H E O F F I C E IS A PR IM E E X A M PL E O F U R B A N RE N E WAL , T R A N SFO R M IN G A N U N D E R U T IL IZ E D BU I L DI N G I NTO O N E T H AT M ATC H ES D PR ’ S VA LU ES. Let the Sun In Daylight harvesting at its best, a carefully designed Solatube Daylighting System with 82 Solatubes, pipe natural light into DPR’s Phoenix office. The system is so effective that no electrical lighting is required throughout a good portion of the work day. In order to enable this, in-depth lighting studies and output calculations were performed to determine the optimal height, size and location of the devices. “Solatubes are not just an off-the-shelf, plug-in product,” explains Mark Roddy, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C, design principal, SmithGroupJJR, San Francisco, who served as the lead architect on the project. “In this use, the Solatubes had to be carefully modeled, and we took into consideration daylighting from the north and east windows. Computer modeling was done to validate and verify how the systems were going to work.”
Integrating with the Solatube’s Daylighting system, a robust lighting controls system with daylight sensors gradually dim the office’s fluorescent lighting as the sun is rising in the early morning hours when it’s not uncommon to find DPR staff getting an early start on their work day.
A fitness area, courtyard and conference rooms, along with a quiet zen room and an “Innovation Room,” pictured right, complement a variety of working spaces.
In the original design for DPR’s San Diego net-zero office, daylight sensors measured the designed foot candle of daylight, and the lights would automatically switch off.
To correct this issue in Phoenix, the electrical lighting gradually dims as the daylight increases, so people usually don’t notice the electrical lights dimming down.
“This abrupt change of disturbed the occupants vision and comfort, so subsequently, many of the daylight sensors have been disabled and the lights are mostly on during the day,” explains DPR’s Robertson.
For switching on the lights at night, the lighting systems are zoned so that only a few lights need to be on if the office is sparsely occupied. In addition, the lights are timed to shut off every half hour.
DPR had actually utilized Solatubes on their San Diego net-zero office, but because that installation had strayed from the original design, performance was somewhat compromised.
Although individuals still working the office then have to get up and turn the lights back on if they intend to continue working, the automatic shut off makes a big difference in lighting energy consumption, she says. Light fixtures are equipped with CFL, linear fluorescent T8 and LED down lights. “ROI for LED did not justify the cost premium,” says SmithGroupJJR’s Roddy.
Of occupied interior spaces, 75% have access to exterior views, and 100% boast daylighting at levels allowing lights to be off during daylight hours.
“Based on San Diego, we learned how important it was to not deviate from the daylighting scheme during the installation phase,” explains DPR’s Robertson. OUTDOOR COLLABORATIVE SPACE
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A major component of DPR Phoenix’s netzero success has been the office’s ability to reduce its electrical lighting load by an amazing 90%. First, the team decided to locate all the glazing on the east and north façades.
Cutting into the existing exterior masonry walls, eight openings were created and utilized to install 87 operable windows, an entrance and two rollup doors to both provide daylighting and connection to outside patios along the east and north sides. The window units incorporate insulated, low-E glazing, horizontal shading devices and vertical green screen elements to minimize direct solar heat gain.
However, the biggest component of the daylighting are the Solatubes, which carry natural daylight from their rooftop skylights through highly reflective pipes and finally into ceiling fixtures, which evenly distribute 100% natural light throughout the open office area, conference rooms, bathrooms and marketing areas.
NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 06.14 | 15
Real-Time Dashboard Contributing to DPR’s effort to keep their energy and water loads low is a Lucid Building Dashboard. Not only can office workers access the real-time energy and water use tracking system, but the general public can also view this live data (see link at the bottom of the page). “We have a screen in our front lobby and it’s been really useful for us to be able to track our mechanical usage, plug load usage, etc., throughout the day,” relates DPR’s Robertson. Essentially, at any hour of the day, anyone can see current and historical water use, lighting and power consumption, and PV energy production. This way, DPR can track the building’s hourly and daily loads to make sure that the facility is not using more energy than it is generating. “For example, our plug loads were looking a little high at night,” relates Robertson. “We were able to see that some people were forgetting to hit their vampire button at night and we could then correct that.”
The decision to install the PV system over parking canopies was to provide shade to parked vehicles and to maximize the amount of skylights that could be put into the roof.
Once all strategies to ramp down the building’s energy consumption were exhausted, the building team knew approximately how large to size the photovoltaic system. With the building’s roof covered with daylight skylight domes, the decision was made to install the PV system—which is grid-tied and comprised of Kyocera modules—on top of two parking canopies, which ended up offering shaded parking for 36 spaces and helps reduce the urban heat island effect.
View the dashboard online: www.buildingdashboard .com /clients/dpr/phoenix
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The 79-killowatt system generates approximately 130,000 kilowatt-hours of annual electricity and fully offsets the building’s power load. “We did a lot of early modeling to best determine the building’s final energy load,” relates Shayne Rolfe, principal, sustainable engineering design, energy design & building, DNV GL, San Diego. “It’s a very intricate process. We did a lot of iterations to determine the size of the array, to get it as small as we could, but still cover the building’s energy load.”
Another unique aspect of the power system is a centralized vampire shutoff system which disconnects 90% of the plug loads at the end of each work day. Defined as the energy consumed by an electrical device, such as a cell phone charger or a computer monitor on stand by, these phantom energy draws can collectively account for a significant amount of wasted energy.
Although such a shutoff switch is not very common in buildings, in DPR’s case, it actually enabled the designers to downsize the PV system based upon the energy load which was shed. “At the San Diego office, we had very little control over the nighttime loads, so the idea of turning everything off at a single point became one of the design initiatives for Phoenix,” reports Rolfe.
The Living Building Challenge Net-Zero Building Certified, LEED Platinum certified, Energy Star DPR Construction Phoenix office operates at an EUI of just 28.85 kBTU/sq. ft. per year.
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With water being a critical resource in Arizona, DPR’s water conservation strategy for the Phoenix office centered around drought-tolerant landscaping, drip irrigation, which is tied to irrigating the vegetated screen, a solar thermal system and low-flow fixtures. The end result was beating LEED NC 2009 baselines for potable water use by 40%. Domestic hot water heating is delivered by a roof-mounted solar thermal system. As a back-up, an electric system comes on-line to provide hot water for the sinks and showers.
The solar thermal system is a 4500W Rheem, closed-loop glycol system with an 85-gallon capacity tank. The two collectors are located on the roof. While hot water demand was considered minimal, heating through solar is highly effective for the desert climate. For the fixtures, the facility installed dualflush water closets, waterless urinals, low-flow showerheads and low-flow, automatic sensor lavatory faucets. The vegetated exterior screen will eventually help reduce solar heat gain into the office. It, and other draught-resistant plants, are irrigated via a drip system to save water.
The building team was fortunate that the original building enclosure was well detailed and operating quite efficiently. However, the envelope was meant for a closed building, while the new design involved opening up the building with operable windows, roll-up doors and a courtyard, and additional penetrations for exterior shading, Solatube skylight domes and a solar chimney. As such, some work had to be done to make sure that the R-values were up to par such as installing additional roof insulation.
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Built in the 1970s as a paint store, it was later converted to a windowless adult bookstore. It then sat vacant for several years before being purchased by DPR in 2010. DPR’s office is now a learning laboratory and a model for sustainable in-fill development.
Fortunately, the team was able to locate the glazing on the east and north façades, while leaving the south and west closed, so the building was able to protect itself from the more intense solar heat gain, according to DNV GL’s Rolfe.
“ W E W E R E SIG N IF IC A N T LY C H A N G IN G H OW P EO P L E O P E R AT E D A N D T H AT R EQ U IR E D A LOT O F PR WO R K U P F RO N T.”
DPR’s regional office is a prime example of urban renewal and sustainability, transforming an underutilized building into one representing DPR’s values while contributing to the visual enhancement of the surrounding neighborhood. The idea of taking an existing structure and redeveloping it into a net-zero building is unique; however, DPR’s design/build team has proven to building users that one can work sustainably in a desert environment, without compromising comfort or user needs.
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RAINWATER OPTIMIZATION The integration of commercial rainwater harvesting systems and stormwater management into a comprehensive water management design is the best option to achieve optimum ROI.
A marriage made from the heavens, rainwater catchment coupled with a stormwater management plan makes sense in terms of sustainability and the bottom line. With nearly three quarters of water in commercial buildings used for non-potable purposes, the question becomes, "Why not?"
or building owners there is an upside to rainwater collection. In addition to it being a sustainable practice, there can be monetary savings due to water conservation and stormwater detention, and it may
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meet regulatory requirements. Did you know that more than 70% of water used for commercial buildings is non-potable? This really begs the question: why can’t we use less municipal water for applications like irrigation, toilet
flushing, shower, laundry, kitchen and mechanical room use? What’s the answer? Most nonpotable water use in commercial buildings can be replaced with rainwater harvesting and responsible stormwater runoff management.
Coupling rainwater harvesting with a stormwater management is seen as environmentally responsible and potentially cost saving. “When designing a rainwater system, we need to identify our goals in term of water supply and stormwater
management. For the best ROI, it would be ideal to marry both rainwater catchment and stormwater management as part of a commercial building’s water management plan,” says Eddie Van Giesen, national sales manager, Brae
Rainwater Technologies, a division of Watts Water. In some metropolitan areas, for example, there is a huge push for rainwater harvesting driven by reducing flows off permeable surfaces. “The goal is to reduce the building’s impact during
on overflow event,” says Van Giesen. Influential Figures According to information provided by Water Harvesting, Inc., consumptive “costs” for a typical commercial high-rise building have evaporative
cooling towers using 1,500,000 gallons annually; toilet flushing using 500,000 gallons annually; and landscape irrigation consuming 750,000 gallons per year. To help offset these hard consumptive numbers, there is a tremendous
NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 06.14 | 21
Being Proactive Factor in the aging infrastructure for U.S. drinking water and you have another reason to be rainwater collection conscious. The American Rainwater Catchment Systems Assn. (ARCSA) states that the nation’s drinkingwater infrastructure is nearing the end of its useful life, according to the 2013 Report Card on America’s Infrastructure compiled by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The U.S. 1+2+3 Chamber of Commerce and the National Assn. of Water Companies found:
RAINWATER USE (%)
opportunity to collect rainwater from these commercial properties. “Rooftop rainwater can save 500,000 gallons annually; cooling coil condensation can save 400,000 gallons/ year; and parking lot rainwater can account for nearly 2,000,000 gallons/year,” says John R. Bauer, President, Wahaso—Water Harvesting Solutions.
RAINWATER USAGE Irrigation is by far the predominant use of collected rainwater. Not surprisingly as this is often the entry point into rainwater harvesting. Potable use is slightly more developed for home use vs. business use.
