SSL products hitting the market, and SSL is certainly helping to wake up a sleepy industry; but lighting is lighting. [ Page 14]
SSL ExtEriorS SSL is a natural when it comes to illuminating building facades, be it for its long life and lack of maintenance issues, or just cool lighting.
SSL BUZZ DOE releases findings on the lifetime and life cycle impact of SSL products, in terms of usage, manufacturing & transportation.
SSL ProjEctS Frank Gehry’s latest creation is fairly tame—on the outside at least—but features a dynamically illuminated interior.
NUMBER 22 • may 2012 www.architecturalssl.com
(and other logical fits for ssl)
SSL Buzz: Get a Handle on Flicker With a Simple Hand-Held Test SSL interactive: An Update on The Latest Zhaga Developments
ArchitecturAl SSl • 519 BriArcliff roAd, BolingBrook, il 60440
ARCHITECTURAL SSL • Chronicling the Advancement of LEDs in the Built Environment
the revolution re-considered: Unquestionably, there are great
White Pages: The Differences of Class 2 and Class II Power Supplies
Introducing Acrich2 With No AC/DC Driver
• Increased Lifespan • Increased lamp efficiency ( power factor > 0.95 ) • Design Flexibility • Cost reducation in designing and manufacturing light bulbs • Speed time to market
GE Lighting Solutions
It’s a real game changer. From residential streets to multi-lane highways, GE’s NEW Evolve™ LED Roadway Scalable Cobrahead is changing the way you light your lanes. With hundreds of photometric options to meet your precise lighting requirements, this versatile optic design delivers high uniformity, while significantly reducing your energy consumption and maintenance expenses. It’s lane changing innovation that puts your roadways miles ahead.
© 2012 GE Lighting Solutions, LLC
12 In Brief: LED supply could be tight. 35 SSL in Application: Northshore University Health Systems parking garage retrofit, Evanston, Ill.
07 LED Life Cycle
05 LED Insights
DOE releases a new report studying the life-cycle impact of LEDs on transportation, manufacturing and, of course, usage.
Think it; say it—it might happen: Cool LED developments. By Jim Crockett
48 SSL Observed 10 Museum Lighting Zumtobel has released an interesting study noting the IR and UV effects of lighting.
12 Fun with Flicker? A serious subject, but SSL's Kevin Willmorth has created a terrific tool to test for flicker.
02 • 05.12 • Architectural SSL
With the advance of SSL comes a swarm of new players to the game. But when the wave of electronics practices meets the wall of sustainably designed buildings, what will survive? By Kevin Willmorth
“The idea of packaging energy savings along with ambiance, matched by intelligent control to perfectly match the designer's and client's wishes, is a recurring theme in LED-based technology."
DESIGN & PRODUCTS
14 Putting a Square Peg In a Square Hole
38 White Pages
While SSL has brought some great products to the market, and woken a sleepy industry, the infusion of LED technology has not drastically changed the way we see or light spaces. by Kevin Willmorth
Understanding the difference between Class 2 and Class II power supplies.
22 At The Front: SSL and Exteriors A combination of positive factors—low maintenance, a need for lesser overall light levels, and frankly cool visual effects—is making adoption of SSL on building facades a no brainer. by Barbara Horwitz-Bennett
40 Advances Cove lighting, architectural flood lighting, decorative pendants, track lighting, drivers.
Architectural SSL, Vol. 6, No. 2 (ISSN# 1941-8388) is published five times per year by Construction Business Media. Publication Office: Construction Business Media, 579 First Bank Drive, Suite 220, Palatine, IL 60067; 847 359 6493; www.architecturalssl.com. (Copyright © 2012 by Construction Business Media) POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Architectural SSL Magazine, 519 East Briarcliff Road, Bolingbrook, IL 60440.
28 Featured Project: The New World Symphony Inside and out, LED, along with other creative lighting, helps Frank Gehry's New World Center come alive. by Ellen Lampert-Gréaux
Architectural SSL • 05.12 • 03
NUMbER 22 • MAy MA 2012 www.architecturalssl.com
Managing Partner Director Publishing Operations email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Managing Partner Director Business Development email@example.com
EDITORIAL Jim Crockett 847 359 6493
Vice President Director, Art & Production firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Director email@example.com
Megan Mazzocco 847 359 6493
Associate Editor firstname.lastname@example.org
Ja Du Kannst trying to create a revolutionary product and we
The past couple of columns I’ve been somewhat cranky in my outlook on the state of SSL. Thanks to some neat product innovations I’ve seen of late, I’m feeling more optimistic that game-changing products are possible, even if they’re not the norm.
are spending a lot of time and engineering effort in LED. It is our top priority,” noted the product manager. Point made. The manufacturer, by the way, was Tech Lighting and their undercabinet light is the Unilume—check it out yourself. The other development that’s got me upbeat is a museum project in Germany. In our sister publication illuminate, not so long ago, I mused about a trip to London, where in my vision of the future now, I was thinking how the
In my last column I inferred that the LED “revolu-
impressive translucent space-frame system of
tion” has not been so revolutionary, becoming
the main atrium of the British Museum, which
more about providing replacement/retrofit
was dim due to the lateness of the winter
products than creating new forms and disrupting
afternoon I happened to be visiting there, could
behavioral change in lighting—and there’s noth-
be made so much better if, during such dimmed
ing wrong with this, although I did note that the
daylight conditions, the absence of natural light
industry should tone down its rhetoric. In a chal-
could be offset or even replicated with LEDs.
DESIGN & PRODUCTION Dave Pape Art Director email@example.com
lenge to this assertion, I received an invitation
Someone in Switzerland was on the same page,
from a local luminaire manufacturer who wanted
as I received a news release from Zumtobel
to show me, first hand, a number of products they
about a custom ring of LEDs the manufacturer
feel are pushing the envelope, at least beyond
helped develop for an underground gallery in
simply creating 1-for-1 replacements.
Munich that somewhat incorporates the concept.
Contributing Editors Vilma Barr Barbara Horwitz-Bennett Ellen Lampert-Greaux Chuck Ross
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Associate Art Director firstname.lastname@example.org
Specifically, one point I made in my “Slow-
In this case, it’s the subterranean expansion of
the-Roll-of-the-Revolution” piece was that I
the Städel Museum—built under a plaza—that’s
Gary Redmond 847 359 6493 email@example.com
Tim Shea 847 359 6493 firstname.lastname@example.org
was disappointed not to see more develop-
capped with a series of circular skylights ringed
ments in SSL being discreetly integrated into
with LEDs. While not quite the same effect as
office furniture as a means to create more task
daylight, each portal—a mix of warm (2700K) and
Trey Higgens 847 577 8980 email@example.com
Jim Oestmann 847 838 0500 firstname.lastname@example.org
lighting in areas with good daylighting, with
cool white (5000K) LED sources—helps deliver
the idea of reducing overhead ambient lighting
balance to the space in dark or dim conditions.
where it makes sense. In answer, the manufac-
Cool—and it brings us full circle to this
David Haggett Ted Rzempoluch 847 934 9123 609 361 1733 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
turer showed me a very slim undercabinet light.
column’s unusual headline. A Teutonic play on
Beyond its ability to seamlessly blend into case-
“Si se Puede,” Cesar Chavez’ credo, more recently
work, what impressed me was the fixture’s power,
adapted by President Obama, it loosely means
Jim Führer 503 679 5409 email@example.com
even light distribution and warm color. The latter
“It can be done.” Alas, my inspiration was not so
was made possible in part through the use of
noble—I saw the expression on a sign at a used
remote phosphor technology—something I’m lik-
car dealership on the way back from lunch. But
ing more and more. It was interesting to see the
it does show inspiration can come from the most
fixture dissected and view the mixing chamber—
unexpected of places. I recommend everyone
just a row of blue LEDs, that when combined with
head out to lunch early today.
Bob Fox 203 356 9694 firstname.lastname@example.org
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the phosphor “filter,” transmutes the blue light to a pleasant white light. The manufacturer also showed me a number of new downlights featuring small and square apertures, with a lot of attention given to trim considerations, as well as utilities to much more easily facilitate aiming in the field. “We are
Type and globe=PMS 485
Circular blend under globe = PMS 3025
Continents, shadow, base = Black
Jim Crockett, editorial director
ArchItEcturAL SSL • 05.12 • 05
SSL BUZZ & i∑DUSTR∞ BRi§FS
DOe DO e lifeife-c cycle Assessment, part 1 LED Lif ifE Etim timE E An AnD D Life-CyCL Life-Cy CLe CL e iMPACT studied in new DOe DO e rep repO Ort
Transport Bulk Material Manufacturing LED Package Manufacturing Use
14 12 10
0 Incandescent ~22 lamps
Halogen (use only) ~27 lamps
CFL ~3 lamps
LED (2011) ~1 lamp
Of Incandescent Lamps, CFLs, and LED Lamps 20,000
(M BTU/20 M Lumen-Hours)
Life-Cycle Energy Consumption
LED (2015) ~0.6 lamps
Source: DOE Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Study, 2012
ABoVe: right now, leDs and cFl are about the same as far as life-cycle energy consumption, but by 2015, if leDs continue to meet their performance targets, their life-cycle energy is expected to decrease by half. As the chart indicates, active lamp “use” accounts for 90% of energy consumed.
