AT THE FRONT
Linear ﬂuorescent remains king of ofﬁce lighting, although LED is gaining ground. The question is, can it become a general ambient source?
The latest round of CALiPER testing pits LED vs. linear ﬂuorescent; iconic Detroit complex reinvents itself with LED; a cool take on controls.
The lobby of the Kansas City Hyatt undergoes a renovation that emphasizes the greatness of the space by going small with LED.
NUMBER 26 • JANUARY 2013 www.architecturalssl.com
Effective Intelligence: Matriculation to true intelligent control is not easy, but “Professor” Willmorth outlines a syllabus of coursework, including some research on open source architecture for dimming, that will ultimately help the community graduate with honors. [ Page 12]
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 519 BRIARCLIFF ROAD, BOLINGBROOK, IL 60440
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • Chronicling the Ad dvancement of LEDs in the Built Environment
FLAT LEARNING CURVE At times, it seems impossible to achieve the kind of intelligent control LED promises without running into issues. Do not despair, it just takes the right kind of education.
SSL Proﬁle: Salon Urbain in Montreal, Canada. SSL Proﬁle: Silo 468 in Helsinki, Finland. White Pages: The Evolution of Solid-State Education n.
11 In Brief: Philips Hue color-changing LED lamps with smartphone control.
07 CALiPER Round 19
05 LED Insights
LED vs. linear ﬂuorescent showdown a draw.
29 Project Proﬁle: Salon Urbain, Place des Arts, Montreal, Canada
08 Renaissance Center
The Wild West of SSL is still wild and won’t see major gains in adoption until critical infrastructure issues are worked out. By Jim Crockett
33 Project Proﬁle: Silo 468, Helsinki, Finland
02 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
Detroit continues its efforts to shock the city to life, this time with LED lighting on a downtown icon.
09 SAS Headquarters With people in mind, a manufacturer creates a custom luminaire which seamlessly transitions visitors from the outside, in.
44 SSL Observed Despite calls to think “outside the box,” it’s hard to escape the form which permeates our thinking. So rather than change the shape of the box, let’s subvert it from within with lighting magic. By Kevin Willmorth
“The deployment of SSL can lead to exciting new intelligent controls approaches. The sooner the industry can develop a universal foundation for this, the sooner manufacturers can deliver.” —Kevin Willmorth
DESIGN & PRODUCTS
12 Market Setting Feature: Curriculum to Increasing IQ
36 White Pages
SSL lends itself to being intelligently controlled—so why are there so many issues, especially with dimming? Perhaps the greatest barrier to smarter systems is a lack of a universal open dimming protocol. by Kevin Willmorth
Prioritizing customer education: Identify the ﬁne line between delivering desired know-how and over-complex, over-demanding engineer-speak.
18 At The Front: Around the Water Cooler In the ofﬁce, linear ﬂuorescent remains king, although LED is certainly gaining ground. This begs the question: Does LED have the legs to take over as a general ambient illumination source? by Barbara Horwitz-Bennett
38 Advances Intelligent controls, pendants, track ﬁxtures, downlights, replacement sources, drivers and modules.
Architectural SSL, Vol. 7, No. 1 (ISSN# 1941-8388) is published ﬁve times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; www.architecturalssl.com. (Copyright © 2012 by Construction Business Media) POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Architectural SSL Magazine, 519 East Briarcliff Road, Bolingbrook, IL 60440.
24 Featured Project: Kansas City Marriott Lobby Renovation The hotel redeﬁnes the grandness of its “great” lobby by subtracting obvious light sources from the space, paving the way for discreet LEDs. by Ellen Lampert-Gréaux
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 03
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NUMBER 26 • JAN 2013 www.architecturalssl.com
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Last issue I talked about the need for the community to get going on resolving critical SSL infrastructure issues so things can really take off. In this month’s Market Setting Feature, Kevin Willmorth lays out a good place to start.
It’s as if the Union Pacific and Central Pacific
EDITORIAL Jim Crockett 847 359 6493 Kevin Willmorth
Megan Mazzocco 847 359 6493
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complete the Transcontinental line. What’s more maddening is that it’s not a locomotive being delayed, but a bullet train. At Lightfair I had a conversation with Sajol Ghoshal, director of Sensor Driven Lighting at Austria Micro Systems. In his vision of the not-so-distant future, Ghoshal sees a world where sensors become ubiquitous. It’s just
Associate Editor email@example.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Vilma Barr firstname.lastname@example.org Barbara Horwitz-Bennett email@example.com Ellen Lampert-Greaux firstname.lastname@example.org Chuck Ross email@example.com
railroads were using different gauge track to
common sense, as he says a smart-sensor driven Since I often have some kind of movie reference
lighting system “is critical to meeting world-wide
on this page, I might as well get it out of the way…
government mandates to reduce energy con-
Shockingly, I only just saw “The Man Who Shot
Liberty Valance.” So? Well, something from the
He explained this next wave of “cognitive”
John Ford classic struck me about the state of
lighting systems will finally make use of the abun-
solid-state lighting. In the film, there’s a point
dance of data available to autonomously adjust
where the people of the territory call a conven-
the built environment at a sub-system level.
tion to vote to become a state to impose law
With low-cost and low-power wireless network-
and order, opposed to leaving things “open,” and
ing, such as ZigBee, or wired networks, he says
letting the major cattle ranchers enjoy the “lib-
systems can employ group intelligence and semi-
erty” of enforcing their will with hired guns—the
autonomous control architectures that are aware
movie’s title character being the chief goon.
of what individual luminaires are doing and able
Without getting into detail, what struck me
to self-organize the most efficient lighting plan
as the real driver of change—besides someone
for each moment. “By transferring intelligence
shooting Lee Marvin—was the railroad. When
to luminaire groups that report a higher level
tracks were laid, and stations finally created, it
status, while responding to building level goals,
allowed a means for people and aspiring busi-
centralized control systems can be remade as
nessmen—along with plenty of troops—to come
command, rather than control engines, struc-
out to these far-flung places, with burgeoning
tured for standardized, rather than proprietary
civilization eventually driving off the ranchers,
protocols,” says Ghoshal.
indigenous peoples and gunmen. In the world of SSL, the problem is that the
By off-loading control tasks, cognitive lighting systems, he says, will be able to respond
track and stations just aren’t out there, despite
with a broader range of options than simply
many embracing Horace Greeley’s famous call to
dimming, including color temperature adapta-
action. In this case, the “track” issue is personi-
tion to support natural circadian rhythms of the
fied by problems with dimming controls. As Kevin
users. “Environmentally aware, decision-directed
points out in his MSF essay, there are a number of
networks will enhance not only the productiv-
problems in the field typically brought on by pair-
ity of the built space, but also worker and group
ing outmoded and incompatible technologies with
more sophisticated SSL products. But beyond these hiccups, a greater issue is the lack of a
Sounds good to me. It seems like it’s time to organize a convention…•
standard for dimming. “When there are too many individual proprietary products in the market,
A Publication of Construction Business Media
each demanding its own hardware, wiring and software interface, assembling a complete light-
ing system from diverse product manufacturers becomes impossible,” says Willmorth.
Jim Crockett, editorial director
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 05
Inspired by Nature
Invented by Nichia
Only nature produces better, more efficient light than Nichia, inventor of the white LED. And with nature to inspire us, we are ever researching, developing beautiful light that lasts longer using less energy...through our broad product offerings. So for all of your lighting needs, get inspired! Ask for the worldâ€™s best LEDs, only from Nichia.
Ever Researching for a Brighter World
info @ nichia .com Circle 03
CALiPER Testing, Round 19 CALIPER C CA ALLIP AL IP IPE PE ER R RO R ROUND OUN OU UND ND 19 119: 9: 9: LED LED-FLUORESCENT LE ED-F D-F -FL -FL FLU LUO LU UO ORE OR RES RES ESC SCE CEN ENT NT SHO SHOWDOWN—NO SH HOW OW WD DOW DO OW WN N—N N— —NO NO CLEAR C CLE CL LE LEA EAR AR WIN W WINNER INN NNE NER NER ER
Lumen Output of Linear Pendants With LED and T5 Lamping
1 T5 2 T5
1 T5HO 2 T5HO
ABOVE: The report emphasizes that ﬁxtures should be evaluated with their speciﬁc application in mind, even when models are offered in both ﬂuorescent and LED versions. Speciﬁers shouldn’t assume companion ﬁxtures will perform the same just because they happen to look alike.
CALiPER Round 19 Linear Pendant Data i∑iti±L outPut [Lμ]
Tot±l i∑Put PoΔ§R [Lμ/Δ]
DO§ C±LiP§R ID
ABOVE: Color quality is another area where ﬂuorescents and LEDs differ. An LED ﬁxture’s color quality is relatively ﬁxed for a luminaire’s lifetime, with the only options being those offered by that manufacturer.
ABOVE: All of the surveyed products offered at least two color temperatures; generally 3500K or 4000K, although some did have 3000K or even 2700K offerings; most products featured a CRI around 80.