Home Purpose Business Purpose
36% 23% 18%
OTHER OUTDOOR USE FIRE PROTECTION
7 trillion gallons per day are wasted due to 240,000 water main breaks each year More than $1 trillion is needed over 10 years to repair water systems
Individuals can protect their personal water supply from disruptions by supplementing utility water with rainwater harvesting. A well-designed, installed and maintained rainwater harvesting system can provide highquality water for potable and non-potable, residential and commercial uses. For example, if your average annual rainfall is 12 in. of precipitation, you could collect:
“We take it for granted that when we turn on the tap, it’s going to work,” says David Crawford, president, Rainwater Management Solutions, and current president of ARCSA.
10,000 gallons annually from a 1,500 sq. ft residential roof, or 700,000 gallons annually from a 100,000 sq. ft. commercial building. 24
PUMPS NEEDED Moving water, be it rainwater or stormwater, requires pumps. The TechnoForce XLS provides energy-efficient and reliable control of up to eight pumps from a single system to meet head and flow requirements of a building. Bell & Gossett www.bellgossett.com CIRCLE 306
Getting a Handle on Site Irrigation The Solar Sync ET sensor calculates evapotranspiration (ET) and adjusts controllers daily based on weather conditions. Solar Sync measures sunlight and temperature, and uses ET to determine the correct seasonal adjustment percentage value to send to the controller, which modifies irrigation run time. Hunter Industries www.hunterindustries.com CIRCLE 307
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Shown in Weathered Sage. Ready for immediate delivery. Weighs 108 lbs./sq. Cool Roof and ENERGY STAR® rated.
METAL ROOFING ENERGY SMART METAL ROOFING Matterhorn™ Metal Roofing is available in Tile, Shake, Slate and Standing Seam. Each style features a G90 Steel Core, ENERGY STAR® rated Tri-Pigment Reflective Technology™ coating to provide superior corrosion resistance. matterhornmetalroofing.com
Michigan 2712 Walkent Drive NW Walker, MI 49544
Georgia 5520 Export Blvd Garden City, GA 31407 CIRCLE 30
Texas 634 107th Street Arlington, TX 76011
TD AMERITRADE Omaha, Neb. ADVANCED WATER CONSERVATION
Online brokerage TD Ameritrade Holding Corp. consolidated five offices in Omaha, Neb., into a single 12-story tower expected to receive USGBC’s LEED Platinum certification (see the image below). Along with an abundance of natural lighting, solar-heated hot water, and wind-powered parking lot lights, the building boasts a rainwater harvesting system that waters the landscaping and flushes the toilets. All together, the sustainability measures cut building maintenance costs in half, claims spokesperson Kim Hillyer.
Rainwater Storage Below the parking area of AdvancED's facility is a 30,000-gallon irrigation tank.
M O R E T H A N 70% O F WAT ER CO N SU M ED BY CO M M ERCI A L B U I LD I N GS I S FO R N O N P OTA B L E US E S . T H I S B EGS T H E Q U E S T I O N : W H Y N OT R A I N WAT ER FO R T H E S E PU R P OS E S?
TD Ameritrade, Omaha
If your annual precipitation averages 42 in. per year, you could collect: 39,000 gallons annually from a 1,500-sq.-ft. residential roof, or 2.6 million gallons annually from a 100,000-sq.-ft. commercial building.
Stormwater Runoff Impervious surface coverage (paved or roof surfaces where rainwater does not soak into the ground) in the U.S. is 83,337 sq.-km. This is an area as big as 75% of the state of Ohio.
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According ARCSA, savings are likely to pay off quickly as utilities raise their rates across the country in response to rising demand due to everything from rising populations in some areas, new EPA stormwater regulations, and the replacement of aging infrastructure. Nationally, the EPA expects maintaining existing water services to require $384.2 billion— mostly for repairing and replacing transmission and distribution lines, now estimated to be leaking 16% of the water that passes through them. Water prices have been increasing at an average of 7.7% per year.
The three-story, 60,000-sq.-ft. AdvancED headquarters in Alpharetta, Ga.—the largest school accrediting agency in the world—recently achieved LEED Gold for its eco-friendly designs and energy conservation techniques. For example, the BRAE rainwater cistern (left) harvests water for irrigation and cools the coils of the air conditioning system for greater efficiency. The rainwater harvesting system collects rainwater and condensate from the rooftop packaged A/C system, draining runoff to the subterranean tank. Water moves through underground inlet filters that keep debris from entering the tank. If the tank’s capacity is reached, overflow from the tank is directed to the stormwater drainage system.
The age-old argument inevitably surfaces relating to the overall cost of water. It has been suggested that water prices need to climb before it starts getting the attention of building owners. “Water is too cheap. The problem with rainwater catchment might be not enough immediate payback,” says Bob Boulware, president, Design-Aire Engineering, Inc. Boulware would eventually like to see rainwater catchment for energy saving standards. “I’d also like to see an alternative plan: According to the size of the building there should be environmental impact fees—size of the tap/water main. For instance, a connection fee, which would increase algorithmically after 2 in.,” says Boulware.
System Design One of the first and most importance things to consider when talking design, “Make a significant and meaningful impact on reducing the amount of municipal water use,” says Bauer. Keep the system as simple as possible, and match a system to meet the unique characteristics of the building. Also, ensure that the water is safe for storage and application. To reduce potential of introducing water-borne pathogens, filtration and disinfection treatment methods, which can include ultraviolet treatment, ozonation or chlorination, need to be evaluated. 26
Looking to expand your knowledge on zero net energy buildings? Hear from industry thought leaders on the business case, cost consideration and integrated design approaches to achieve ZNE performance. Our on-demand webinars are available any time! newbuildings.org/webinars La Valentina North Townhomes | Photo: Bruce Damonte
Getting to Zero Webinar Series, available on-demand • 2014 Getting to Zero Status Update Webinar • State and Local Policies and Programs to Promote Zero Net Energy Buildings • Making the Business Case for Zero Net Energy Building • Incremental Costs of Zero Net Energy Buildings
• The Must-Have Aspiration and Design Paradigms for Creating Ultra-EfficientGETTING Buildings TO
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BADGER METER Milwaukee, Wisc. Since 2003, the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) has been awarding green roof incentive funding to building owners to help reduce the volume and number of sewer overflows to waterways. Badger Meter was awarded $48,135 through MMSD’s Regional Green Roof initiative program to pay for part of its green roof project. Installed July 2012 and completed in November 2012, the new green roof is expected to reduce the annual runoff into the storm water system—an estimated 249,000 gallons—by as much as 90% and delay the remaining 10% to a time past peak flows. For every 1 in. of rainfall, the green roof collects just under 6,000 gallons of water if it is dry. If it is saturated or frozen, some of the water will run off. By keeping excess water from roofs, parking lots and impervious surfaces out of the sewer system, the company is helping reduce the risk of basement backups and sewer overflows. Badger Meter installed two of its 2-in. M-Series Electromagnetic (mag) Flow Meters and a controller, so it can measure the outflow from each of two roof drains. It also mounted a weather station on the rooftop to measure rainfall.
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Vegin' Out Vegetation is sedum, which is selected, developed and tested for rooftop cultivation.
Green Roof Benefits A key benefit of a green roof is water retention. During a rainstorm, green rooftops collect and store water that would otherwise run off into the sewer.
Roof Materials The roof consists of a 3-in. layer of insulation, hard board and sealing membrane.
ARCSA contends that regulations that either require disinfection or approvals, were perceived to be obtained easier if disinfection is included in the design. Pre-green Langer Roofing and Sheet Metal, Inc. handled the design, tear-off of the old roof, and installation of portions of the new roof.
Wahaso’s Bauer suggests owners need to identify and quantify all potential sources and uses of onsite water for reuse. Next, look at the total supply and demand but also the seasonality to balance the two. Also, when looking for an efficient system, design a system for the most contaminated water source, optimize the cistern size and identify options and the relative cost and benefit, and create metrics and goals for the system.
The face of innovation. EnduraMax™ is a complete solution for reaching beyond the surface. This system steps beyond traditional masonry by offering masonry’s timeless beauty, but adding value with an energy-saving insulation barrier and built in moisture protection to produce a high-performance wall system. Every component of EnduraMax is specially engineered to integrate into a complete highperformance wall system. EnduraMax is more than an attractive surface, it’s durable, innovative and allows design versatility by offering extensive colors, shapes, and size options. That’s a smarter masonry working harder for you.
1 -Project: Grand Canyon University, AZ
The face of masonry. No matter where you are, chances are we’re somewhere close by. In fact, you’ve probably seen us many times before in the places you shop, work, play, learn, and live. We manufacture the brands and products used in the interiors and exteriors of civil, commercial, and residential construction projects across the nation. We leave our mark with satisﬁed customers and clients who have chosen North America’s largest manufacturer of building products to simplify the process of making buildings happen. 1 Foam Panels 2 Masonry Units 3 Units & Mortar
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©2014 Oldcastle. All Rights Reserved.
| NZB: ONSITE POWER |
Measuring Up Submetering products and services sales are expected to double by the end of the decade. Commercial tenants seeking to boost efficiency turn to submetering as a way to understand baseline energy use, and to provide verifiable data.
Chuck Ross is a freelance writer covering building design and technology topics. He has been writing about building efficiency issues, including onsite energy and demandside management topics, for more than 20 years.
s the popular phrase goes, you can’t manage what you can’t measure. Apparently, over the next few years, there’s going to be a whole lot of energy measuring—and managing—going on in our nation’s buildings, as the market for submetering equipment is in the midst of a boom. Sales of related products and services are expected to double by 2020, vs. 2012 performance, according to Navigant Research, and reach almost $1.6 billion by the end of this decade. The term “submetering” refers to metering activity on the customer side of a utility meter. It’s most frequently employed in multi-tenant commercial and residential structures as a way to ensure renters are each paying their fair share of a landlord’s energy and water costs. However, with equipment becoming both less expensive and easier to install in both new and existing buildings, those in the industry are beginning to see a new niche developing, for those seeking to track their own energy use.
“We’re seeing all new commercial building construction aggressively moving to having full-scale tenant metering,” Liston says. “It’s in the specification—it’s an expectation.” Schneider is among those companies cited by senior analyst Eric Bloom in his comments on the Navigant submetering study. “To address the growing demand for submetering capabilities, traditional leaders in the building controls and equipment industry have worked to integrate submetering technology into their energy efficiency solutions and platforms.”
“Energy monitoring has become more prevalent for energy management purposes,” says Troy Hull, director of metering solutions sales for Leviton. “That’s the sector that’s growing the most.” It’s a sector that’s growing as building owners become more interested in energy efficiency, in general–and, particularly, net-zero performance, says Mark Liston, vice president for energy solutions for Schneider Electric. Not only do those seeking to boost efficiency turn to submetering as a way to understand their baseline energy use, but also high-profile commercial tenants want to be able to provide verifiable data to back their own claims of greener operations.