Manufacturing phase primary energy i∑C±∑D§SC§∑t
(MJ/20 million lumen-hours) 2011 l§D [16 L§D P±CK±g§ ]
FutuR§ 2015 L§D [5 l§D P±CK±g§ ]
BuLk LA LAmp mp mt mtL. L.
1 LED p pAck AckAgE
tOt tAL AL LED pA pAck ckA AgES cOntri ntriB Buti utiO On
tOt tAL AL
use phase primary energy
(MJ/20 million lumen-hours)
inc ncA AnDES DESc cEnt
hALO ALOg gEn
LED - futur uturE E (2015)
ABOVE: the top table shows energy consumed in manufacturing light sources, where Leds consume the highest; overall, however, energy to create Led packages represent only 27% of its lifetime use, maximum, and only 0.1% at the minimum. average is about 6.6% to the total life cycle energy use.
ABOVE: the minimum manufacturing energy estimate represents the lowest derived from previous LCa studies, while the maximum represents the greatest. the mean manufacturing energy estimate is an average of the derived values.
LEDs are making big strides in efficacy, steadily gaining in the amount of illumination they produce for every watt of electricity used, but less is known about possible downsides the technology might pose for the environment throughout their lifespan. to learn more, the u.s s. dept. of energy (d (dOe) has begun an effort to understand possible impacts, compared to those of traditional lighting technologies, beginning with a February report on total life-cycle energy use. “Review of the Life Cycle energy ConsumpConsump tion of incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and Led Lamps” looks at all phases of an Led Led source’s life, including manufacture, transport and use; it then compares its energy use to other light sources and makes suppositions of how total energy use in all phases might change in the future. while total energy use of today’s Led Led edss is comparable to that of CFLs (see adjacent figure), the report anticipates the technology’s life-span energy consumption to drop to 50% of current levels by 2015. the t he report bases its results on a review of 10 different life-cycle analyses focused on the three different lamp types, with Led Led characteristics drawn from the dOe’s 2011 solid state Lighting Multi Year program plan. the current report’s authors used a 20 million lumen-hour benchmark— representing the lighting service provided by a single 60-watt Led Led lamp, today, over its lifetime—to compare incandescent, CFL and Led Led performance. Because incandescents and CFLs both last a fraction of that time (see the adjacent table), multiple lamps are considered in the total energy calculations for those technologies. For example, approximately 22 60-watt incandescent lamps would be required to match the lifetime of three 15-watt CFLs and just one 12.5-watt Led Led (all in medium screw-base models). Halogen lamps also were included as part of usephase comparisons, and it required 27 to match an Z
ConT Con Tinued on page 08
ArchitecturA Architectur Al SSL • 05.12 • 07
ConT Con Tinued fRoM page 07
Led ed’s ’s lifespan. ass might be expected, for all products, a the greatest energy consumption took place during the phase when they actually were in service—though the significantly higher efficiency of CFLs and Led Led edss during this period made manufacture and transport energy use proportionally more important to their overall energy use. with energy use quantified in megajoules (MJ) over the 20 million lumen-hour measurement period, Led Led edss consumed slightly less than a quarter of the energy of comparable incandescents (see the lower table on page 7). the t he future is even brighter—and more efficient—if Led Led lamp manufacturers are able to hit the dOe’s 2015 performance targets. as noted, current Led Led offerings are in a dead heat with CFLs in total energy use. However, Led lamps meeting the 2015 goals would need less than half the number of Led Led packages to create the same amount of light, resulting in a substantial efficiency lead over comparably bright CFLs. the t he report notes it is important to be aware that most of the uncertainty in lifecycle energy consumption of an Led Led centers on the manufacturing of the Led Led package. the low estimate indicates the Led Led package contributes to 0.10% of life-cycle energy use, while the high estimate shows it could be as much as 27%. the average indicates that Led package manufacturing is likely at about 6.6% of total life-cycle energy use. the t he report is the first installment of a larger dOe project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource costs in the manufacture, use and disposal of Led Led lighting products in relation to comparable traditional technologies. next up will be research looking into direct and indirect material and process inputs required to fabricate, ship, operate and dispose of Led Led lamps. Finally, dOe is planning to compare Led Led edss and conventional sources to determine whether potentially hazardous materials are present in concentrations exceeding hazardouswaste regulatory thresholds. •
08 • 05.12 • Architectur ArchitecturA Al SSL
rEStAurAntS + hOSpitALity:
leDs le Ds turn up the heat at New Miami haven “hAVE hAVEn” n” iS iS th thE En nA AmE Of A n nE Ew rES rES ESt tA t Aur urA Ant and bar in Miami’s south Beach district, and it’s certainly proved to be a welcoming home to the latest ss ssLL technology. it turns out that creating a seductively successful ambiance requires a surprissurpris ing amount of light. Lighting designer david Chesal incorporated a range of Led Led fixtures from anolis throughout the 120-capacity venue, which helps the space transform from lunchtime eatery to late-night chill spot. in full nighttime swing, almost all solid surfaces—from the siberian onyx bar to the jet-black beach-pebble water wall—appear aglow, thanks to a combination of wall-grazers, backlights and ceiling-mounted strip fixtures. even the floor is embedded with 14 inground Rg RgB units. Featuring 25-degree lenses, these luminaires make cocktail tables seem to glow from within. when the tables are removed, these same fixtures help create a color-changing dance floor.•
“hAveN wAS ONe OF theSe AMAziNg prOJectS with reAl ScOpe tO illuStrAte whAt’S AchievABle with gOOD lightiNg.”
ABoVe: the focal point of the space is the open kitchen and chef’s counter where patrons have front-row seats to food preparation. the onyx counters are internally lit with Anolis Arcline Optic 4 sources.
Light that relaxes Light by LUXEON is changing the way we light our world. The unparalleled quality of light, efficiency, and reliability enable better, more sustainable lighting solutions. LUXEON LEDs are environmentally friendly, lead-free and mercury-free, and offer the best lumen maintenance of any power LED. LUXEON LEDs are available in color temperatures and efficiency configurations that make them perfect for any of todayâ€™s lighting applications. Make the change to LUXEON and start relaxing.
Standard tandardS S: dc for deSktoP deSkto deS ktoP P deviceS device eviceS S
PLug P Lug LoadS LoadS eMerge-ing eMerge-ing aS aS a new new efficiency e fficiency t target arget “Plug load” has become the latest buzzphrase for energy-efficiency experts over the last year or so, and as a result, the rest of us will be hearing it more often once ASHRAE’s latest energy standard update kicks in.
Photos: Marco Melander
PubLic + cuLturaL
But is it Art? MuS Mu Seu euM M Lighting deS deSigner ignerS S often MuSt balance the needs of two important constituencies in their plans for popular, yet fragile, displays: Paying patrons need enough illumination to actually see high-value artworks and antiquities, yet that same illumination can damage those objects of desire. Researchers now have more evidence that SSL solutions can help … Austrian-based lighting manufacturer Zumtobel recently completed a study comparing the damage potential of two of its own spotlight products, using a 1916 Picasso drawing, “Harlequin,” as a target artwork. In this effort, the tungsten-halogen Xeno spotlight was paired with an LED Arcos spotlight featuring the company’s “tunable white” functionality. Precise infrared and UV radiation measures were taken to quantify potential damage to the drawing and its paper substrate. Investigators also tested various dimming levels and their impact on visual perception of the artwork. At comparable color temperatures, the LED fixfix ture exhibited less damage potential, which means exhibit organizers might be able to allow longer exposure durations for fragile display pieces. HowHowever, once LED color temperatures reached beyond 3250K, their impact became comparable to that of 10 • 05.12 • Architectur ArchitecturA Al SSL
in Art And culture APPlicAtionS, the oBjective iS to enSure thAt hArMful infrAred And illuMinAnce levelS Are kePt AS low AS PoSSiBle. the halogen spot at 2050K. The halogen fixture’s output also was affected by dimming levels—when dimmed to the desired illuminance, the output color temperature shifted from 2900K to 2000K. The LED unit, however, features controls allowing it to be dimmed without altering light color. As an added benefit for budget-conscious administrators, the LED spotlight was much less expensive to operate. It used half the electricity of the halogen fixture, and drew only 30% of its full-power demand when dimmed to the desired brightness.•
Above: Zumtobel’s study found that even without filters, LEDs emit less UV and IR radiation than other sources fitted with a filter.
In a nutshell, all those desk lamps, cellphone chargers, laptop computers, and other devices have become targets for watt-busting regulators, but one group sees an old approach—direct current (DC) distribution—as a way to minimize the impact of these power supply devices on electricity demand. EMerge, an alliance of buildingproducts, lighting and electronics manufacturers, along with electric utilities and other interested parties, made news last year when its member companies began releasing products—including LED lighting— designed to the organization’s 24-volt DC standard for occupied spaces. This series of guidelines focused on delivering lowvoltage power to the ceiling plane. Now the group is starting work on a new standard to extend that distribution to office desktops. Their thought is that providing office workers with a centralized DC source could eliminate the need for device-level transformers—all those blocks and bricks—and save the energy lost at all those individual AC/ DC transformation points. “You can’t help but notice the number of outlets that are being used as a charging system, instead of as a power-delivery system,” said Joel Zwier, EMerge’s Furniture Workgroup chair, as well as the lead of advanced applications and business development for office-furniture maker
Sleek. Efficient. Configurable.