Round 19 of the DOE’s CALiPER testing program focused on LED linear pendants. Researchers switched things up a bit in this test round by comparing LED products directly against versions of the same product using traditional ﬂuorescent lamps. On the upside, LED versions were more efficacious than their ﬂuorescent counterparts, with similar color quality. On the downside, LED luminous intensity distribution often differed, as did lumen output, so researchers cautioned speciﬁers against thinking differently lamped versions of the same ﬁxture can be used interchangeably. This round’s testing procedure also varies from those of previous rounds, which pitted LED product performance against outlined performance criteria and/or sample benchmarks. Because there is a far greater variety in the linear pendant category than in, say, wall washers or street lighting, researchers believed the best apples-to-apples comparison was between differently lamped versions of the same ﬁxture. Report authors noted several caveats in this round’s results. Nine LED products were purchased anonymously, and 11 products were identiﬁed through a survey of manufacturer literature. Data for the survey products comes from manufacturersupplied literature, including IES-format information on ﬂuorescent products that is based on relative, not absolute, photometry, which may overestimate a ﬁxture’s lumen output. The reason for the vast variety in this lighting category is largely aesthetic—manufacturers have developed a wide variety of housing shapes to help differentiate individual products, and these shapes can, in turn, affect performance. However, these ﬁxtures can be grouped by how they distribute light into direct light, which is directed downward, or indirect light, which is directed upward—or even direct-indirect light, which is directed both down and up. Additionally, the combination of reﬂectors, difZ
CONTINUED ON PAGE 08
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 07
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 07
ffusers, us use ser ers rs,, prismatic pri rism sm matic lenses, mat lleense ses es, s, louvers lo lou ouv uve ver ers rs and an nd d other o ot oth the her er accessories acc ac cce cesssori ries ess ca can an nh have ave a ssig sign signiﬁ gni niﬁ ﬁcant ﬁca cant im impact mpactt on n ov overall ove ver era rallll ﬁ ﬁxt xxture xtu uree performance. perfo rfform rm mance. Researchers Rese Res e earch rcche hers rss found fou fo oun und nd d a broad broad bro d range ra ran ang nge gee off lumen lu lum um men n outputs output uts tss among aam mo mon ongg the tth he ﬂuor u uoresuo ore resscent cen ce nt ﬁxt ﬁxtu xxtures ures reess they the th they ey studied, studie stu ied ed, d, based based on bas on the th the number n um mbe b ber err aan and nd d typ type tyype pee of of lamps la lam mp mps pss they th the hey eyy used—e.g., use sed ed— d—e —e. e.gg., standard sta st tan and ndaard d T5 T5 lamps lam mps p pss emit eem mitt approximately ap aapp ppr pro roxxim mate tel elyy 22,600 2,6 ,600 to to 33,0 3,000 ,0 000 lu lumens, um men eens ns,, w while whil h hilee T5HO T T5 T5H 5HO HO O lamps la lam am mps eemit m mit it between betw ween 4,450 4,45 ,4 450 50 0 aand nd 55,000 ,000 llumens. umens. LED LE ED pendants p pen endants are aree able able to to meet meet or or exceed exc xce cee eed ed conventional con co nventio tional ﬂu uorescent ores reesc sceent o output, utpu tp put ut, t, tthanks hanks to o tthe he aample mple mpl p e sur ssurface u urfa fac ace ce area are ar a ea and and volume vol vvo olu ume me these the th hes ese se ﬁxtures xtu xxtture res ess feature, fea feeat atu ure, ree, with wit ith h the the report report documenting d doc o ocu um men eent nti ting ngg a range range o off 7744 44 llumens um men eens nss aal alll tthe he way waayy up up to o 7,283 7, 7,2283 llumens. um men eens ns. s. H How However, o owe wev eve ver, er, researchers res re eseearch rcche hers erss noted note ted ed d that tha th hat att only onl on onlyy a handful han hand ha ndf dfu ful ul of of LE LED ED D ﬁxxtures tur tu ure ress had had ad lumen lu lumen men en outputs outpu tp put uts tss within wit ith hin n 10% 10 0% % of of the tth hee companion co com om mpanio ion on n ﬂuorescent uores reesc sceent verversion sio si on of of the the same ssam aame mee ﬁ ﬁxt xxture, ture, ree, meaning mean mea eani nin ng that that a change cha ch ange iin n la lam lamp am mp ttyp mp type tyypee likely lik ike kely elyy will will res result reesu sult ultt in na diff d iff ffere erent erren ent nt level lev eve vel el of of per p performance. erfo e for orm manc man ance ce. e. The Thee LED LED pendants pen pe pend nda dan ant ntss proved prove prov ved ed d to oh have ave aan n advantage adv ad dva van ntag age gee in n luminous lu lum um min ino nou ous us effi effica fficacy, cacy, cyy, with with LED wit LE ED ﬁxxtures ﬁxt tures rees besting bes be best stin ing ngg ﬂu uorescent ores reesccentt co counterparts cou oun unt nte ter erp parts rts n eight eeigght of ei of the thee 111 ﬁxture xtu xttur uree types types surveyed. surve rvvey eye yed d. in Among those Am ttho hose products, p pro roduc uct cts ts,, LED LED effi efficacies caci ciees Among rea re eac ach che hed ed as as high high iggh as as 85 85 lm/watt, lm m/w wat att, and an nd d the th the reached tes te est steed products pro rod odu duc uct cts ts ranged ranged up up to to 79 79 lm/watt. lm m/w watt tt. t. tested Surv Sur u vey eye yed ed d ﬂuorescent uores reesc sceent ﬁxt ﬁxtures xtu x ures rees ranged ran ra r nged Surveyed betw ween 35 35 lm/watt lm m/w //wa wat attt aand nd 75 75 lm/watt. lm m/w watt tt. t. between n ter te tterms erm ms of ms of lig llight igh ght htt in iintensity ntens en nsi sity tyy distribudist isstri rib buIn tio ion on, n, tthe he ttyp ype of of lens len ens nss made m mad aade dee a signiﬁ sig ign gniﬁ niﬁ ﬁcant can caant nt tion, type im mpact ct— t—m —m match che hed ed d LED LED and an nd d ﬂu uorescent ores reesccentt impact—matched pro rod odu duc ucts tss using usin ing ngg diff d diffus ffuse use lenses le lenses seess tended ten te end nde ded ed d to t products haave hav ve similar ssi sim milar mila ar values. valu lue ues es. s. These These lenses le len ens nse ses es help h he hel elp p have maask mas skk p po pot ote ten ent ntia ial al gglar laare re from fro om m LED LED LE D products, pro rod odu duc uct ctss, mask potential glare bu utt they tth the hey eyy al als aalso so ccan an rreduce educee eeffi fficacy. ccac ca acyy. Light Lig Light but distr dist trib ibu but utio ion on n diff diff ffer eere red d in in product productt pairs pro pai paairs rss distribution ered inc in nco cor orp pora rat atin ing ngg cl cle ear o prismatic ri rism sm matic lle mat lenses ense ses ess – incorporating clear orr p bu utt rep reepo por ortt authors auth tho hor ors rs said said d the th hee diff diff ffeer erin ring ngg LLED ED but report ering distr dist trib ibu but utio ion on n still st sti tillll could could db bee aappropriate ppro rop opr pria riat ate te if if it distribution meett speciﬁ ssp spe pec eciﬁ ciﬁ ﬁc aapplication pplica liccat atio tion on nn eeds. Th The Thee rep re epo por ortt met needs. report aut au uth tho hor orss concluded concl clu uded that that the the lighting liligghtin ng comco ccom om mauthors munit ity ty needs n nee eeed eds ds to to recognize rec re r cogn oggni nizze that that “LEDs “LEDs aare ree munity new ew light liligght source source rcce with with ith unique uniq uni n que characterchara rac actterr a new istticcs and is and opportunities.” o op opp ppo por ortu tu unitties iees.” .• istics
HIGHRISES: RENAISSANCE CENTER
Making it in Detroit Detroit’s Renaissance Center is a signature presence in that city’s skyline and a new exterior lighting upgrade helps ensure that presence is just as noticeable at night. The new design by Salt Lake City-based YESCO features color-changing LED luminaires from Lumenpulse to clearly delineate the four towers surrounding the facility’s central hub. The designers installed Lumenpulse’s Lumenbeam LBX ﬁxtures inside the 20-story vertical slots—called “keyways"—at the corners of each tower, but only 16 of the ﬁxtures were required for the entire project. These units are tied into YESCO’s PrismView control network to ensure the keyways are always perfectly color matched with each tower’s illuminated crown. The ﬁxtures’ long rated lifetime is an added beneﬁt, given their difﬁcult-to-access location. They are predicted to last at least 120,000 hours, so relamping will be reduced to a minimum.•
08 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
LOBBIES: SAS HEADQUARTERS
Inside Out A distinctive new lighting design helps tie an exterior canopy to the interior lobby space in the Toronto headquarters building of software leader SAS. The new installation features a series of inset LED ďŹ xtures custom engineered and fabricated by Eventscape. The lobby upgrade was required to provide additional lighting and create a distinctive ceiling feature. Designers worked to capture space for the new ďŹ xtures within existing deep ceiling coves. The four-part units incorporate LEDs attached to the back panel of an aluminum housing, ďŹ nished off with a polycarbonate lens and an aluminum outer trim. Creativity was required for the ďŹ xture that spans the door openingâ€”this luminaire was split in two to create room for window mullions to pass through.â€˘
HOW MUCH LIGHT DO YOU NEED? is modular. is scalable. is Itâ€™s common sense, heat ďŹ ns ďŹ ll with dirt and don't work when the product is mounted on the ground. Our ďŹ xture body IS the IFBU TJOL UP FOTVSF FĂľFDUJWF thermal management.
CCT 3K R
Integral 12VAC driver installs onto standard low voltage lighting circuits.
Quick Disconnects simplify changes.
With adjust-e-lumeÂŽ technology, you set the lumen output at the right level for your project. Itâ€™s as easy as 1, 2, 3. . . . . . . . . . 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
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1760LED C H AT E A U
UNIVERSITIES: UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS
Going Back to School Recognizing that even LEDs use less electricity when dimmed, designers of a major exterior lighting renovation on the campus of the University of California Davis have incorporated sophisticated wireless controls to cut energy costs without compromising safety. The new controls allow lighting brightness to follow the path a pedestrian is walking, allowing other ﬁx-
tures to remain in a dimmed state for enhanced energy savings. The Adaptive Control system was co-developed by controls maker Lumenwave and researchers at the California Lighting Technology Center,
housed on the UC Davis campus. More than 1400 exterior ﬁxtures—in-
The 1760LED Chateau series luminaire is a large scale, dramatic design fixture. It is available with a variety of mounting options: post top, hanging and catenary. The Chateau has LED light sources with roof mounted, downlighting optics and is ideal for any installation.
replaced with LED luminaires. These new ﬁxtures were equipped with
cluding post tops, wall packs, pathway luminaires and streetlights—were Lumenwave’s TOP900-TL control modules and motion sensors, which are capable of peer-to-peer communication with each other. In addition to enabling up to eight scheduled nighttime events, the system also responds to the needs of individual campus pedestrians. When a motion detector senses a walking campus visitor, it sends a signal that brightens adjacent ﬁxtures progressively as that person moves through the area. Based on set time delays, ﬁxtures behind that individual then dim down to a lower level. Sensor data also helps the system predict how fast that person is traveling to control the speed with which ﬁxtures further down the path raise their illumination levels. The controls also provide revenue-grade energy monitoring and log-
800-621-3376 firstname.lastname@example.org www.sternberglighting.com
ging and automatic notiﬁcation of ﬁxture malfunctions. Administrators have found the controls are providing an added 40% energy-cost savings over that of the LED ﬁxture upgrade alone.•
INNOVATIONS: COOL CONTROLS
A Lamp of Many Hues While LED lamps are becoming more common, few products are really taking advantage of the innate programing and control advantages digital lighting offers. Philips’ new “hue” lamp is a ﬁrst step toward that end, giving users the ability to tune white light from warm to cool, or change the emitted light’s color entirely, using a smartphone or tablet app and a standard Wi-Fi connection. Yes, now there’s an app for your living room end-table lamp or your kitchen ceiling ﬁxture. The 600-lumen hue lamp—equivalent to a 50-watt incandescent—features a color rendering index of 91 at 2700K. But users can change color and brightness of each lamp individually using their Apple or Android smart phone or tablet. Lamps incorporate 11 LEDs in blue, red-orange and
ARTFUL INSTALLATIONS: MARTIN PROFESSIONAL
lime green, so they can create almost as many colors as one could ﬁnd in a Pantone color pack. The lime-colored LEDs are expected to produce greater
An aluminum art structure incorporating a new LED string product turned
efﬁciencies. Operations also can be programed over a period of time, so
the heads of visitors to an international transportation exhibition this past
a bedside lamp could be instructed to brighten gradually as a wake-up
September. The installation, designed by Ambion GmbH from Kassel, Ger-
alternative to a buzzing clock radio. Communications are based on the
many, succeeded in attracting crowds of visitors to the booth of transporta-
ZigBee Alliance protocol, which is becoming ubiquitous in home automation
tion leader Bombardier, with its imagery of train trafﬁc across the globe.
networks. Philips is selling $199 starter packs exclusively through Apple
The VC-Dot 1 LED strings from Martin Professional comprise more than
retail stores that include three A-line lamps and a bridge that plugs into
2,000 individually controllable pixel dots. The product can be speciﬁed with
an existing wireless router. Additional lamps retail for $59. The company is
one, four or nine LEDs per pixel and can be ordered in either an RGB color-
looking into adding BU 30 and GR 10 style products to the lineup.•
mixing version or cool, medium or warm white single-color version.•
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 11
1. The Book on Controls
DIM SITUAT ATIO ION? N? Paradox:: SSL is s a technolog gy that th lends itself to being controlled, d, so why are there e so so many issues, especially with dimming? ? Lot Lots of reasons, incl nclu uding incompatibility with older techn hno nolog l ies not suited ed fo for SSL. But the greatest barrier is s a la lack of an open dimm imming protocol.