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Sales of submetering-related products and services are expected to double by 2020, vs. 2012 performance, according to Navigant Research, and reach almost $1.6 billion by the end of this decade.
Submetering-related Products and Services
Source: Navigant Research
if only it was this easy...
...now it is, with GKD’s Solar Management Program. GKD Metal Fabrics’ flexible weave helps achieve specific sunshade and daylighting goals for your project while providing a dazzling design element to any building’s exterior. GKD offers analysis and specific quantifiable heat and light value for each project to achieve your target goals. Our environmental benefits also support LEED opportunities. For more information and to watch the video visit us at: www.gkdmetalfabrics.com/sunshade or call us at 1.800.453.8616. University of Florida, Lake Nona FL: Escale Weave
©2014 GKD-USA, Inc. GKD® is a registered trademark of GKD Gebr Kufferath AG. All Rights Reserved.
The National Renewable Energy Library is taking aim at building 28% Transportation plug loads, and with good reason—plug and process loads (PPLs) account for up to 33% of the energy consumed in the averageIndustry U.S. commercial building. In Onsite high-efficiency buildRenewables ings,Coal the proportion of 3% 1% electricity used by PPLs 17% can hit 50%, because Natural Gas lighting, HVAC and other systems already are 79% Electricity peak performers. And, while overall commercial energy consumpWater Heating tion is expected to grow 7%by 2030, PPL Ventilation by 24% 11% energy use is expected to increase by 49% in 33% the PPLs same time frame. 13%
Space Carnegie Mellon UniCooling
16% 20% versity has developed Space Lighting Heating a “dashboard” to help workers better understand and control their devices’ electricity use, and a field test has shown the strategy has merit. The dashboard’s interface provides real-time usage data for connected equipment, along with integrated on/off toggle buttons for each device and a means for setting schedules for automated operation. Those with the greatest level of information and control of their electrical use cut their plug-load by an average of 35.4%.
The researchers, now are developing smartphone apps to go along with the web-based dashboard, as well as a public touch display for shared appliances (such as printers and coffee makers).
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Plug Loads: Where Power is Going U.S. Primary Energy Breakdown 28% 31%
17% Natural Gas 3% Petroleum/Coal 1% On-Site Renewables
Energy Use Breakdown 16%
22% Residential 28% Transportation 31% Industry
7% 11% 13% 16% 20%
Water Heating Ventilation Space Cooling Space Heating Lighting
PPLs account for up to 33% of the energy consumed in average U.S. commercial buildings.
Washington state has adopted requirements mandating submetering of individual systems in new nonresidential buildings over 50,000 sq. ft.
Ever-stricter energy codes also are driving the technology’s adoption. For example, Washington State has adopted requirements mandating submetering of individual systems in new nonresidential buildings over 50,000 sq. ft.—the city of Seattle has dropped that threshold to 20,000 sq. ft., and additions over 10,000 sq. ft. Subsystem metering also plays a role in the newly passed version of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standards— LEED v4. 70%
Loads products are designed to monitor Most of today’s operations at a circuit level, with many capable of communication with installed building automation systems. In fact, the more advanced of these newer 45% products can be read online, in real time. Cloud-based, data-storage services also are often a part of the package. 31
Cleaning products manufacturer Method is constructing a green manufacturing facility on Chicago’s south side that will be powered, in part, by wind from a refurbished turbine. Renewables, including solar, in fact, will provide half the plant’s electricity.
IN THE NEWS
COGEN REMAINS A VIABLE OPTION
Combined heat and power, or cogeneration, is an efficient power/heat delivery option almost 75% more efficient than energy delivered from the grid. The national goal for added CHP capacity under President Obama is 40 GW. Currently, about 82 GW is the installed capacity—about 8% of the U.S.’s generating capacity. Pictured is MTU Onsite Energy’s Series 4000 natural gas engine. The company has boosted electrical efficiency in the generator by 44.3% for use in standalone or cogen operations. MTU Onsite Energy www.mtuonsiteenergy.com CIRCLE 305
“ EN ERGY MO N ITO R IN G H A S B ECOM E MO R E PR E VA LENT FO R EN ERGY M A N AG E M ENT PU R P OSE S . TH AT ’ S TH E SEC TO R TH AT ’ S SELLIN G TH E MOS T.”
The Government Services Administration (GSA) is known as the federal government’s landlord, but it also pays a hefty amount toward Uncle Sam’s annual electricity bill, as well. Working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GSA’s Green Proving Ground program recently tested advanced power strips, which can be programed to turn on and off based on a user’s work schedule. The schedule timer helped reduce connected devices’ electricity use by an average of 48%. The highest returns were found in printer rooms and kitchens, where payback periods for the new power strips were as short as 0.7 years.
VAMPIRE LOAD REDUCTION
Wattstopper’s Isolé IDP-3050 power strip matches surge suppression with automatic plug-load control. Six of the strip’s eight outlets are controlled by the connected personal occupancy sensor, which provides a time delay up to 30 minutes. 30
Honda installed two 1.7 MW GE wind turbines on the site of its Russells Point, Ohio, manufacturing plant, making it the first major U.S. auto plant to obtain a sizable portion of its electricity from onsite wind turbines, estimated to produce 10% of the plant’s annual demand.
“Ten years ago, 80% of meters were manually read,” says Hull. Now, in contrast, he says 80% are tied into systems that both record and timestamp their readings. And the resulting real-time information is being used to more efficiently structure how the BAS manages a full range of building functions. Some systems can even communicate with electric utility rate signals and monitor performance following calls to reduce demand, under demand-side management (DSM) rate programs. The meters’ time-stamped data offers proof to utilities that loads were reduced by the specified amount and for required durations. 32
Wattstopper www.wattstopper.com CIRCLE 304
www.nzbmagazine.com NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 06.14 | 31
IN THE NEWS
Stationary Applications Driving Fuel Cell Growth
While marketers once thought refrigerators and dryers would top the list of smart appliances, it now seems thermostats might be the advance troops in utilities’ efforts to bring load control to residential customers. For example, Nest has partnered with energy retailer NRG on a program called Rush Hour Rewards, which sets back homeowners’ thermostats during summer rush hours (which typically match peak demand periods). Opower recently inked a deal with Direct Energy in Texas, which will be deploying WiFi-enabled Honeywell thermostats communicating via an Opower software platform to provide similar load control and analysis for that utility’s customers.
Think Eco’s “modlet” plugs into standard two-socket outlets, offering two of its own sockets that can be monitored and controlled remotely online or via smartphone apps
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Prime Power Large CHP ResCHP UPS
SMART MONEY ON SMART THERMOSTATS Just two months after Google’s $3.2 billion purchase of Nest Labs, maker of smart, webaddressable thermostats and smoke alarms, the energy-data company Opower launched an initial public offering that has valued the 7-year-old startup at close to $1 billion. The companies share business models increasingly based on partnerships with energy utilities that could lead to clouds’-worth of data on how customers use energy in their homes and businesses.
5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
The market for fuel cell-driven combined heat and power is growing, especially in Japan, the second largest fuel cell adopter for residential CHP. There, the country had 42,700 such systems installed by the end of 2012, such as this one from FuelCell Energy, according to research by Navigant.
When it comes to highly tuned net-zero buildings, though, circuit-level data may not provide the detailed information on individual plug loads that can make or break real netzero performance. A few ambitious start-up companies are offering new devices that can provide outlet-by-outlet measurement and control. For example, Think Eco’s “modlet” plugs into standard two-socket outlets, offering two of its own sockets that can be monitored and controlled remotely online or via smartphone apps. A unit specifically designed for window air conditioners also can be controlled by utility DSM programs—New York City’s Con Edison is one utility using the devices in its customers’ homes to setback room air conditioners during peak periods.
Toyota may have just announced a new emphasis on fuel cells for automotive use, but stationary applications remain the primary driver of this market’s expansion—in fact, global annual revenues are expected to break the $2 billion mark by the end of 2014, nearly doubling 2012’s $1 billion total, according to Navigant Research. Total installed capacity is expect to reach almost 7,000 megawatts in just the next eight years. As the chart above left illustrates, prime power and combined heat and power applications represent manufacturers’ biggest opportunity today. This is driven by U.S. buyers seeking power security for data centers and grid stabilization for electric utilities.
Hull sees the real-time data today’s submeters supply as increasingly important to tuning and maintaining building performance, especially as building operations become more automated and rules-based. “Energy monitoring systems really should be treated as a critical building component—the metering piece allows us to monitor how effectively we’re operating a building and how we can tweak the last five to 10 percentage points in performance,” he says. “It’s just as important as a controls package. Without that data, you’re really kind of fumbling around in the dark.”
IT’S AS HIGH-TOUCH AS IT IS HIGH-TECH Fabcon believes in a very hands-on approach. From the moment we begin engineering your panels until the last one stands perfectly plumb, we’re there. We pour everything we have into every panel we make. At Fabcon, when we say STRONGER, BETTER, FASTER, we mean it.
©2014 Fabcon Precast
www.fabcon-usa.com | 952-890-4444
SPANNING THE DISTANCE
The price of PV installations continues to drop. According to the Solar Energy Industries Assn., the average weighted system price in 2013 was $3 per watt—down slightly from 2012, but by more than half from 2010.
The Danversport Yacht Club in Boston’s North Shore suburb of Danvers, Mass., is the first site for the installation of a new solar carport design that expands the concept to a much larger scale. Long Span 360 solar carport systems from Solaire Generation cover two parallel parking rows, along with the internal driving aisle for an increase of up to 25% in solar capacity, versus traditional plans. This installation has a rated capacity of 253 kilowatts. Systems can be built up to 110-ft. wide, with up to 70-ft. column spacings. Solaire Generation www.solairegeneration.com CIRCLE 303
Azon Saves Energy
Generac has introduced a natural gas alternative for applications in which diesel-fueled standby have long been the obvious choice. Available in 350 kW and 400 kW models, the new natural gas gensets can be operated solo, or configured in parallel up to 6 MW. Both are EPA certified for stationary emergency power. Generac www.generac.com CIRCLE 302
MEASURE, TO MANAGE
Daylighting systems produced with Azon structural thermal barrier technologies—the MLP™ or Dual Cavity—for aluminum windows along with high performance glazing components for insulating glass, will yield a fenestration system capable of upholding the highest efficiency and sustainability standards.