Steelcase. “That got us thinking about the blocks and bricks—isn’t there a better way of consolidating those transformers up the distribution system?” EMerge isn’t alone in thinking about plug loads. As noted, ASHRAE 90.1-2010, the latest version of the country’s most
“you cAn’t helP But notice the nuMBer of outletS thAt Are Being uSed AS A chArging SySteMS, inSteAd of AS A Power delivery SySteM.” influential energy standard, and the heart of the LEED standard, requires 50% of all electrical receptacles in private and open offices, along with computer classrooms, be fitted with auto-shutoff capabilities to turn off when not in use. Lighting controls, as part of the standard, also are mandated, but including controls on individual task lights can gain designers added leeway in overall lightingpower allowances. EMerge’s Furniture Workgroup was formed in March of this year, and Zwier said it hopes to have a draft standard available for public review by the end of summer, with a final version available to the larger group’s board by spring 2013. The document will cover the infrastructure components—including wiring and power supplies—connectors, peripherals and controls needed to enable safe, reliable delivery of DC power to individual users. The goal, says Zwier, is to provide guidance, not proscribe an approach. “We’re trying to be as open as a platform as we can—power-over-Ethernet is definitely an active distribution system, and USB is growing in popularity,” said Zwier, noting the wide variety of possible design options. ”I would hate to presume the outcome before we go through our process.”
lighting Plan is Spot-o Spot-on when one of the beS beSt known kitchen brands in France, Hygena, decided to upgrade their 120-plus retail outlets at the end of 2011, lighting was an integral part of the retailer’s plans. While the stores already featured a number of LED luminaires, some of these fixtures presented color and glare problems. Swedish manufacturer Fagerhult designed a customized solution for Hygena that improved illumination and cut energy costs. Fagerhult’s designers chose Xicato’s 1300 lm Spot Module as the basis for the new scheme. These LEDs feature a correlated color temperature of 3000K, with a color rendering index of 80+. Now incorporated into both downlights and pendants, these high performers produce 30% more light than the units they replaced, even though the total number of fixtures in each store has been cut almost in half.•
Above: Delphine Rousset, Fagerhult’s head of Retail Lighting Solutions, called the installation a “total LED solution for a future-proof light.”
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curtain urtainS S uP on new tiMeS Square StarbuckS StarbuckS In its signature locations, Starbucks now is working to incorporate elements of its stores’ surrounding neighborhoods into its designs— and its new Times Square outlet is no exception. Designed by lighting pros at NYC-based Focus Lighting, the store includes many elements of a Broadway theater stage set, including Fresnel lighting fixtures equipped with LED lamps. LED fixtures also provide accent lighting for shelving and the store’s canopy. All the LED lamps, including PAR30s and MR16s, were supplied by Toshiba.
Led Su SuPPL PPLy tight PPLy In a recent edition of A Light Read, CanacCanaccord Genuity’s LED and Lighting Monthly e-newsletter, by Jonathan Dorsheimer and Josh Baribeau, the authors noted the solidstate lighting market continues to look up, but despite the bright prospects of the future, the analysts note it is important to be aware of trends happening now. Notably, pricing has normalized from the dramatic reductions last year, but that still means 20% to 30% ASP erosion should be expected this year. Given the fear of carrying too much inventory, the industry has leaned out, noted the authors, creating periods of tightness and resulting in rush orders. This has been the case in chips, and it is now occurring in sapphire substrates. Whether these anomalies turn into trends is to be seen, but they are incrementally positive given the spate of disappointing results over the past nine months. Entering 2013, the analysts believe most applications, excluding lighting, will be saturated, meaning future industry growth will be dependent upon SSL adoption.
12 • 05.12 • Architectur ArchitecturA Al SSL
a fun LittL LittLe fL fLicker icker indicator Flicker is in the eye and biology of the beholder. On the rudimentary level, it can be categorized on four levels: 1) Flicker of a character that causes serious negative human reaction, such as that which causes epileptic seizures (generally under 65Hz); 2) Flicker that is invisible, or nearly invisible, that causes a reduction in human performance and/ or temporary physical response, like headaches or nausea (deeply modulated, short duty cycle120Hz); 3) Flicker that is not readily apparent, does not cause apparent reaction, but still reduces human visual performance (longer duty cycle 120Hz); 4) Flicker that is imperceptible and causes not reaction, even if it can be measured. Setting aside the frequencies recognized as harmful (<75Hz), and deeper discussion of human physiological response to invisible flicker, for most of us, visible flicker is what causes us most immediate concern. It has been proven to have a negative impact on human visual performance and comfort, especially when contrast is low. Since the invention of the fluorescent and HID lamp, there has been a large body of research invested in solving complaints of office workers under these sources. Flicker leads the list of issues associated with operating light sources on 60Hz AC circuits, generating 120Hz light modulation. So how does one determine whether the lights overhead are flickering? An age-old approach is to wag one’s fingers in front of one’s face. If the fingers appear to be multiplied distinctly, there is visible flicker present. Unfortunately, this can also occur under daylight conditions, as the human eye is not
a continuous processor, and eye movement can cause a sense of flicker that is actually not present. The Flicker Indicator Machine (above) is designed to indicate when there is flicker in the room that is within the perception of the observer, even if the lights don’t appear to be flickering. Most individuals with normal human vision will see the effects in this machine, even if the appearance of flicker from room lighting is not as readily apparent. When the wheel is spun under a light source that is flickering, the observer will see a mix of moving rainbows of color and wagon spokes. Without it, the wheel appears a uniform gray. The change in speed of the wheel will cause the colors co o s and spokes to change in nw width dth and d direction, ect on enhanc ng the v sua eact on Any p esence of co o o ba s shown n th s test s v s b e fl cke to the obse ve and nd cates th s may be a sou ce of v sua d scomfo t and pe fo mance Fo sou ces w th m d fl cke cha acte st cs the effects a e subt e to those w th ve y sha p fl cke effects wh ch p oduce the most v b ant appea ance of co o and mot on n the p esence of h ghe f equenc es the bands become na owe o d sappea as the modu at on exceeds v sua esponse At owe f equenc es the bands g ow w de and mo e v s b e Wh e the e a e sc ent fic methods to dete m ne f equency modu at on depth duty cyc e and othe met c data po nts what matte s most s whethe the obse ve s v s b y espond ng The s mp c ty of the whee p oduces th s nfo mat on s mp y and w th a tt e fun th own n to make the effo t nte est ng •
Above: SSl’s ll’s own kevin willmorth has come up with a simple, but effective tool to gauge the effect of flicker: if rainbow spokes appear, there’s flicker present; if it’s gray it’s ok.
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what’ hat’S S going on with zhaga? A common complaint in the world of SSL is standardization or lack thereof—at least as far as standardization of interfaces for LED lighting components. Well, members of the Zhaga Consortium are trying to do something about it. On SSL Interactive, in the “Topics at the Front” tab, we’ve posted an update, by Ben Swedberg of Ideal Industries, and a Zhaga committee member, on what’s happening with standardization developments. Briefly, Ben reports on the standards that have been approved— one for socketable light engines, and the second for spot lighting—as well as standards in development, including one for street lighting and one for indoor troffer-style fixtures and drivers. Ideal, and other Zhaga members exhibiting at Lightfair, will be actively demonstrating many of the new standardized interfaces. A workshop, “Zhaga—Modularity for LED Sources” will also be held at the conference May 8 at 2 p.m. Ideal’s booth at the show is 1139. For other news and whitepapers, Visit SSL Interactive at www. architecturalssl.com/sslinteractive architecturalssl.com/sslinteractive.. Be sure to check out the “Univer“Univer sitities” tab, as we’ve been posting many of the presentations from last Fall’s ArchLED conference, including sessions on Controls and LEDs, Thoughts on CRI and local rebate programs. And please don’t hesitate to join in the conversation or start a new one by hitting any of the “feedback” buttonsPresented connected to any of the by: stories, or simply fire me an email: email@example.com.
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(anD OtHer lOgical fits fOr sOliD-state ligHting) At some point in the emergence of any significant development in technology terms founded on prior evolutionary steps will fail to adequately describe the next. The first hurdle to understanding is dissemination of meaningful information to a population unfamiliar with the technology. Similar to describing color to a blind person, defining a new technology using conventional terms often produces limited effectiveness and erroneous assumptive connections. The greater the change, the more difficult the issue becomes.
14 â€˘ 05.12 â€˘ ArchitecturAl SSL
By Kevin Willmorth, contributing writer
While the word “revolution” is used all too frequently to describe the impact LEDs may have on lighting, in the real world, things are more mundane. Yes, there are some great new products coming out, and certainly SSL is playing a role in waking up a somewhat sleepy industry, but the fact remains, lighting is lighting. There has been nothing emerging from the infusion of LED technology that changes how we see, how we light space, or the basic conversion of electrical energy to visible light energy. There is more that is the same, than there is different.