12 â€˘ 01.13 â€˘ ARCHITECTURAL SSL
The emergence of solid-state lighting is adding
Lutron Electronics—changed the lighting control
heat to the topic of lighting controls. Energy
landscape by making it practical and affordable
codes, advances in wireless communication,
beyond theatrical use.
intelligent networking and computer interface software are fueling imaginations, while energy
85 IQ – Getting to Practically 'Dim'
cost escalation is exciting customer interest.
In the late 1950s, the ﬁrst solid-state dimmer
Unfortunately, much of the potential from this op-
design for incandescent lamps, developed by GE,
portunity is locked up by proprietary approaches
utilized thyristors or silicon-controlled rectiﬁers
at odds with the diversity of lighting products
to cut portions of the AC sine wave supplied to
necessary to complete projects. Making matters
the light source. This helped reduce light output.
worse are some marketers promoting simple,
A short time later, TRIAC—Triode for Alternating
automatic controls as “smart” further confusing
Current—devices offered lower cost and greater
customers. So it begs the question, just how intel-
durability. Since incandescent lamps suffer only
ligent is solid-state lighting today? Following is a
minor issues with wave cut dimming—some ﬁla-
review of what's out there and the corresponding
ments will sing or ﬂicker a little—this technology
delivered economy and compact size ideal for wall-box dimmer use. This remains the standard
65 IQ – Immature and Intellectually Challenged
for incandescent dimming today.
Lighting control has been a part of lighting from
The introduction of more complex light
the installation of the ﬁrst electric lamp. The ba-
sources, such as low-voltage and discharge sourc-
sic use of on/off switches and contactor controls
es, e.g. ﬂuorescent and HID, presented dynamics
were an early selling feature, eliminating snufﬁng
beyond the capability of TRIAC dimmers. For
gas or oil ﬂames one ﬁxture at a time. At this
inductive loads, MOSFET—Field Effects Transistor
level, little has changed since 1897.
dimmers, which create trailing edge wave cutting,
Dimming emerged as a means to balance and
vs. leading edge for TRIAC—produced acceptable
tune stage lighting. Early forms of the dimmer
results. For ballasted products, however, which
were simple resisters put in series with the lamps,
incorporate starters and lamp current controls
the former consuming as much or more energy
circuitry, special approaches became necessary.
as the loads being controlled. The equipment, too,
This led to the development of two architectures
was too bulky for wide spread use. While early
still in use today: Three wire and 0—10V control.
efforts were hobbled by the technology of the
In the case of the former, power supplied to the
day, the invention of the solid-state dimmer by
light source remains uncontrolled, and a separate
Joel Spira in 1959—who later went on to found
“signal” wire at line voltage is used to communicate
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 13
dimming setting, allowing the ballast to start
A History of Lighting Control—From Analogue to Digital
the lamp normally, then operate it at the desired level. With 0—10V control, a separate low-voltage control signal is used to provide the ballast the dimmer control setting information. While many emerging SSL retroﬁt lamps and luminaires are attempting to work within the limitations of TRIAC dimmer controls, this is a big problem as connecting such dimmers to an electronic load that they were never designed to control produces unpredictable results. To overcome this, light source manufacturers and customers must test compatibility, frequently requiring new dimmers be installed from a pre-qualiﬁed list to achieve desired results. This defeats the goal of deploying SSL products that connect to the existing inventory of existing wall box dimmers. On the other hand, the application of 0—10V
dimming with SSL is functionally superior to line-voltage dimming, but it is not without issues. Regardless of which option you choose, there is nothing inherently advantageous or "smart"
110 IQ – Digital Communication Shows Promise
about controlling SSL sources with conventional
The deployment of digital controls adds a level
TIME AND TECHNOLOGY OUT OF LINE?
dimmers, relays or sensor controls—even if they
of communication ﬁdelity and control complex-
The time line notes advances with the implementation of
enhance the advantages of SSL in reducing en-
ity impossible with simplistic controls. The most
lighting and dimming controls. Despite SSL being a 21st
widely recognized is DMX512, created primarily
century technology, in many cases, it's being controlled with
for theatrical application, where each luminaire
1950s protocols meaning antiquated dimmers are connected
100 IQ – Adequate Performance, But Not Smart
or luminaire circuit is assigned an address to
to electronics loads they were never designed to control. This
Beyond dimming, there are other means to con-
be serviced by a common low-voltage signal
produces unpredictable and undesirable results, including
trol line lighting, including the use of power-line
wire. This simple, open-source, digital protocol
ﬂicker. This problem can be resolved by testing compatibility,
and low-voltage sensors that respond to ambient
provides for communicating to activate built-in
but it often requires users to work from a list of pre-qualiﬁed
light, occupancy or time clock settings. These con-
on/off and/or dimming. In 2004, the DMX512-A
products. This defeats the goal of deploying SSL products
trols add a level of automatic on/off or dimming
protocol added the capability for two-way com-
that connect to the existing inventory of dimmers.
to a "pre" pre-set state.
munication. Standardized cable connectors and
While these are often sold as “smart” or
pin-outs enable manufacturers of ballasts, driv-
“intelligent” controls, a better description is to say
ers, controls, sensors and luminaires to provide
"automatic," as they only work within a pre-set
product on a project with minimal coordination
operational range—no logic circuits are involved,
and intrusion of proprietary exclusion.
no system activity reporting occurs, and there is
The next innovation came in 1998 with the
no feedback loop. The result of these binary con-
creation of open-sourced DALI—Digital Address-
trols is a generalized averaging of performance
able Lighting Interface. Many features of DALI
improvement with limited capacity to deliver a
resemble DMX in structure, as each ﬁxture is
logical response to multiple inputs. These offer
assigned an address, with standardized 5-wire
an improvement over manual, human-dependent
interface cabling used to direct lighting, monitor
controls, but are compromised by their simplicity
system activity/condition, and connect control-
and lack of logic. Further, the reduced load and
lers and sensors through a single gateway. This
non-off-state power characteristics of drivers
eliminates custom interfaces often required to in-
used in SSL often cause malfunctions in systems
tegrate input side controls into DMX512 systems,
designed for conventional loads.
and begins to introduce some intelligence.
14 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
Flat Learning Curve: Obstacles to Getting Smarter 1) Perception of Need. The greatest roadblock is customer perception of need—no matter how cool or innovative concepts of smart controls are, there is not always a perceived need for it. When a proposed system requires a large investment, a complex mix of components, and commissioning and software, lighting customers accustomed to turning lights on with snap switches are easily turned off. 2) Too Many Unique Solutions. In the effort to bring creative solutions to the market, manufacturers frequently deploy proprietary solutions with little regard for interaction within a larger lighting system. These approaches rarely satisfy the diversity of products used on most projects. The result is either a system with messy mixed 1950
control architectures that leave the end use customer even more confused—or a compromised design to ﬁt control component availability. When there are too many individual propri-
"THE SOONER THE INDUSTRY CAN DEVELOP A UNIVERSAL FOUNDATION FOR THIS, THE SOONER AND MORE READILY MANUFACTURERS CAN GET DOWN TO THE BUSINESS OF DELIVERING PRODUCTS THAT ENHANCE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY THROUGH PRECISE, EFFECTIVE, INTELLIGENT CONTROLS."
Deﬁning Intelligence; Overcoming Obstacles
etary products in the market—each demanding its
Beyond the rudimentary level of intelligence
own hardware, wiring and software interface—as-
introduced with DALI, the expansion of digital
sembling a complete system from diverse product
controls, according to IES TM-23-11, has grown
manufacturers becomes impossible. Bottom line:
to include 17 protocols deployed in lighting and
The limitation to wide-spread control application
building automation system applications, beyond
is not too few options, but too many discrete solu-
line-voltage dimming. These protocols include
tions, with too little universal standardization.
wireless variants—controls from Zigbee and En-
customers, over-delivery of features is not a
as Ethernet- and Internet-based controls. Beyond
selling point. Lack of scalability reﬂected in
these are dozens of proprietary systems which
system costs causes customers to forgo desirable
may or may not be compatible with any known
beneﬁts to avoid paying for features not valued.
For a large portion of installations, a simpliﬁed
Digital communication networks—utilizing
interface with limited capability, scaled just-right,
wired and/or wireless links—combined with soft-
is far more attractive than expensive, complex
ware that processes input from remote sensors,
systems with more than necessary capacity, oper-
luminaire status and occupant demand, is what
ated at a reduced state.
is required to enable lighting systems to become
4) Lack of Commissioning Standards.
truly intelligent. For example, a controls system
Commissioning is often so poorly managed that
that reacts to time of day, presence of occupants,
advanced systems remain under-utilized. If main-
daylight contribution, luminaire lumen deprecia-
tenance is complex, the systems are at risk of
tion, user input, circadian rhythm and type of
abandonment. System designers frequently fail to
activity occurring in a space, could adjust light
recognize the distance in time between those who
levels, activate speciﬁc luminaires—say task vs.
operate and maintain the system and those who
ambient—and adjust relative color while report-
designed and installed it. The more complex the
ing activity to a monitoring program that tracks
system, the more of its capacity is lost over time.
maintenance state and energy use. This is truly an intelligent or smart control system.
3) Too Much Complexity. For price-sensitive
Ocean with no external power connection—as well
5) Too Simplistic Solutions. The recent trend of incorporating unrelated platforms into building
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 15
controls architectures, such as iPhone wireless
tion of many manufacturers without constraint
controls interfaces using “apps,” may seem like a
of proprietary relationships. The sooner the need
GETTING IN TUNE
viable approach, but it isn’t without risk. Previous
for a cooperative foundation of a universal inter-
More effective use of daylighting is creating greater opportu-
attempts to include Palm + Bluetooth interfaces—
face architecture and protocol is established, the
nities for LED and controls, not only from a dimming/energy-
now defunct—have left customers without means
sooner solid-state can break out as more than just
savings perspective, but also in the ability to more properly
for maintaining relatively new system operation.
an energy saving new value in lighting.
illuminate a space, as well as "color tune" a space to reﬂect
The assumption of dominance of one smart device
time of day or replicate time of day. In the case of one of the
over all others fails to recognize the diversity of
Solid-State Integration 101: SSL is the ﬁrst
offices in Lumenpulse's new Montreal headquarters (above),
options available, while the issue of tying two
technology in illumination to provide an oppor-
not only were fewer ﬁxtures employed, but coves were il-
disparate technologies together complicates an
tunity to integrate controls as a system feature
luminated with RGB to add a further dynamic to the office.
already complicated support issue. Furthermore,
with a high degree of sophistication. Most drivers
the life cycle of entertainment/communications
already include intelligence that demand little
electronics is extremely short compared to the
effort to tap into. Unlike incandescent sources,
life of a building system. While interesting as an
which require external controls integration, or
optional interface, more sensible solutions will
ﬂuorescent and HID systems with their clumsy
likely come from permanent building systems
starting circuit issues and sensitivity to on/off
that can become obsolete without losing function-
cycling, LED systems are naturally suited to being
controlled. This will emerge as the single greatest asset in the SSL arsenal—if it is made available on
Curriculum for Increasing IQ
a large enough scale to be applied universally.
