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NET ZERO BUILDINGS • Highlighting the Path Toward Net Zero Building Design






 Volume 2, Number 2

urban power To date, wind power efforts at the building level have not delivered the results many had hoped. New certifications programs may help. 16


08 Described as a prototype energy-use design, Georgia Tech's new Carbon-Neutral Energy Solutions (C-NES) Laboratory in Atlanta aims for net zero for site energy use, source energy use and energy emissions.

project zero OBSERVATIONS

Carbon-Neutral Energy Solutions (C-NES) Laboratory at Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia

ON THE COVER How does wind power play a part in today’s commercial landscape? Does it have realistic opportunities to be considered a viable onsite energy alternative?

Practicing what it teaches, the mission for Georgia Tech's laboratory for C-NES is a carbon-neutral facility that will house tomorrow's advanced energy technology. A prototype in its energy-use design, the C-NES project was envisioned to act as a learning laboratory to document lessons learned for future net-zero endeavors.

Perhaps wind power suffers from too much bluster. How does wind fit in today’s installation to satisfy the building owner’s palette? By Jim Crockett

56 End Point The design team chalks up the success of the project to a combination of communication, collaboration and closure.

By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett

08 Z


06 Toward Zero

Weeding through today’s “greenwashing,” Bob Rohr takes a look at onsite energy use and its practicality. By John Mesenbrink


Urban Power


The projection is not all doom and gloom for wind power generation. The opportunity exists for small wind turbine energy generation in remote, off-grid settings and diesel generator integration.

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PACE loans gaining steam Designing a building as the turbine ASU’s parabolic mirror use Walgreens does net zero GE gets aggressive in global market

By Chuck Ross






24 25





Cool and Smart

Daylight Effect

Low Flow Limbo

The Right Fit

Building Intelligence

Automatic shading systems are a very effective means of controlling glare and heat gain at peak sunlight hours. Today’s systems are being manufactured with a high level of sophistication and intelligence, making the technology even more compelling.

Thermal efficiency should not be taken for granted. With netzero buildings utilizing exterior glazing to allow more daylight in, fenestration, thermal performance and exact detail in building-envelope engineering must come to the fore to be examined.

Advancements in highefficiency plumbing technology are taking low flow to new heights. These advancements have been lauded in plumbing circles; however, are these fixtures contributing to the issue of dry drains? When designing net zero, low flow should be noted.

Square peg, round hole. Choosing the right light source for individual applications requires more than consideration of the core technologies available. Lighting design and specification is more complex than comparing simple efficacy or service life ratings.

Smart buildings are here today. Building automation systems offer users more control and easier access to information from the building and its systems. Owners also need to factor in the benefits of employee comfort and its subsequent effects on productivity.

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Fluorescent gains HID in Lisbon Illuminating burgers Cordial sensors

f Modular classrooms f Phase change

By Kevin Willmorth

By John Mesenbrink

Roller drives Wood louvers Calculating energy Daylight harvesting

By Barbara HorwitzBennett

Daylighting at 901 K Big Apple glazing Army Corps HQ Air barriers By Jeff Yoders

San Fran bay cooling Commercial baths Color-coded piping Biomass boilers

By John Mesenbrink


JUNE J UNE 2 UN 2013 013

VOL. V VO OL L. 2, 2 NO NO. O 2

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Net Zero Buildings (NZB), Vol. 2, No. 2 (ISSN# pending) is published four times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; (Copyright © 2013 by Construction Business Media) POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Net Zero Buildings Magazine, 519 East Briarcliff Road, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. A Publication of Construction Business Media



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The Ways of the Wind Are Still Shrouded The Th e ma mapss of the maps the e ea early ex exp xplor lorers ers, s , from a mod modern dern n pe per p errspe p cti pe c tive, ct ve we w re e ccle le earl ar y arl o in off n re repre presen pre pr r sen entin tin ng g tthe he he ear a th th. h . Th That att sai said, sa d,, m d man ma a y map map ps were er rre emarkab mar arkab ka a ly y accura acc ccc ura ur tte e abo bo b out u t many man a y th ng th thi ng ngs gs . Coul Coul o d earl ou arrly, y, not y, n ssooo - hot ho o asses assses se e sme m nts me ments ts o off win w ind p powe owe we w er iin n term erms of erms of ne -ze net -z ro bu bui u ildi ld dn ngs ng gs b gs be e on n poi po nt? ntt?

Across the Mediterranean Sea, the wind that blows from the south across the Sahara is known as the Scirocco. In Chicago, where I reside, it’s called the Hawk, and is unrelated to the metropolis’ sobriquet as the Windy City. The latter, in fact, has nothing to do with blustery air patterns, but bluster of another kind—hot air from politicians. Of all the technologies being bandied about in association with net-zero buildings, wind power is one of those at the top of the list. That said, it too, perhaps, is suffering from too much bluster. Th is issue, in our power “pillar,” Chuck Ross takes a look at building level wind turbines—opposed to the Not-in-MyBack-Yard wind farm variety—and points out that quite a few issues with the former make the tech as useful as a schooner in dead calm.

the assembly and presentation of content in this publication mirrors the efforts of the early explorers, in that we’re still figuring it out. In completely unrelated “research,” I was perusing the Illustrated Atlas of Exploration, a history of said explorers. As I set the book down, I was struck by the cover—a sails-a-bellowing vessel being driven to new lands— ironically—by that thing called the wind. Yet wind doesn’t seem to be an engine that works in modern times—or can n it it?? As we continue nue e to o otion ion explore the not notion wer we er fo fforr of onsite power riv iv v ing ng n g buildings striving nerg rgy, y y, for net zero en energy, o ing om in the picture coming l stt le lea into focus, att least look ook kthrough my lookpe ears to o ing glass, appears o err ow be building pow power

of non-grid, local distributed generation mini plant. Such plants could involve a lot of different sources: solar, cogen, wind—even compressed air stored within pockets in the ground that could be used for powering turbines in calm periods. Such plants, easily, could be developed for campus applications. In the case of urban areas, such a concept could still work if a collective of buildings entered a co-op agreement where the plant would serve a particinumber nu num b of pa ber parti r cirti ci pants p pan t in ts n a given g iive ven area. v a rea r .

technologies into their structures and grounds, but it should be in the context of contributing to the power pool, or fi nding more specific purposes for it, such as powering lighting. If I’m right, outlooks, like the notion of the world being flat, need to be adjusted now before we realize too late that we can’t reach India from Spain by simply traveling west.

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In my previous column, I mentioned


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Laboratory Meets Carbon Neutral Described as a prototype energy-use design, Georgia Tech’s new C-NES Laboratory teaches valuable lessons.

Although the new 42,000-sq.-ft. Georgia Tech Carbon-Neutral Energy Solutions (C-NES) Laboratory in Atlanta isn’t fully net zero, it’s pretty darn close.

For the next 50 years, there will be a need for synergistic, pilot-scale energy-conversion technologies to advance energy-dependent industries. Th e mission for Georgia Tech’s laboratory for C-NES is a carbon-neutral facility that will house tomorrow’s advanced energy technologies.

And considering the fact that laboratories consume approximately 10 times more energy than office spaces, per sq. ft., the fact the C-NES’ significant photovoltaic array offsets the majority of the building’s power needs—and that the facility was modeled to be 88% more efficient than a conventional lab space—the achievement is nothing to sneeze at.


Furthermore, e the th he lab, lab ab, b, tracking LEED Platinum, is officially net zero for site energy use, source energy use and energy emissions, but because plug loads in labs can run quite high—as much as 400 kBTU/sq. ft., it wasn’t practical to achieve the full net-zero benchmark.

“Everything was done to push the design in the direction of being a netzero energy building,” relates Paul Stewart, senior project manager, for Gilbane Building Co., Atlanta, the project’s constructor. “While not fully achieved, the process to get to, or close to net-zero itself is what we focused on.” Beyond super effi ciency, the project was envisioned to act as a living and learning laboratory—a prototype, in other words, to document lessons learned for future net-zero attempts. As such, the building’s energy strategies were well documented and are being tracked by a dashboard displayed prominently in the building lobby. “The dashboard also serves as an educational tool by tracking energy use, renewable energy production and water use in the building. In addition, the project is being analyzed to see how well its actual performance compares to its modeled performance,” adds Daniel B. Rew, AIA, LEED AP, vice president, design principal, HDR Architecture, Princeton, N.J. , who along with Gilbane, made up the project’s quasi-designbuild team.



The C-NES team has yet to determine the full impact of the solar system as it’s also being used for solar thermal desiccant regeneration. That said, it does have a handle on many of the other systems. For example, the trombe wall will save 4% energy; the envelope as a whole will deliver 19% energy savings; efficient lighting 15% savings; daylighting measures 14% savings; and LED site lighting will deliver an additional 1% savings compared to traditional labs.

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While ramping down the facility’s baseline energy use is one side of the coin, optimized power production is, of course, the other key to a carbon-neutral project. In this case, an extensive PV array covers the rooftop and wraps around the building and less permeable areas of the site. Th e array is a 290 kW system—rooftop 140 kW, south wall 34 kW, south canopy 15.4 kW, and

parking lot canopy 107 kW—that will generate 388,000 kWh per year of electricity—equivalent to 38kBTU per sq.ft. per year, 56% of the building’s anticipated electrical demand, and brings down the facility’s total energy needs to just 29 kBTU/sq. ft. In total, the building energy demand is 54% less than the baseline energy model and PVs generate 26% of

the baseline energy demand, resulting in an 80% energy offset. The team also benefi ted from the fact that the price of the PV panels from Suniva— a company founded by a Georgia Tech professor—dropped while their electrical generation potential increased as the project developed.

While other technologies were analyzed— including ground source heat pumps, wind and biofuels—only solar energy emerged from the rigorous assessment process. At the same time, the unique nature of the lab—in that carbon neutral energy solutions will be researched in the space—means that as scientists develop new ways to capture energy, they can test them out on the building itself.

Plug Pl ug Loa o ad oads dss An iss An ssssue tha t t ke th ept ep p ptt C-N C C-N NE ES S fro rom m bein be ein in ng a com om mp ple le etely etel tely zer tel ero en ero e e erg rrg gy y pro rro ojec jec ecc t wa ass the the e ffa acctt th tha ha at it sstil tii l ha ttil ad d to t dea ea l ea witth the ene en n rgy rg gy asssoc g sociatte a ate ted with ittth h po ower err lo e load loads ads a d fr m allll iits fro fr tss p pllugg ggedgg ged ed in edn equipm equ pment pm en ntt in nb bo oth its ts ts office offi c sa and nd d lab lab bss..


tational labs. Th e south elevation is clad with a combination of clear low-e glass, crystalline PV panels and exterior shading devices to allow daylight to penetrate the building while controlling solar heat gain. Insulated metal panels also help deliver efficiency.

Photo: Paul Dingman

As noted, PV plays quite a role in making up the envelope of the facility. The C-NES building is essentially a rectangle elongated along its east-west axis, creating long north and south elevations. The north facing high-bay laboratory is clad in glass and translucent panels, essentially a light fi lled atrium, meaning it requires artificial light only at night. Th is façade, along with clerestory fenestration, bring ample light into the north edge of the mid-bay and compu-

Another interesting aspect of the PV installation was a somewhat innovative approach to supporting the system on the roof. “The team collaborated on a solution by touring projects that utilized several different options and explored various installations. The fi nal solution involved a lightweight rail system that saved project costs and met everyone’s needs,” relays Stewart.

A 290-kW PV array covers the lab, generating 388,000 kWh annually and 26% of the facility’s power needs. While the team did opt for solar power, analysis of other high-end technologies, for example, a geothermal heat exchange system would nominally improve HVAC performance, but the life-cycle analysis couldn’t justify the first cost.