With this in mind, practical designers everywhere, from architectural firms to lighting consultants and building owners, make choices of product and technologies to be used based on an in-the-trenches reality that transcends fancy press release marketing and patent churning pipe dreams. Finding the best fit for SSL technology is not about responding to convincing marketing schemes, support of venture backed start-ups, or participating in an altruistic battle of ideals. Finding the best fit for any lighting technology requires considering the same practical considerations that have always existed - weighing available options against practical need. This can be broken into four core considerations: Illuminance levels; lighting quality; operational impact; and initial cost.
arcHitectural SSL • 05.12 • 15
mArketA rket nAlysis rketA
Illuminance Levels The raw amount of light required to produce a desired level of visual acuity, coupled with the dynamics of juxtaposition of light source location vs. target surfaces and general environmental conditions plays a critical role in choosing light sources, luminaire types, and application strategy. Controls to adjust illuminance levels are included in this. Further, occupant age, task dynamics, and surrounding reflective qualities all come into play. SSL technology changes none of these dynamics, but do offer a new light source and range of emerging luminaires in the consideration mix.
Lighting Qualities Lighting quality reaches beyond purely aesthetic considerations. Factors of flicker, color temperature, color fidelity, color quality, as well brightness and glare control, are all critical lighting qualities. Additionally, factors of contrast between task surfaces and surrounding illuminance, uniformity and application of the proper mix of lighting factors to achieve the highest visual performance level, is why we have
expense that must be rationalized and bal-
lighting in the first place—to support human
anced against the benefits realized over a
vision. SSL technology has no impact on the
predetermined period of time. With no special
physical properties of quality lighting. However,
circumstances involved, such as delivery of an
the potential of utilizing advanced technologies
all-new value that overrides cost sensitivity,
to deliver high visual quality does present oppor-
initial costs are likely to boil down to simple
tunities worthy of consideration.
cost/benefit analysis. Weighing the other three
ssl allowed ltl Architects to accentuate the vertical lines of a new slatted cedar screen that envelopes the existing façade of claremont university consortium's administrative center. As the screen transitions from wall to entry canopy, lighting designer, lumen Architecture, threaded the slats with ilight Plexineon's White 1X series fixtures, increasing density to highlight the structure’s sloped geometry while providing general illumination and way finding.
values in context of the customer in terms of
downstream operating expense tolerance and
All lighting presents a negative impact
philosophical approach; against available funds,
on the environment, operating and
and pre-determined budget values, produces a
maintenance costs, disposal and waste manage-
unique initial cost threshold signature. Lighting
ment, and electrical infrastructure demand.
is selected within these boundaries, regardless
Beyond the direct impact of lighting systems,
of what might be the latest hot product technol-
are indirect effects on building systems, such as
ogy available. SSL products that cost more
HVAC loading. Lighting is never free, and each
and only deliver results similar to lower cost
technology, from incandescent to the most effi-
conventional products will ultimately fail, while
cient solid-state product, has a unique signature
products of higher value perception-to-cost
in the impact they have on operating a building.
ratios have the most potential for success.
This is where SSL has proven itself to be of significant value in replacing older technologies.
Source Suitability On this backdrop of applied lighting criteria,
selecting the best fit of technologies available is
One cannot escape the reality that
a matter of fitting benefits against the demands
everything begins with an initial
defined. For example, in the residential market,
16 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
mArketA rket nAlysis rketA
initial cost and lighting quality demand a low
for its physical size, when compared to a simi-
cost source with desirable light emissions. This
larly scaled 150-watt HPS lamp, or the diminu-
ssl, in the eyes of sid lee Architecture, has a very specific and dynamic purpose in the high-tech montreal flagship store of canadian telecom giant Videotron: illuminate a multi-media display that doubles as stairs and serves as a means of wayfinding and advertising the services and products available in the store.
market also exhibits minimal concern over
tive scale of an LED emitting the same lumens.
operating costs, has limited hourly use, and low
Conversely, a 1500-watt HID lamp is compact
illuminance level demands. For these reasons,
compared to an LED array delivering the same
the incandescent lamp has survived longer than
raw power. This characteristic has an impact on
in any other market. Conversely, in street light-
product scale, optical system form and effective-
ing, where operating hours are long, mainte-
ness, and general product packaging.
nance costs are high and lighting qualities are
1 2 Environmental 3 4 5 6 Tolerance
less aesthetic and more metric, sources with long life, low energy consumption, and optical
The environment in which a source is to be
efficiency are the imperative. However, there
subjected has a very real impact on selection.
exists no universal formula pointing to any
Where an incandescent lamp can survive the
singularity in source selection. For any target
cold, it cannot tolerate vibration or impact.
performance criteria, there will be several
The fluorescent lamp may be an overall good
available options worth considering, combin-
lumen source, but is temperature sensitive (hot
ing subjective and objective metrics to suit the
and cold extremes), has a large surface area on
character of the target customer. Defining the
which dirt accumulates, and is only marginally
attributes of a light source technology includes
tolerant of vibration. LEDs are vibration resis-
six basic categories:
tant and cold tolerant, but can be problematic in high temperature applications.
1 Light 2 3Output 4 5 Potential 6 Output in relation to source size and total
1 2 3 Efficiency 4 5 6
potential of a source combined. As an example,
Efficiency is measured in many ways, and dif-
an incandescent lamp produces very little light
fers by application. Some sources are excellent
ArchitecturAl SSL â€˘ 05.12 â€˘ 17
mArketA rket nAlysis rketA
lumen producers with low power consumption, like the T8 linear fluorescent, generating excellent lumens/watt values. However, their ability to generate directional energy is limited. Other sources are better as point sources within optical systems like the halogen burner, which is poor in lumens/watt, but excellent at generating high beam energy. LEDs are very good for directional control, as well as delivering solid lumens/ watt characteristics.
1 2 3 4 Light 5 6Quality There is a mix of objective and subjective measures of light quality that characterize a light source. The incandescent lamp is a low brightness, high-color quality product; while a 1500-watt high-pressure sodium lamp is a high brightness, low-color quality source. Depending on intended application, the quality of light, including source color, color accuracy, consistency, brightness, glare and other subjective factors are used in comparison. SSL technology can deliver the gambit, tunable to most any lighting quality need, or designed to meet other priorities with minimal quality consideration.
fail at end of life, SSL products include a failure
and Service Life 6 2 3 4 5 Longevity How long a source lasts, including its sup-
component that may or may not precede the
covering aLL the BaSeS
lumen deprecation metric used to define the LED
the Bond Bridge, spanning the missouri river in kansas city, is an excellent example of the flexibility of ssl, serving not only as a source of nighttime illumination—and one that offers an infinite amount of programming—it's also a source that meets environmental criteria, as the technology stands up in extreme weather conditions; the light source's long life also means less maintenance, and thus a lower operational impact on the difficult-to-reach structure. image: cathy morrison, moDot
porting components determine suitability to an application. Short lived products 1 are2fine 3
4 5 6
when normal use is intermittent, like appli-
Every light source presents an impact on the
ance lighting, or where the number of hours
environment. Mercury and lead hazards con-
of annual use is minimal. For most commercial
tained in sources, the impact of manufacturing
installations, operating hours are thousands of
processes used to create the light sources, and
hours, demanding longer service life products
end of life disposal issues define the range of
to produce acceptable maintenance demands.
negative impacts for all sources. The implica-
With a tWiSt
Further to life overall, is the characteristic of the
tions of these factors are not universal for all
source in its end of life mode. Solid-state technol-
destinations. Some communities have robust
ge's edge, flat-profile fixture offers an aesthetic alternative to traditional troffer-based lighting.
ogy delivers one form of longevity—where the
containment and recycling infrastructures,
time to outright failure is very long and service
while others have none. Further, there is often
life is rated by lumen depreciation over a lesser
a case to be made for accepting a greater initial
period of time. All other technologies exhibit a
environmental cost for producing a source that
failure state at end of life, rated by the time pass-
provides a greater offsetting benefit in opera-
ing before 50% of the sources have expired. Both
tion. To the contrary, a simple incandescent lamp
types have strengths and weaknesses worth
has a very low initial environmental impact, with
considering carefully. In addition to light sources
much higher operational impact due to its poor
themselves, supporting components, such as
efficiency—impact of energy consumption—and
drivers, ballasts, and transformers, all must be
short service life—impact of frequent replace-
included in considerations. Since LED drivers
ment and disposal. Studies have shown that SSL
18 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
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products produce a greater impact in manufacturing than most sources, which is offset by their long service life and low energy consumption.