Open Source Architecture 101: Full open-source universality in lighting is necessary to support
Solid-State Integration 201: SSL enables con-
the wide range of products deployed that make
cepts that utilize LEDs as high-frequency data
up a complete lighting system. TRIAC and 0—10V
transmitters—communicating to line of site loca-
dimming are perfect examples of the success of
tions through modulation of light beyond human
non-proprietary approaches. In any project, new
visual perception—and integration of sensors
or retroﬁt, the variety of products used to suit
that “see” the environment with integral sensors.
the range of needs for lighting requires participa-
Further, the opportunity to apply color tuning
16 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
and lumen maintenance monitoring is achievable
establish goals and control features deemed most
MAKE APPROPRIATE CHOICES
with minimal effort. These, and other, advanced
desirable. A protocol must be founded that serves
Because of a lack of a universal, open protocol for dimming,
concepts generate new opportunities for SSL to
those requirements with the broadest range of
lighting designers are limited in control options. They can
change the foundations of lighting from simple
products. This includes DMX 512-A and DALI, as
pursue simple, binary controls, which offer the greatest
emitter source to interactive building system.
well as wide range products from reliable sources like Lutron and WattStopper. For the most part,
range of products to choose from; or alternatively, identify the client's goals and most desired control features and ﬁnd
Critical Thinking 101: While a great deal of effort
proprietary luminaire systems are the most limit-
a protocol that serves the broadest range of products such
is being applied to resolving issues of subjective
ing, and most likely to change or fade over time.
as DALI or DMX, or select systems from reliable sources such
color and life ratings, a greater opportunity lies in
Finally, communicating to controls and luminaire
as Lutron or WattStopper (far left, opposite page). Shown
developing a universal open source controls inte-
manufacturers the need for universality can help
above is Lutron's Experience Center in Washington, D.C.
gration protocol to advance solid-state technol-
create focus in an otherwise fractious market
ogy. Properly considered and developed, this one
factor alone has the potential of turning SSL from slow-burn evolution to the outright revolution it
should be. A robust approach would also include
The deployment of SSL can lead to exciting new
consideration of non solid-state products, to avoid
intelligent controls approaches and features. The
separation of technologies until SSL becomes
sooner the industry can develop a universal foun-
the predominant light source. It’s time to focus
dation for this, the sooner and more readily man-
on controls as a critical component of the SSL
ufacturers of light sources, lighting products, and
controls components can get down to the business of delivering what promises to be the most
Surviving Controls Evolution 101: Until there is
important advantage of solid-state technology—
a more universal agreement on communication
the ability to enhance performance and efﬁciency
protocols and the deployment of smart controls,
through precise, effective intelligent control. By
there are limited approaches available today.
opening the door to advanced controls that are
The ﬁrst is to rely on the most basic approaches
as accessible as conventional approaches, SSL is
of binary controls, which provides the greatest
poised to graduate with honors and change the
range of products to choose from. The second is to
lighting universe from dim to brilliant.•
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 17
TOPICS AT THE FRONT
By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett, contributing writer
There is no question that linear
older T12 ﬂuorescent lamps and
fers, experienced an estimated 62%
accent wall using either texture
ﬂuorescent, the workhorse of of-
ballasts that are being phased out
reduction in energy consumption.
or color and give ofﬁces more dra-
ﬁce lighting, is not going away any
of production,” says Tom Roberts,
time soon. That said, solid-state
director of business development
replacements, other LED technol-
Elsewhere, he says LED track-
lighting is certainly making gains
for Cree, the Research Triangle
ogy is on the rise in ofﬁce applica-
mounted ﬁxtures are a good choice
in this space. But does it have the
Park, N.C.-based manufacturer
tions, particularly in respect to
for highlighting marker boards
legs to take over as a general am-
who has clearly targeted the linear
downlights, desktop task lighting
or artwork. In fact, retroﬁt lamps
bient illumination source?
and accent lighting. Regarding the
are available in Par 38, Par 30 and
latter, Jacob Hothan, an associate
MR-16 sizes with different beam
The answer, of course, de-
In his mind, the results speak
matic appeal,” says Hothan.
pends on whom you talk to, but
for themselves. For example, he
with Shawnee, Kan.-based Yarnell
spreads, color temperatures and
activity is absolutely in motion.
points to the Rogue Valley Council
Assocs., Architectural Lighting De-
color rendering indexes, although
“LED adoption has been strongest
of Governments, in Central Point,
sign, says SSL products do a great
Hothan cautions that dimmability
in markets with favorable utility
Ore., who, in relamping T12 and T8
job aesthetically because of their
varies between manufacturers.
rebates and also for those custom-
ﬂuorescents in the hallways, ofﬁces
controllable optics. “LED lighting
ers who need a solution to replace
and council room with LED trof-
is an effective means to create an
18 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
Dimmability, beyond wattage reduction, is one of the biggest
NEW AND OLD Y At the offices of Blue Cross and Blue
Shield of Kansas City, Yarnell Assocs. took advantage of the company's desire for a high-tech “24”-like setting to use cooler color temperature LED downights for general ambiance. Image: Yarnell Assocs. Z Beyond LED downlights and track
lighting, the ﬁrm also created novel lighting in the form of circular ﬁxtures based on Lightwild's Cool White 1 ft. x 1 ft panels. Image: Yarnell Assocs. V Cooper Lighting's Halo/RSA Proﬁle
track systems were also employed in the corridors and elsewhere for accent lighting. Image: Yarnell Assocs.
Blue Cross and Blue Shield, Kansas City, Mo.
pros of SSL technology, according
an architectural element. “Why try
rary way, as he feels it is a source
to Hothan's boss, Bruce Yarnell,
to make a unique source look like
that lends itself to be pleasantly
IALD, MIES, LC. This is particularly
an old ﬂuorescent troffer or more
visual when the ﬁxture is designed
the case with downlights, the SSL
recent basket design with central
well. “Seeing the individual sources
product that has perhaps enjoyed
glowing white plastic?” he asks.
in a nice module adds interest to a
the greatest gains to date, at least
“I prefer ﬁxture designs which
space and the ﬁxture's look,” says
in retroﬁt settings. This is so, says
acknowledge that they are LED and
Yarnell, for many reasons, not the
let the pixels be seen behind diffus-
least of which is glare control, and
ing plastic or glass.”
simple amenities such as square
As he's showcased in ofﬁces
Stephen Margulies, partner, ONELUXstudio, New York, is also excited about such possibilities.
apertures. But Yarnell argues the
such as those for Blue Cross, Blue
“The capability of embedding this
future of LED, and ofﬁce lighting
Shield of Kansas City (above) or
technology into the architectural
for that matter, lies down a differ-
EiKO's new headquarters outside of
elements is much more ﬂexible
ent path. His personal preference
Kansas City on the following pages,
than any other lighting product,”
is showcasing LED's unique look as
he's used LED in a very contempo-
he says. “Because of this, we are
Kelvin-Changing LEDs the Future of SSL? An area where SSL is showing signiﬁcant promise in office environments is task lighting. Why? According to lighting designer and educator Stan Walerczyk, CLEP, LC, principal of the Kihei, Hawaii-based Lighting Wizards, it is because desktop LED ﬁxtures can do the heavy lifting of providing controllable dimming, even color tuning, allowing signiﬁcantly lower general ambient lighting that operates with very simple or even no lighting control at all. Because directed light fades exponentially as distance increases, Walerczyk says watts can be used much more efﬁciently if they are placed at the point where they are needed. In general, overhead ambient ﬁxtures consume between 20 and 28 watts. LED task lights, on the other hand, only need 8 to 12 watts. With light close to the task, Walerczyk says less ambient light is necessary, yet the combined sources will adequately light the space with approximately 100 footcandles. When dimming is added to the mix, the average power density can drop to as low as 0.5 watts per sq. ft. “At 3,000 annual hours and at a $0.15/kWh electric rate, that's less than $23 per sq. ft., per year,” he says. While it's true other sources can serve the same purpose, it doesn’t always work. Undercabinet linear ﬂuorescent task lights, for example, more often than not, says Walerczyk, are overlit and create glare issues. But more than that, it's the color-tuning capability of LED that excites the designer. “Kelvin changing, which is so good for human centric lighting, is what will really make LED a star,” he says.
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 19
Hart Senate Building, Washington, DC
Kelvin color-changing, says Walerczyk, allows lighting designers to create unique and distinctive lighting schemes. Furthermore, human centric lighting, he argues, can improve circadian rhythms, mood, visual acuity and performance beyond saving energy. “The potential of changing the color temperature during the course of a day could be immensely beneﬁcial,” agrees Bruce Yarnell, Yarnell Assocs., Architectural Lighting Design, Shawnee, Kan. “Anything that mimics natural lighting has the potential to assist us in keeping our body time clocks working in a more natural way.” Of course, he adds more scientiﬁc study needs to be done to prove this interaction, “but my feeling is that there is a great potential for human wellbeing,” says Yarnell. Offering some product suggestions, Walerczyk likes the LED desk mount and undercabinet task lights from PlanLED, Finelite, Koncept, Luxo, Philips and Steelcase. Meanwhile, he notes Tambient has created an integrated one-piece system that provides both ambient and task lighting. Although Kelvin changing products are interesting, Stephen Margulies, partner, ONELUXstudio, New York, remains cautious, pointing out that most building owners/tenants simply wish to set it and forget it. “Our clients require simplicity in our designs for the workplace environment,” he says. “This does not allow us to consider a lamp that offers more than two colors—warm and cool. Most users in the workplace do not want to spend time learning a system or trying to ﬁnd the perfect shade of task lighting.”