While Whi e tthe h CC-NES NES tte NES eam m too to ook the o he iss ssue ss ue sser se erriou io ously ou sly, it’ it tt’’s one one ne tha hat’s t s fr frequ equent q qu uent ently en ly ov o ove verlo l oke oked, d, acc ccor ordin ord ing n to o M a Yag Mik ag , a ssu agi ust ssta t ina nable na le e des d de e ign ig gn n ssp peci eciali ec allisstt w ali a wit wi ih Gen G en nsle lerr’s le ’s LA ’s LA o offi ffice e.. Ya Ya Yag ag gii,, how ow we eve err,, has ha a tta ak ken ke en tth he iss is sssue e to to h hea e eart, eart, rtt co compl ompl mp pletlet et eting in ng a stu n sttud dy yo on n the tth he to h topi opicc in n sp sspe pe eccifi cific ccon on nte tex ex e xt of net nett zze zer e ero ene nerrg nergy gy y bu bui b u uiild ldi d ng ng ngs gs. In n ffac ac tt,, h her er w e wo orrk k has ha h a rec eccen e enttly e ly be bee ee en acce c pted pte p ed by the by he h e US US G GB GBC BC a ass an n offici offi cial ci al ressou our o urce. u ce e Ya Y gi’ gi s gi stu stu udy dy mea ea asur ssu u ess tth the h he imp mp m pllem ment ntat ati a tiion on of of ad adv a dv d vanc vanc nce ed d co con ontro trols tr lss and and d beh beh havi aviora rra al inte al ntt rv n rve vent v n ion nti o s ons ass a mean ea an ns to to re edu ducce du e plu llu ug load oa ad en energ rrg gy used used sed d in n co ccom om o ommer mm me mer ercia er iall buil ia uildin dings. g gs By int By in nttegr n e at ati a t ng g rea real wo orr d orl d ta extr dat data extr xttrac actte ed d ffro ro om an ene nergy n nergy rgy-effi y-effi effi e fficien en nt b buil u d uil din in i ng of its of ttss en nerg ergy y use se, e th the he result res ults prod od du uce e a new ne n e ew w m thod met ho o o olo logy, gy y, sh s e sa ayss, s, ffor or or esstimati tim tim mati ating at n plu ng lug g lo oa oad ad a ene ne n ergy yu usse by calc allcula ulat-ing ba ing based ased do on n “w watt tts per tt e person per on,”” and on,” and d an a a aly ly yzes zes com om mput utati at ona on na n al simu im mu m ulaatio io on meth e hods ho ods ds ds to to de esig siign n NZE ZE EB Bsss. Bs. Bu But utt be u beyon o d imp mp e mpl eme em mentt ing ng gm mo ore re agg aggres rres esssiv iv ve con onttro on rro ols lss a and nd d mo m re re effi e ffici cient ent ent nt ap ppli p ia anc n ncces ces es an and n eq equ quipm quipm pme ent ntt, she he p poi po on ntts nts t out ou ut th there here ere’s re’ss g gre rre ea att nee ne ne ee ed for or cu ultu tura tu rall ch ral hang nge at ng th the he iin he ndividu diiv d div ivid iidu dual a le lev ev e vel.l.l In n som ome om m e wa ay ays yss, s, she he says say a s th the he so s lution lu lut uttion u io on o n iss lilik ke e We Wei W e eight ht W Wa a atch tch ttc ch c er erss, in tha ers hatt hat its tss ab about out o utt g ge ettti tttiing ng p peo pe eo e ople ple e to rec to ecco ogn gn g nize z h ze ho ow many many any y wat wa w at a atts ttss tth the he h ey cons onsume me m e on on a dail a ly basi ai a s, as s, low owe ow eri ri ring ng tha hat numb ha m be mb err a er, an n d th hen en n k pin ke kee pin ng it ther he ere. ere. e.



Tracking Net Zero So exactly how did HDR manage to drive down the building’s baseline energy requirements to just 70 kBTU/sq. ft., and 54% below the facility’s original energy model, for a laboratory housing high-bay, mid-bay, isolation cells and computational lab space? “Our approach was to follow good passive design principles,” explains HDR’s Rew. “For example, the building is elongated along its east-west access, creating long north and south elevations, and shorter east and west elevations.” While sunlight from the north and south façades is relatively easy to shade and harness for power generation, by shortening the east and west elevations—the more difficult to control solar heat gain—is mitigated with less fenestration. Overall, another key strategy the team applied was an in-depth cost-benefi t analysis of various design approaches to determine which options leveraged the lowestcost, highest-benefi t solutions. “A matrix was developed where cost vs. energy efficiencies where developed through a rigorous value-management process, taking into account facility management and long-term operations and maintenance,” relates Gilbane’s Stewart.


In the high-bay space, light is 100% provided by the massive translucent facade along the northern elevation. To maximize this notion, C-NES leaders decided the space will not operate in the evening, eliminating the need for artificial light. LED task lights, however, are available to researchers when greater light levels are needed.


The CNES project incorporates a three-tiered lighting strategy utilizing daylighting, ambient lighting and task lighting. The design focused on maximizing daylight in order to minimize the demand for artificial lighting. For example, by design, no artificial light will be required in the high-bay lab space during daylight hours. The idea was to keep the lights turned off as much as possible during the day. The building, which is 120-ft. wide, uses the north-facing high-bay, with its 30-ft. high translucent Kalwall and glass façade, as a daylit atrium to cut the apparent width of the building in half. Th e daylight from the atrium provides northern light to the mid-bay and computational labs.

Fenestration along the upper and lower highbay northern façade, along with translucent panels between, provide light deep into the facility. Incorporated into the southern façade is a crystalline photovoltaic screen wall that carries down the façade to a horizontal canopy, which is also clad with crystalline photovoltaic panels. Crystalline photovoltaic panels are located on the roof and nearby on the site. Another big area targeted by the building design was ramping down lighting needs through optimized daylighting. In fact, the high-bay laboratories, which are located along the extended north elevation, is a light filled atria, clad in glass and translucent panels, and rarely require electric light.

“The glass and translucent panel façade, along with clerestory fenestration, also brings light into the north edge of the bay, computational labs and office spaces,” adds Rew. With a combination of clear, low-E glass, exterior shading devices and a light louver on the south elevation, daylight penetration is maximized to the point that most general lighting is turned off during daytime hours while LED task lighting is available to researchers and staff.

Lighting controls, including occupancy sensors, although evaluated as a premium cost in the team’s cost/benefi t matrix, were deemed critical to the project’s daylighting goals to justify the extra initial expense.


Outside views were an important goal, with views at eye level in the offi ces, mid-bay and high-bay areas. At the same time, the team minimized low east and west sun angles with external shading and the building’s orientation itself.

Artificial light fixtures are energy-efficient and highly controllable with both zoned and individual controls. In other locations, the need for artificial light has been greatly reduced and lights will be turned off when the lab spaces are not in use. Lighting controls are multi-tiered to allow for fully lighting an individual workspace without lighting unoccupied areas. Reduced nighttime operation of lighting is encouraged.

Daylight controls and occupancy sensors are used throughout the facility. Total energy savings from lighting measures equal a savings of 38,000 kWh or 29 tons of CO2 averted. LED exterior site lighting alone saved 1% energy and 3 metric tons of carbon emissions.

Not Georgia Tech, but Santa Fe Comm. College, where lighting designer Derry Berrigan delivered a 90% reduction in energy using mostly LED and activity-based controls powered by solar. Berrigan recently announced the launch of Light Th ink University (, an organization dedicated to training students and college offi cials on net zero-oriented lighting strategies.


Te T eam a mwo work k Key ey

Photo: Paul Dingman

CC C-N -NES, -N N ES ES, S like lilik ke e man ma any LEED an EE ED E D and and an nd gr gree een en e np prroje ojje oj ects c ts ts , beg be beg e ga an nw wiit wit ith a serie serie se rie e s of wor w or o ks ksh k shop sh op ops ps fo foccus use us ed do on n a viisi isssi sion io on n ffor fo orr th o th e p proj ro roj ojject o ec t,, ec ect as w as wel we ell as iiden e den de den e tif tif ti ify yin in i ng me m mea ea e ans ns to to defi de efi ne efi ne ca carbon carbo rb rbo bo b on ne n neu neutra eutra eu ralit ra alit iitty an nd d goa go g oa o als ls for fo or wha what wha at they they he h ey wa ey wante an nte nt tted to to accch ach a hiev hiev ev e ve with ittth en ene energ erg rrg gy mo mod m od o del deli elilliing e ng eff effort orrt r tss.. Th Thiiss,, of co of cou ou o urse rssse e, accco cccco ord rdi diing d ng to H to HD HDR DR DR’ss Rew Rew Re ew, me ean ea an a nt a tru tr tru rue spir piiirrit p iitt of of cco col olllab a bo ab orra ora attio iio o n wa ass e esss ess sssent entia ent en ial ial. all . a Bu But B u ut perha perh pe rrha ha haps haps ps e ev eve ve ven more mo orrre ore e sig sig gn nifi iifi fica can ntt w was wa as th as that at tha hank ha hanks nks n ks tto ks o tth hiss un uni u nii fie n fied tea te tea e mv visi issi isi sion, on, on n ssa ay yss R Rew ew w, w, tthe he pr he proj oje o jje ect c t wa was w ass no a not ot sub su ub u bjjec je ec t tto ec o confl on o nfl fl icc tin ttiin ng ng ag age a ge genda end nda n da dass..

To Too T oo o of of te ten en , at a la en ate e sttta sta age, ge e, Re Rew say Rew ay ays yss a dif dif iffer fe erring e ng o ng op pini in niion n on o on n how ho h ow o wa sys yss tem y tem m ssh houl ou o u d fun un unc ncc tio tiio on on ccan ca an cr an c re eat atte an unde a de esir iire ed d eff e ffe ect cctt a ass it it re relat la attes a es tto o the th he e bu b bui uiild u ldi diings d ng ng gss en energ energ erg rgy usse. se e “Be Be B Becau eca cau cau a se se ou ou our urr p prroj oje o je ject ct ct go g goa oa als ls we wer w ere clea e ea e ar and ar nd amb mbiiti mb itti ti o ou ous us , ou us urr ttea ea am kep k ke ep e pt ittss foc ffo occus o us o on n res rre esolv es olv lving ng g tte ecchn hnic hn iica cca al cha hal h a allen e ng en ge ges es es ,” , say says ays Re ew ew. w.. w Ult U Ul lttiim ima matte ma tel ey el y,, Rew Re R ew e w’s ’s cco cou ou o ounte unt nte n tte terpa erpa rpa rp parrtt at at G Gilillba ban b an a ne e— — Stte St Ste ewa war w arrt a rt— tt—c — hal —c hal ha alk kss up up th tthe he he suc ucces uc ce ce esss of th he ep prrro pro ojec je ec t to ec a co omb mbina mb bin ina na n attio ion of io of com omo mm mun mu m un nica nica catio ca tio on, n, cco col olllab o la ab a abora bo ora or rra attio io on a and nd n d “cl “cclosu “c ossu urre. re e..” e


Photo: Jonathan Hillyer

“Wh ““W Whe Wh en n a prroj ro oj e oj ecct ect c t lilike ke tth thi this his mov hi ove oves ove ves beyo bey eyo yon yond yo nd d th tthe h he e de desig sig sign-b gn n---b n-b bu uilili d team ui ea am a an and a nd nd in ntto o th the he hands he ha h and nds n dss of d of ssub su ubccon ub co on o ntra tra tr ract c to cto tors rs w wh who ho ar ho a re ex exe e xecut xe utiing ut ng th ng the wo orrk ork rk , i t ca can an b be ev ve ery ry ccha ch ha h alle llle len ngng ggin iing ng tto ng om ma ak ke e ssu sur u ure tha hat h att a sp sspe pe p eci ciifi cifi fic sys ssy yss tem y ystem em e m cr crite teria te rriia ia and an nd o nd op peratio erra er era attio tiio iona na pr nal proto ottto o oco s tthat co col hat h a w at we ere re set se et b et by y th the he e de desig desig sig gn tteam ea eam e am a ma arre no ott ccha ch ha h a ange ng nge ng ge ed, d ,,”” h d,” he e sa s ay ys. ys ss.


The high-bay lab has the capability of both forced and natural ventilation. The former provides more than three air changes per hour and a four-degree delta T. Large industrial ceiling fans provide air movement to create a cooling effect in lieu of air conditioning during the summer. During winter months, the fans run at low speed to push warmer air back down into the space. Occasional forced ventilation is provided by higher velocity fans high in the north-facing clerestory. The forced ventilation system can be used to purge the space and provide the high-bay

lab with up to nine air changes per hour in the event of higher future space loads. A radiant floor heating system will maintain comfort within the high-bay lab and loading areas. The mid-bay lab contains one chilledwater VAV air-handling unit that is fi tted with dual-energy recovery wheels. The mid-bay AHU is intended to provide temperature neutral air to the space, meeting only ventilation requirements. Cooling for individual rooms is accomplished with local cooling devices.