Contact us to learn about the role of Azon thermal barriers in energy conservation. 1 HSW Learning Unit
1-800-788-5942 | www.azonintl.com CIRCLE 34
The VerifEye EMH+ provides managers with a total picture of a facility’s electricity use, including a range of power-quality data. This information can be transferred easily to energy dashboards and other software applications enabling integration with larger building management systems. It also can be expanded to support water, gas and steam monitoring applications to provide a comprehensive snapshot of total energy usage. Leviton www.leviton.com CIRCLE 301
INTRODUCING GUARDIAN SUNGUARD SNX 51/23 SunGuard SNX 51/23 from Guardian is a glass industry first — the 1 2
first product on the market with visible light above
50% and a solar heat gain coefficient below 0.25. Along with low reflectivity and a neutral blue color, it represents a breakthrough combination of light, appearance and solar control that meets SNX 51/23 on #2
increasingly strict energy codes. For complete
performance data — and other ways to Build With Light — visit SunGuardGlass.com. Or call 1-866-GuardSG (482-7374).
© 2014 Guardian Industries Corp. SunGuard® and Build With Light® are registered trademarks of Guardian Industries Corp.
SEE US AT AIA BOOTH #1013
E NVE LOPE
| NZB: ENVELOPE |
Don't Glaze Over the Curtainwall Achieving balance between the most thermally efficient envelope, and one that equally takes advantage of natural light is a challenge. Climate, codes and coating options all come into play, and designers must understand the right options for the right scenarios.
Alan Weis, a contributing writer for Architectural Products, covers thermal management issues, including building envelope and HVAC systems.
hen it comes to commercial buildings, one of the many roles of front desk personnel is that of gatekeeper. The same can be said for glazing, as it is tasked with letting in the good—natural light—and keeping out the bad—solar heat gain. “[When it comes to envelopes] Glazing systems are the least efficient thermally performing assembly in most buildings, but the benefits of daylighting on human comfort are well documented and universally accepted,” says Timothy J. Spence, AIA, principal healthcare market lead with BBH Design in Pittsburgh. “Balancing both the positive and negative effects of glazing systems on human comfort is challenging and requires strategies that should be a major factor in driving the design of any project.”
achieving the lowest U-value would not be the best choice in a location such as Florida. Understanding glazing options is no easy thing, as increased attention to energy codes, are making low-E coatings a necessity at any percentage. And while tints have been historically used for solar control, they alone do not reach many of the newer SHGC requirements. At the same time, it is also important to recognize that coatings alone aren’t an end-all, be-all solution either, says Brian Payne, AIA, an associate and specification and BIM lead with BBH. “While
One of these considerations is meeting the ever-increasing demands of energy codes, and designers must have a firm grasp of these codes and the products that can help meet their demands in different climate regions. “Warmer climates are going to be driven by solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) numbers and cooler climates are going to be focused on the lower U-value of the glass and framing systems,” says Colin Blackford, a regional technical advisor with Guardian Industries. “It’s important to understand those distinctions so that you get the most out of the design of the glazing system." U value, of course, refers to heat losses a building suffers, while SHGC refers to heat gained in a space from the effects of the sun. Therefore, Blackford says a curtainwall with a tripleglazed unit with argon gas and two low-E coatings that allow for high visible light while
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Warmer climates are going to be driven by solar heat gain coefficient numbers; cooler climates are going to be focused on the lower U-value of the glass and framing systems.
Breaking the Curve Architects designing Legacy Junior High School faced a challenge: create a space to inspire and excite students. Through lively community collaboration, the project came together, incorporating sinuous and sophisticated green metal contours hip enough to intrigue students. Visit www.mbci.com/curve for more information.
Project: legacy Junior high School Location: layton, Utah architect: Vcbo architecture contractor: all metals fabrication PaneL ProFiLe: PbU (Tundra / laurel Green / Galvalume Plus®), artisan (Tundra), flat Sheet (Tundra / laurel Green) copyright © 2014 mbci. all rights reserved. copyright © 2014 mbci. all rights reserved.
Phone: 877-713-6224 CIRCLE 36
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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA KRISHNA P. SINGH CENTER FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY
© Greg Benson Photography
Instead of being insulated deep inside the building, the labs of the new University of Pennsylvania Krishna P. Singh Center for Nanotechnology are visible through the exterior glass façade and interior glass that pulls light. Guardian SunGuard AG 50 low-E glazing on UltraWhite low-iron glass helps reduce glare and solar heat gain and provides abundant natural light.
“BAL A NCING THE POSITIVE A ND NEGATIVE EFFEC TS OF GL A ZING ON HUM A N COMFORT IS CH A LLENGING A ND R EQUIR E S STR ATEGIE S THAT SHOULD BE A FAC TOR IN DR IVING THE DE SIGN OF A NY PROJEC T.”
coatings can provide visual interest, partially reduce solar heat gain and provide varying levels of transparency, we have found that they generally have minimal positive effect on human comfort if they are forced to compensate for issues like glare caused by inappropriate orientation or sizing of glazed areas,” he explains.
Another factor in achieving the delicate balance of light to solar gain is room size and space use. Glazing with very high visible light trans-
Resists heat transfer with R-values up to R-22.8 (RSI-4.01) and reduces thermal bridging at the framing members.
Foiling Thermal Bridging Thermal bridging, where heat loss is conducted through the metal members of a curtainwall, can be checked with products like this all-purpose foilfaced foam sheathing board composed of a uniform closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam core. Johns Manville www.jm.com CIRCLE 300
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mittance can have overwhelming glare for an office environment, explains Blackford. Building orientation also drives glazing use, and architects have the ability to use proper orientation and sun control strategies to limit solar heat gain. Spence notes that owner requirements or specific site conditions can limit the design choices available, but if possible glazed areas should be concentrated on the south facing and north facing facades. East and west facing glazing should be limited and provided with sun control measures to limit early morning or afternoon glare. “In the case of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center East project (right), we oriented the linear patient tower in an east-west direction in order to reduce glare and heat gain,” says Spense. “We added exterior aluminum louvers to the glazing on the south elevation in order to limit direct sunlight into the patient rooms.
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH MEDICAL CENTER (UPMC) EAST
Monroeville, Pa. The linear patient tower of UPMC East in Monroeville, Pa., is oriented in an east-west direction in order to reduce glare and heat gain. Photo: Jim Schafer Photography
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Limited glazed openings were provided on the east and west facades in order to provide daylight to the hospital corridors. The team used computer simulation to develop a maximum window size to minimize energy loss/gain through the window wall.”
addressed with the glazier to correctly size the lites with the system that he has provided to optimize the best overall performance. Payne applauds the glazing industry’s efforts in this area. “They’ve made large strides in providing architects with more options to reduce the thermal impact of specified glazing systems,” he says. “Advancements like fiberglass pressure plates have allowed us to reach higher R-Values without the added expense of using triple glazing.” 40
SWEDISH MEDICAL CENTER
Issaquah, Wash. Swedish Medical
Spence notes that the team also used timeCenter receives full sun exposure on three sides motion studies and computer simulation to see and even gets natural the effects of the solar shading and measure light to its below-grade the daylight factor value in the room. The space. CollinsWoerman goal was to flood the room with controllable Architects selected daylight to enlarge the perception of the space Guardian SunGuard high performance glass while providing daylight that was comfortable to ensure maximum in terms of glare and heat gain for the patient. At the Swedish Medical Center in Issaquah, Wash., daylighting with minimal high performance glass helps the facility balance When it comes to another driving factor S in solar heat gain. daylight goals with energy management. glazing design—thermal bridging—Blackford N explains it’s a matter of aligning spacers with the thermal bridging in the framing system. a single line glazing of thermal break h facing facades.This Eastgives and west facing should bewithlimited and provided with sun control measures to limit early morning or afternoon glare. out a zigzag opportunity for thermal leakage. However, this is an issue that should be
Site Plan MOST INDIRECT DAYLIGHT
MOST DIRECT DAYLIGHT
© Benjamin Benscheider
If possible, glazed areas should be concentrated on the south facing and north facing facades. East and west facing glazing should be limited and provided with sun control measures to limit early morning or afternoon glare.
www.nzbmagazine.com NET ZERO BUILDINGS | 06.14 | 39
E NVE LOPE SEATTLE, WASH.
B E CO N S CI O US O F T H E OV ER A L L EFFEC T S O F TH E S PECI FI ED G L A ZI N G S YS T E M S A N D M AT ER I A L S , I N CLU D I N G TH EI R P OTEN TI A L TO A FFEC T OTH ER B U I L D I N G S YS T E M S .
Conscious Commercial Center
© Tom Kessler Photography
Bullitt Center, a sixstory commercial office building in Seattle, was designed by The Miller Hull Partnership to demonstrate how buildings can function as completely integrated, self-sustaining, living organisms. The fenestration system was critical to enabling the center to attain its ambitious energy and environmental performance goals. As part of a sophisticated curtainwall assembly designed by Schuco USA and fabricated by Goldfinch Brothers, the system incorporates triple-glazed insulating glass units (IGUs) framed in aluminum and glazed with two lites of PPG’s Solarban 60 solar control, low-E glass to provide window system U-values as low as 0.17.
Considered one the greenest buildings in the world,
Seattle’s Bullitt Center features a fenestration system that uses PPG’s Solarban 60 solar control, low-e glass. Building incorporates a sophisticated curtainwall assembly.
PASSIVE HEATING STRATEGY
Perforated aluminum panels such as the InSpire line cab be mounted to a wall, creating several inches of airspace. Sunlight heats the aluminum, causing a thin layer of warmed air to accumulate at the surface. Intake fans pull the heated air into the airspace where it's distributed via conventional HVAC systems. ATAS International www.inspirewall.com CIRCLE 299
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Envelope design will result in less energy demand for HVAC.
Given all of the factors to consider, it might seem as though architects might be increasingly forced to sacrifice aesthetic desires. However, Guardian's Blackford says that there are many different options for low-E coating color and performance, and when combined with solar control tints, the possibilities become greater. Spence notes that the increased attention given to the thermal performance of buildings should cause architects to be aware of where glazed areas are located and how each façade deserves a different treatment based on orientation and context. “Unfortunately, this level of attention is not always rewarded because many energy code requirements do not take these factors into consideration,” he says.
Perhaps the most important thing is to be conscious of the overall effects of the specified glazing systems and materials, including their potential to affect other building systems. “You can provide aesthetically pleasing projects that have abundant daylighting if you take the time to be conscious of the effects of the design choices you make on human comfort and energy use,” says Payne. “A larger and more energy-consuming HVAC system should not be required to compensate for inadequate design of the glazing systems.”
University of Hawaii at Hilo – Hilo’s over the top language center architecture is widely acclaimed.