20 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
seeing integration of this product
LED PASSES SENATE VOTE
in ceiling tiles and grids, wallpaper
LED, being a solid-state device, has
U The Hart Senate Office Building in
and glass panels.”
a fundamental controls advantage
Washington D.C., the third largest office
over traditional technologies. One
building serving the Senate, replaced 130
signing interactive LED systems in
of the fundamental reasons is
CFL downlights and linear ﬂuorescents
conference rooms to evoke a com-
that dimming or increasing on/off
with 2x2 LED troffers for a 33% reduction
pany logo, picture or even be part
cycles actually works to extend the
in annual energy costs. Image: Cree
of a working presentation. Color-
life of LEDs, in addition to reducing
changing products are often a good
energy consumption, whereas the
ﬁt here, and digital animations can
opposite is true with traditional
support architectural branding
Meanwhile, Yarnell enjoys de-
elements. “This type of LED system
Of course, initial cost can
is highly exciting, although it’s still
be a stumbling block, so in an at-
quite expensive,” acknowledges
tempt to keep product costs down,
manufacturers, including Acuity
EiKO Headquarters, Shawnee, Kan.
and Cree, have been integrating
But on the subject of dim-
controls into the existing power
mability, not everything with LED
U Lighting designer Bruce Yarnell believes
electronics. This can range, accord-
is golden. Problems have cropped
the future of LED lies in creating ﬁxtures
ing to Roberts, from very simple
up with ﬂicker and achieving the
and lighting applications that show off
solutions, such as standard TRIAC
desired degree of dimming. Part
the LEDs themselves or allow designers to
dimming on downlights, to trof-
of the problem is that LEDs use
create unique forms, such as the overhead
fers that employ bi-level or step
drivers, opposed to ballasts, and
lighting in the conference room of EiKO's
dimming in the base conﬁguration,
the electronics must be tested
new headquarters outside of Kansas City.
to more feature-rich dimming
and conﬁrmed for compatibility
Image: Yarnell Assocs.
solutions using approaches such
between the drivers and the dim-
as those with wireless controls.
ming systems, including any other
Cree also recently partnered with
Lutron to offer a “factory direct”
“No system is considered
EcoSystem-integrated system with
seamless,” says Margulies. “The
its CR troffer family.
commissioning process is the real
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 21
Helix Architecture + Design, Kansas City, Mo.
Yarnell Assocs. employed LED track lighting and LED retroﬁt MR-16 ﬁxtures for general illumination and wall grazing at Helix Architecture + Design's conference room in Kansas City. The lightning designers believe track-mounted LEDs are particularly good at highlighting marker boards or artwork. Photo: Yarnell Assocs.
complex issue that no one has been able to solve well,” he adds. In attempting to address this
“The holy grail of replacement bulbs is providing high efﬁciency and low maintenance, but ultimate-
plies that are remotely monitored,
GREAT FOR GRAZING
U Yarnell Assocs. designer Jacob Hothan
But overall, if LED manu-
likes LEDs with controllable optics for wall
matter, Yarnell’s designers usually
ly [it's about] producing a quality
facturers can continue pushing
grazing applications. “It's an effective
create mock-ups of LED compo-
luminous environment,” he says.
forward with better retroﬁt prod-
means to create an accent wall using
Cree is among the manufac-
ucts, experts predict that this will
either texture or color and give offices
turers trying to address this. Its
eventually spill over more into the
more dramatic appeal.”
TrueWhite technology mixes light
new construction market.
Image: Yarnell Assocs.
nents and dimming systems to make sure they work together. Next Steps
from multiple LEDs to produce
In the grand scheme of things,
quality color rendering.
Margulies points out that the ofﬁce
Another newer innovation is
“The good news is the range of LED solutions in the marketplace is continuing to expand and offer
retroﬁt market has inﬂuenced and
the transformation of LEDs to a DC
both improved economics and
will continue to play a signiﬁcant
power supply where the ﬁxtures
leading-edge functional and artis-
role in the demand and develop-
are connected with low wattage
tic design options to architects and
ment of new LED products.
data wire with wired power sup-
owners alike,” concludes Roberts.•
22 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
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LFI INNOVATION AWARDS BEST IN CLASS
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For more information about the MB-LED product line, visit www.intenselighting.com.
Kansas City Marriott Downtown, Lobby Renovation Owners: Marriott Architects: 360 Architecture Lighting: Yarnell Assocs. Electrical: Mark One Electric LED product manufacturers: Visa Lighting, Cooper Halo, Color Kinetics, Lightolier, Hera Lighting Text: Ellen Lampert-Gréaux Photos: Michael Spillers The Challenge: Undergoing a recent $20 million renovation, the Kansas City Marriott Downtown—a popular hotel during the Kansas City Royals baseball season and for attendees at the nearby convention center—wanted to redeﬁne its main lobby as a “Great Room” with various zones that meet the different social purposes of its guests. The challenge was to create one space that would appeal to business travelers as well as families and to have the room adapt visually, with lighting to reﬂect the various uses of the Great Room as the day progresses. The Solution: 360 Architecture, in collaboration with lighting designer Bruce Yarnell, principal at Yarnell Assocs., created a guest experience for the 21st century. Three distinct, yet interconnected plugged-in, multipurpose spaces— with complimentary Wi-Fi throughout—allow guests to efficiently arrive and depart, meet, work, socialize and enjoy dining and entertainment. Color-changing LED lighting provided the designers with a means to change the look of the space as desired, as it transforms itself from breakfast to a lounge ambiance at night.
24 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
different levels,” notes Yarnell. The
see new and exciting shapes,” adds
One of the main visual accents in
rings measure 12 ft., 20 ft., and 32
Yarnell. Visa Lighting built the
the Great Room is a contemporary
ft. in diameter and are ﬁtted with
chandelier that is every bit a work
vertical light pipes that run from
rings, which replace a 1980’s style
of art as a lighting ﬁxture. Three
15 in. to 73 in. in height and set
chandelier, and add a simple but
rings, symbolic of the gathering of
from 6 to 12 degrees apart, depend-
elegant statement to the lobby. The
people, are intertwined to add to
ing on the ring. Offset spacing
ring shape is echoed in drywall on
the complexity of the design and
keeps the installation from being
the ceiling in what Yarnell refers to
make it continually interesting as a
a simple “chandelier,” and the ﬁnal
as “a subtle architectural form.”
design has a slant to two of the
Three rings intertwined are
The suspended light pipes are
points of the light that adds to the
metal tubes with frosted acrylic
a reaction to the complexity of the
visual complexity so that “some-
tips illuminated by one-watt LED
space and its users. “The rings are
one with ‘time on their hands’ can
sources from a circle of metal,
custom-designed to intertwine at
study the piece like artwork and
which create small points of light
Renovation, KC Style
Designer Bruce Yarnell said that nobody realized how big the largest ring actually was (32 ft.) “The contractor drew a circle on the ﬂoor and asked us if that was the size we really wanted. It was dramatic.”
at a variety of heights. “These
Yarnell. “The contractor drew a
done as a reaction to the space as it
fee bar that transitions from light
stems are hard but delicate,”
circle on the ﬂoor and asked if that
was being remodeled. A water wall
breakfast fare and coffee in the
explains Yarnell, who adds that
was the size we really wanted. It was
of steps as a backdrop to the rings
morning to work and beverage
the color temperature is 3500 K
very dramatic. We all were pleased
reﬂects a linear water effect in a
fare in the afternoon to full service
cold white for a contemporary look
with the resulting visual impact.”
park across a busy street from the
bar in the evening where guests
The circular theme was also
hotel. The idea was that the Great
unwind over signature cocktails,
applied to the porte-cochere area
Room would become visible for all
wines, and imported beers.
with two 18-ft. rings. “The ring
guests and also for local people as
suspension cables evenly spaced in
design is hinted at with two sym-
a gathering place usable all day
18-watt, 3000K, 8-degree beam
line with the skylights in the Great
metrical rings at the entry drive,”
and into the evening.”
track ﬁxtures at the edges of the
Room, and power runs through the
says Yarnell. “Only in the interior,
ceiling. “Nobody really realized how
however, are they shown in all of
tion in the morning and for clean-
big the largest ring actually was,
their complexity and beauty. The
An active area of the lobby is the
ing. In addition, linear Color Kinetics
with its 32-ft. diameter,” reports
rings are complete custom designs
Social Zone, or Bar Central, a cof-
eColor Cove QLX Powercore LED-
versus a more yellow light as seen in the hotel ballrooms. The rings are hung with
Cooper Halo Stasis LED 805,
skylights add additional illumina-
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 25
RGB ﬁxtures illuminate the bar and private booths at the rear of the space. “Color changing throughout the day was our response to having a room that is reacting to the time of day,” explains Yarnell. “Morning is bright with amber light behind closed bar front doors. From noon until early evening the bar is opened with blue light surrounding the bar and ﬂowing into the booths. Red light at the bar and in the booths is a reaction to the desire for a nightclub feel in the late evening. Other custom scenes are available to react to special events.” Energy Efﬁciency Energy use was difﬁcult to compute, at least as a comparison to the lobby’s old illumination, according to Yarnell, as the team was able to do so much more with color changing LED—a technology that wasn’t even available before the hotel’s last update. “So, where we have LED colorchanging coves, there isn’t a direct correlation,” says Yarnell. “For the decorative rings, the lamps are only one watt each, so even the smallest ring has tremendous visual impact at an energy cost of 32 watts. For the LED track ﬁxtures, the LED sources are 18 watts each which would have been comparable to 100-watt quartz par lamps.” This is signiﬁcant, as Yarnell points out that generally, when his ﬁrm has done the tabulations of changing an older space to mostly LED sources, clients have experienced between a 70% and 80% decrease in energy usage without sacriﬁcing lighting levels and with a gain of easier and less frequent maintenance. “The lighting for this space goes beyond what we could even attempt with older par type sources,” says Yarnell. Additional LED sources in the Great Room are the 3500K, 2-watt Lightolier Calculite downlights. These and the Halo track lighting have a warm color temperature that makes people look natural.
26 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
“They are much better than the ﬂuorescents that were there before,” notes Yarnell. “On this job almost every ﬁxture is LED and we had no issues, no color shifts.” This makes for a lighting design that’s as efﬁcient as it is easy to control.
“For the decorative rings, the lamps are only one watt each, so even the smallest ring has tremendous visual impact at an energy cost of 32 watts. We have experienced between a 70% and 80% decrease in energy usage without sacriﬁcing lighting levels.”
Getting the Job Done “The largest challenge for this project was dealing with assumed dimensions from original plans versus real [as built] dimensions. Especially for the new entry glowing glass walls, we were counting on at least 4 in. of open space behind the glass,” Yarnell explains. “Real dimensions were sometimes down to 2.5 in. as the original construction wasn’t built square with property easement lines. Getting the glass to glow evenly was a huge challenge and more ﬁxtures on tighter spacings had to be purchased to achieve the ﬁnal visible uniformity.” The second large challenge for this job was the recession: “The
project was actually shut down at one point and then started up
The three subtle, yet distinct chandeliers are at the heart of the lobby transformation. Not only do the custom luminaires, created by Visa Lighting, incorporate LED in an elegant manner, they blend seamlessly and do not compete with the skylight above during daylight hours. The rings range from 12 ft. to 32 ft. Each 3,500 K LED “stem” is only a single watt and create small points of light at a variety of heights. The theme was also applied to the portecochere area with two 18-ft. rings.
again. So, we were involved for almost ﬁve years from start to ﬁnish with the stoppage due to the recession,” adds Yarnell, who notes that spending was never lavish, even after the project started up again. Still, he says, the apparent value has helped the hotel to be well placed for major business as the economy has improved. “The owners have been pleased with new business that the renovation has delivered.”•
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 27
LED Lighting Goes Outdoors with LED Downlights and LED Tape Light from Nora Lighting Create a lifestyle with Nora Lighting’s dimmable, energy efficient LED downlights and LED tape in color temperatures from warm 2700K up to cool 4200K. LEDs turn instantly on, feature long lamp life and have no harmful UV rays– which also means they do not attract bugs. Nora’s LED Diamond Series of 4", 5" and 6" downlights are available in new construction or retrofit, in a variety of styles and finishes. Nora LED Tape Light is available in four styles: Standard, Hy-Brite, High-Output and Color Changing RGB. Find detailed information on all of Nora’s LED lighting solutions at www.noralighting.com.