The computational lab and office area utilizes a displacement ventilation strategy through the use of an under-floor air distribution system. Occupant-controlled floor diffusers are located throughout the space to maximize comfort. Other innovative passive energy components include energy recovery, solar desiccant recharge, and innovative active energy conserving elements, including radiant heating, displacement ventilation and localized exhaust in small heat intensive areas.

Consequently, options such as natural ventilation and reduced night time operations emerged as low-cost, high-benefi t winners, while other possibilities such as limited energy savings from ground source heat exchangers and translucent panels, further insulated with Nanogel, weren’t justifi ed by the higher fi rst costs. With a variety of lab spaces, the designers also were given much fl exibility for temperature range requirements, which enabled greater energy effi ciencies. For example, with an acceptable 68°F to 80°F range for the high-bay labs, the designers could specify natural ventilation with operable louvers, clerestory windows and large fans to move stratifi ed air. For the mid-by labs, there was a 70°F to 76°F range, so supplying the space with neutral air and air conditioned by chilled beams was suffi cient. Meanwhile, the computational lab and offi ce area was expected to maintain a 72°F environment. Consequently, an under-fl oor air distribution system was specifi ed.

Water conservation and reuse were important goals on the project. Rainwater is collected from the roof and bio-retention areas, as well as in a cistern below the site’s permeable parking surface. A vegetated buer around the site also aids in reducing the impact of the facility’s hardscape.

Rea Re ad dy to o Share ha h a rre e Ass d A de des es esign gn g ned ed, e d th the C-NE --N N ES NES NE lab la ab a b iss 73 73 3% % more more orrre o ee eďŹƒ ďŹƒciie ien en e nt wh whe w hen comp he om mp m pare arre ar ed to bu b bui u uiild ld ldi diings ng ng gs o off a simila sim iim mila illa ar typ ty yp y pe. e. Itt o o set se etts 80% e 0% of of iitts its ts en ene erg er rrg gy u use— sse— e— e —5 54 54% 4% 4 % frro fro rom high gh g h-pe -pe perf rrfo ffo orma rm ma m ance ncce ce bu b bui u ldi lld ding di ng de de des essign ig gn na an n nd d 26% 6% frro ffro om rene en ne ew wab wa ab a ble le e en ene ne nergy ergy gy g y. Ass a side A de d en no ote, te te e,, th the proj rojje t wa ec ect was also so consi so co n co nsi ns sider de d er e ed ed “p “pa pa aper pe p erles er le essâ€? essâ€? es sâ€? iin n tha tth ha at alll pri pr pri rn ntnt t-out tou o ut u ts o off co orrr orr rre essp esp spon onnn de d den en nce, ce ce e, e e--ma mai m a aiils ls, ss,, speci spec sp eci e cciiďŹ cati ďŹ cati ďŹ c attiions at ion ons o ns,, draw ns rra aw wing ngs and ng and nd rrep re ep e port orrrtts we o ere re lilimit re mit ite ed ed. d d.


The design of the site will expand the Institute’s campus-wide initiative to move toward a more natural ecology and dramatically increase water conservation, eďŹƒciency and quality. The site also is designed to capture water runo through increased permeable surfaces , including permeable concrete parking areas,

a bio-retention basin, a rainwater cistern and underground detention, resulting in a 65% reduction from predevelopment runo, and a qualitative beneďŹ t of 80% removal of suspended solids. In fact, no potable water is used for ushing or site irrigation, and lowow plumbing ďŹ xtures and waterless urinals

are situated throughout the building. Furthermore, Stewart explains the team was able to optimize the cooling system by using rainwater collection with a 20,000-gallon rooftop system. “This water is also used for all nonpotable water needs, including a greywater system for the lavatories,� notes Stewart.

Rooftop rainwater is collected in a 20,000gallon cistern and used for toilet  ushing, the source for process cooling water, and recharge water for the chilled-water cooling towers.

At the At th th he e en end of the the he day da ay, be be bes esside iid de des es de ellliv eli ver ve erriing e in ng a ng hiig hig high-p gh h--p h-p pe errrffor erf orm o rm ma an anc nccce n e faci fa aci ac ci c llity ty, the ty he tea eam also ea lsso so an anttic antic iccipa pat p ates a es th the he h e op opp por po o orr ttun tu unity un itty it y to sh to ssha hare h e tthe th he h e le lessso sssso ons ns lea ea e earne arne rned rn ned for ne or fut fu utture u urre ur e ne ett-ze zer ze erro ro labo la ab abo bo b orrat ra atory at ory ry de dessig desig ig gns ns . ns.

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Temperatures of -100ÂşC (-148ÂşF) will not transfer through an aluminum frame with a modern pour and debridge thermal barrier (neither will hot temperatures) CIRCLE 28


Although the U.S. market has projected "doom and gloom" in terms of wind power generation recently, the opportunity exists for small wind turbine energy generation in remote, off-grid settings and diesel generator integration.

Small wind turbines have been a part of the rural landscape for almost as long as electricity has played a part in our lives. But when it comes to onsite power generation in suburban and urban settings, photovoltaic (PV) panels have taken the lead. Despite a wave of smaller and interesting-looking buildingintegrated wind products that came to market a decade ago, turbines have fallen short of expectations, but proponents hope a new certification program will keep those failures from tarnishing an entire market.


In fact, the “small” wind market, which covers equipment with a capacity of 100 kilowatts (kW) or less, has had a rough couple of years. The sales figures for 2011, the latest available from the American Wind Energy Assn. (AWEA), show




U.S.-based revenue declined that year by 17%, to $11.4 billion, from 2010’s record $13.9 billion result. Certainly, the poor economy played a role in this decline, as did rapidly falling PV costs, but performance concerns, especially related to building-integrated designs, also weighed heavily in the sales drop-off. Th is decline represents a 180-degree change in viewpoint toward the raft of new designs that started showing up on signature buildings (and in glossy architectural publications) in the early 2000s. That’s when engineers—and backyard metalworkers—began marketing new designs that went beyond classic polemounted turbines, creating products like the Windspire and Swift offerings, which were intended for mounting along roof parapets or in open areas on corporate campuses. Forwardthinking architects and CEOs saw these installations as highly visible markers of eco-concern. And it didn’t hurt that this supposed industrial equipment looked more 18 X




Building Owners Pace Themselves Commercial property owners may gain a new option for fi nancing onsite energy projects through a lending plan initially designed for the residential market. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) loans were originally intended to allow residential owners to fi nance solar panels and other energy-effi cient upgrades over time, through communitywide bond packages paid back through the owner’s property taxes. Mortgage backers put the kibosh on most homeowner plans, but large commercial property companies are beginning to bite on these 20-year loan programs—Simon Property Group used $2 million in PACE-based funds last year to upgrade three properties in California and Ohio, and custom facilities developer Prologis spent $1.6 million to green-up its San Francisco headquarters.


like kinetic sculpture than power-generating turbines. As results from a well-publicized 2009-2010 study by Boston’s Museum of Science—aided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s wind group—showed, those appearances weren’t deceiving. In 2009, the museum approached five manufacturers of roof-mounted turbines to participate in a performance study. The turbines became a signature design element, setting the museum’s roofl ine apart from its surroundings, but none of the devices met expectations—and, collectively, the installation only produced 30% of the kilowatt-hours (kWh) museum staff had anticipated. Projected to generate the equivalent of the annual demand of two average American

homes, the 4,500 kWh result would have only met 60% of a single home’s yearly needs. AWEA began recognizing the impact poorly performing small wind equipment could have on the larger wind industry several years ago and developed a testing standard for related turbines in early 2010, “AWEA Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard.” Soon after, the Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) set up shop in Clifton Park, N.Y., to certify the rated annual energy output, rated power and rated sound level of equipment that had been tested by a third-party evaluator. “Good news travels fast, but bad news travels even faster,” says Brent Summerville, SWCC’s technical director, describing the impact nega-

Oklahoma City architect Rand Elliott, FAIA, has taken building-integrated wind to the next level in his concept for a 48-story high-rise in his hometown. Not content to simply mount vertical axis turbines along a rooftop parapet (actually, the building has no rooftop), he’s designed a plan in which the building, itself, is the turbine. With a patent granted for the concept he’s dubbed “turbonomics,” he’s presented the plan to a supportive Boone Pickens, oilman and founder of the wind-development company Mesa Power Group.“I think we’re right around the corner from something big happening,” says Elliott, founder of the fi rm Elliott & Assocs.

SPIN ME 'ROUND The project capitalizes on Oklahoma's wind resources—wind speeds average 12.2 mph year round. The building's spinning-top outline is intended to keep air from stratifying along the exterior surface, for easier capture by the vertical-axis turbines inserted into outer edges of the plenum space between floors.

Currently, 28 states have passed legislation enabling PACE lending, and 16 programs in seven states are arranging loans.

IN THE ROUND The turbines float in metal magnetic bearings to eliminate vibration concerns, and louvered panels cover half of the otherwise exposed turbine area to steer wind toward the blades.


POWER ONSITE POWER IN ACTION An Evanston-Ill.-based Walgreens has plans to become what it claims to be the nation's fi rst net-zero retail chain. Th e retailer plans to generate electricity and reduce its usage by more than 40% through solar, wind and geothermal technology, for example.


Walgreens is Going Net Zero The Walgreens drug store chain is planning what it believes is the world’s fi rst net-zero retail store to replace an existing outlet in Evanston, Ill. Starting with a high-efficiency building—including LEDs, geothermal heating and cooling and ultra-highefficiency refrigeration—to cut energy demand, the design also will include 800 rooftop solar panels and two micro wind turbines.

tive results were beginning to have on specifier confidence that turbines could meet manufacturer projections. “Certification is there to protect the consumer and the overall industry’s viability.”


MIRROR, MIRROR Solar manufacturers are always looking for ways to squeeze more kilowatts out of sunlight. San Jose, Calif.-based SunPower Corp. has turned to parabolic mirrors with its new C7 tracker technology, recently commercialized in a 1 MW installation on the Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University, in Mesa, Ariz. The mirrors concentrate sunlight seven times onto arrays of the company’s Maxeon solar cells –which already have a rated efficiency of 22.8%. SunPower Corp. CIRCLE 308

Oklahoma City architect Rand Elliott, FAIA, has taken building-integrated wind to the next level in his concept for a 48-story high-rise in his hometown. Not content to simply mount vertical axis turbines along a rooftop parapet he’s designed a plan in which the building (opposite page), itself, is the turbine. With a patent granted for the concept he’s dubbed “turbonomics,” he’s presented the plan to a supportive Boone Pickens, oilman and founder of the wind-development company Mesa Power Group. “I think we’re right around the corner from something big,” says Elliott. The architect’s plan capitalizes on Oklahoma City’s rich wind resources and the building’s spinning-top outline is intended to keep air from stratifying along the exterior surface, for easier capture by the vertical-axis turbines inserted into the outer edges of the plenum space between each floor. The turbines float in metal magnetic bearings to eliminate vibration concerns, and louvered panels cover half of the otherwise exposed turbine area to steer

GREEN DATA Data centers are notorious energy hogs, but today’s biggest players in big data are anxious to green their images (and cut their electricity bills). Hence, Apple’s move to develop the nation’s largest privately owned onsite solar array on the grounds of its new Maiden, N.C., data center. The 100-acre, 20 MW installation soon will be joined by a twin facility on nearby land. Additionally, the site features a 10-MW biogas-fed fuel cell system, which is the largest non-utility system operating in the United States. Combined solar/ fuel cell production is anticipated to total 167 million kWh–enough to power 17,600 homes, or one really big data center.

Des Plaines, Ill.-based architects Camburas & Theodore Architects are leading the design team. Engineering estimates indicate the store will use 200,000 kWh per year, while generating 256,000 kWh per year. The company is aiming for LEED Platinum certification—it has previously received LEED Gold certification for its Goodyear, Ariz., store. It has an announced goal of reducing energy intensity by 20% across its entire 125 million sq. ft. portfolio by 2020.