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THE NEWLY OPENED HALE’OLEO (HOUSE OF LANGUAGE) BUILDING IN HILO IS ALREADY A LANDMARK. As part of the University of Hawaii, the domed roof was inspired by the traditional pili grass thatched homes of the island, and specifically the home of Princess Ruth Ke‘elikolani. Building that curve was far more challenging in metal than it was with thatch. Special curving machines were used to form the concave and convex shapes of the panels and batten caps and corresponding soffit panels and siding panels. A coating that could endure compound bending was essential. Dura Coat Product’s Durapon 70® was the logical choice for its flexibility, durability and long-term performance. Its tough surface can easily withstand installation scratching, scuffing, marring, staining and transit abrasion. Durapon 70 is a premium PVDF coating used with Dura Coat’s thick film primer for coastal and heavy industrial environments along with Edge Seal to protect cut edges. Colors range from this Hawaiian Red to metallics and exotics with countless shades in between. Durapon 70s cool pigments deflect UV rays to retain color and gloss and Durapon complies with the Cool Roof Rating Council, Energy Star and LEED standards. Fabricated with nature-friendly formulations, Durapon 70 stands up to the elements and for the elements. For roofs fit for royalty, call 951-341-6500 or 256-350-4300.
E NVE LOPE
Future Farmstead Program, Univ. of Georgia, Tifton, Ga.
Georgia-Pacific Gypsum’s DensGlass sheathing was used for the exterior of Atlanta’s National Center for Civil and Human Rights Museum.
Brian Wolfe, LEED AP BD+C, keeps tabs on all things green for HKS Architects. Wolfe explains that the path to net zero begins with knowing the space type, location and project code baselines. It’s also important to apply energy use intensity—energy being consumed per sq. ft.—to the parameters that are needed to be known. When it comes to envelope design, he sees window-to-wall ratio as the biggest challenge. “The market favors extensive amounts of glass,” he says. “This benefits views, but negatively impacts the energy savings. Finding the ‘happy medium’ is a team effort.” One option is determining the optimum balance between decreasing the window-to-wall ratio and installing daylight sensors. In addition, knowing if the glazing system will be operable or not can potentially allow for strategies such as natural ventilation, which can reduce peak demand of the mechanical systems. Holistic thinking is crucial. "Each design option affects the other."
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The Future Farmstead Program at University of Georgia, is a 3,000-sq.ft., two-story structure in Tifton, Ga., that serves as a research facility dedicated to the sustainable production of food and energy.
Strong Curves The new National Center for Civil and Human Rights Museum in downtown Atlanta is cradled between two powerful, convex-curved walls. The exteriors of each flowing wall serve as a terracotta rain screen envelope to ensure energyefficiency and sustainability of the 42,000-sq.-ft, three-story facility, and DensGlass sheathing from Georgia-Pacific Gypsum was chosen for exterior sheathing material. “We needed a product with the dimensional stability and flexibility to work with compound curves,” said Michael Katzin, vice president for architecture, senior project manager and principle at HOK Atlanta, the architect of record for the project. DensGlass’ flexural strength is approximately the same in both directions, meaning it can be installed either vertically or horizontally without sacrificing wall strength between studs, and the panels also protect and help stabilize structural framing—an important consideration for the curved walls of the center.
Also being the residence for the project’s graduate students, it is also a test lab for using sustainable building materials. One of these is the Home Slicker rainscreen from Benjamin Obdyke.
Employing a vegetated double skin for passive cooling, RMA Architect's design of this office in Hyderbad, India is up for a 2014 Zumtobel Group Award. Its inner facade has operable windows for natural ventilation; the outer facade's trellis is covered with vegetation that not only helps with IAQ, but allows for a dynamic facade as it changes with the seasons.
The system creates an air space between the back of the cladding and the face of the waterresistance barrier, which reduces the forces that draw water into the wall assembly and drains excess moisture via the air space. This helps prevent deterioration and mold that can result from skin materials that don't account for rainwater drainage.
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| NZB: DAYLIGHTING |
State of Daylight Modeling Newer daylighting metrics and more technologically advanced software programs offer more sophisticated and accurate daylight simulations; however, employing the expertise to run these simulations is another story.
Barbara HorwitzBennett has been reporting on the architectural industry for the past 15 years. She covers glazing and daylighting for Architectural Products, and in 2011 contributed to an important industry white paper on net-zero buildings.
n striving to optimize daylighting schemes for commercial projects, designers frequently rely upon daylight modeling tools to assess factors like illumination levels and glare. And while the technology is continually improving, project processes to effectively integrate their use and end-user expertise to compute those simulations have not been keeping pace. For a little perspective, the older method of single point-in-time daylight illuminance calculations performed for the Equinoxes and Solstices has evolved to calculating Daylight Illuminance for every daylight hour during the year, bringing greater accuracy to daylighting modeling. In addition, newer daylighting metrics are helping designers to better predict daylight conditions.
“Radiance and its shell systems—such as geometry creation software–and other design analysis software like SketchUp, Rhino, Diva, Daysim, OpenStudio, IES-VE, Sefaira, and Green Building Studio are also improving their compatibility,” she adds. “I’ve also seen software more traditionally used for rendering improve their physical accuracy and compatibility such as Lightscape and 3D Studio Max with Vray.” However, as Ian Ashdown, chief scientist, Lighting Analysts, Vancouver, Canada, points out, “it is not so much a question of how daylighting design software has improved as it is of how the architectural lighting design community has evolved its approach to the topic.”
“New tools have been developed to allow for much more efficient parameter testing,” reports Brendon Levitt, RA, LEED AP, associate, Loisos + Ubbelohde, Alameda, Calif. “Instead of modeling a discrete scene for a specific point in time, we can now pre-calculate how different core variables will affect a scene, and then swap in and out different options. This could be different times of year, various sky conditions or even complex material types.” In addition, daylight modeling is doing a better job of integrating with other architectural analysis programs. “For example, Elum Tools works within the Revit environment and has recently added daylighting calculation capabilities, and AGi32 has streamlined and improved its ability to work with and clean up DWG files,” explains Jill Dalgish, LEED AP, president, Dalgish Lighting, Denver.
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GOOD NEWS/BAD NEWS
Daylight modeling tools have improved by leaps and bounds. They, however, are only as good as the designers in the community willing to embrace them.
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Daylight Diffusion The $30 million renovation of The Outlet Collection | Jersey Gardens mall in Elizabeth, N.J. includes the aesthetic of Bendheim Wall Systems’ channel glass, which provides a daylighting option that’s more opaque for reducing solar gain. The diffusing finish of the glass imbues the interiors with a soft light. At dusk, the channel glass walls are edgelit for a gentle glow.
CLIM ATE- BA SED DAY LI G HT M E TR I C S A R E A N I M P O RTA NT PIECE IN CR E ATIN G A MO R E INTEG R ATED PRO CE S S FO R PA IR IN G ILLU M IN ATI O N A N D M ECH A N I C A L EN G IN EER IN G. Bendheim Channel Glass
The mall’s new brand name in black lettering is elegantly displayed against the luminous channel glass walls. While the double-glazed exterior walls diffuse beneficial daylight to the interior, single-glazed Bendheim channel glass assemblies clad the central courtyard elevator column, gracefully obscuring mechanical systems and contributing to a seamless, continuous design aesthetic. Bendheim Wall Systems www.bendheimwall.com CIRCLE 298
Part of the issue is that daylighting mostly falls within the architectural design domain, and by the time lighting designers are brought in to a project, there is little opportunity to optimize daylighting strategies. Furthermore, unless those lighting designers also specialize in daylighting design, their contribution is often limited to an older daylight factor metric, which does not take into account latitude, building orientation or weather conditions.
NEW DAYLIGHTING GUIDE
In addition to introducing new daylighting metrics, the Illuminating Engineering “Society Recommended Practice for Daylighting Buidlings,” RP-5-13 offers guidance for daylight delivery methods, understanding fenestration properties of various glazing systems, shading techniques and control strategies. Illuminating Engineering Society www.ies.org
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This situation, says Ashdown, is hopefully changing with the publication of IES’ LM 83-12, “Spatial Daylight Autonomy and Annual Sunlight Exposure,” and IES RP-5-13, “Recommended Practice for Daylighting Buildings,” as both documents promote the concept of climate-based daylighting design. By bringing together illumination and mechanical engineering, Ashdown says climate-based daylight metrics are an important step toward a more integrated design process.
Technological limitations Despite recent advances, daylight modeling technology is still limited in a number of areas. “The research community still depends on Radiance for daylight illuminance calculations, which can be quite slow for complex model geometry and is not commercially approachable by the average designer due to complexity,” explains David Speer, director, sales and marketing, Lighting Analysts, Littleton, Colo.
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The Catch-22 here is that the more accessible a program’s user interface, the less customizable it is. In the case of simulation, the less customizable the interface, the less one can simulate the complexities of reality. “What is needed—and where encouraging progress is being made—are daylighting design programs that can simulate building designs in a matter of minutes, rather than hours. This will allow both architects and lighting designers to explore ‘what-if’ scenarios,” explains Ashdown.
The old workhorse of daylight modeling, the original highly accurate ray-tracing capabilities of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Radiance software is still being built upon today to perform highly sophisticated daylighting modeling, and is one of the few programs capable of calculating newer Illuminating Engineering Society daylighting metrics.
One other issue, notes Speer, is that optimal daylight sensor placement and dimming/ switching strategies are still manually in the hands of the designer who must evaluate the annual daylight simulations. And due to proprietary design issues and undocumented performance characteristics for daylight photosensors and daylight harvesting controllers, this makes it exceedingly difficult to optimally design systems. As far as the “Holy Grail,” which Speer describes as accurately computing energy saved from daylight dimming and switching, this remains elusive and difficult to predict using a single software program.
Image courtesy: Graeme Watt, Synthesis Design & Visualisation Limited P
Daylighting best practices suggest another 20% energy savings can be accrued with comprehensive commissioning efforts, including careful attention to sensor location, orientation, shielding and gain/fade rates.
Targeting net zero for more than 40% of the year, the Gensler-designed PNC Plaza Tower in Pittsburgh is being outfitted with a double-skin façade incorporating Starphire ultra-clear and Sungate passive low-E glazing. In addition, laminated glass and dual-insulting glass units are being fabricated by J.E. Berkowitz.
The two-layer façade will also include a motorized outer layer and manually operable inner layer of louvers to draw fresh air through the building where it will be heated and then drawn through a “chimney” shaft to be exhausted through the roof. J.E. Berkowitz www.jeberkowitz.com CIRCLE 297
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AAMA HILLPOINT A central skylight at Hillpoint Elementary School, in Suffolk, Va., bathes this hallway in sunlight while serving as an architectural focal point.
Images courtesy Lutron
I T I S N OT S O M U CH A Q U E S T I O N O F H OW DAY L I G H T I N G D E S I G N S O F T WA R E H A S I M PROV ED A S I T I S O F H OW T H E A RCH I T EC T U R A L L I G H T I N G D E S I G N CO M M U N I T Y H A S E VO LV ED I T S A PPROACH TO T H E TO PI C .