Dallas Trade Mart #3709 New, Larger Showroom
Lightfair Booth #2411
MONTREAL’S SALON URBAIN ADDS PANACHE TO FORMER PARKING STRUCTURE Salon Urbain Place des Arts, Montreal, Canada
A trio of Montreal-based design ﬁrms mixed and matched their creative specialties to develop a singular downtown gathering and event space that extends the public reach of their city’s new performance center, the Place des Arts. Formerly designated as a partial below-grade parking area, Salon Urbain was positioned as a ﬂexible destination for concertgoers, theater patrons, visitors and residents who could meet and experience a three-dimensional expression of applied technology and urban contemporary art that combines space, materials and a sculpted illuminated ceiling. Place des Arts, part of the Quartier des Spectacles, is also a daily hub for thousands of workers in the surrounding downtown ofﬁce buildings, tourists and users of the city’s subway system. In an era when orchestras and other performing arts groups are experiencing a drop in attendance, the management of Place des Arts decided that promoting a friendly image of informal accessibility for the public would attract more patrons to its entertainment facilities. “Salon Urbain is a versatile space that has been equipped with the latest technology that would also generate income from its rental for day or evening events,” says architect Martin Leblanc, a partner in Sid Lee Architecture, one member of the architectural joint venture who, along with Aediﬁca, collaborated with lighting visual designers Ambiances Design Productions to deliver the project. The role of the lighting design consultant was two-fold, according to Martin Gagnon of Ambiances: ﬁrst, illuminate
ABOVE: Serving as a visual anchor at floor level is the bar; a swatch of glossy black surfaces that appear to have been poured in their molten state over a stacked wood central support and then hardened into the final shape by their own direction. The surrounding Furniture is reconfigurable to create seating groups for social gatherings.
the 5,110 sq. ft. of rectangular space and the adjoining connecting corridor leading to the performance spaces; second, to express with the architects the design program to satisfy the
Images: Marion Jean, MADOC and/or Maude Perreault-Lavoie
client’s objective of giving the space a dramatic, upbeat image that would hold its own as a see-
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 29
SALON URBAIN, PLACE DES ARTS, Montreal
THE CHALLENGE: Transform a former underground parking area into a public space that would also double as a pre-event area for the performing arts center or as an events space that could be rented for outside activities. THE SOLUTION: Lighting/visual designers Ambiances Design Productions, in this case led by Martin Gagnon, worked with the architects to install an overhead lightscape that would add dimension and surface to the space that would create interest that visitors would identify with and recall as a special place to enjoy and want to return to. Suspended from the ceiling, 9 ft.-high at its lowest point, and down along one wall, is a system of 1,800 bent thin matte-satin ﬁnished metal panels. The panels are illuminated with RGB LEDs to create a luminous environment that ranges from white to all color. PROJECT CREDITS:
Architects: Sid Lee Architecture and Aediﬁca Lighting and Visual Design: Ambiances Design Productions PRODUCTS:
Eski: 15-watt, custom LED boards Modo Luce: Circular luminaires
HALL OF SHIMMER Adjacent to the Salon is the main corridor leading from the garage to the auditorium. From the chrome ceiling, Gagnon suspended custom acrylic cylinders made by Eski. “Each contains three LEDs—one cold white, the other two warm white— that can be controlled to produce a shimmering effect,” he says.
and-be-seen destination, and promote the sched-
“would identify with and recall as a special place
ule of events at the Quartier des Spectacles.
to enjoy and return to,” says Gagnon.
Ambiances Design Productions has recently
Suspended from the ceiling—9-ft.-high at
the use of the white LED component.” Interspersed within the glowing dimensional curtain are circular white ﬁxtures mounted
completed two exterior projects utilizing LEDs
its lowest point, and down along one wall—is a
below a mirror-ﬁnished polished chrome square.
that have become urban icons. In Winnipeg, The
system of 1,800 bent thin matte-satin ﬁnished
Gagnon interpreted the geometry of the ﬁxtures
Cube (proﬁled in SSL in the Nov. 2011 issue) is a
metal panels painted light grey on both sides.
with pedestal seating enclosing 13-watt CFLs
free-standing illuminated structure that can be
“The 15-watt RGBW LED boards are installed
that create a rim around a solid opaque center.
turned into a performance venue by raising one
within the short sideways section of the folded
The repetition of the ﬁxtures serve as wayﬁnd-
of the LED-covered sides to reveal a stage. In
elements so there would be no pixel reﬂection,
ing markers and also as subtle space dividers
Quebec City, he collaborated with Robert Lepage
and the direction of the light would be bounced
so that visitors will feel comfortable in moving
to bring a light show to a nearly quarter-mile
toward the ﬂoor,” Gagnon indicates.
through the otherwise open interior vista.
long façade of grain silos facing the St. Lawrence
Each tile, he adds, is individually controlled
“Salon Urbain has become an excellent ﬁt
River (proﬁled in January 2012 illuminate, and
over four channels as part of a large display lay-
for the lifestyle of Montreal residents, especially
online at www.architecturalssl.com in the “Hot
out, almost as if it was a low-resolution screen,
those who live nearby,” Gagnon reports. “It has
Projects” section on SSL Interactive, February
notes the designer.
been adopted as a unique form of public urban
archive). In the case of Salon Urbain, the solution
“The system is driven by low-resolution
living room. And for the management of the
was to install an overhead lightscape that would
chip that provides the smooth evolution of color
Place des Arts complex, its popularity has far
add dimension and surface interest that visitors
schemes to provide a soft white glow through
30 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
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©2013 Tyco Electronics Corporation, All Rights Reserved. NECTOR, TE Connectivity and the TE connectivity (logo) are trademarks.
UPCOMING ISSUE PREVIEW March 2013 Featured Project: The Vancouver campus of the University of British Columbia by Perkins and Will with Stantec Consulting. Beyond taking a look at the myriad of super-eﬃcient building systems and technologies, this feature will also break down the process of how the building and design teams went about delivering this integrated facility from a multitude of charettes, to goals establishment to energy and building information modeling. Building envelope: A focus on glazing as far as beneﬁts of triple and double-pane glazing with emphasis on thermal performance and beating thermal bridging. We’ll also take a look at insulated concrete panels. Daylighting: A further dissection of the building envelope examining glazing choices for dealing with coatings and orientation choices for addressing solar gain and glare. Lighting: The connection between LEDs and solar power to deliver true sustainable lighting.
NET ZERO BUILDINGS MAGAZINE
OnSite Power: Cogeneration including a look at how it helped Columbia University withstand Hurricane Sandy. Water Resources: Best water-conserving and management strategies
Net Zero Buildings magazine (NZB) exists to help owners, architects and other stakeholders come to terms with the zero energy paradigm by oﬀering practical applications, protocols, strategies and product options that assist in successful project results. PUBLISHING SCHEDULE
Until now, there has been no single media resource speciﬁcally created to help connect the dots of building performance for architects, owners and contractors—something that brings the needed clarity to create the vision and plan necessary for achieving high-performance buildings from both design and ﬁnancial perspective.
NZB will publish in these months in 2013: March / June / September / November
Sign on to receive Net Zero Buildings magazine print version free of charge at www.nzbmagazine.com
While there, take this opportunity to review the most recent digital version of NZB
Net Zero Buildings (NZB) is a publication of Construction Business Media
Review the recent issue of NZB www.nzbmagazine.com then enroll to receive all issues free of charge.
SSLProﬁle: HELSINKI’S SILO OF LIGHT, A NEW URBAN ICON CONTROLLED BY WIND AND WATER SILO 468 Helsinki, Finland
Adaptive reuse, by its very deﬁnition, requires that design teams think both outside—and inside—the box to create a new technologically functional entity. In Finland’s capital city of Helsinki, the abandoned Silo 468 wasn’t a box at all. Located on the edge of the city on the Gulf of Finland, by the Baltic Sea, its potential to contribute to the cityscape needed to be unlocked. In April 2011, the city’s planning department invited proposals to turn the circular former oil tank into a permanent light art piece to mark the beginning of a major urban redevelopment project. The targeted completion date for Silo 468 was October 2012, to coincide with events planned for the 2012 Helsinki World Design Capital. Lighting Design Collective (LDC) was selected as the lead design ﬁrm to turn the hulking cylinder into an object of civic pride for residents and to offer an interior space for performances and other events. For lighting designer Tapio Rosenius, director of LDC’s Madrid ofﬁce, the massive structure, 118 ft. in diameter and 53 ft. in height, communicated hidden promises of what could become a major expression of contemporary urban art. “What a site!” Rosenius recalls at his ﬁrst visit. “It stands by the sea, facing central Helsinki and is constructed of thick steel plates with no supporting columns,” says the designer. Borrowing from its surroundings, inspiration for the lighting concept came from strong prevailing winds and the movement of light on the water. Using a technique known as ﬂocking systems, LDC developed custom software that
ABOVE: Silo 468 represents the renewal of the area to become the city’s “district of light.” Now established as a landmark as well as a marketing attraction, its illuminated presence succeeds in drawing attention to a previously little-known district of the city, even by its more than 1.4 million residents, and to visitors.
gathers real-time data from the current local weather to control the structure’s LED light system so that visitors inside the silo can experience the visual expression of light that responds
Images: Uusheimo Photography
directly to nature. By using nature-simulating algorithms, along with “swarm” intelligence, the
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 33
SILO 468, Helsinki, Finland
THE CHALLENGE: Create a visually striking re-use of an abandoned oil storage tank that would not only serve as new public space, but in turn, could help spark planned redevelopment efforts in Helsinki in time for the 2012 World Design Capital. THE SOLUTION Using a grid of LEDs and innovative control known as “ﬂocking” systems, lighting group LDC came up with custom software that responds to real-time weather conditions, including wind speed and direction, to make Silo 468’s 1,280 white LEDs appear to ﬂicker and sway on its surface. PROJECT CREDITS
Client: City of Helsinki Architects: Poyry Finland Oy Lighting Designer: Lighting Design Collective Project Manager: HKR Executive PRODUCTS
3-watt LED domes provided by Traxon Technologies. Visit www.traxontechnologies.com or Circle 289. Control system provided by e-cue. Visit www.ecue.com or Circle 290.