20 X




200 180

Elliott understands his design is really only practical in the windiest of areas, like his hometown. But he also sees a certain poetic appropriateness in siting a structure engineered to make the best of abundant wind resources in a city whose fortunes have been built largely on the production and marketing of fossil fuels. “Oklahoma City is really becoming known as an energy capital,” he says. “It’s the ideal place to do it—and have it right alongside the oil and natural gas facilities.”

160 140 120


wind toward the blades. “The wind studies determined that at 13 mph, we would generate enough power to offset 10% of our energy use,” he says. And at 28 mph, not unusual in Oklahoma City, “the building is 100% energy neutral.”

INSTALLED WIND Europe should continue to lead the world in the amount of installed small wind systems. Growth in North America, however, is steadily growing.

North America Europe Asia Pacific Latin America Rest of World

100 80 60

Source: Navigant Research

40 20 0








Wind conditions, however, are not a laughing matter. The conditions stipulated by the SWCC standard illustrate the importance of location in a successful installation—whether that 22 X

'TWITT' – It’s Worth Tweeting Inspired by a vision of birds sitting on a wire, a plan for a one-car solar charging station and canopy by Greek architect Anestis Papaemanouil has won an international design competition and will be on display at this year’s Greenbuild conference in Philadelphia. The station also will be marketed internationally by Duo-Gard, the manufacturer of specialized outdoor structures and high-performance daylighting systems that sponsored

the competition. Papaemanouil leads the Greek architectural firm in Xanthi, Thrace, and calls his concept “twitt.” His plan for a structure framed in steel and aluminum features photovoltaic (PV) panels above a translucent canopy of multiwall polycarbonate, which allows diffused daylight and also enhances nighttime LED illumination. The panels rotate around a horizontal axis for optimal alignment, and the structure’s ballasts eliminate a need for anchoring.


SOLAR ACQUISITION San Jose, Calif.-based TetraSun has hit an energy-conversion efficiency rate exceeding 21% with a new cell architecture that can be manufactured at a cost comparable to relatively inexpensive–but much less efficient–conventional multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Th is has earned it an acquisition bid from First Solar, a Tempe, Ariz., solarsystem manufacturer. TetraSun’s new cells feature fewer process steps and wider tolerances. As a result, the product can be produced in high volumes with readily available equipment. First Solar plans to begin commercial-scale manufacturing in the second half of 2014. TetraSun CIRCLE 307

Solar Shading Louver Systems COLT GROUP USA



Mestek has a strategic alliance and exclusive license agreement with Colt Group USA. Mestek is the exclusive licensee to produce and market the Colt designed products for the US market and all products are produced in the USA.

Solar shading louver systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce air conditioning loads, while offering designers the opportunity for distinctive architectural impact.

Colt has more than 40 years experience in the design and supply of solar shading louver systems.

Additionally, Mestek’s Architectural activities include Linel and AWV. The emphasis for these companies is in providing products and solutions that beautify and improve the performance of buildings through Intelligent Envelopes™.

Radiation from the sun is transmitted, absorbed and reflected by the louvers. As a result solar heat gain is prevented from passing into the building. If an operable system is chosen, the adjustable louvers will track the position of the sun increasing the systems shading effectiveness and further reducing glare. On overcast days, the operable louvers can be opened to maximize the natural daylight into the building.

Colt was the first to incorporate electricity generating photovoltaic cells into solar shading systems. Colt continues to build on this experience and has been providing solar shading systems for the US market since 2006. We offer an extraordinary range of solar shading systems from fixed to fully operable with a variety of carrier systems, materials and finishes.

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OFFSHORE POWER Norwegian Coast GE has become an aggressive player in the global turbine market, acquiring Norwegian manufacturer ScanWind about three years ago. Shortly thereafter, the company engaged in an agreement with Norwegian energy companies to study the possibility of a project off the southwest coast of the country. In the United States, GE recently announced it will be supplying turbines for a 150-MW installation in the vicinity of Austin, Texas. Most novel about this project is that it will involve new, shortterm battery storage technology.

© Caterpillar

TOP COGEN BARRIERS Z Utility tariff structures and interconnection requirements. Z Limited equipment supply and service infrastructure. Z Uncertainty regarding energy cost and policy issues that could shift project economics over a possible 20-year lifetime. Z Lack of awareness and understanding of end users to CHP benefits. Z Local permitting and siting issues.


© GE


turbine is sized for kilowatt- or megawatt-scale production. SWCC’s ratings are calculated based on an assumed average wind speed of 11.2 mph over the course of a year. That’s an uncommon level in much of the country. “The problem is not always the turbine or the manufacturer’s claim— it takes some due diligence to understand the local wind resource,” Summerville says. For some manufacturers, the certification and related outreach have not come soon enough. Flagstaff, Ariz.-based Southwest Windpower, one of the fi rst companies to earn certification, shut its doors in mid-February. Building-integrated maker Windspire Energy (its spinning vertical-axis turbines were installed in a highly publicized installation at Adobe System’s LEED-certified headquarters in San Jose, Calif.) was recently acquired out of bankruptcy by Ark Alloy, a Reedsburg, Wisc.-based metal fabrication company.

Th is isn’t to say that the forecast for small wind installations is all doom and gloom. Navigant Research predicts 2012’s 86 MW of internationally installed capacity will grow to 172 MW by 2018, although the majority of that growth is anticipated to occur in Europe and Asia. In the U.S., the report sees the greatest opportunity in remote, off-grid settings, including telecommunications and defense applications. Additionally, hybrid projects are beginning to pair small wind turbines with diesel generators to reduce fuel requirements while still ensuring continuous operation. These installations, though, all focus on pole-mounted turbines. The fate of buildingmounted equipment is much less certain. As Summerville notes, the turbulent winds common in commercial zones can be difficult for building-mounted equipment to harness. “Building integrated wind has not been really well understood. It’s a higher-risk project, because there are a lot more unknowns.”


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Cool and Smart With advanced technology, more intelligence and durable materials, automatic shading systems are a very effective means of controlling glare and heat gain at peak sunlight hours. Cooling loads are reduced and lighting savings captured when shades automatically retract.

Barbara HorwitzBennett has been reporting on the architectural industry for the past 15 years. She covers glazing and daylighting for Architectural Products, and in 2011 contributed to an important industry white paper on net-zero buildings.

building’s fenestration could be the highest performance glazing to optimally support daylighting and views, but once the manual shades or blinds are pulled down to block out glare and bright spots, they will most likely stay down the remainder of the day—thereby sacrificing all the health, comfort and energy benefits of natural light.


“Th is dynamic control is ‘nice’ to have for small glazed areas, but it becomes essential for highly glazed façades, particularly when the goal is high performance or zero net energy,” adds Stephen Selkowitz, head of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s (LBNL) Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept., Berkeley, Calif.

To circumvent this inevitable scenario, automatic shading systems are a great way to block out solar heat gain and glare when the sun’s rays are at their strongest, while ensuring a well daylit interior the majority of the day.

Today’s automatic shading systems are also being manufactured with a high level of intelligence, making the technology even more compelling. 26 X

The interior shade, in conjunction with the selected glazing, cuts out 53% of the solar gains , compared to 88% with the exterior system.

For example, in an east facing office, an exterior solar sensor will close the shades on a sunny morning. But once the sun leaves the east horizon around mid-day, the shades will automatically retract. However, if it is an overcast day, the shades will remain open during the morning hours unless the sun emerges for long enough to trigger the sensor. In fact, exterior venetian blinds are capable of eliminating more than 90% of solar heat gain, and exterior roller shades and louvers, when installed properly and tilted at the optimum angle, can also eliminate a high percentage of solar gain. Consequently, the cooling load is reduced and lighting savings can still be captured at times when the shades automatically retract. Taking this all into consideration, Joe Parks, national sales manager—commercial window treatments, Lutron Electronics, Allentown, Pa., encourages architects and end-users to get past the system’s initial cost by focusing on the attractive return on investment.


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IN CONTROL Ideal for large commercial applications, a new roller drive from Lutron can control 300 sq. ft. of fabric from one low-voltage drive, thanks to Lutron’s Intelligent Façade Technology (LIFT). Capable of operating six 5 ft. × 10 ft. panels of roller shade fabric, LIFT is wellsuited for curtain wall applications. Lutron CIRCLE 306

Exterior automated louvers, often made from durable extruded aluminum, include a number of protective features such as weather-resistant coatings and automated retraction when wind speeds reach certain levels.

R E SE A RCH ER S PROJEC T TH AT THE NE X T GENER ATION OF AUTOM ATED S YS TEM S WILL TR ACK A N D DISPL AY K E Y S YS TE M PER FO R M A N CE M E T R I C S OV ER T I M E . “The availability of two-way communication to send shading commands to window coverings can provide individual blind control through building management control systems, computerized sun tracking, as well as sun, heat and wind sensors,” says Nick Dougherty, technical manager, SunProject, Vaughan, Ontario. For instance, photocells or brightness sensors will detect if there is sun and then the sun tracking system will determine when the sun is directly on the glazing based upon the day, time, building location and glazing orientation. “With louvers and venetian blinds, the system also will determine the required louver/slat angle to prevent any direct sun into the building,” adds Richard Wilson, director, Advanced Technology Group, Hunter Douglas Contract Solar Control, Nysan Solar Control, Upper Saddle River, N.J.


Alternatively, the interior shades can be programmed to close at a pre-set height, as determined by computer modeling, in order to shade just the actual sun angle instead of fully closing the shades, so that natural light can still enter the space. Although a big advocate of dynamic technology, Selkowitz points out that these systems require proper set up, commissioning and maintenance over time, not to mention a certain degree of integration which isn’t always available. “In Europe, where the technology is much more common and available, costs are lower and design integration is more reliable,” he says. Furthermore, a system that can optimize view, daylight, glare and thermal comfort is not trivial and there is little practical market experience here in the U.S., as opposed to Europe.


On a positive note, “integrated building control systems can combine shade control with security, lighting and HVAC systems for optimal energy performance and monitoring,” notes Mark Loeffler, IALD, LEED AP BD+C, director, Atelier Ten, New Haven, Conn. “The next generation of shading systems may be able to vary the visual transparency or anticipate weather changes based on forecasting.” Taking things even further, not only will automated controls accept anticipatory signals for predicted wind and temperature, day ahead utility price signals and next day expected building occupancy, but LBNL researchers project that the next generation of automated systems will track and display key system performance metrics over time, offer comparisons to archived performance data, employ fault detection and automated diagnostics, and enable building occupant feedback—via the Internet—to building operators.

Exterior vs. Interior When it comes to intercepting solar heat gain, exterior shading solutions clearly perform better than interior devices. Looking at the numbers, Nysan Solar Control cites exterior fabric performance data, tested to the European solar energy transmittance values, as 0.12 g for grey or white fabric, as compared to 0.47 g for the same fabric installed as an interior shading system. “Th is means that the interior shade, in conjunction with the selected glazing, cuts out 53% of the solar gains, compared to 88% with the exterior system,” notes Wilson. As for Venetian blinds, an exterior system with slates set at 45 degrees to the horizontal is capable of reducing solar heat gain by 91%, while an interior system delivers a 60% reduction, according to Wilson. At the same time, Loeffler points out that exterior systems must be carefully designed, taking into account building location, orientation, climate and usage, not to mention proper installation and operation in order to achieve those values.

A BEAUTIFUL DESIGN Not only do wood louvers offer shading at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute, but Hunter Douglas Contract’s custom-made shapes, non-standard sizes and specialty materials create a beautiful aesthetic on the building’s façade. Hunter Douglas Contract www.hunterdouglas CIRCLE 305

“Like any mechanical device, automated shades can get out of calibration or deploy haphazardly under variable sky conditions,” says Loeffler referring to both interior and exterior systems. “Poorly installed or maintained systems can be annoying, causing occupants to subvert the control system, close the shades, and lose the visual and energy performance benefits.” Another big issue with exterior systems is that they must be designed to contend with the elements. “External shading systems need to have the ability to make accommodations for wind thresholds as well as extreme cold weather,” says Parks. Wind sensors, called anemometers, are often programmed to retract roller shades once winds exceed 20 mph, partially retract Venetian blinds when the wind speed reaches 30 mph and fully retract at 38 mph.