In fact, Levitt defines the single greatest technological limitation for daylight simulation as computer processor speed with complex scenes taking more than 12 hours to render. And as previously noted, there is a significant lack of expertise within the design community when it comes to daylight modeling.
In the grand scheme of things, Dalgish sees the learning curve and workflow integration as being daylight modeling’s biggest limitations. “Although the software compatibility has improved, there is still a gap in cleaning up or simplifying the architectural geometry to create a reasonable calculation time,” she says.
The effectiveness of an integrated shading/ dimmer design working in concert, especially in office environments, can impact the bottom line. Window shades can be automated to provide maximum efficiency while helping you lower your overall power bill.
“Daylighting software can be exceptionally accurate, but the software alone cannot guide specifiers,” explains Levitt. “The expert must decide how to model a particular building, what elements of a daylight system to prioritize, how to visualize results and how to interpret those results.”
Wausau’s INvision Thermal Unitized system leverages a polyamide thermal barrier to enhance system thermal performance, condensation resistance and energy efficiency.
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As the first net-zero public safety building in the U.S., Salt Lake City’s new 335,000sq.-ft. facility features Wausau Window and Wall Systems’ unitized curtainwall, light shelves and sun shades.
An attractive option for exterior solar shading, Fibergrate is a fiberglass reinforced plastic composite grating that is lightweight and durable. As pictured here at an Arizona State University dormitory in downtown Phoenix, the orange square mesh molded grating creates shaded pods for student gathering areas.
Wausau Window and Wall Systems www.wausauwindow.com CIRCLE 296
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Firewall as Façade
In addition, the newer daylighting metrics, notably Spatial Daylight Autonomy, is very sophisticated are requires both sophisticated tools and specific expertise to accurately simulate. “We have found that it usually takes about three years to attain an adequate level of proficiency to run calculations such as these proficiently,” he reports. “Of course, it’s possible for anyone to get ‘results’ out of the software, whether these have any basis in reality is another story.”
The Fireframes Curtainwall Series allows for large, multi-story expanses of glass in interior and exterior applications requiring fire resistance.
Meanwhile, Levitt would like to see more seamless integration between daylighting and energy and thermal comfort simulation. “This would include the simulation of both occupant behavior and actual, rather than hypothetical automated controls for electric lighting and shades,” he explains. “These kinds of improvements would help us to better visualize design alternatives and then quantify their benefits to the designers, owners and occupants.”
Making it work On the one hand, Speer applauds the research community for developing usable metrics and recommendations for software development, but it is now time for the commercial software industry to meet those newly published standards with accessible user interaction and standardized data reporting.
Designing a light scoop is an iterative endeavor; primary features and refinements impact the amount of light collected, and may also impact construction costs. The LRC has released a designer’s guide for light scoops.
The system combines narrow frames with Pilkington Pyrostop glass to provide a barrier to radiant and conductive heat transfer, allowing unlimited areas of glazing in fire separations. It carries up to 120-minute fire ratings as a wall assembly. Technical Glass Products www.fireglass.com CIRCLE 295
LIGHT SCOOPS: A DESIGN GUIDE
To enable more designers to benefit from the innovative skylight light scoops developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Light Research Center with funding from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, LRC has released a guide for designing light scoops. Unlike conventional skylights, which tend to provide too much sun on warm, sunny days and too little sun on colder, dark days, the light scoops balance out these light level fluctuations while accounting for the sun’s natural path throughout the days and seasons. Lighting Research Center www.lrc.rpi.edu
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| NZB: HVAC |
Today’s Building Automation Building automation systems continue to evolve, and their importance can’t be overstated. As the global demand for energy rises, sustainability and energy efficiency aren’t considered just good financial goals, they’re becoming mandates, creating very real business challenges.
John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries— including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.
ho could forget the Jetsons, which depicted a futuristic lifestyle with talking watches, robot maids, flying cars and all the imagined conveniences of building comfort and intelligence? Fast-forward 50 years and one could say we are well on our way or past that prescient vision of Hanna-Barbera, sans the flying cars, of course. In all seriousness, with the use of building automation systems, buildings today have become so smart that, when operating at a high level, an automation system can be viewed as a tool that helps building operators more effectively manage their assets. “‘Intelligence’ is achieved when that data is collected, leveraged and optimized to reduce the total cost of ownership while creating comfortable, safe and sustainable building environments,” says Jim Dagley, vice president, strategic business development, Johnson Controls.
but optimizes cost across the life cycle of the building. For example, does the solution enable the owner to collect data from multiple pieces of equipment and control vendors via the cloud, normalize it and deliver in an easy-to-use application? Does the BAS system collect, track and act upon all utility data such as electricity, water, steam, gas, etc.? “These are the questions that owners should be asking,” says Dagley.
Owners can now use data to proactively identify performance concerns that may lead to wasted energy use or premature equipment failure.
Automation systems are becoming more holistic in their approach, providing an integrated view of all automated systems within the building. “We’re seeing a trend toward integration of multiple building systems into a true building automation system,” says Tom. 54
User interfaces are becoming multi-faceted, providing detailed equipment diagnostics for the technicians who operate the systems and summary dashboards showing key performance metrics for managers. “Sustainabilityfocused kiosk interfaces for the building occupants also can be used to provide ‘bragging rights’ for the building owner, educating occupants and visitors about unique aspects of the building and ongoing sustainability programs,” says Steve Tom, director of technical information, Automated Logic.
Where to Start Owners and facility managers need to work with an HVAC expert or an energy service company that understands how to develop an HVAC solution that not only meets immediate needs,
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THE CASE FOR CONTROLS It’s hard to even remotely envision a net zero facility without a control system. Not only does a BAS regulate a building’s systems for maximum efficiency, but it also delivers critical performance data which operators can act on to further improve performance.
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HVAC HVAC ECONOMICS The water source heat pump mechanical system at Chicago’s Palomar Hotel recovers wasted heat in unused portions of the hotel, and shifts it where it is needed.
Palomar Heat Pumps Among a myriad of practices to reduce waste, minimize toxins and conserve resources across all business functions, Kimpton Hotels and Restaurants maintains its own set of EarthCare green building guidelines, including employing energy-efficient lighting and HVAC systems. These were of primary focus when the hotelier pursued construction of its 36-story, 353,000sq. ft. Hotel Palomar Chicago in the River North neighborhood of downtown Chicago, which opened in the spring of 2010. The water-source heat pump-driven system from ClimateMaster, includes a total of 299 0.5- to 1.5-ton Vertical Stack (VHS) Series hi-rise units for all guest rooms in the hotel. To provide individualized climate control for guests, single units would be installed in each of the standard rooms, and two units in each of the larger rooms and suites. These systems take advantage of the heating and cooling requirements of each space in the entire building by recovering otherwise wasted energy in some spaces and better utilizing it elsewhere in the system.
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AUTOM ATION SYSTEMS A R E BECOMING MOR E HOLISTIC IN THEIR APPROACH , PROVIDING A N INTEGR ATED VIE W OF ALL AUTOM ATED SYSTEMS WITHIN THE BUILDING.
The Future of BAS According to Dagley, building owners benefit most from this holistic approach to the equipment and controls in their buildings. Certainly the size of the facility is a critical factor in dictating the need between a full-featured BAS or a rooftop control. Besides size, one needs to consider the outcomes the owner needs to achieve and how the building plays a role. Is the building a corporate headquarters or a leased space? Is there an onsite data center? All building, business and specialty systems should and can integrate seamlessly to serve that mission. “In the commercial market, those integrated systems work together to create comfortable productive environments for employees or tenants,” says Dagley.
is still a web-based control system. Nevertheless, “advancements like cloud computing make it possible to crunch numbers and store data on a never-before-seen scale, with declining costs,” says Dagley.
As in many other technologies, “The Cloud” is becoming a significant player in building automation. “The term ‘cloud-based service’ typically refers to situations where the BAS software is owned and managed by a BAS vendor and is run on a server external to the customer’s facility, with the customer paying a recurring service fee to access the BAS,” says Tom. While this is a relatively new business model, the underlying technology
The Alerton Ascent Building Management System is designed to simplify monitoring and control of HVAC systems, and will offer an open protocol for integration with other systems.
The Internet of Things (IOT), for example, is about machines communicating with one another and using data to operate more efficiently and achieve advanced outcomes. Cloud-based services that host and analyze buildings are key because need for actionable data to operate their facilities and reduce costs. “We will see more devices and equipment connected as owners and operators desire a need to effectively and efficiently manage their assets. 56
SMART BUILDINGS To help building owners better monitor and manage their heating—and cooling-related energy use, the Alerton Ascent Building Management System is the first to combine in a single controller the industry standard BACnet protocol and Tridium’s Niagara Framework for more effective integration of multiple building systems. The product suite makes BAS easy, with control of HVAC, and will offer an open protocol with lighting; security/access control; fire and life safety; elevators and escalators; irrigation; and specialized needs. Alerton www.alerton.com CIRCLE 294
Ernst & Young Plaza’s Smart BAS 1
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IN THE NEWS
EPA Releases Top Cities with Most Energy Star Buildings Washington—Energy use in commercial buildings accounts for 17% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions at a cost of more than $100 billion per year. Energy Star certified office buildings cost $0.50 less per sq.ft. to operate than average office buildings, and use nearly two times less energy per square foot than average office buildings. The EPA recently announced the sixth annual list of the top U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified buildings. The cities on this list demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits achieved by facility owners and managers when they apply a proven approach to energy efficiency to their buildings. The Top 10 cities on the list are: Los Angeles; Washington, D.C.; Atlanta; New York; San Francisco; Chicago; Dallas; Denver; Philadelphia; and Houston.
The team projects a cumulative cost savings of $4.1 million by 2020.
The facilities management team at the Ernst & Young Plaza—a 41-story, 915,000-sq.-ft. tower situated in the business district in downtown Los Angeles—worked closely with Siemens and began a wholebuilding assessment that examined how the building operated at all hours and with varying occupancy. Their systemic approach, including conducting ASHRAE Level 1 and 2 energy audits, helped identify and prioritize the systems that needed immediate attention.
The Siemens APOGEE open communication protocol and interoperability enabled integration with the EMS so that both HVAC and lighting consumption could be reduced. Sub-meters were installed throughout the facility and integrated with APOGEE to track energy demand.