TRUE PUBLIC SPACE There is no charge to groups or individuals who wish to stage an event at Silo 468. “So far, there have been TV show filmings, poetry evenings, weddings, dinners, dance events and a fire juggler,” says designer Tapio Rosenius. When there are no events, the interior becomes a quiet and contemplative space.
lighting designers can change light patterns by
from the original interior rust patterns, except
having the software respond to parameters such
for the north wall, which has no perforations,”
for the very late evening, Rosenius says. All the
as wind speed, direction, temperature, snow
interior lighting from the suspended LED grid
and the clearness of the night sky. The “swarm”
Sunlight ﬁlls the interior space with dap-
aspect of the software refers to its mimicking of
pled shadows during the day. “With sunlight, the
the patterns of birds or insects in ﬂight, as well
silo’s exterior appears to glimmer and sparkle
as schools of ﬁsh. “The program creates a par-
like the surface of the water below,” he indicates.
ticle system combining motion behavior of these
To replicate similar effects at night, the
The warm white of the exterior turns red
media mesh is reﬂected back into the space from the dark red-painted walls. At midnight, exterior ﬂoodlights turn the surface deep red for an hour. “The color refers to the container’s former use as a repository for
creatures to create organic and non-repetitive
team called for the installation of 1,280 custom
the production of energy that is still ﬁnding its
animations,” says Rosenius.
LED luminaire domes. Each light is controlled
way out,” believes Rosenius. “At 2:30 a.m., when
individually. At a relatively warm 2700K, the
the last ferry goes past Silo 468 on its way to the
control of the LED array is executed using pixel
LEDs, supplied by Traxon, are ﬁtted behind the
island of Suomenlinna, the lights go off.“
mapping techniques. LDC’s control application
cut-outs of the structure’s surface. Also behind
was developed in OpenFrameworks and runs in
the holes are 450 steel mirrors that respond to
notes the actual power load of the structure dur-
an e:cue Lighting Control Engine mx server.
ing operation is about 2 kW, or roughly 2 watts
Data is gathered through an RSS feed, and
“The system dials out every ﬁve minutes for
Despite the intense light show, Rosenius
per. sq. meter.
new data,” Rosenius explains. “The patterns are
Nature also comes to bear in the use of natural
ﬂuid and never repeat. They are basically slow,
light. The tank is perforated with 2012 holes—a
but speed up in response to the wind velocity,
silo’s metamorphosis, a ﬂoor was installed, along
reference to the city’s year-long celebration.
producing constantly changing murals of light,”
with a rigging infrastructure, power, water and
“Daylight seeps in through the openings derived
emergency and cleaning lighting.•
34 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
The cost of launching the silo structure into its new life was $2.6 million (U.S.). As part of the
COMING IN MARCH The next issue will mark the third installment of our Architectural SSL Product Innovation Awards. We’ve had more than 200 entries and we’ve deﬁnitely seen a signiﬁcant increase in competition. Of course, there were a lot of entries in the categories where SSL has enjoyed the most commercial success: downlights, area lights, ﬂood lighting—but we’re also seeing signiﬁcant competition in new areas: general ambient, decorative pendants and specialty lighting, so the range of SSL product types is getting broader. Competition for Project Application recognition and Market Leadership categories have also increased. So be on the lookout for the next issue where we’ll bring you our readers, the products our diligent panel of industry experts deemed noteworthy this year. Jim Crockett, editorial director
OUR JUDGES VILMA BARR, veteran lighting writer and regular Architectural SSL contributor BERNARD BAUER, Principal, Integrated Lighting Concepts KEVIN DOWLING, Vice President of R&D, MC10 JOHN FOX, Principal Fox +Fox KEVIN GUANA, Founder, Sun Brothers JEFFREY KNOX, Senior Lighting Designer, Schuler Shook AVI MOR, Principal, LightSwitch Architectural STEVE NEIMEISTER, Director of Lighting, Ewing Cole EVELYN SAHAJA, CEO of InLightin Design CHUCK ROSS, veteran lighting writer and regular Architectural SSL contributor DANE SANDERS, Principal, Clanton Assocs. STAN WALERCZYK, Principal, Lighting Wizards WINNERS TO BE ANNOUNCED...
Thank you to all the entrants that participated. The winners of the 2013 Architectural SSL PIA awards will be honored in the next issue.
KEVIN WILLMORTH, Architectural SSL Editor,and Principal, Lumenique consulting BRUCE YARNELL, Principal, Yarnell Assocs.
By Kevin Willmorth, editor
The Evolution of Solid-State Education Talk to customers from their perspective and everyone wins.
In the early stage of any emerging technology, from the perspective of
state lighting must keep in mind that they need customers more than
the technology developers, education of customers to establish a com-
customers need them. Deliver information in a way that entices them
mon ground of communication is essential. As this process takes root,
to feel they need the technology enough to invest time and effort to
greater detail can be delivered, increasing the depth of understanding
learn more, and everyone wins. When a product requires more training
for decision-makers from product makers to end users. Soon, more
than customers are willing to invest, simpliﬁcation of the product may
specialized education emerges, helping create greater understanding
be necessary to improve deployment success. This strategy can also be
of speciﬁc details necessary to engineer products or realize greatest
applied against competitors who fail to simplify to ﬁt customer percep-
end-use success for solid-state lighting products.
tion. Simplify and clarify are two words that cannot be over-stressed.
These branches might include color performance, thermal considerations, driver characteristics, dimmer control functionality, service life testing or efﬁciency of systems. The greater the difference between an innovation and the prevailing incumbent technology, the greater the demand for increased education to overcome the difference in understanding. But this is not the complete story. Of critical importance to all who pursue educational efforts,
When it comes to education efforts, address customers from their perspective. Making a connection between lighting needs and the value a technology brings to serve those requirements, in balance with perception, will improve customer communication dramatically.
whether at a trade conference or in customer interaction, is to remember that recipient participation is voluntary. End-users can choose to learn—or ignore—new information and continue to do whatever they
The assumption that any technology can be deployed by forcing
wish. There exists a ﬁne line between deployment of an innovation
educational programs onto a reluctant market is a common error.
that delivers value that causes market transformation through enthu-
When forced, response and interest will revert to pain avoidance,
siastic customer reaction, and marketing follies that demand more of
where all that will be learned is enough to keep from being bothered
customers than they’re willing to invest.
any further. This is not a positive condition, reﬂected in the state of
Take, for example, the automobile. It required growth of customer
current energy codes, where customers comply with demands without
knowledge and understanding in order to succeed. Conversely, the
engaging the underlying goal. This is an example of failed education,
concept of the smart home has been a mismatch between perceived
leaving the market under regulatory control, and new learning stops
need by the customer and the required commitment to understand-
at the end of a code paragraph.
ing. Where the automobile was a transformative technology because people were willing to take on the learning curve, the smart home
has languished because customers do not perceive it a strong enough
SSL has entered a phase where educational programs need to evolve
value—at least at this juncture—to invest the time required to apply it
toward greater involvement of customer perspectives, through both
effectively–regardless of continued educational efforts attempting to
adjustment of content and reconsideration of product features. Evolu-
turn this around.
tion of education demands increased sophistication of approach, but not the presentation of complexity of subject matter. A key part of this
approach is to address lighting industry customers from their own per-
When the barrier of customer reluctance to self educate is encoun-
spective. Making a connection between lighting needs and the value
tered, there are two questions that need to be answered: First, is the
the technology brings to serve those requirements, in balance with
value of the technology, as perceived by the customer, high enough to
perception, will improve communication dramatically. This requires
warrant investment in self-directed education? Second, is the technol-
looking beyond the simplistic savings of energy, or return-on-invest-
ogy conﬁgured appropriately to attain requisite understanding from a
ment analysis, as these may not be the highest priority on a recipient's
minimal amount of investment by customers? In too many cases, fea-
list of application demands. The evolution of education that moves
tures and details are included that confuse or block customer interest.
beyond talking at recipients, by bringing them to the technology—vol-
Further, when a technology is presented too aggressively, customer
untarily enthused to engage and learn more—is the next stage of the
defenses pop up, ending all learning. Marketers and educators in solid-
36 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
AIA Continuing Education
“ Enjoyable and very clearly
instructional.” - Travis, 6/24/2012
“This was an excellent course- one of the
best I have taken. Would like more information on window details and details at base of building” - Ellen, 6/1/2012
“This was a course! Information is matter of fact explained and easy to retain. By far the best one hour course I have taken” - Janis, 4/6/2012
add to your product library…good course”
- Devin, 1/23/2012
Informative and easy to understand presentation.”
- Jennifer, 6/28/2012
These are just a handful of the public comments you can see under every course on TCA. And surveys continue to show that the TCA user experience is the best in the business. Visit, explore, register and take a course – for free – today!
Optimizing Performance in Commercial Fenestration
Ventilated Wall Systems: Porcelain Stoneware Cladding Solution for Energy Efﬁcient Buildings
Three Innovations Changing the Face and Function of Fabric Architecture
Cool Control Philips Color Kinetics launched its IntelliPower system for delivering high-bandwidth LED lighting control with a notable icon: Boston’s Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge. Using existing electrical and physical infrastructures, the system facilitates the deployment of digitally controllable LED lighting solutions where re-wiring is not desirable or feasible. Visit www.colorkinetics.com or Circle 291.
“SSL marketers must keep in mind that they need customers more than customers need them. Deliver information in a way that entices them to feel they need to spend the effort to learn the technology and everyone wins.” —Kevin Willmorth
1 Packs a Punch The ultra-compact Platinum Beam 15R Pro from Elation produces a searchlight-like beam rivaling a 1200W discharge lamp, but draws only 500W at maximum use. Visit www.elationlighting.com or Circle 293.
2 Options Abound Incito downlights from Gotham Architectural Lighting can be speciﬁed in any of up to 2,000 performance combinations thanks to a large number of available lumen packages and beam conﬁgurations. Beam angles range from 20 degrees to 70 degrees and lumen outputs range from 2000 to 6500 lumens. Visit www.gothamlighting.com or Circle 294.
3 They’re Just Grand Grand Terrace pendants from Meyda Custom Lighting are available in a spot pendant and a 14-light pendant. The ﬁxtures provide both down-facing spotlights and upward-facing ambient illumination. The spots are housed in an American walnut base, with amber glass candle covers. Canopies and frames are hand-ﬁnished in wrought iron. Visit www.meyda.com or Circle 295.
38 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
Green Gallery At the Quinlan Visual Arts Center in Gainesville, Ga., new LED ecoimagination PAR38 retroﬁt sources from GE Lighting will replace about 200 halogen lamps, saving the 10,000-sq.-ft. gallery about $5,000 annually in energy costs. The retroﬁt was made possible through a grant from Grants to Green. Visit www.gelighting.com or Circle 292.
According to IES TM-21-11, the expansion of digital controls has grown to include 17 protocols for lighting and building automation control, including wireless variants and those requiring no external power connection.
4 Energy Star-ing Role MaxLite has added four new models to its Energy Star-rated sources: a 4W MR16; a dimmable 4W ﬂame-tip candle lamp; a dimmable 7W A-Type frosted bulb; and a 13W PAR30 replacement for 75W incandescent or halogen lamps. Visit www.maxlite.com or Circle 296.
5 High Performer The BAYLED78 from RAB Lighting is intended for large, open spaces, such as warehouses and gymnasiums, while the AISLELED78 is equipped with special optics to distribute light evenly across the face of vertical racks in an aisle. Both are available in cool, neutral and warm color temperatures. Visit www.rabweb.com or Circle 297.