A Mundane Balancing Act Every lighting system is a balancing act between source choice, applied through luminaires to effectively convert electrical energy to effective light, suited to the application—while generating minimal impact on budgets and environmental impact. No single source is a magic bullet solution. There is a place for virtually every technology we have at our disposal today. Incandescent lamps will likely remain in our hot appliances, in residential lighting in various forms, and in retail for some time to come. Fluorescent lamps deliver excellent value for commercial general illumination. HID lamps will remain for smallscale high-intensity directional lighting, and large-scale high-energy field and sports lighting, as well as many niche market uses. The oftenmaligned CFL lamp is just reaching maturity as a low-cost, efficient light source that will persevere for some time to come. This brings us to solid-state lighting. This is
based solely on the technology involved. If the
a source that has potential to chip away at more
light source fits, use it, otherwise, set it aside.
markets than any other source. LED products
In the grander scheme of lighting, the number
can be made to deliver the qualities of incandes-
of available options today provides a significant
cent, the efficiency of the best fluorescent, and
opportunity to deliver exceptional lighting perfor-
the light emission density equal to HID sources
mance on every level. The low mercury, extended
many times their size, in one package. SSL
life linear T8 lamp offers many of the same values
products can be controlled optically and elec-
as LED, at a much lower cost, and is well suited to
tronically, and they can be configured to create
designs that call for a diffuse illumination source.
virtually any luminous shape one can imagine.
High wattage metal halide lamps offer opportuni-
At this Neiman Marcus store in Bellevue, Wash., where strict energy codes are significantly affecting retail spaces, lighting designer Bernie Bauer of Integrated Lighting Concepts, Woodland Hills, Calif., employed LED lighting where it made the most sense—not for ambient lighting, but to efficiently backlight the vitrines highlighting key merchandise with 7- and 1-watt sources. images: Charles sparks & Co.
For these reasons, LEDs will continue to make
ties to generate millions of center beam candelas
rapid inroads into all corners of the lighting mar-
for sports lighting, while the lowly halogen lamp
ket. As they develop to produce improvements
is still the bang for buck leader in delivering
in the four applied requirements of lighting, less
low initial cost, high-quality illumination, when
capable sources will fade. However, there remain
operating costs and energy saving are not key
key liabilities to overcome, not the least of which
goals. Meanwhile, solid state continues to mature,
is cost. LED products tend to be at the edge of
with improved costs, excellent efficiency, very
the cost benefit fulcrum, requiring the customer
good light qualities, adaptability and long service
accept the higher initial cost to realize the
life. Founded on this progress, they will exceed a
longer term benefits. The greater the initial cost,
wider range of lighting goals, displacing sources
the longer it will take to overcome this hurdle.
unable to equal the balance in capability. In the end, this is what it’s all about, building the next
generation of lighting through balance between
At the risk of over simplification, there is no
need and available resources to meet established
compelling reason to choose any SSL solution
goals, with or without solid-state lighting.•
20 • 05.12 • arChiteCtural ssL
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tOPicS At the FrONt
Thanks to a unique set of factors, LED technology—from outdoor fixtures to dynamic building facades—are doing remarkably well in the exteriors market.
By Barbara Horwitz-Bennett, contributing writer
Perhaps one of solid state light-
photocells and motions sensing
ing’s significant contributions to
work better with LEDs as they are
date is exterior lighting applica-
not degraded by the instant on-and-
tions. And while well-established
LED benefits, such as energy
In addition, advanced sys-
efficiency, long life, improved
tems, such as the Intellistreets
aesthetics and controls are helping
wireless control package from Illu-
the technology make inroads into
minating Concepts, are providing
other building niches, an addi-
added functionality such as moni-
tional subset of variables seems to
toring energy usage and providing
be influencing SSL’s rise to promi-
consistent lumen maintenance.
nence in the exteriors market. For example, high-perfor-
Ironically, Chip Israel, FIALD, LEED AP, LC, president, Lighting
mance optics are now enabling
Design Alliance, Long Beach, Calif.,
much higher luminaire efficien-
sees LEDs success in exteriors
cies and better visual cutoff, as
as being related to some of their
compared to conventional lamp
initial technological limitations.
technologies, according to Ann Reo,
“First of all, the desired light
vice president, general manager, io
levels are lower, so the photo-
Lighting, Cooper Lighting, Buffalo
metrics are easier to meet. For
Grove, Ill., which is particularly
example, it is easier to meet 1 fc
important in applications where
in a parking lot vs. 50 fc in an expo
light pollution and light trespass
center, assuming the same 25-ft.
are concerns. Furthermore, tra-
mounting height,” he explains.
ditional outdoor control systems
“Secondly, the cooler color tem-
such as astronomical time clocks,
peratures, which were first offered,
22 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
A retro Look?
Vancouver’s Bc Place, home of the cFl’s lions and the Whitecaps soccer club, underwent a major renovation in which SSl played a major role. image courtesy: lumenpulse
team colors, among a myriad of others— the system features 26,000 channels—can be projected onto the roof while gradual, moving color-changing content or dynamic, fast-paced light shows move across the facade. image courtesy: lumenpulse
were more efficient and more
this, manufacturers are introduc-
shine through in colored exterior
acceptable for site lighting. And
ing sleeker, more aesthetic-looking
third, for most exterior site applica-
fixtures, while dynamic LED sys-
tions, color binning, color shifts and
tems are an ever-expanding arena.
even color rendering properties were not that critical.”
“The idea of packaging energy
Whereas traditional light sources require either a mix of different colored lamps or tubes,
savings along with ambiance,
or a mechanical system to change
matched by an intelligent control
colored filters, requiring a large,
nance and infrequent replacement
system capable of tailoring a light-
expensive colored lighting solution,
qualities of LED products, averag-
ing scheme to perfectly match the
“LEDs, being much smaller, can
ing 50,000 hours of operation, are
designer and clients’ wishes, is
be integrated into a single fixture
also a boon for outdoor lighting
a recurring theme in LED-based
to achieve a full color mixing unit
fixtures, which are often difficult
technology,” explains Tony Carrella,
with no moving parts,” explains
to access, sometimes requiring
president, Traxon Technologies
Gavin Cooper, vice president, LED
USA, East Rutherford, N.J. “Manu-
Source Wellington, Fla.
Of course, the low mainte-
But another noteworthy ben-
facturers are working to further
Similarly, Kenneth A. Klem-
efit is the ambience which LED is
develop a low cost, energy-saving
mer, design director, Illuminating
so good at creating. Capitalizing on
LED model capable of sensing and
Concepts, Farmington Hills., Mich,
dictating atmosphere, much like a
points out SSL products, with
consumer electronic device.”
direct view capability, have almost
At Miami’s Jones lang laSalle tower, metal halide fixtures were replaced with leD floods, saving more than 250,000 watts when all three colors are in play, and almost 350,000 watts when a single color is used. image courtesy: color Kinetics
For instance, “tuneable” white
completely supplanted traditional
solutions can actually change the
colored direct-view sources such
look of a façade using different
as neon or cold cathode. “And it’s
shades of white LED light.
being done in an easily installed, reliable package.”
Cool Colors At the same time, SSL continues to
Yet another advantage is
A Blanket of Color When Bc Place, a multi-purpose stadium in Vancouver, replaced its roof with cable and mastsupported retractable roof and a facade—made of etFe, a translucent polymer—connecting the original structure to the new roof, the stadium had an opportunity to install new lighting as well. As the project’s lighting consultant, c.M. Kling specified lumenpulse lumenfacade rGB fixtures with 30˚ × 60˚ optics positioned 10 cm from the back of the etFe to light each of the 1700 panels making up the circular facade beneath the roof. in addition, each fixture has 12 DMX channels to control every foot of fixtures. in order to determine the ideal beam spread and output, the design team built a mockup to test different solutions for illuminating the panels. ultimately, the design was able to project light to both the interior and exterior with the same set of leD fixtures. controlled by a Pharos controller with more than 26,000 channels, team colors can be projected onto the roof while gradual-moving, color-changing content or dynamic fast-paced light shows move across the facade. “the different permeations of what we can do with the leDs have yet to be fully realized and we’re looking forward to seeing shows that take additional advantage of the technology,” relates laurenz Kosichek, senior associate, Stantec Architecture, the architect on the project. “For example, the lighting could be choreographed to mirror music at events. it really is a dynamic lighting design that will offer options for years to come.”
the fact that LEDs produce color
ArchitecturAl SSL • 05.12 • 23
Customs House, New York
beAux ArtS beAuty
Not only did randy Sabedra’s award-winning lighting for New York city customs house accent the beauty of the Beaux Arts landmark, it also reduced its power consumption by 56.9% with an approximate savings projection of $6,654 in annual savings. Photo: Picture this Studio
directly without any filtering out-
“When coupled with dynamic
to emphasize architectural details
side of the visible spectrum. Conse-
control protocols, the building
and textural qualities of the build-
quently, this results in higher color
envelope can turn into a dynamic
saturation, creating more brilliant,
color changing canvas that can
vibrant colors, says Carrella.
closely imitate a large screen, high
nated “crown” will top the Fon-
And when it comes to exterior
For instance, an SSL illumi-
resolution TV,” explains Reo. “Take
tainebleau Resort in Las Vegas, and
video displays, the way in which
a walk in Time Square, downtown
LEDs mounted on the hotel’s win-
designers are now using SSL to
Hong Kong or Las Vegas and see
dow sills—every 12 ft. of fixtures
combine illumination with graphic
how designers have capitalized on
being individually addressable—
images was essentially impossible
the use of LEDs in and on build-
will ultimately be able to create
with other technologies.
ing facades. On a more subtle
large-scale video, patterns and
note, but equally brilliant, discrete
color on the entire North facade.