ADD IT UP The Building Energy Calculator generates energy cost and consumption based upon building type, fuel type and costs, daylighting controls, window orientation and glazing options. In addition, the calculator applies utility rates and specific weather data for 52 different North American cities. This way designers can predict the impact of energyefficient glazing types on monthly and annual electrical consumption and cost. Guardian www.energycalculator. CIRCLE 304

Weather resistant coatings and sealings are typically applied to protect vulnerable surfaces and moving parts, a housing is incorporated into the roller shade tube to protect the motor and fabric when retracted, and a head box or pocket shields Venetian blinds from wind, ice and snow. 28 X



SHARP ON ENERGY Billed to filter up to 80% of the sun’s heat and glare, Airolite sun controls are available in nine different types of airfoil, fan, louver and rectangular tube blades. Made from extruded aluminum, the blades come in a wide array of architectural finishes. Airolite CIRCLE 303

“Systems that incorporate side-guide extrusions might also require a combination of temperature and humidity control. Th is will enable the systems to be switched off if there is a risk of ice buildup in the side-guide extrusions,” Wilson explains.

“These take the least space, resist fading and degradation, and are most easily motorized for manual or automatic operation,” he says. Meanwhile, “light-colored materials reduce contrast and help reflect interior lighting, further enhancing energy efficiency.”

Material Selection

At the same time, louvers are generally made from extruded aluminum, which offers a good weight/strength ratio, comes in a variety of fi nishes and supports different profi le designs. While louvers also can be made of wood, almost all of the products still use aluminum slats. In addition, the wood requires substantial maintenance to preserve its original appearance and are not ideal for certain conditions such as hot, humid climates and coastal locations, with exposure to salt water.

When considering fabric, wood, aluminum or glass for shades and louvers, Loeffler identifies retractable, perforated, light-colored synthetic shades—such a Lutron’s Sivoia shades and MechoShade products—as the most commonly specified.

And although glass louvers can lend a nice aesthetic, they are limited in that they cannot achieve significant spans without the use of an additional support structure and an applied frit to provide effective shading, notes Wilson.

RAYS OF SUN Actively tracking the sun from sunrise to sunset, the daylight harvester from Sundolier delivers up to 100,000 lumens of light, without hot spots or glare, deep into a building’s interior. This tubular daylighting device can also be used in combination with LED lighting, as a hybrid solution, or integrated with photovoltaic panels for a fully self-powered solution.

Th e system that delivers daylighting deep into commercial buildings has been installed in more than two dozen applications around the world, including the Denver Civic Center and Engen, one of the most successful petroleum companies in South Africa. “It’s a little bit about energy but it’s more about humans—in getting more light to people,” says Jim Walsh, president, Sundolier.

Sundolier CIRCLE 302




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Static Systems

The solution is simple.

Although not as effective as automated shading systems, from a performance standpoint, static shading—such as well-designed structural overhangs or fi xed architectural louvers—can be used in cases where automated systems are not practical. “These systems are expensive and complex, so design and analysis are very important,” says Selkowitz. “While there are some rules of thumb, most of these systems require a good annual energy and comfort analysis to optimize the design. Th is should include looking at monthly and maybe even typical hourly values during key design periods during the year.” Fortunately, with the aid of computer modeling tools such as LBNL’s COMFEN, the placement and angle of these systems can be customized to maximize shading performance through the changing seasons. “Since sun angles are completely predictable based on location and orientation, analysts can model shading provided by dimensional louvers, fi ns, screens and overhangs for every moment of the day throughout the year,” explains Loeffler. “By methodically testing shading concepts, a design team can optimize the type, size and placement of these devices.”

Keep your thermostat right where you set it by balancing your building temperature. Air Pear destratification fan systems equalize temperatures from floor to ceiling. With thermal equalization, you’ll have no more than 0° to 3° variation from floor to ceiling and wall to wall. • Energy savings up to 35% from reduced HVAC run time. • Delivers tight column of air using minimal power. • Contributes to LEED. • Plug & play installation. • 7 models service ceilings from 8 to125 feet.

If necessary, designers can even take this data and build physical mockups to further demonstrate design viability, he adds. At the same time, Wilson points out that some systems may offer good shading performance during certain seasons, but not others. For example, brise soleil systems, which are fi xed louvers projecting at the top of the glazing, can be installed on the south-facing elevation, but will usually only provide shading against high sun angles, which means that the shading won’t be very effective during the winter months. However, depending on the climate, this may actually work to the building owner’s benefit by supporting winter solar gain and reduce the heating load.

Automatic Savings That being said, it’s still the automatic systems that are going to deliver the highest performance levels throughout the course of the year. And with LBNL research fi nding automatic shading systems to support lighting energy savings of 35% in the winter, and 40% to 75% during the summer months, the case is quite compelling. Add to this a summer daily cooing load reduction of approximately 25% at non-peak times, and it’s hard to dispute the value of the technology. ROLLER SHADES FM41 exterior roller shades from SunProject are all about controlling glare and optimizing daylighting. With a variety of attachment options, the shades can be mounted on virtually any building structure. Made from durable fabric, the system is designed to withstand adverse weather conditions. SunProject CIRCLE 301

Call Us: 303.772.2633 • 888.AIR.PEAR (1.888.247.7327) • CIRCLE 33


It takes a special kind of glass to make the Glasshouse. Artist Dale Chihuly is known for the color of his glass. That’s why Owen Richards Architects specified Guardian SunGuard SuperNeutral 62 on clear for the Glasshouse, the centerpiece of the Chihuly Garden and Glass exhibition in Seattle. With a visible light transmission of 62%, SN 62 allows the beauty of Chihuly’s artwork to be seen from the outside. And with a solar heat gain coefficient of 0.31, it meets the City of Seattle’s tough energy requirements as well. For complete performance data and other ways to Build With Light, visit Or call 1-866-GuardSG (482-7374).

GLASSHOUSE, CHIHULY GARDEN AND GLASS, SEATTLE, WA ARCHITECT: Owen Richards Architects GUARDIAN SELECT™ FABRICATOR: Hartung Glass Industries GLAZIERS: Novum Structures and Eastside Glass (Guardian Glazier Connection™ Member) SUNGUARD GLASS: SuperNeutral 62 on clear

© 2013 Guardian Industries Corp. SunGuard® and Build With Light® are registered trademarks of Guardian Industries Corp. Please order glass samples for accurate color evaluation. Artwork ©2012 Chihuly Studio. All rights reserved. Photo by Ben Benschneider.




Consequences of Daylight It's all about thermal efficiency. With green and net-zero buildings utilizing exterior glazing to allow more daylight in, fenestration, thermal performance and exact detail in building-envelope engineering must come to the fore.

Jeff Yoders has covered IT, CAD and BIM for a number of industry publications. Jeff has won six ASBPE awards and was part of the reporting team for the 2011 Jesse H. Neal Award for best subjectrelated series of stories.


lass has been used for thousands of years to allow daylight into our buildings, while also providing weather protection. But as noted in their 2009 book, Whole Building Design Guide, authors Niklas Vigener, P.E., and Mark A. Brown, P.E., of Simpson Gumpertz & Heger note that what’s changed is that the majority of new windows, curtain walls and skylights for commercial building construction now have insulating glazing for energy efficiency and comfort.

tigation and construction. He has conducted major investigations and designed repairs for glass and metal curtain walls, windows, brick masonry and stone, as well as roofi ng and plaza waterproofi ng. “It really means the mechanical engineer and the building envelope consultant have to get involved with building design at the very beginning of the process. They need to calculate building energy use and perform preliminary modeling in the schematic design phase. Th is early work is necessary to avoid 34 X making buildings that waste energy.”

Building size, orientation and ventilation strategy should all be considered in the conceptual design stage by the project team.

The use of architectural glazing for green buildings has continued to grow. Low-E coatings, high-performance glass and more sophisticated curtain wall systems have helped architects and engineers reap abundant LEED certification points for natural daylighting, acoustics, energy savings, and to simply better connect building users with nature. However, there have been well-documented cases of failed glass skylights, curtain walls and entire building designs along the way. In 2010, a $10 million lawsuit was fi led by the Art Institute of Chicago against Ove Arup & Partners, the MEP engineer of its 264,000-sq.-ft., mostly glass, modern wing, over what the Institute alleges were errors and omissions in the avant-garde building’s heating and cooling systems. Th is is just one high-profi le case among many. Has the wide adoption of architectural glazing led to a tip in the careful balance between proper heating and cooling and natural daylighting? “[Early in design] matching the proper mechanical system with some concept of what the building glazing is going to be is the challenge [we face as engineers] today,” says Brown, senior project manager at SGH. Brown has more than 25 years of experience in building design, inves-


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901 K ST. The 12-story, 260,000-sq.-ft. property fills a triangularshaped space in D.C.'s office landscape. Daylighting and energyefficiency objectives were aided by Wausau Window and Wall Systems' curtain wall and sun shades installation. The floor-to-ceiling windows allow 60% of the building's interior space to receive natural light.


Building size, orientation and ventilation strategy should all be considered in the conceptual design stage by the project team. Consideration for the performance of a glazed wall against a similar opaque wall that can still utilize windows and skylights for daylighting should be explored, as well. “In terms of thermal efficiency, many designers don’t realize it or pay attention to it, but the least thermally efficient thing you can put into a building is a piece of glazing,” says Vigener, senior principal and head of building technology at SGH. Vigener has more than 20 years of experience in building design, investigation and construction, and has led many notable building technology projects. “If you look at thermal resistance (R-value), the typical insulating glass unit is around R2. If you get highperformance glass, the thermal performance can go up to about R4 without resorting to very exotic technology. If you look at thermal resistance of an opaque wall, an insulated wall assembly, you’re looking at R20 or R30. Most


building codes for northern states require R20 for exterior walls. You’re looking at a ten-fold increase in thermal performance if you just use something you can’t see through.” The term “insulating glazing” refers to glass units installed in windows or curtain walls that are composed of two or more lites of glass with a sealed space containing air or an inert gas, such as argon, in between the glass lites to provide insulation. Double-glazed lites consist of two lites (one layer of air or inert gas) and tripleglazed glass has three lites sandwiching two layers of air or inert gas. Triple-glazing can cost significantly more than double-glazing in most applications.

DOD RATED Kawneer's 1630 SS IR curtain wall has been tested to meet federal requirements as outlined by the DOD and Interagency Security Committee of the General Services Administration. Available in wet (silicone), glazed, and dry-glazed options, it's also certified for up to a 130 lb.-per-sq.-ft. design load. Thermal cycling, per AAMI 501.5, was performed. Kawneer CIRCLE 300

“Energy modeling can predict the payback for the type of glazing specified,” Vigener said. “In many ways, the difference between highperformance glazing and what some might consider run-of-the-mill glazing is often not enough to justify its cost.”

NEW YORK TIMES With nearly 400,000 sq. ft. of glazing (Viracon's Starphire insulating line), intelligent shading (Mechosystems) was a key goal to maximizing comfort and performance. Lawrence Berkeley National Labs recently completed a post-occupancy evaluation of the project and noted that the innovations helped lower energy use by 24%. Photo: Viracon

FEDERAL CENTER SOUTH BUILDING Designed by ZGF Architects, the facility, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Building in Seattle, uses a fi fth the energy used by a standard office building. To enable the HVAC systems to perform at an optimal capacity within the budget, it was necessary to create an effi cient building envelope using high-performance glass to achieve daylighting goals but manage solar control to reduce heating/cooling demand. ZGF specified Guardian SunGuard SuperNeutral 62 for the curtain wall system. Th e design permits natural light penetration at levels that allow the building’s lights to be off during daylight hours 61 %of the time. Th e building design also enables daylighting performance that reaches 90% of the building. A visible light transmission of 61% combined with a low solar heat gain coeffi cient of 0.31 assures a comfortable environment.