6 Reﬂex Reaction Joining WAC Lighting’s family of high-end accent and display ﬁxtures are an 8.7W/554 lumen model and a larger 17.5W/1017 lumen unit. Both offer a CRI of up to 85 and interchangeable 10-degree spot and 25-degree ﬂood reﬂectors. Dimming is possible using an electronic low-voltage dimmer. Visit www.waclighting.com or Circle 298.
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 39
Stay on Track New Everline LED drivers and modules from Universal Lighting Technologies provide added options for track and downlight ﬁxture designers, with efficiency up to 90+ lumens per watt. Drivers are available in multiple housing conﬁgurations to control luminaires ranging from 15W to 150W, and new round LED modules are offered in color temperatures ranging from 2700K to 4000K. Combined, these products can be used in both ﬁxed light output and analog dimming applications with standard 0—10V controls. Visit www.unvlt.com or Circle 299.
Recent DOE CALiPER testing of linear LED sources vs. ﬂuorescent sources found that LEDs were generally more efficacious and of equal color quality than ﬂuorescents, but suffered a wide variation of luminous intensity distribution and lumen output.
1 Certiﬁed Replacement ORR Lighting has introduced the CB2G lamp as a drop-in replacement for compact ﬂuorescent 2G11 products. Certiﬁed to cETLus standards, the lamp is designed to bypass ballasts in existing ﬁxtures, so no further modiﬁcations are required. Visit www.orrlighting.com or Circle 301.
2 Enhanced Performance LUXEON Rebel PLUS LEDs provide 15% higher performance standards over earlier Philips Lumileds products, with efficacy up to 110 lumens per watt. The new single-emitter products are manufactured to allow lighting designers to upgrade existing products quickly and efficiently. Visit www.futurelightingsolutions.com or Circle 302.
3 So Many Options The Halo ML56 Recessed Downlighting System from Cooper Lighting offers a varied selection of lumen packages, color temperatures and other trim options. Color temperature options range from 2700K to 4000K, at either 80 CRI or 90 CRI, and with a choice of two lumen packages. Visit www.cooperlighting.com or Circle 303.
40 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
The Same, But Different The new Ditto line of LED lamps from Satco offers a range of LED lamps that can directly replace incandescent R20, BR30 and R40 lamps in designs that mimic the appearance of the traditional lamps exactly. BR30 versions are available with either medium or GU24 bases, while R20 and R40 offerings are available with a medium base only. Visit www.satco.com or Circle 300.
“Generally, when we have done the tabulations of changing an older space to mostly LED sources, we have experienced between a 70% and 80% decrease in energy usage without sacriﬁcing lighting levels.” —Bruce Yarnell, Yarnell & Assocs.
4 Heavy-Duty Operators Toshiba’s TGT luminaires are designed for roadway applications. Incorporating on-board photocells with a 15-year lifespan rating, the TGT enables automatic dimming as a standard feature and eliminates the need for a NEMA twist-lock photocell. Visit www.toshiba.com/lighting or Circle 304.
5 Octagonal Offering A slim octagonal design adds special beneﬁts for lighting designers incorporating the TALEXXengine STARK CLE from Tridonic into circular and square ceiling- and wall-mounted luminaires. The 15W units can be combined with the company’s EM powerLED Emergency Lighting Control module to take over emergency-lighting functions. Visit www.tridonic.com or Circle 305.
6 Improved Control Lumenetix has added to its Araya line of color tuning modules with a software-based tool that allows users to more precisely pinpoint desired colors to customize the illumination of different wall, ﬂooring and merchandise textures. Visit www.lumenetix.com or Circle 306.
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • 01.13 • 41
ARCHITECTURAL SSL PRODUCT INNOVATION AWARDS
KIM LIGHTING / HUBBELL
NET ZERO BUILDINGS MAGAZINE (NZB)
RAB LIGHTING, INC.
STERNBERG VINTAGE LIGHTING
THE CONTINUING ARCHITECT
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Back in the September issue, a letter from Gosia Perz raised some questions about ASSIST’s flicker research, which appeared in an SSL Interactive story on line. Our studies, cited in the ASSIST document, did not use a threshold measurement technique, but instead used measurements of how often stroboscopic effects were detected, and how acceptable they were judged even if detected. Thus, as stated in the document, extrapolating beyond the range of conditions we tested (100-10,000 Hz, 5%-100% flicker) would not yield valid predictions. I am pleased that within this range, our model predictions are correlated with data from a paper co-authored by Ms. Perz at the recent CIE Lighting Quality conference. In our studies, we also found that sinusoidal and square waveforms had similar detectability, and that a 50% duty cycle was about equally detectable as 10%.
SSL contains beautiful pictures and great lighting information, but it does not recognize that, innovative as LEDs are, there are lots of other lighting tools that might do a better job in certain applications. Even DOE cautions that LED are not for all uses. If only a small portion of the sums spent to push LEDs were allocated to R & D for incandescents, the designer’s palette would have one more way to create affordable, sustainable and acceptable lighting within the increasing energy regulations—In lighting, as in every other system, one size/type does not fit all. I particularly take umbrage with the crack in SSL Observed about HID being awful. My test kit for glass fibre optics lighting has been bounced off planes, trains, buses and cars since 1993, and the dependable metal lamp still works. Not-there-yet LEDs still have problems to solve, like questionable life time, changing color, heat dissipation, flickering on dimming and price.
JOHN BULLOUGH Lighting Research Center, RPI
GERSIL KAY, IESNA, AIA/HRC Conservation Ltg. Int’l
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EQUAL TIME FLICKER FEEDBACK
In the March issue, beyond the PIA awards, we’ll present our annual look at the state of SSL manufacturing. In the continuing effort to bring down the price of the technology, manufacturers are intensely focusing on LED packaging, the aspect that accounts for the highest percentage of manufacturing cost. The community is also trying to produce light sources with fewer parts and simplified components. Check back for this notable report, as well as our usual news and technical updates.
CORRECTION: In the November 2012 profile on the Ernst and Young offices, the wattage savings were incorrect. The retrofit reduced energy from roughly 2 watts per sq. ft. to 1 watt per sq. ft., not the 40 watts per sq. ft. noted. We apologize.
ANOTHER PERSON’S DARK SPACE IS OUR BLANK CANVAS. AN IALD PROFESSIONAL LIGHTING DESIGNER SEES THE POSSIBILITIES IN EVERY ENVIRONMENT. LEARN HOW AN IALD LIGHTING DESIGNER CAN TURN YOUR VISION INTO REALITY. VISIT IALD.ORG AND CLICK ON "FIND A LIGHTING DESIGNER" TO REFINE YOUR SEARCH.
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at the Speed of Light The industry’s most comprehensive and accurate lighting database with over 5,500 Lighting Manufacturers and 11,000 Product Categories. Lightsearch is a FREE online resource with query options designed by professional specifiers. It works the way you think.
By Kevin Willmorth
Play of Light Makes Living in Boxes Tolerable structures, one can’t help but wonder if a nice
In the fervor surrounding the drive to be more energy efﬁcient, the idea of playfulness of light is frowned upon. I reject that categorically, as LED light can be expressive and efﬁcient.
LEDs make great sources for playful light.
box would do just as well. Yet, when we want
Directionality is a great asset in this regard, so
to really get ideas ﬂowing, we suggest thinking
is scalable source size and luminance. Unlike
“out of the box”, although nobody actually goes
any other source before it, a 1-watt LED is as ef-
outside—attempting to think outside, without
ﬁcient as a 25 watt source, so there is no penalty
In my time as a designer, there have been
This is the ﬁrst source that can be expres-
instances where discussion of design came
sive and efﬁcient at the same time. When this is
around to the idea of organic form, and the need
embraced, magic happens. Yet, there is a lurking
We live in boxes. Whether it’s where we work,
for more of it. These deep thoughts generally
force out there that promulgates the notion that
or where we sleep and play, we have created
occur within a box, the least organic shape of all.
playfulness in light must be abandoned to serve
for ourselves a universe of little boxes. Straight
I propose that any discussion of organic shape
the greater boxy good. I almost fell into that
walls make it easy to arrange our furniture,
must occur out of doors. Otherwise, it’s like talk-
trap, moving away from what I knew in my heart
while corners provide spaces to tuck artsy
ing about ﬂying hybrid electric cars from within
was true. Now I see it for the fallacy it is. If we
things to decorate and hide the boxiness of it
a 1969 Plymouth Roadrunner with a 440 six
are going to live in boxes, we will need to make
all. We store our food in little cooler boxes, stash
pack. Or meeting in gigantic convention centers
them feel good. The way this is done is with light,
junk in cardboard boxes, and stare at rectangu-
lighted by halogen and metal halide lamps from
playing on the rectangular prisons we would
lar screens where images of others in real and
30 ft. above the ﬂoor—to discuss how we all need
otherwise be stuck in. This can be done without
imaginary boxes tell us stories and inform us
to employ LEDs to save energy.
wasting energy. However, if left to the energy
that it is cold and windy outside. It’s very odd
I like that lighting does not ﬁt into boxes.
engineers who are at home in their square
when you think about it. Boxes are not natural to
Light is round, spherical, conical—not boxy.
cornered minds, light will be treated like a ﬁller
any other being or environmental existence, yet
When you put light into a box, you get scallops,
commodity, to ﬂood spaces with a speciﬁed quan-
we make them for ourselves by choice.
round and oval patterns and cones. Light plays
tity, evenly applied to every surface with preci-
funny games with the perception of boxes, mak-
sion and purpose, creating lighted space devoid
beyond boxes. His alternatives included cylin-
ing them more shapely and interesting. I am
of any playfulness.
ders and the geodesic dome, which promised
completely against the concept of “volumetric”
to change our little boxes to bubbles. His ideas
lighting, which attempts to ﬁll a box with even
carton, I am going to use light to transform and
were revered as innovative by those who offered
illumination, like ﬁlling it with water. This is an
hide its boxiness.•
such opinion, but in the end failed to change us.
ugly solution that denies lighting its true form.
Today, the Buckminster Fuller Institute resides
OLED is heading down this road of ﬁtting light
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
in a box in Brooklyn, New York. Frank Lloyd
into diffuse squares to ﬁll boxes. I prefer to see
Kevin Willmorth, a lighting expert and ﬁxture designer,
Wright liked boxes, as did Sullivan, and Mies Van
light dance around a room, adding form and pat-
has been instrumental in helping create a vision and
der Roe. While Frank Gehry explores free-form
tern, then bouncing away for ambience.
mission statement for Architectural SSL.
Buckminster Fuller tried to get us to think
44 • 01.13 • ARCHITECTURAL SSL
That’s not for me. If I am going to live in a
It’s 3 am. No one’s working. So why are your lights? Only Acuity Brands provides you with advanced LED lighting seamlessly integrated with digital controls. This enables your lighting to be on when you need it – and off when you don’t – reducing energy consumption 24 hours a day. www.acuitybrands.com/integration
SMAR T + SI M PL E L IG HTIN G S O L U TIO N S © 2013 Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc. All rights reserved.
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This is the Next Revolution in LED Outdoor Lighting. This is Kim Lighting.
“ Every revolution was first a thought in one man’s mind.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
www.kimlighting.com Circle 11