“Building automation systems provide the tools to view, analyze and interpret this information, whether it is done locally or in the cloud,” says Larry Weber, general manager, ECC Building Control Systems, Honeywell. Dagley emphasizes that a big game-changer is machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, coupled with sophisticated new tools like cloudbased solutions and applications, which analyze the massive amounts data gathered by sensors and turn it into useful information, help building managers do their jobs better. “Imagine thousands of electrical switches, thermostats, lights, door locks, air-handling units, chillers and other components gathering and sharing data—even solving problems on their own,” says Dagley. Interconnected units of equipment work together to find the most efficient way to heat or cool a facility without human intervention. Machines will diagnose their own need for maintenance, which will be scheduled automatically. Advances in wireless networking technology and standardized communication protocols make it possible to collect data from sensors almost anywhere, any time. 58
MAGNITUDE CHILLER Chilled water systems are often dictated by larger, more complex HVAC applications, which include large office buildings or multibuilding campuses where cooling from a central facility is desired. The Magnitude WME chiller with RapidRestore makes it possible for the chiller to restart 35 seconds after a power failure and reach 80% of fullload in 75 seconds. As
a result of its higher sustainable operating efficiency and reduced maintenance, the Magnitude chiller is 40% more energy efficient than standard equipment, saving more than $2 million over the life of the machine. The chiller line has been tested and International Building Code (IBC) certified for seismic installations. Daikin Applied www.daikinapplied.com CIRCLE 293
LIKE A BREATH OF FRESH AIR Discover Natural Ventilation • Lower Building Operating Costs • Healthier Work Environments • Decreased Environmental Impact • Reduced Construction Costs • Better Long-Term Investment Firelight glazed natural ventilators can be installed in a glass atrium or directly onto the roof of a building. This natural ventilator provides both day-to-day and smoke ventilation and is offered in single leaf or double leaf design. The electric or pneumatic control options allow you to easily provide automated climate control in any building.
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Finding HVAC Religion In 2010, the Eastside Christian Church purchased a former Boeing Defense Systems site in Anaheim, Calif. and began an extensive renovation project, which was completed in 2012.
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ZONE CONTROL The SmartME Zone Controller can control up to 16 indoor units in a single zone, and features a backlit touchscreen interface with dual set-point functionality and LED color status indicator. The advanced control and monitoring functions include temperature and humidity sensors, and an Energy Save setting, which designated operation using occupancy and brightness sensors. Mitsubishi Electric www.mehvac.com CIRCLE 292
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A core element to support renovation goals would be the HVAC systems chosen to heat and cool the various areas of the new campus, encompassing approximately 100,000 sq. ft. of classroom, office and worship space in the first phase of development. The project team was seeking a system that could easily control temperature in select areas “on demand” without wasting energy and expense heating or cooling areas not in use. LG’s Multi V II Heat Pump System
Fault detection and diagnostics is also an area that will continue to gain traction. Owners and facility managers can now use data to proactively identify performance concerns that may lead to wasted energy use or premature equipment failure. Different from alarms, fault detection and diagnostics is future looking and tries to anticipate issues before they create true problems for a facility.
“Concepts of analytics and fault detection have long been an integral part of the tools provided by most building automation systems. Alarms, reports, trends, summary graphics, dashboards—these are all means of discovering and communicating ‘meaningful patterns in data,’ which is the primary function of analytics,” says Tom.
BAS Security Even as the user interface is expanding to include a much wider audience, concerns over security are increasing, cautions Tom. A few years ago the focus was on preventing hackers from using the BAS as a “back door” to access other IT systems. 60
It was decided that a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) system could provide custom temperature control in specific rooms and areas; heating or cooling selected spaces based on use, while also contributing to significant cost savings on utility bills. LG’s Multi V II Heat Pump System offers the most cost-effective solution to meet both operational and functional needs. The LG system was installed to provide custom temperature control in various offices, video control rooms and sensitive equipment rooms, thus reducing the overall energy consumption for the campus.
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GLOBAL GEO RISING A new report from the Geothermal Energy Assn. (GEA) reveals the international power market is booming, with a sustained growth rate of 4% to 5%. The “2014 Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production Report” finds almost 700 projects currently under development in 76 countries. Threats caused by climate change and the need for a renewable energy source that can satisfy both firm and flexible grid needs are among the key factors driving the international community to invest in geothermal power. International geothermal market growth was up, while stateside growth held steady; 85 MW of the total global 530 MW of new geothermal capacity in 2013 was in the U.S., according to the new GEA report. U.S. growth was flat because of policy barriers, gridlock at the federal level, low natural gas prices and inadequate transmission infrastructure.
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Renson’s Louvre 411 built-in aluminum wall louvers for fresh air intake were used for the first time in the United States on this project.
Seattle Library Flourishes with Air Intake Louvers The twelve-story, 362,987-sq.-ft. Seattle Central Library is situated in the heart of the city, with a 29-ft. height differential between its boundaries on Fourth and Fifth Avenues. The library’s unique exterior is a repeating diamond-shaped steel, glass, and aluminum curtain-wall glazing system, featuring numerous components for maximized daylighting, energy efficiency and indoor air quality. This includes Renson’s Louvre 411 built-in aluminum wall louvers for fresh air intake, which were used for the first time in the United States on this project. Renson louver systems are an HVAC-related solution, reducing the load on mechanical cooling by providing more natural ventilation/indoor temperature stabilization.
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The use of firewalls, virtual private networks and IT equipment such as servers and routers, which did not include general purpose IT functions, helped prevent this type of intrusion. There was also a recognition that the most common security threat came from poor password and account control rather than external hackers. Interestingly enough, the much publicized Target breach was traced to poor account control on a non-BAS network, rather than to the initially suspected breach of BAS security.
According to Tom, the use of location-based privileges—so low level users do not have access to the entire system and IT-centered password control such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)—have helped lessen this threat. In some situations the BAS may be a tempting target itself, and not just an avenue to another system. Encryption within the BAS, such as that provided by BACnet security, or isolation from general purpose IT networks may be a requirement for these users, says Tom.
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| NZB: LIGHTING |
Technology in Transition As new technologies mature, many conventional sources will be abandoned. Yet, building designers must design today while looking into the future to provide sustainable systems that survive decades. Light source selection is tricky, but not impossible.
Kevin Willmorth is a lighting professional who has emphasized lighting conservation for 32 years. He helped create Architectural SSL magazine and remains its editor. He is also the owner of Lumenique, a consultancy focused on deploying SSL products.
ince it is not possible to specify what does not yet exist, projects are being built with out-of-date technology every day. Meanwhile, budgets already strained limit available options. Do you pay the price of early adoption and bet that it will serve the intended purpose over the expected life? Or do you employ proven technologies now to realize the cost savings, to be replaced with newer technology at a later date? Answering these questions requires careful and objective evaluation. In sustainable building design, waste is an issue. Any system installed that requires outright replacement at the end of its life cycle will have a negative impact on operating costs and waste generation. However, the constant replacement of glass bulbs is a waste management issue. Applying a known technology to be replaced in the future with a newer technology carries the burden of waste generation and operational disruption.
well as a sustainable choice, before the cost and advantages of system replacement is justifiable. For this reason, comparisons should only be made between the highestefficiency, longest-life fluorescent lamp products—which include low mercury lamps, XL life rating, program start electronic ballasts, and high efficiency luminaires— against the most current LED products available. Comparing older fluorescent products (read cheap) to current technology LED products creates a non sequitur comparison.
FADING STAR While not quite ready for the trash heap—and certainly not the way to dispose of the technology—fluorescent’s future as a workhorse light source is not a bright one.
Fluorescent or LED? Linear fluorescent products create the most difficult comparisons. Their low cost and high efficiency are very attractive. It is also possible to install luminaires with sockets and lamps to realize the low initial cost, to be retrofitted to tubular LED sourced replacements available at lower prices later. However, this burdens the new technology with the built-in inefficiencies of the fluorescent product, compounded with the compromises of retrofitting. LED luminaires with appropriate thermal and optical design integration will produce superior performance. However, even if considered obsolete from a technical perspective, high efficiency linear fluorescent products can serve
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Solid-State Lighting, Excellent Efficacy, Long Life Sustainability. Columbia Lighting supports net-zero design strategies using cutting edge solid-state technology in architecturally styled luminaires. Perfect for relight, retrofit, or new construction, these luminaires deliver a powerful combination of performance and energy savings. (Featured) LEPC: e•poc® LED Full Distribution Luminaire
LTRE: Transition® LED Enclosed Architectural Lens The enclosed nature of the LTRE is well suited to healthcare applications, commercial offices, and educational facilities.
LLT: LED Lensed Troffer LLT combines solid-state lighting technology, excellent efficacies, and long life sustainability in a full family offering for the best in general purpose lighting applications.
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LED for the Office Charlotte N.C.-based LPL Financial desired that its West Coast office be net zero. High-performance system aspects of the 13-floor, 415,000-sq.ft. office tower in San Diego, included on-site power generated by fuel cells, and an HVAC system driven by underfloor air distribution. LPL officials wanted an equally aggressive lighting system, preferably LED. That said, LPL was afraid the technology would be too expensive. They touched base with GE Lighting to explore their options. After reviewing lighting plans, which called for fluorescent sources, GE conceived a new scheme that reduced the fixture count by nearly 40%. “I’ve never seen a supplier jump in like this,” says Otto Orr, LPL’s V.P. of project management, corporate real estate. “From the start we felt like GE was one of us. They showed us an LED solution was possible.” Specifically, the office employs the company’s Lumination BL series luminaires for employee areas and common aisles. Controls were also a major part of the solution, using GE’s Aware occupancy sensors and its LightSweep dimming control system. LPL estimates the system will save $38,000 annually over the initially proposed plan.
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Believed to be the largest commercial office striving for net zero status, LPL’s San Diego facility will serve as a test bed for best practices to be employed elsewhere in the company’s real estate portfolio.
There are obvious sources that have no place in maximum efficiency design: the incandescent lamp due to its energy consumption; and lowpressure sodium, whose poor color performance overshadows its 165 lm/W efficacy. The next source to join this list soon are compact fluorescent lamps. A final consideration in any lighting system is consistency and maintenance inventories. Use of too many different sources, such as mixing fluorescent lamps between linear and CFL, requires lamp inventories that increase operation costs. Meanwhile, the nature of LED products eliminates the need for inventories of lamps altogether, albeit with the liability of down-stream replacement to restore desired performance levels.
With this in mind, a wealth of choices means when sourcing selection must consider the merits of all available options in both the short and long terms. There has never been a time when shortsighted decision making can lead to more significant long-term negative impact. For this reason, the only viable approach is to avoid preconceptions to make the most informed decisions by objectively gathering, comparing and evaluating options. This starts with understanding the goals of the building owner, including short and long-term cost tolerance. For an example of a layered and integrated lighting plan, see page 68.