Glazing 101:

Signed, Sealed... Given that proper energy modeling has been performed early in the design process to inform decisions about where and how to use architectural glass, another major decision for designers, when it comes to creating highperformance curtain walls, is whether to specify a dry- or wetglazed system. The former commonly consists of a gunable—"wet"— sealant installed over a preformed tape or gasket. Dry glazing systems utilize rubber gaskets as the glazing seals. This system is also referred to as compression gasket glazing because it relies on compression of the gasket to seal against air infiltration and water penetration. “We recommend the wet-glazed systems,” says Mark Brown with Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger. “They are just are much tighter; they rely on adhesion of a sealant to glass and metal to exclude water at a very high percentage vs. a dry gasket system that is subject to loss of compression and displacement from glass movement over time.”

replacements from normal use. Although glass, itself, is impermeable to water, and wet glazing provides good water penetration resistance, a drainage system is still a necessity. “It’s never a good idea to rely 100% on sealants because they degrade over time,” says Brown. “They may not be installed perfectly or maintained the way you want them. Also, there are other joints in the window or curtain wall system besides the glazing joints that can experience water infiltration. Without a functioning drainage system, water that penetrates the curtain wall can attack insulating glass seals, causing fogging from seal failures, or can cause leakage to the interior.”

While some owners want the ability to remove/replace glass from the interior in a dry-glazed building, the waterproofing advantages generally outweigh maintenance issues in properly designed and constructed buildings. A well-engineered system should require very few




Air Barriers Matching a building envelope with the proper mechanical system and chosen the method of its installation is a key consideration—but make sure to pay close attention that its barriers, in and out, are tightly controlled. “The best way to have outstanding energy performance is to have a tight air barrier on your building,” says Niklas Vigener with Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger. “In fenestration systems, we frequently see air barrier problems where the window perimeter is tied in to the barrier of the opaque wall. That’s something that needs to be on everyone's mind to be sure that the air barrier is appropriately buttoned up and complete because it has potential to have a much greater impact on energy performance than glazing selection to get to a baseline of reasonable building energy performance.”

Thermal Performance When it comes to thermal performance, there are a number of options: Single glazing—no layer of air or inert gas—is suitable only for applications where performance is irrelevant, such as interior applications or installations where interior and exterior temperatures do not vary substantially. Insulating glass units— the vast majority of architectural glazing consists of this form of glazing and thermal performance depends mainly on the solar energy transmittance through the glazing, the reflectance of the glazing—measured by the shading coefficient; the ratio of the solar

heat gain through the glazing to the solar heat gain; or loss through a lite of 1/8-in.-thick clear glass—the width of the air space and the material and configuration of the spacer around the perimeter of the unit. Low-emissivity (low-E coatings—as shown at the top with PPG’s Solarban 67) limit heat gain through glazing by reflecting heat energy. Reflective coatings (such as seen in center image—PPG’s Vistacool Atlantica) reduce interior solar heat gain by reflecting solar energy. Thermal performance of glazing is expressed by its thermal conductance, which is a measure of air-to-air heat transmission due to thermal conductance and the difference between indoor and

outdoor temperature. A thermally broken curtain wall, such as YKK’s YES SSG TU vent for storefronts, (bottom image), can lower conductance considerably. The latter is expressed in terms of U-value, that indicates reduced heat transfer through the glass. Thermal conductance is the reciprocal of thermal resistance (R value). “Unquestionably, you must balance daylighting and thermal performance,” says Niklas Vigener with SGH. Thanks to more sophisticated and predictive energy modeling capabilities, he says, designers can look at the interplay of glazing performance and opaque wall performance to predict actual performance with certitude to satisfy code requirements.

FIBER CEMENT SIDING WeatherBoards' fiber cement siding is an integral component of the new 11,163-sq.-ft. Ponderosa Fire Station in Houston. To achieve the Texas Hill Country architectural style of the building, BRW Architects, of College Station sought exterior materials that conveyed permanence and stability. In addition to metal roofing and stone cladding, the design team looked to fiber cement siding for its authentic replication of classic wood siding without wood’s shortcomings. Fiber cement is non-combustible and will not warp or rot. WeatherBoards emerged as the final choice, due to its wide variety of color and finishing options. CertainTeed, CIRCLE 299

"We were impressed by the WeatherBoards' fi ber cement siding because it offered the exact look and performance attributes we were looking for, and it was available pre-stained with a long warranty,” says Brian Gibbs, intern architect at BRW Architects. “Th e other fi ber cement products we looked at had to be stained by hand before installation, so WeatherBoards was the clear choice for us.”

Seven states and the District of Columbia have passed laws requiring air barriers and many other states require them through adopted codes such as ASHRAE 90.1. Appreciation for continuous air barriers has certainly increased recently and that is reflected in building code language. “You have to make sure you don’t have your building radiating heat out because you haven’t coordinated your design between the glazed and the non-glazed portions. That continuity of the thermal barrier must be maintained,” adds his colleague Mark Brown.










Chicago Theological Seminary Architect, Nagle Hartray Architecture









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June 20 - 22, 2013 - Booth 2119




How Low Can You Go? Advancements in high-efficiency plumbing fixture technology are taking low flow to new heights. The water conservation angle cannot be argued; however, are these low-flow plumbing fixtures causing problems with drainline transport?

John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries— including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.


he year was 1992, I was rockin’ out on my Sony CD Walkman, the average American income was $30,000, a gallon of gas hovered around $1.05, and Bill Clinton assumed the presidency. That same year, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 was enacted, stating that all toilets manufactured in or imported into the country were required to flush no more than a maximum average 1.6 gallons, effective Jan. 1, 1994 for residential models and Jan. 1, 1997 for all other models. Pretty progressive thinking back in the ’90s, and we have come a long way in terms of plumbing fi xture innovation—showerheads that can infuse air to increase pressure while reducing gallons per minute (gpm) flow; under 1.0 gallons per flush (gpf) toilets/ faucets that meet low flow requirement of 1.5 gpm. Flushing technology has also continued to progress. Many manufacturers are now offering models that reduce flush volumes to 1.0 gpf and even 0.8 gpf. New water-efficient technologies are being developed by demand from utility programs, green building systems and greenconscious consumers. The main reason to use high-efficiency plumbing products is that they will reduce the water/ sewer bills for the building owner. And since this savings comes at no additional up-front cost for the products, it becomes an easy choice. “With a true high-efficiency product the consumer does not have to sacrifice performance to achieve savings, or vice versa,” says Bill Gauley, P.E., principal, Gauley Assocs. New designs of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and bathroom faucets achieve this savings while delivering better performance than their less-efficient predecessors. And, “making a building net zero in water use generally requires


onsite treatment and reuse of water. Reducing the amount of water that needs to be treated would decrease the size—and thus cost—of the systems to do this, so it would make even more economic sense to put water-efficient plumbing in these types of projects,” said Rob Zimmerman, manager of engineering, sustainability and water conservation, Kohler.

According to the EPA, as of now, 36 states are projecting water shortages. Each American currently consumes 100 gallons of water per day at home alone; yet 30% less water consumption can be achieved simply by installing water-effi cient fi xtures and appliances.

Keep in mind, however, that there is a difference between low flow and high efficiency. Case in point: a showerhead may have a low-flow rate but won’t result in lower water demands if the low-flow rate causes the user to take a longer shower. WaterSense, for example, promotes the use of high-efficiency fi xtures and appliances vs. simply installing low-demand fi xtures and 40 X

Hawaii Preparatory Academy Energy Lab in the town of Kamuela on the island of Hawaii.

Net Zero Energy practiced here. A P P L I E D



Excellence in Design Award and Member’s Choice Award, AIA Hawaii

Walter Taylor Award from AASA/AIA/CEFPI

Dept. of Energy Green Ribbon School

Forest Stewardship Council Award

Exceeds Platinum LEED rating

IN THE NET-ZERO ENERGY LAB DESIGNED BY FLANSBURGH ARCHITECTS, the Hawaii Preparatory Academy practices and teaches renewable energy technologies to K through 12 graders. The AIA-award winning school uses photovoltaics and wind turbines to supply its own energy, harvests rainwater for drinking, and draws on trade winds for natural ventilation. Shielding the LEED 29 design from rain, winds and salt air, Dura Coat Products’ Durapon 70® coil coating forms a protective barrier over the metal exterior surfaces. The PVDF coating was specified because of its exceptionally tough surface that resists scratching, scuffing, transit abrasion and for its long-term resistance to stains, fading and weather. Cool Roof pigments also deflect UV rays and lessen the heat island effect. Dura Coat Products was founded on innovative green coatings. Like the students in the school, Dura Coat resin chemists continually research new and better ways to protect the environment.


Dura Coat resin chemists are constantly striving to develop better coatings while reducing VOCs.


MAKES SENSE In response to WaterSense development, Speakman has now converted a majority of its faucet families to meet low flow requirement of 1.5 gpm. Unlike many of its competitors, Speakman has also converted many of their popular faucets to 2.0 gpm. This transition is being made as Speakman has seen more and more requests for lower flow faucets from the market. With this change, Speakman will be certifying most of its commercial faucets to WaterSense. Along with this change, Speakman’s LF option will also become 1.5 GPM. Speakman will still carry some repair parts for 2.2-gpm aerators in the event customers have a demand for 2.2 gpm faucets. Speakman CIRCLE 298

COOLER BY THE BAY When San Francisco’s Exploratorium becomes fully operational, its goal is to become the largest net-zero energy museum in the United States. The project actually uses water from the bay, which, depending on the season, will function as either a heat sink or a heat source for a radiant heating and cooling in the facility. Th e job of raising or lowering the temperature of that bay water will be handled by eight, 50-ton, water-to-water heat pumps, made by Multistack. Th ese electric chilled heaters feed a four-pipe system that carries either hot or chilled water to a 200,000ft. network of crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) tubing. Made by Uponor Inc., the tubing is embedded in concrete slabs on two levels and spans 82 different heating-cooling zones. Each zone has a control valve and a thermostat to switch between heating and cooling, whatever the need.


appliances. The difference being that a highefficiency product maintains a high level of performance while using less water or energy. Products that have earned the WaterSense label have been certified to be at least 20% more efficient without sacrificing performance. For example, many new WaterSense toilet models flush with approximately ⅓ of the water used by models produced in the 1980s and yet they can often flush up to four times the amount of waste. Technological advances have made the development of toilets consuming less than 1.6 gpf possible, while retaining high levels of flush performance. The EPA WaterSense specification for gravity flush water closets, for example, requires a 20% reduction in the flush discharge volume of water closets to receive the WaterSense label. Th is brings consumption down to a maximum average of 1.28 gpf for HETs. The state of California, for example, passed legislation in 2007 requiring all toilets sold or installed in that state to be HETs by the year 2014.


The Drainline Issue Many water closet manufacturers are now offering models that further reduce flush volumes to 1.0 gpf and even down to 0.8 gpf. Reduced water demands from efficient products, as well as the conservation practices adopted by the users, defi nitely result in reduced wastewater flows. These developments have rightfully raised the debate of drainline carry efficacy. Many plumbing experts have questioned whether these reduced flush volumes are approaching a “tipping point” where some sanitary waste systems would be unable to function properly. Of particular concern are larger commercial systems that have long horizontal runs to the sewer. The level of concern has been rightfully acknowledged from the leaders in the plumbing industry. Associations and prominent members of the industry such as IAPMO, ASPE, AWE, PMI and PHCC, concentrated efforts on the dry drains issue as part of the Plumbing Efficiency Research Coalition. The PERC study (www.plumbingefficiencyresearch-


SURGE FOR PUMPS Global water pump manufacturer Grundfos recently broke ground on the site of its LEEDtargeting new North American headquarters outside of Chicago.


American Standard’s water-efficient commercial bathroom suite includes an exposed 0.5-gpf urinal flush valve, decorative urinal, Selectronic AC version proximity faucet and a Murro wall-mount sink. While low-flow fixtures are becoming more prevalent—even required by many codes—an issue with low-flow fixtures—at least in older retrofit projects—is that the water-saving products don't deliver enough water to clear building drain lines— something system designers may need to address. American Standard www.american CIRCLE 297 was initiated to study the effects of high-efficiency toilets on drainline carry. There was some concern about using HETs in non-residential buildings where the drain pipes have a larger diameter and a flatter slope than residential-type drain pipes—both of these aspects negatively affect drainline carry—as well as longer runs and very little supplemental flows from showers, clothes washers, etc. In 2012, American Standard joined forces with PERC to undertake a comprehensive data analysis of high efficiency fi xture flow rates and impact to drainline carry. “At our American Standard 865 Design Center facility, PERC recreated a 160-ft. run of 4-in. waste piping and flush tested simulated waste, toilet paper and varying flows to analyze variables in horizontal carry. In fact, toilet paper type was the single most impactful variable—two-ply plush branded papers slowed drain line carry significantly.