For example, dynamic building facades are breaking
linear white light luminaires with
Up in Canada, the dome of
new ground in creating exciting,
controlled optics can be placed on
BC Place stadium in Vancouver,
action-packed imagery, thanks to
building ledges and niches to graze
British Columbia, is now lit up
several stories or small porticos
with RGB LED fixtures, both on the
24 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
out of Sight:
cooper iolighting’s line 2.0 high-output leD fixtures were specified to discreetly illuminate the facade of the customs house.
TOPICS AT THE FRONT
MGM Veer Hotel, Las Vegas
inter and exterior (see “Blanket of Color” on pg. 23). Consequently, “the stadium can be themed to two teams, and the LEDs can be uniquely programmed for other events,” explains David Ghatan, IALD, LC, senior associate, C.M. Kling & Assocs., Alexandria, Va., the lighting designer on the project. “This provides the building a life as there is a real interaction between the public and the architecture.” Meanwhile, in New York City, store signage for Aeropostale “combines SSL in an innovative fashion that provides kinetic lighting effects, graphic imagery and video in an integrated facade that also becomes part of the interior finish of the space,” reports Klemmer. “Other ‘overlay’ types of examples may include ‘mediamesh’ where SSL pixels are incorporated into a metal weave or small ‘pucks’/
point sources that are affixed to or
As the centerpiece of MGM City Center, SSL pixels on the corners of the Veer Towers accentuate the angular difference between the two structures. Each LED pixel is individually addressable, enabling different colors and patterns to illuminate the facade.
integrated into facade materials,”
Photo courtesy: Illuminating Concepts
he adds. While such projects are drawing much attention, still Israel points out that “real-life” issues, such as the cost of high resolution and signage regulation standards, are limiting applications in many areas.
programming interfaces to enable
as Jordon Papanier, marketing
end-users to more cost-effectively
manager, LEDtronics, Torrance,
import messages, custom graph-
Calif., points out, “LED lumens
In addition, the technology still
ics or videos, without hiring a
per watt is improving every six
needs to make a number of key
consultant, as potentially making a
months, so more outdoor appli-
advances before it be ready for a
cations and wider markets are
broader implementation within the exterior lighting market.
In Klemmer’s opinion, “efficacy
becoming more accessible to LED
of sources still needs to improve, as
lighting. Similarly, the cost per
well as evolution of fixture design
lumen has improved over the last
concern is the development of
to provide effective lighting while
few years making the return on
intelligent control systems which
minimizing glare. In addition, long
investment more attractive.”
allow for smarter maintenance,
term serviceability—the ability to
and more efficient use of daylight
provide similar color temperature/
tinues to increase, fewer LEDs will
harvesting techniques,” says Car-
quality for maintenance/replace-
be required per fixture, enabling
rella. “Also, exchangeable modules
ment—remains a concern during
smaller fixtures with better output.
and universal standards would
this time of rapid development and
go a long way towards lower cost
form factor change.”
For example, “an area of
solutions, as well as making LED systems more earth-friendly.” Meanwhile, Israel sees simpler
26 • 05.12 • ARCHITECTuRAL SSL
And as lumens per watt con-
“So from the largest and
Stand Out Structure
tainly have their work cut out for
exterior lighting market,” predicts
The Jones Lang LaSalle Tower in Miami shimmers in RGB, but does so now sans gels and major power consumption, thanks to a switch from metal halide. Photo
them, their track record is strong
courtesy: Michiko Kuriso
While SSL developers cer-
brightest to the smallest and inaccessible, LED will dominate the
There’s a lot of talk out there about the future of lighting. At Toshiba, we’re focused on lighting that works for you today. Toshiba is an industry leader in Japan with over 120 years of lighting experience and a superior knowledge of electronics, so we are better equipped to solve today’s lighting challenges. That’s why we create LED lighting that’s energy efficient and versatile. When you finally do get that spaceship, Toshiba will be ready to light it. Until then, trust us to light your building. Learn more at toshiba.com/lighting. Toshiba LED Lighting. Ready for Work.
The New World Center Miami Beach
Miami Nice 21st-Century Lighting Illuminates New Miami Beach Icon
Owners: New World Symphony Architects: Gehry Partners, LLP Los Angeles Landscape Architect: West8 Lighting Design: Lam Partners, Cambridge, Mass. LED product manufacturers: Philips Color Kinetics; ETC DMX controls; MP LIghting Text: Ellen Lampert-Gréaux Photos: Claudia Uribe, Emilio Collavino, World Red Eye The Challenge: Frank Gehry, in a sequel to his beloved Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, has introduced a new cultural landmark to Miami Beach: New World Center, a stunning, purpose-built home for the New World Symphony. Architectural lighting was designed by Lam Partners Inc., with Paul Zaferiou as principal in charge. “We have collaborated with Gehry and his office since 1991, for the first design phase through construction drawings for the Walt Disney Concert Hall, then for the Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain,” explains Zaferiou. “He promotes an integrated design style that we buy into.” In this case, however, the geometry of the building is unusual for Gehry in that it is relatively calm on the outside, yet dynamic on the inside. “Frank was picking up on the ambiance [of the neighborhood], and the building is very well suited to its location.” Sunlight by day and electric light by night defines the design concept.
The Solution: Lam didn’t come to the table with any preconceived ideas. “Gehry likes the lighting to come from the architecture, and we do as well, so it’s a good mix,” says Zaferiou. The real magic, of course, happens after dark: “At night, the central atrium glows from within, the expressive curving forms dancing in the grand volume,” he says.
28 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
In the concert hall, to light the swooping, plaster acoustical “sails,” adjustable top-access Edison Price PAR56 fixtures are clustered between the sails and the central ceiling cloud—a square pillow shape that comes down in the center of the concert hall and contains a lot of the theatrical lighting for the stage. “The sails read by day-
The center features a flexible and technologically sophisticated 756-seat performance hall whose walls are large, curved “sails” that surround the audience to acoustically reflect sound. A defining architectural feature, the sails also serve as built-in projection surfaces for 14 high-definition Christie Digital projectors and a coolux Pandora Box media server system.
light as solid forms almost like being in a tent, transformed by electrical light at night,” Zaferiou adds. The cloud is rimmed with Philips Color Kinetic’s color-changing LED iColorCove fixtures, programmed to work alongside projections, or simply provide a soft glow. The control of these fixtures can be co-
ordinated with the color-changing fixtures that light the façade of the center’s parking garage during special events. “These are exactingly aimed to bathe the seating areas with light, without any spill light on adjacent sails,” notes Zaferiou. LED aisle lights by MP Lighting are integrated into seats. LED strips, under foot rails, light ramps.
ArchitecturAl SSL • 05.12 • 29
A Great, but Simple Statement Open since January 2011, the 100,641 sq.-ft. building serves not only as a concert hall, but an educational center for this innovative ensemble. The success of the building is based on a close collaboration between long-time friends Michael Tilson Thomas, the symphony’s conductor and founder, and Gehry, who has also designed the Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College.
“One of the toughest challenges we faced was focusing every architectural fixture in the building,” recalls Zaferiou. “There are recessed fixtures in the hall to accent the seats, with an upper catwalk system for access. We had to shoot light between the sails, yet not light the ceiling surfaces, and no stray light could touch the protection surfaces.” Located in the heart of the art deco district, it’s Gehry’s first commission in Florida, and is finished in white stucco to echo its environment, rather than the architect’s signature metallic cladding. Yet it features distinct exterior features: an 80-ft. soaring glass wall on the east façade that combines with a 7,000-sq.-ft. projection surface, which allows concerts, art and films to be experienced from the adjacent park. The building’s technical sophistication is wired to the Internet so that students and musicians can link to anyone in the entire world. “The lighting is folded into that as well,” says Zaferiou. “The lighting appropriate for broadcast represents an extra layer of complexity we added in the practice and rehearsal rooms, with large screens and
30 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
ThE righT TOuChES On the façade, the box office is another geometric form with a canopy, like a shape that has tumbled outside, and is lit with Philips color Kinetics leD colorBlast fixtures spilling down for a soft glow at night. On the roof garden, BK halogen ground spikes on a dimming system provide animation by uplighting the trees, while simple leD downlights on a tension cable provide pools of light for special events. leD strips under the raised benches wash the floor, and are tied to the egress system.