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IN THE NEWS
Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent CFL and LED Lamps Incandescent
Wireless in S.D. In a project the city of San Diego claims has paid for itself immediately, the city has implemented an intelligent and wireless LED street lighting system which not only better serves its citizenry, but opens the door for revenue generation. At the most recent Lightfair in Las Vegas, Lorie
LED (2011) LED (2015)
Source: DOE Multi-Year Program Plan, April 2014
ENERGY CONSUMPTION (MILLION BTU/20 MILLION LUMEN-HOURS)
IN EVALUATING LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES, START WITH AN UNDERSTANDING OF AN OWNER’S GOALS, INCLUDING LONG- AND SHORT-TER M COST TOLER ANCES.
Cosio-Azar presented the project at a press event at the show. She worked closely with the manufacturer to modify its GPS and Cloud-based Lightgrid controls system and area fixtures from a more standard cobrahead-like offering to a custom luminaire more in line with those in its Gas Lamp district. The project began as a pilot, but the Cosio-Azar points out the city will be rolling it out city wide to 3,000 fixtures. Energy savings is estimated at $254,000 annually, but it is also allowing the city to be more responsive and efficient in the dispatch of its work crews. It may also lease the poles to cell services for further city revenues.
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DOE studies have shown that LED can reduce energy use from lighting and maintain performance levels without using large amounts of toxic or rare-earth materials.
VERSATILE Addressing the need for efficient lighting, that’s dimmable, Kelvin-tunable, and can be applied to a variety of tasks from ambient lighting to wall washing or spot lighting, GATICA does it all. Tech Lighting www.techlighting.com CIRCLE 291
New Wave: Integrated Fixtures At Lightfair in Las Vegas, the buzz of the event was the trend for all the major manufacturers to show new lines of LED luminaires fully integrated with wireless controls, including daylight or
occupancy sensors. That was certainly the case with Cree, who demonstrated a suite of new fixtures, as well as its “Smart Cast” control system. A novel aspect of the system is that it features an
easy-to-use programming/commissioning remote to really facilitate the process. Smart Cast is available in the company’s CR series troffers, CS series linear luminaires and KR series downlights. Shown at the left is the H-E-B grocery store in Austin, Texas, which uses the CS 18 and CR 24 fixtures. The CS 18 luminaires are fully dimmable to meet daylighting initiatives at the store.
A modular system that can be custom configured, its LED panels and spotlights are adjustable to perform functions beyond ambient illumination. The fixture is also configurable in many forms.
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LI G HTIN G LAYERING LIGHT
reating a lighted environment that delivers visual comfort, a high level of visual performance and lowest possible energy consumption requires balancing of light levels, control of glare and brightness, and selection of light sources that deliver the right amount of light without waste. This is accomplished by layering of light for ambient, surround and task purposes at a ratio of 1:3:10.
Almost any project seeking a net zero, or near-net zero objective is going to include a large dose of daylight, as does the strategy demonstrated at the right. Good lighting should integrate with key architectural decisions, such as the use of a light shelf to redirect light onto ceiling surfaces, and the use of shading devices and neutral tinted glazing to reduce daylight intrusion.
An Integrated Lighting Plan 8
This provides occupants desired views in balance with the interior illumination scheme.
Shading and louvers also help control glare and unwanted light, and ideally, should be integrated into the lighting control system to allow automatic adjustment in response to natural light availability, in balance with interior lighting needs.
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() At the Phipps Conservatory in Pittsburgh, light shelves reduce direct light, while producing reflected light over the ceiling surface.
These kinds of architectural elements also help eliminate over-lighting from daylight intrusion and decrease the demand on artificial lighting systems while decreasing undesirable glare and brightness. And by reflecting light off the ceiling, light shelves can aid ambient light in penetrating deeper into a lighted space.
By applying minimal ambient illumination as the baseline, the lowest possible energy consumption is achieved. Additional layers to support task surroundings at three times ambient, and another at immediate critical tasks are illuminated to a level of 10 times ambient, applies light only where it is needed. This produces an optimal blend of visual comfort, task acuity and energy efficiency.
() Beyond light shelves, which also allow ambient light deeper into a space, louvers below can control direct light intrusion and glare. These should be integrated into the lighting control system.
ACCENT LIGHTING () Adding accent lighting on the far side of the wall adds a sense of space and drama. Shown here is the new Nomi OLED sconce which debuted at Lightfair. Winona Lighting www.winonalighting.com CIRCLE 290 Accent lighting can heighten the lighting experience. A small energy expense, its application is important to the visual environment.
LINEAR WALL WASH
C. Visual Enhancers At the far end wall, where the light patterning will be variable depending on the presence of natural light, its quantity and directional effect of azimuth angles, accent lighting () is provided to create visual interest. This is a good location for three-dimensional art, where light and shadow play would add drama. While not specifically valuable in the effort to reduce energy consumption, this form of accentuation produces a sense of space while enhancing a perception of overall brightness.
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Troffer Free The lighting example on the opposite page, utilizes no overhead grid troffers. While commonly applied for simplicity and low cost, these sources are not well suited to layering built on low-level ambient illumination. In general, overhead sources do generate higher ambient light levels, but without contrast to task and surrounding surfaces, the results can lead to reduced visual performance and even higher energy consumption, while the contrast of sources vs. ceiling creates a brightness pattern that is visually noisy.
PARTITION MOUNTED () Indirect partition lighting, such as the T5-sourced L202 system above, can deliver the bulk of ambient light to an office space. Zonal control can be employed to automatically adjust each row in response to natural light. Tambient www.thelightingquotient.com CIRCLE 289
A WA LL WA SH IN G O PP OSITE W IN D OWS C A N A D D TO TH E PERCEP TI O N O F B R I G HTN E S S IN A SPACE .
Edge Lighting www.edgelighting.com CIRCLE 288
Ideally, a wall wash should be illuminated vertically to a level 3 to 5x the ambient horizontal level, then controlled to match the light from the window wall.
To complete the relationships within the visual environment, the brightness of the window wall is balanced by wash illumination () of the opposing interior wall. This has the composite effect of delivering a more uniform ambient light level throughout the space while balancing the visual appearance of the space.
While it is common to refer to the light output of a lamp or fixture in terms of lumens delivered, this is a misleading metric. While broad light pattern products can be described this, way, when the desire is for more control, raw lumens do not tell the appropriate story. Candela shows how much light is emitted from a source in a specific direction and is more important when considering narrow distribution products.
Often, energy is wasted by selecting a higher lumen source than is needed to attain a desired intensity on a surface.
B. Balancing Illumination
LINEAR WALL WASH () A linear wall wash of an opposing wall produces a balance in visual brightness, as well as an enhancement contribution to the general ambient lighting. Pictured is Edge Lighting’s Angle Display luminaire.
Candelas vs. Lumens
In the drawing to the left, a foundation of a low level ambient of 10 to 15 foot-candles is created by a combination of natural light ( and ) and indirect lighting systems ( and ). This eliminates visual brightness and minimizes shadowing while providing a functional foundation to build on. Over this layer is an additional 20 to 30 foot-candles from partition mount and under-cabinet lighting (). This creates a combined 30 to 45 foot-candles (ambient + surround = 3× ambient) in the local task areas. A final layer of small portable task lighting () creates a focused addition of 60 to 95 foot-candles, for a combined 100 to 150 foot-candles (ambient + surround + task = 10× ambient). The former is aimable and locatable by the occupant to suit specific task needs.
Good daylighting requires careful sensor placement and smart response controls.
A. Integrated Lighting
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The September issue of Net Zero Buildings is our annual Greenbuild companion issue. This means a break from our regular format in favor of greater product/ product-in-application focus to give conference and show attendees the opportunity to check out some of the technologies that are helping designers achieve net zero or near-net zero results. The issue will remain organized by our standard “pillars”— building envelope; lighting; daylighting; onsite power, HVAC and water conservation.
AIA Expo, June 26-28, Chicago, Ill.
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| END POINT |
Technology Crossroads As technology advancements in water and energy efficiency grows, we need to be cognizant of the adverse effects these systems could have on sanitation and overall human health.
In late April, leaders from the plumbing industry gathered in Washington, D.C. for the Plumbing Industry Leadership Coalition. Every year the group gathers to chart progressive action for the industry. The guest speaker this year was Dr. Marc Edwards, a professor of civil engineering at Virginia Tech, and he certainly opened some eyes on technology innovation vs. health and sanitation issues. Green Water Systems Reduced-use campaigns via metered and sensor faucets, low-flow showerhead and taps, dual-flush or compost toilets, graywater reuse and water storage, are good because they conserve water, but what about the quality of the water itself? There are concerns, says Edwards, associated with water age: lower and no chlorine residuals, microbial growth, taste and odor, opportunistic pathogen growth and more problems with copper and lead corrosion. “Even if a given building does not reduce water consumption, water
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quality will still be affected by the cumulative savings of other buildings.” The large-scale impact of water conservation, he says, has been to increase the water age for all consumers with implications for taste and odor control and human health. In pursuit of obtaining “net zero” buildings or energy efficiency, impacts of some design elements, including water storage and green plumbing fixtures, deserve increased scrutiny. Legionnaires’ Disease Edwards referenced another report he coauthored with Amy Pruden and Randi Brazeau, about the microbial ecology of water heaters, where the authors found increased pathogen growth in electric water heaters vs. gas, and higher incidence in buildings with hot water recirculation systems. Edwards said they concluded that temperature is important, but it is more complicated than simply deciding on a set point; recirculating systems have
more H 2 , less chlorine, less oxygen, higher turbidity and higher metals than standard systems; and design and operation of hot water systems is important for comfort and health. HEX Chromium Another issue of concern is CrVI, which is a known cause of cancer that targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. In time, stainless steel in water raises chromium levels. Current plumbing systems in reaction with water can promote HEX chromium. Catch-22 It seems that as technology advances, we need to be more cognizant the effects of these systems have on human health. For example, it has been advertised, by utility companies no less, that lowering the setpoint temperatures on water heaters will reduce electricity costs. This, however,
W E A R E AT T H E CROS S ROA DS O F T H E WAT ER CO N S ERVAT I O N A N D H E A LT H D EB AT E .
only provides a petri dish for Legionella to grow. What about rainwater harvesting? The more these systems catch hold, the more they need to be examined for treatment and disinfection of the water they are collecting and holding. Finally, low-flow toilets are great for water conservation, but are they adding to the dry drains issue?
Dr. Marc Edwards Professor, Virginia Tech Time Magazine listed Edwards as one of the four most important “Innovators” in water from around the world.
So here we are at a crossroads: damned if we do, and damned if we don’t. Somewhere in between, I’d hazard, lies the best path.
John Mesenbrink Contributing Editor firstname.lastname@example.org
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2014, CHICAGO SEE US AT
3915 JUNE 26-28
dowcorning.com/HPInsulation RSI = 8.8 (m2·K)/W per 50.8 mm thickness; U-value = 0.11 W/(m2·K) RSI = 1.73 (m2·K)/W per 25.4 mm thickness; U-value = 0.58 W/(m2·K)
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