New to North America, Aquatherm polypropylene-random (PP-R) piping has been available in 70+ countries for 40 years in domestic water, heating/cooling, and industrial applications. It is connected by heat fusion, which creates longlasting, virtually leak-free connections, while also eliminating the need for toxic materials and open flames from installations. Aquatherm is corrosion resistant, rust-free and provides a green alternative to metal and plastic piping systems.

Stratos GIGA is an inline circulator designed for use in hot water heating systems, AC and closedcooling circuits. A redesign allows it to achieve better than IE4 efficiencies, reducing motor losses by over 50%.

Aquatherm CIRCLE 296

Water flows less than 1.0 gallon per flush were inconsistent and ultimately its data could not be used in the study. PERC’s conclusions recommend high-efficiency toilet flows of 1.28 gpf,” says Jeremy Cressman, Commercial Business Leader at American Standard. In fact, to alleviate any concerns with dry drain, Cressman suggests looking at the overall drainline system before choosing your low-flow plumbing products. “Low-flow fi xtures in an existing system with poor drainline condition or improper pitch should be scoped and repaired prior to the selection of fi xtures,” says Cressman. X

The Danish-based company chose the area because of its proximity to what they called the "resurging" manufacturing sector surrounding the Great Lakes and its political climate promoting advancements in water infrastructure and sustainability. According to Søren Sørensen, Grundfos group executive vice president and chairman of the Grundfos North American Board, the company sees North America as an important growth market. In fact, he points out it is the world’s single largest market for pumps with a total market of $6.5 billion. Illinois appealed to the company, as they said the state has shown a commitment to water issues, most recently through his $1 billion initiative to upgrade water infrastructure across the state. “And we anticipate playing a major role in the further development of critical water initiatives in the state and around the country,” adds Jes Munk Hansen, president of Grundfos North America. “Sustainability is not only the right thing do, but it is good business.”





Biomass Boiler Aids Energy Initiative A biomass boiler is part of an award-winning installation at the University of Iowa’s Oakdale Research Park campus in Coralville. As an integral part of UI’s Green Energy Initiative, which seeks to have 40% of its energy needs met with renewable resources by the end of 2020, the boiler from Hurst, as part of a system designed by Shive-Hattery, replaced the campus’s naturalgas boiler. Because the project was a retrofi t, Hurst had to custom design the biomass solution to fi t into an existing structure. Bruce Coffee, Hurst’s chief engineer, said the project required some creative solutions, including modifi cation to work around space constraints and fixed barriers. Th e boiler is able to combust hundreds of different fuels, allowing the university to burn local fuels such as wood chips and oat hulls, while keeping fossil fuels in place for backup.

Median Water Use Intensity Observed (Indoor Only) 60

Senior Care Facility Hotel Hospital Multi-Family Housing Residence Hall/Dorm Supermarket/Grocery Medical Office Office Bank/Financial Institution Courthouse K-12 School House of Worship Retail Warehouse (Unrefrigerated)

53 51 43 36 24 19 13 12 10 9 7 5 3



WATER USE Kohler’s Zimmerman concurs: “Th is issue is tricky because it’s so site-specific. We have not heard of problems with high-efficiency plumbing in new construction. However, in older buildings that are being retrofitted, it’s important to understand the design of the plumbing system before starting. As long as we are using water to transport waste out of a building, there is a physical limit to how low we can go. But we believe that current levels of water efficiency as represented by EPA’s WaterSense program are fi ne in almost all cases.” According to Maximum Performance (MaP),, there are no authoritative reports of high-efficiency products causing building drainlines or municipal sewer systems in the U.S. to experience blockages. “I think the dry drains issue is largely overblown. I hear vague references to dry drains but there seems to be very little actual evidence or examples of where advancements in water conservation has resulted in dry drains,” says Gauley. After doing hundreds of flush tests, the study concluded that the use of high-efficiency toilets should actually be promoted and encouraged in non-residential buildings. “The PERC study, as well as drainline research that I completed earlier, show that water/waste ‘back up’ in the drain pipe until the weight of the water/ waste is sufficient to overcome the friction at the interface between the water/waste and the pipe wall, and then it ‘gushes’ forward in a great wave,” says Gauley.


Water Use Intensity (gal /ft²/year) Each individual building type displays a range of water use intensity values. This variation may result from differences in business activity, climate or equipment and operation. As the chart shows, the range in variation for hospitals is quite large, while less variation is seen in schools and offices.

Finally, research in Australia and Europe has indicated that, in the future, the combination of significantly reduced wastewater flows from a wide array of high-efficiency products and systems might result in waste transport problems in some types of U.S. building drainlines. As more efficient practices and equipment become mainstream tools for reducing water consumption, North America must be prepared for these potential issues, particularly in commercial and industrial applications. A net-zero building may require slightly different layouts for water supply piping and/or drainage piping but this should be relatively easy to do in new construction. “The pipe diameters and pipe slopes that we use in construction today were designed many decades ago when the way we used water was much different than it is today. I think it might be time to redesign our water supply/drain piping systems to bring them inline with how we use water today and how we may use water tomorrow. If you are designing a net-zero building, then you need to design the building systems to accommodate the ‘low-flow’ fi xtures and appliances, not the other way around,” concludes Gauley.

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E G D E L W O N K G N I BUILD NASHVILLE 2013 SHOW DATES: September 25 - 27 CONFERENCE: September 24 - 27 Music City Center | Nashville, TN







Choosing the Right Fit Choosing an appropriate light source for an application requires more than consideration of the core technologies available. Lighting design and specification is more complex than comparing simplistic efficacy or service life ratings.

Kevin Willmorth is a lighting professional who has emphasized lighting conservation for 32 years. He helped create Architectural SSL magazine and remains its editor. He is also the owner of Lumenique, a consultancy focused on deploying SSL products.


ptical control demands, operating environment, accessibility, cost of service, controls requirements, needs of occupants, and other factors defi ning specific application demands create a foundation of a lighting specification, upon which right-fit selections can be made. In part one of this two-part series, the general character of each of the current lighting technologies will be revealed. In part two, how these products impact controls and operational choices will be explored in greater detail.

Incandescent and Halogen Technology Until very recently, there remained several application areas where a high-performance halogen light source could be rationalized as a viable choice. Th is technology is exceptionally low in cost, offers opportunities for optical control that other technologies cannot replace and is as simple as it gets to control. However, there are new technologies available today that are boxing incandescent technologies into a very narrow application range. Th is will be particularly evident in any effort to attain the goals of net zero design, where the low efficiency and short life of these lamps will have them set aside for other alternatives. For the near future, incandescent technologies are best left to high temperature appliance or environmental uses, and not much more.

Fluorescent Lamp Technology When operated from program start electronic ballasts, life expectancies greater than 40,000 hours (to 50% of lamp failures) can be achieved. Flicker has been completely eliminated from T8 and T5 lamp systems due to high frequency operation (>20 kHz in most systems), while color performance has also improved dramati-


cally, offering high CRI in a wide range of CCT colors. With efficacies reaching greater than 105 lumens per watt, this technology is a top performer in sustainable design. The proliferation of low cost luminaires with high efficiency creates a very high value overall. Plug-in CFL lamps offer some of the same advantages as linear forms, albeit with significantly shorter lives, higher cost per lumen delivered and relatively clumsy form factors. 46 X

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RETROFIT IN STYLE EYE Lighting International’s kíaroLED Post Top is designed for easy retrofi t of 70- to 250-watt HID post tops. kíaroLED is a stylish, LED upgrade choice for streets, roadways, parks, walkways, gardens, commercial areas, and office and college campuses. The LED post tops offer the same features associated with all kíaroLED luminaires, including control of backlight and glare, a variety of available distribution patterns, powder-coated fi nishes in multiple colors, and IP66 rated optical and electrical chambers. Energy-saving 80-watt kíaroLED Post Tops deliver 64 lumens per watt and 5700K color temperature. EYE Lighting Intl. CIRCLE 294

WINNING STUFF Fluorescent sources still deliver excellent energy performance at a reasonable cost. An example of such work is at the corporate offices of ThyssenKrupp, in Essen, Germany, a 2010 GE Edison Award winner. The building’s modern architecture was brought to life by a progressive lighting plan by Licht Kunst Licht AG. In the dining areas, the space features combinations of ceramic metal halide wallwashing, decorative halogen pendants and T5 fluorescent coves. In the executive dining area, custom circular pendants with GE 35-watt halogen lamps provide direct lighting on the tables.

The liabilities of fluorescent sources include their use of mercury, an environmental poison, the required continual maintenance and their poor optical form factor. For anything but soft large area ambient or general illumination, the scale of the light sources makes optical control more a matter of glare and brightness shielding than precise intensity direction. Luminaires that attempt to bring these unwieldy sources under control are far less efficient, frequently consuming as much energy in optical losses as they do in producing usable light. Louvers and lenses designed to reduce unwanted brightness also reduce efficiency.


Induction Lamp Technology The induction lamp is a sister technology to the fluorescent lamp. What sets it apart is its lack of the internal cathode/anode and starting aides contained in conventional fluorescent lamps. Instead, this technology utilizes a very high frequency to induce the internal arc stream, which excites the phosphor into the same manner as the fluorescent lamp. The result is a very long life, often between 40,000 and 100,000 hours. Efficiency is on par with mainstream T8 and T5 lamps. Th is is also a mature technology, although the costs associated with its antenna and power driver systems places it a premium. The chief liability of this technology is the large light source, making it unsuitable for any applications requiring tight beam control or sharp cutoff. Attempts to apply this technology in controlled optics result in bulky, inefficient systems.



In a bit of an odd twist, the Museu da Eletricidade in Lisbon, Portugal turned to ETC to deliver HID as the source for their traditional Source Four luminaires. Twenty-four of the fixtures were immediately put to use on a display by Portuguese painter Vitor Pomar. These were deemed such a success that the managers ordered a further 34 instruments to light the World Press Photo exhibition. “Th e Source Four HID has a long-life lamp and produces less heat per

lumen output than tungsten luminaires–plus, in taking advantage of the optics, which made the Source Four renowned, a 150-watt Source Four HID fixture provides an output close to that of its 575-watt tungsten counterpart,” says Vitor Paiva, commercial director at ETC dealer Luzeiro.


High Intensity Discharge White light high-intensity-discharge (HID) technologies range from very small compact lamps as low as 15 watts to very large highpower sources more than 1,500 watts. Lowwattage metal halide sources have been emerging as an option to the less efficient halogen lamp in display and retail application. Currently available in high CRI color, these sources offer a single intense source well suited to optical control. Mid-power metal halide sources are well adapted to outdoor and garage uses. High wattage metal halide sources are highest in efficacy, generating as much as 200,000 lumens at over 140 lumens per watt at the extreme. These are generally reserved for applications where distances between the source and target are extreme, such as stadiums.

The liabilities of HID sources are their relatively short life (4,000 to 24,000 hr. typically), and use of large quantities hazardous materials. These sources are also fussy about how they are operated, susceptible to failures from vibration, excessive heat build-up and impact. They also generate a high level of UV radiation that can harm interior surfaces, as well as burn skin if improperly applied.

Solid-State Technologies

INDUCTION LAMP OSRAM SYLVANIA has enhanced the light output and lumen maintenance of its proven family of ICETRON ECOLOGIC Inductively Coupled Electrodeless Fluorescent Systems. The lamp and Quicktronic ballast systems provide a cost effective, reliable solution for a range of indoor and outdoor applications including high bay, freezer, tunnel and street and area lighting. Osram Sylvania CIRCLE 293

Solid-state sources, specifically LEDs, are the most recent additions to lighting. Products employing LED technology now deliver luminous efficacy (system) of between 65 and 180 lumens per watt, placing them ahead of all but the best fluorescent products. Since LEDs are directional point sources, they are very easily controlled optically, making them the perfect choice when there is a need for directional X





control. For sustainable applications, LEDs generate equivalent light characteristics to halogen sources, while using 80% less energy, and delivering service lives as great as 70,000 hours to 70% of initial brightness. LED sources are also well suited to frequent switching applications, are immune to cold and vibration, and offer flexibility in form factor that frees product designers to create virtually and shape of light source imaginable. As the costs of this technology continue to improve and more products are made available employing the technology, LEDs will displace the incandescent and halogen lamp, the compact fluorescent lamp, low wattage and medium wattage HID sources and the induction lamp. The organic cousin to the LED, the OLED, is in its nascent stage today. However, this technology has the potential to eventually replace what remains of the fluorescent lamp technology not already absorbed by LED.