BriNgiNg ArT r TO ThE NEighBOrhOOD rT Fairly simple for a Gehry exterior, the New World Symphony center, nonetheless, features two distinctive elements: an 80-ft. soaring glass wall on the east façade that combines with a 7,000-sq.-ft. projection surface, which allows concerts, art and films to be experienced from Miami Beach SoundScape, an adjacent 2.5-acre park. the former, according to Zaferiou, comes alive after dark: “At night, the atrium glows from within, the expressive curving forms dancing in the grand volume.” this was at the direction of project architect craig Webb, who wanted to light the people in the building to enhance the feeling and envelop the atrium in color.
cameras, plus broadcast-quality fixtures, linear fluorescents, with high output, bright, not too hot, good color, and we specified them with low-brightness louvers on the front. These are also hung on perimeter light bars, and can interchange with halogen fixtures if need be, as they can set up the rooms in various configurations.” Of course, as a symphony hall, acoustics are critical, especially in the coaching and practice rooms. The challenge, according to Zaferiou, was how to keep the lighting fixtures as quiet as possible. The solution was the DALI ballasts in all coaching and practice rooms. The concert hall presented its own difficulties. For acoustic and architectural purposes, the venue is surrounded by Gehry’s signature sails, which also serve as built-in projection surfaces for 14 high-definition Christie Digital projectors and a coolux Pandora Box media server system. But while cool and technologically sophisticated, they were still walls. “One of the toughest challenges we faced was focusing every architectural fixture in the building,” says Zaferiou. “We had to shoot light between the sails, yet not light the ceiling surfaces, and no stray light could touch the protection surfaces.” Control is via an ETC system with DMX control, with all house lights tied into the theatrical system with a separate set of dimmers for seamless control of the building. Custom-designed ETC wireways connect multiple light sources to central panels, and special pre-sets are programmed for lighting in the atrium. The spirit of the center, which has created cultural excitement and community involvement in Miami, has been cited with a 2012 AIA Institute Honor Award for Regional & Urban Design. It’s a well-deserved honor for a successful urban collaboration, in which 21st-century lighting adds a defining touch.• ArchitecturAl SSL • 05.12 • 31
FrEE FOrm the atrium, according to Zaferiou, is the main lobby, and is filled with spaces spiralling from top to bottom, in rooms referred to as “box forms,” which include a two-story multi-purpose room, ensemble rooms and recording studios. “it’s a collection of stacked forms, almost like buildings with streets between them. At night they almost float; i really like the transition,” says Zaferiou. “they’re all playful geometric spaces, all acoustically isolated, yet with small windows, so that daylight can be borrowed from the atrium.”
housed within the geometric volumes that define the shape of the atrium, the multi-purpose room and ensemble rooms contain flexible solutions comprising preset etc controls, Brightline fluorescent broadcast fixtures for video lighting, ledalite fluorescent cove uplights, and elliptipar wallwashers for ambient illumination. All of the linear fluorescent cove fixtures use DAli ballasts for optimum acoustical performance.
urBAN ArT A NOvEL PA P PArkiNg rkiNg ExPEriENCE Parking garages in Miami today aren’t satisfied with simply performing their basic task as structures for the temporary housing of vehicles. rather, they have become multi-level art icons on the urban scene. For example, at 1111 lincoln road, the garage itself features retail, dining and event spaces. Not to be outdone, the garage serving the New World center achieves icon status in its own right. the parking facility had to uphold not only the creative architectural expression of the main facility, it also had to complement the new city park in front of the symphony building. Ground level space is occupied by retail, with the five upper levels for parking. Architect Frank Gehry’s utilitarian rectangular façade is transformed into a three-dimensional canvas wrapped in a veil of woven metal mesh panels supplied by GKD-uSA and illuminated by leD color-changing fixtures. Wrapping three sides of the pre-cast concrete building on levels two through six are 49 GKD helix 12 panels, totaling 25,870 sq. ft. of the firm’s illumesh Metal Fabric. the product’s surface reflects the lighting to create solid expanses or programmed patterns. its three-dimensional stainless-steel weave satisfies requirements for Miami area’s high salt environment and will withstand hurricane-force winds. A continuous cantilevered channel was constructed around three sides of the garage to accommodate two rows of linear color Kinetic color Graze Powercore fixtures. “colored light is washed up the surface of the GKD metal screen, evenly lit from below,” says carlene Geraci, project manager and designer of the system for lighting designer lam Partners. “the custom channel is about 12 in. wide to house the color Graze fixtures, with the distance of the assembly approximately 20 inches off the face of the façade,” she explains. Geraci specified 10-degree narrow beam angle rGB leD fixtures with 17.5-watts/ft to achieve an even grazing effect on the screen. “Within the custom channel, the inner row of fixtures is aimed to capture the lower portion of the screen wall, while the outer row is aimed to target the top of the wall,” Geraci says. controls for the output and color of the leD fixtures is via color Kinetics light System Manager, comprised of the light System engine controller hardware and light System composer design software. A link was installed from the garage’s leDs to the color-changing fixtures within the New World center’s concert hall. Multiple data enablers transfer the data signal from the controller to the fixture. “the color shows on the center’s façade can be triggered from within the concert hall itself to coordinate with their performances, along with holidays and special events,” Geraci explains. A 2011 Award of excellence for New Parking Structures was presented to the New World Symphony center Garage by the Florida Parking Assn. —By Vilma Barr
thanks to a combination of metal mesh and color-changing leD, the parking structure for the New World Symphony center achieves icon status in its own right.
images: New York Focus llc
32 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
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SSlprofile: evanston hospital adds LEd soLution AS upgrADE TO parking facility noRtHsHoRE uniVERsitY HEaLt L H sYstEMs Lt Evanston, Ill.
When the decision was made to explore options for retrofitting the lighting system for the parking structure of NorthShore University Health System in Evanston, Ill., its facility management firm, Integrated Facility Solutions (IFS), turned to Dickerson Engineering, a trusted partner, for suggestions. The structure, built in the 1980s, featured 175-watt metal halide fixtures, which were not only expensive to run and maintain, but also provided inadequate lighting. IFS conducted an extensive evaluation of retrofit options. As the firm defined the scope of the project, specific goals were clearly identified. According to Jayson Nordstrom, project manager for IFS, the ultimate goal was to provide even, safe, consistent light levels, which was not present with the garage’s existing fixtures. According to Stephen Barnard, senior associate at Dickerson Engineering, another challenge was to implement energy savings while simultaneously improving maximum-to-minimum ratios. Other desired benefits included cost and maintenance savings, and green initiatives. LED was suggested as an option, but Nordstrom had concerns about how the lights would look. “My biggest concern was the installation and its impact on the user, and certainly the aesthetics,” he says. The consultant also had concerns with the color and glare issues typically associated with LED garage fixtures he’d been exposed to. For
above: Officials at NorthShore hospital in suburban Chicago were dissatisfied with the metal halide fixtures installed in their parking structure and opted, as an experiment, to install controllable LED lighting on the third floor of the garage—the main entrance into the hospital. Not only did the retrofit save the hospital money—a 78% reduction in energy costs—aesthetically, it also proved a game changer. “The fixtures exceeded the spread and illumination that I was anticipating,” says project engineer Stephan Barnard of Dickerson Engineering. images: kenall
two years Barnard had been evaluating various LED parking garage systems, testing mock ups as new options became available. Although the hospital ran test cases at the site using four different types of LEDs from several manufacturers, the glare was blinding and the fixtures did not
ArChITECTurAL ssl • 05.12 • 35
noRtHsHoRE uniVERsitY HEaLtH sYstEMs, Evanston, Ill.
enclosed in glass block and some that were open
the Challenge: replace 175-watt metal halide fixtures in a hospital parking structure with a more energy-efficient and maintenance-friendly lighting source that would also improve lighting quality as well. LED was a candidate, but hospital officials were leery of glare issues.
to the environment—conditions that were identified as critical to the success of the project. IFS intentionally confined the retrofit to one floor in order to compare the light levels of the TekDek LED luminaires to a floor with existing 175-watt metal halide luminaires. “There was no question that the light distribution was significantly better with TekDek,” Nordstrom stated.
the solution: NorthShore university health System selected Kenall Lighting’s TekDek LED system which offered exceptional light spread, even illumina-
“Glare was not a factor, and TekDek’s light levels
tion, critical shielding and direction, uplighting, significant cost and energy savings, and rapid payback.
exceeded the spread and illumination that I was
Client: Northshore university health Systems Engineering and lighting design: Dickerson Engineering, Niles, Ill.
appeared to be triple that of the other fixtures. It’s noticeable!” Barnard concurred, “The fixtures anticipating.” He adds the space was perceptively brightened and even the ceiling regions are now illuminated. Furthermore, the TekDek install removed the “cave effect” that had previously existed within the structure. TekDek’s traditional aesthetics are an added bonus. Kevin Dahlen, Kenall’s director of product design and development, noted it was their goal
provide adequate shielding. Essentially “big glare
to provide equivalent light output to a 175-watt
bombs,” they were all rejected, according to Bar-
metal halide. “People want to save energy, but
nard, as many also had inadequate max-to-min
they don’t want to do it at the cost of having less
light in the space. This application confirms that
Determined to find a viable solution, Barnard
passes the “eye” test NorthShore hospital’s facilities team purposefully only retrofitted one floor of the garage with the new TekDek lighting in order to evaluate it vs. the existing 175-watt metal halide technology. Not only was glare not a factor— it was a major concern before the installation—but the lighting designer noted lighting levels appeared to triple and the “cave effect” disappeared.
TekDek, with over 9,000 lumens at 112 watts, is a
suggested that IFS meet with Kenall, whom the
true 150-watt high pressure sodium or 175-watt
that can be achieved by dimming the fixtures
engineering firm specified extensively for area
metal halide replacement,” he says.
when the space is unoccupied or via daylight
lighting at another renovation at NorthShore.