Do the Homework

THE NEW STANDARD IN LED AREA & ROADWAY LIGHTING TThe ASPIRE® AP650 luminaire is suitable ffor area, roadway, site and general lighting applications. Providing excellent vertical light distribution, high uniformity, and lasting performance, the ASPIRE® is ideal for commercial, institutional and municipal markets. ALWAYS INNOVATING ALWAYS IMPROVING

To fi nd the right-fit of a technology to an application requires consideration of more than simple metric evaluation of a technology. In the near term, selecting the right approach from the range of suitable technologies will often include economic considerations over the near term. As emerging technologies mature, this is likely to be narrowed significantly, as older less effective approaches are abandoned to make room for more sustainable and efficient choices.


Burger Bliss Red Robin Gourmet Burgers has replaced approximately 12,000 standard incandescent and halogen lights in more than 150 locations in the U.S. with new, more efficient 7–watt GE LED PAR 20 flood and spot lights. Red Robin is using the LED lights for general down lighting applicxations

that require a high quality of light. GE indicates that the switch helps preserve the ambiance of Red Robin restaurants and customers‘ ultimate comfort while supporting Red Robin‘s initiatives targeted at saving several hundred thousand dollars annually in lighting energy costs over the life of the new LED lights.

GE Lighting CIRCLE 292

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Building Intelligence Building automation systems offer users more control and easier access to information from the building and its systems. But beyond operational savings, owners and designers also need to factor in the benefits of employee comfort and its subsequent effects on productivity.

John Mesenbrink has been covering the building and construction industry for more than 15 years, focusing his efforts on the plumbing and HVAC industries— including the launch of his website, which focuses on the installation side of mechanical systems.


uildings of the future, once conceptualized decades ago, actually are reality today. With the integration of key systems such as HVAC, lighting and security, a functioning, “smart” building is now capable of speaking internally across platforms as a result of an intelligent building automation system (BAS), also known as a building management system (BMS). “These systems are the foundation for creating an efficient infrastructure,” says Ronald Greaves, strategic marketing manager, Siemens.

With the right building management system, users have more control and easier access to information from their building and its systems. “Users get the most benefit when that information is integrated, organized and delivered conveniently—via the cloud, smart phone—where and when you need it to make smarter decisions about day-to-day operations and short-and long-term facility planning,” says James Dagley, LEED AP, vice president, marketing and strategy, Johnson Controls.

The Cost of Comfort It is through the integration of multiple building platforms that is the underlying constant. “Systems integration is a key evolution in the building automation marketplace. We see a defi nite trend of building owners expecting to have a single ‘portal’ into the operating characteristics of their facilities. Integration of formerly segregated systems of HVAC control, lighting control, card access and video surveillance are coming together,” says Dave Molin, general manager of Building Control Systems, Honeywell Environmental & Combustion Controls.

According to Steve Tom, director of technical information, Automated Logic, a well-designed,

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These systems play the critical role in managing the balance-point between a comfortable and productive working environment, while minimizing the energy spent to deliver those environmental conditions. A building automation system provides the control portal that permits a facility manager to proactively manage their facility. “A good BAS provides occupant comfort, insight into the mechanical system operating conditions and the flexibility to address critical facility needs,” says Molin.



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MOD MAKEOVER The classroom of the future may be here sooner than we suspect if the minds behind Sprout Space continue to innovate and change the way sustainable design is approached. Sprout Space, a flexible modular 21st Century classroom designed by architecture fi rm Perkins+Will, is a prototype for a larger initiative to create a net-positive modular classroom. Currently, there are over 180,000 modular classrooms in the country, a large majority of which are substandard and in need of renovation. The idea for better classrooms began when Allen Post, the project’s manager, decided to get Perkins+Will involved in modular designs. His team participated in the Architecture for Humanity Project to create a design that would change the way classrooms are built. Their winning concept became Sprout Space. Post later partnered with John Michael from Modular Air, who was on the same page in seeking high performance and healthy classrooms. The two also partnered with LG for the heating/ cooling design. Michael decided on two LG products: the Multi V Mini for HVAC and Mono X Module for solar. The former is designed to provide the owner the benefi ts of VRF (variable refrigerant flow) lower operational costs per year, minimal or no duct work to purchase


or install, superior comfort with room zoning while maintaining architectural integrity. The system provides builders a flexible solution with independent comfort zoning, which takes maximum advantage of LG’s inverter technology. The system also requires minimal installation as it can adapt to any current setup a building offers

and requires fewer materials than other systems. In the case of the modular unit, Michael was able to install the HVAC system in two days time, saving costs on labor. The fi nal result was an energy efficient HVAC system that was also extremely quiet, a must for Post’s vision of a modular classroom.

well-run building automation system should provide two key benefits to the customer: It should provide a comfortable and safe environment for the people inside the building, and it should provide this environment while using a minimum amount of resources. Depending on the building and the environment, that could mean a minimum amount of energy, a minimum amount of potable water, or a minimum level of maintenance—or all of the above. The features offered by a BAS should provide a comfortable environment while using a minimum of resources. “In today’s world, there is no excuse for wasting resources. On the other hand, the fact that a BAS can integrate HVAC control with security and turn off the HVAC when rooms are unoccupied, provides no benefit if the building is occupied 24/7,” says Tom. Everything else about the BAS—integration with other building systems, support for open standards, analytics of key performance variables, etc.—are features that are important only insofar as they support the key benefits. The economic benefits of keeping a building comfortable far outweigh the energy savings of schemes like duty cycling or mandatory set-point adjustments that save energy at the expense of comfort. “The ‘people costs’ are hard to measure, though, while energy costs are easily metered. Unless the building manager understands the people costs, it’s easy to get in the mindset of energy vs. comfort,” says Tom.

The Cost of Maintenance Like any building system, maintenance of that system plays a key role in keeping facilities operating as efficiently as possible. “Our systems are becoming more and more software driven. New versions of software that offer new features [and value] are continually streaming into the marketplace. A good maintenance system incorporates software advancements to keep the facility operating in peak efficiency,” says Molin. A good BAS can help building owners take care of issues before they become major problems. A simple, easy-to-use operator interface that provides real-time values on graphics and visible control logic displays is essential. “A new concept called ‘Fault Detection and Diagnostics’ (FDD)—sometimes implemented through Analytics—is specifically designed to spot equipment performance problems. Even without new tools, however, a BAS can be an invaluable troubleshooting tool. Trending of all key values is critical,” Tom adds.


According to Dagley, the BAS makes its biggest impact on building maintenance when it leverages a cloud-based approach to work order management. That gives building owners and operators the opportunity to get off fi xed maintenance calendars and start identifying and dealing with maintenance issues in realtime. In the past, service calls were based on run-hours while ineffective equipment wasted valuable energy and utility dollars until it was scheduled for maintenance or ran-to-failure. Better, strategic approaches to the BMS and work order management now exist to lower costs and extend the life cycle of a facility and its equipment.

Coming Together

When one has better visibility into one’s metrics, better decisions can be made to help optimize energy savings and building performance. “Our BMS is complemented by cloudbased building efficiency applications delivered in the software-as-a-service (SaaS) model. For example, we offer a continuous diagnostics advisor application, which constantly monitors building systems to detect problems that waste energy and impact tenant comfort. Applications like this are helping users optimize operational performance, identify cost and energy efficiencies, and predict maintenance needs,” says Dagley.

A simple example can be found in healthcare: Upon a patient’s arrival their room lights are activated by the BMS, the nurse call system alerts the care provider, and the patient records are sent directly to a clinician’s handheld device. “That’s the kind of integration every vertical market—from schools to hospitals to commercial buildings—should expect from their BMS provider,” concludes Dagley.

According to Siemens’ Greaves, drivers for a BAS include increasing energy efficiency; lowering operating costs; customizing solutions to meet end user requirements; regulatory compliance; and indoor air quality. Systems integration is key to making this happen, and a key evolution in the building automation marketplace. Almost every building system can and should integrate seamlessly. “Now we are helping our customers consider how the building management system can go beyond the building function, converging the organization’s business and specialty systems together on the same network,” says Dagley.

INNOVATIONS IN UFAD Tate has introduced a pair of novel UFAD products: an in-floor active chilled beam (below); and phase-change panels (above). During peak solar loads the material of the latter product is embedded within the floor panels, melts and absorbs energy, which is held until night when it resolidifies and releases. Tate CIRCLE 291



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The September issue of Net Zero Building explores the idea as to whether it’s possible to make a net-zero retroďŹ t. The answer is yes, according to the designers at Environmental Building Strategies, who successfully did so with the Zero Net Energy Center in San Leandro, Calif., a renovation of the facilities of the Northern California Chapter of NECA’s Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee program. Elsewhere, we’ll explore what’s involved in implementing a high-performance rooďŹ ng system, including solar integration. Other topics: clerestory and skylight strategies; controls and sensors for daylighting and lighting; rainwater harvesting and greywater systems; zone heating and cooling.


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Green that Works What to make of all the green discussion? Cutting through all of the green "sheen," renewable systems specialist Bob Rohr discusses the viability of onsite power in today's commercial applications.

Tales of “green” technology have been told for decades now. Marketers work tirelessly to promote product and brand, so “stretched messages” are common. We all need to be more vigilant when it comes to searching for energyefficient products and services. That being said, I couldn’t think of a better person to talk with than Bob “Hot Rod” Rohr about alternative energy usage; someone who can cut through the green hype. Rohr has been a plumbing, solar and hydronics installer for more than 25 years, and is currently the training and education manager for Caleffi North America, a company creating innovative performance products. Rohr, in fact, has dedicated his professional life to the promotion of fundamental sustainable policies, including biomass. Per our cover story, I asked Rohr the importance of wind power in terms of reaching net zero. “Siting is the most critical aspect,”


says Rohr. Wind sites that are being developed, he says, have to be studied and analyzed to make it worthwhile for investors and energy companies to allow access to consistent wind generation. “The best way for building owners to embrace wind is to buy it through a local provider. To harvest enough wind to cover much of the building load requires some fairly specific windheavy sites—compared to solar, where even the least sunny cities still average 150 days of sunshine per year,” says Rohr. Windmills, he adds, also require special trades to install and maintain the towers. Onsite solar power, on the other hand, offers tremendous potential in Rohr's eyes. Putting photovoltaics (PV) on applicable roofs and buildings is like installing minipower generation stations at every structure. “Covering cooling loads, with site-generated energy makes sense as solar energy

“ TO H A RV E S T EN O U G H W I N D TO COV ER M U CH O F T H E B U I L D I N G LOA D R EQ U I R E S S O M E FA I R LY S PECI F I C W I N D - H E AV Y S I T E S .” matches with the summer loads nicely. By coupling PV with heat pumps or high efficiency inverter-type heating domestic hot water (DHW) and cooling equipment, further leverages this site generated energy,” says Rohr. With PV prices dropping, the technology has viability. Any building considering solar thermal should have a comprehensive site analysis and load calculation performed. The Importance of Teamwork Regardless of the technology and installation, in order to achieve net zero goals, it is imperative that the entire team— from the building owner to engineer to the mechanical/ electrical contractor—work in unison. Communication,

collaboration and cohesion among team members are critical to the net zero process. “The only way a job is going to run efficiently, and cost effectively, is when all the trades and engineers work together. With today’s modern tools—like CAD and BIM—all the necessary information can ensure even the most complex job runs smoothly. Plans can be e-mailed and subcontractors can overlay their installation, and changes can be made in the fi les before ground is even broken,” says Rohr.

Bob Rohr Caleffi North America, Milwaukee. With more than 30 years as a plumbing, heating and solar installer, Rohr currently travels the country as the training and education manager for Caleffi , teaching contractors the benefi ts of solar and hydronics applications. He is a proponent of alternative energy use, and his “Coffee with Caleffi” webinars have been well received.

John Mesenbrink Contributing Editor

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