In addition, Barnard notes that TekDek
harvesting,” says Dahlen.
“Kenall offered what the other [lighting manu-
allowed IFS to use all of the existing wiring
facturers] were unable to offer—exceptional light
locations and meet their desired max-to-min
efficient luminaires, “evidenced by the fact that
spread, even illumination, critical shielding and
ratios. And by employing the SmartSense control
our high-lumen output fixture is currently the
direction, uplighting, significant cost and energy
system, cost and energy savings—while not
most efficacious luminaire—over 9,000 lumens—in
savings, and rapid payback,” says Barnard.
the driving force of the project—have certainly
the entire Dept. of Energy Lighting Facts data-
been welcomed by hospital management. The
base,” Dahlen claims. “Plus, our low-drive current
pany’s new TekDek LED luminaires with the
bi-level system also allows the luminaires to
version was the first parking garage luminaire to
SmartSense control, be instituted. According to
reduce energy consumption when the structure
crack 100 lumens per watt.”
Barnard, the system presented some distinct
is unoccupied. Specifically the control system
advantages—a lensed fixture with exceptional
senses and adjusts lighting based on daylighting
for the hospital were considerable. “And when you
light spread, critical shielding and direction, and
and occupancy: the system dims when the floor
factor in maintenance reductions and savings it
reductions in both cost and energy usage.
is unoccupied or adequate daylight contribu-
obviously makes the system even more inviting,”
tions exist. This advanced feature enables
It was suggested that a pilot of the com-
A proposal was then issued to change out
The manufacturer notes they love highly
By employing a smart system, the savings
34 existing fixtures on the highly trafficked third
footcandle requirements for parking garage
floor of the parking garage. This particular floor
lighting to be met, and also results in significant
costs. And with a calculated payback of just over a
features the pedestrian walkway from the garage
cost and energy savings for the facility owner.
year, hospital management is currently consider-
to the hospital. There had been complaints in
“We designed TekDek to work hand-in-glove with
ing expanding the project to include the entire
the past that the lighting was inadequate, which
SmartSense,” said Dahlen. “We believe that too
parking facility. Barnard has already recom-
is why it was selected for the retrofit test case.
many lighting manufacturers focus solely on
mended TekDek with SmartSense on two new
The P3 level also included some areas that were
lumens per watt, and ignore the greatest savings
36 • 05.12 • architectural ssl
In fact, there was a 78% reduction in lighting
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the White pages
By Kevin Willmorth, editor
Class 2 vs. Class II Power Supplies Know the difference when dealing with low-voltage systems Editor's Note: For purposes of this article, we will address ‘Lighting
product is an acceptable Class 2 power source, unless part of a listed
Systems Operating at 30 volts or Less’ as they are defined in Article
411 of the National Electric Code. This article defines systems having
For clarity, refer to Annex A, ‘Product Safety Standards,’ within
a current load of no more than 25 amps, operating at 30 volts (42.4VAC
the NEC. This specifically lists UL1585 as the safety standard for Class
peak to peak) or less.
2 low-voltage transformers; refer to UL1838 for low-voltage landscape systems; and UL1310 for Class 2 power supplies. In this reference,
Class 2 vs. Class II
UL60950-1 is listed as the safety standard for IT Equipment Remote
Class 2 is described in the National Electric Code (NEC) in Article 725
and defined in Chapter 9, Table 11(A) for AC products and Table 11(B) for DC products. The range used for these power supplies is 60 volts DC
Application in Solid-State and Low Voltage Lighting
(42.4VAC peak to peak) or 100VA (100 watts for AC-DC converters). For
For LED products listed under UL8750, any power supply listed under
plug-in power supplies connected for portable products, the maximum
UL1310 or 60950-1 is acceptable, as are transformers listed under
supply side voltage is limited to 150 volts to ground, while permanently
UL5085 and UL1411.
installed power supplies are limited to 600 volts or less. This is where a disconnect exists between the NEC and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) for Class 2 power limits. The NEC lists Class 2 in Chapter 9 as limited to 100VA (100 watts), while UL Class 2 is 660 watts. Further, NEC Article 411 indicates a maximum 25 amps at <30 volts as its limit (750 watts) even though they all show the same designation “Class 2.” This means that in lighting application, Article 411 and UL Class 2 over-ride the limits shown in Table 11 of the NEC.
“It's critical not to get Class 2 confused with Class II. The latter refers to an IEC standard for power supplies with either a double or reinforced insulation barrier between the input and the output. Class II supplies also do not rely on an earth connection to protect against shock hazard.”
While the NEC does not differentiate between the terms “power supply” and “transformer;” UL does. The latter organization catego-
For LED products designed as complete systems—those listed under
rizes any device that steps voltage down from primary to secondary
UL8750—the power supplies employed in such cases will be included
without rectification (AC to AC conversion) as a transformer. Class 2
in the product description and investigation report for the product—
transformers are listed under UL5085 and UL1411 covering low volt-
including any of those mentioned before—regardless of inclusion in
age transformers—all labeled Class 2.
Annex A of the NEC.
Power supplies, on the other hand, are defined as rectified devices
In LED product applications designed and listed for connection to
with current limitation and/or voltage regulation, converting alternat-
a generic Class 2 power supply, per NEC 411, the voltage limit of 30 VDC
ing current (AC) to direct current (DC) output. These are listed under
or 42.4 VAC will apply, powered by transformers listed under UL1585—
UL1310, and labeled Class 2.
AC product—or power supplies listed under UL1310—DC product—both within 25A maximum load.
Get Them Straight It's critical not to get Class 2 confused with Class II. The latter refers to
Be in Compliance
an IEC standard for power supplies with either a double or reinforced
NEC Article 411 is often cited as covering low-voltage product
insulation barrier between the input and the output. Class II supplies
combinations assembled from disparate components, as long as the
do not rely on an earth connection to protect against shock hazard.
secondary voltage is within the 30-volt limit. However, under 411.2(A),
Many of these are listed under UL60950-1. There is no direct connec-
the lighting system must be listed as a system, while 411.2(B) requires
tion between Class II and Class 2 product standards by definition.
the components used within the system to be “listed.” This does not
That being said, there are many similarities between them. For example, Class II products often exceed the requirements of Class 2, due to the addition of insulation on top of the basic voltage isolation
allow lighting components that are UL “recognized” to be used without integration into a listed product or component. Further, wiring of Class 2 systems within Article 411 must still
and current limitation requirements. However, due to code wording—
comply with Article 725 for cable type, insulation and separation from
and UL listing requirements—it cannot be assumed that a Class II
Class 1 circuits.•
38 • 05.12 • architectural SSL
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A Mod Approach The Mod L42 is an extruded aluminum and steel LED fixture with minimalist, rectilinear lines. The fixture, from Litecontrol, is available in three output levels and in color temperatures ranging from 2700K to 4000K (3500K is standard). An optional highperformance specular reflector also is available. The extruded aluminum LED module snaps into the steel housing, enabling in-field replacement. Visit www. litecontrol.com or Circle 306.
A recent study of museum lighting, comparing halogen to LED, found the former shifted color significantly when dimmed, while LED did not.
1 Universal Dimming Beyond a new look, Leviton’s new line of Universal Dimmers can control incandescent, dimmable CFL and dimmable LED sources, so switches won’t need to be upgraded as installed technology changes. The manufacturer worked with major lamp makers to ensure compatibility, without creating flicker while enabling wide dimming ranges. Units feature on/ off presets and come in rocker and push-button designs, both with sliding dimmer bars. Pictured are the Illumatech and SureSwitch dimmers. Visit www. leviton.com or Circle 305.
2 The New Edition Besa Lighting has launched a new edition of its 120-volt LED pendant series. The fixtures feature a newly modified 6-watt LED light source offering 360-degree illumination. In addition, this GU-24based lamp incorporates an integrated driver for easy replacement. Fixtures are available in cable, stem and cord pendants, along with a choice of handcrafted glass shades. Shown here are the conical “Cierro” shade in “Honey,” and the cylindrical “Tondo 12” in “Ceylon.” Visit www.besalighting.com or Circle 304.
40 • 05.12 • Architectural SSL
On the Spot With a contemporary and compact die-cast design, the Concord Beacon spotlight from Havells USA offers a high CRI suitable for museums, galleries and high-end retail applications. Cooling fins are designed to help reduce LED junction temperatures and dimmable versions with a 100% to 0% range are available. Visit www.concordmarlin.com or Circle 303.
Regarding the lifespan of light sources, according to a recent DOE study, 27, 60-watt halogen lamps are required to match the lifetime of just one 12.5-watt LED.
4 New Cove Option Covelum Designer Series LED Whites are available in standard and custom lengths from Tivoli. The lowprofile runs fit concave and convex curves without need for special hardware. Visit www.tivolilighting. com or Circle 302.
5 Shapely Solutions Hubbell Outdoor Lighting has added two new shapes to its line of 23-watt LED compact sconces. Both the RDIC (radius, shown here) and TRPC (trapezoid) fixtures deliver 1184 lumens at 5000K. Lensed LED optics provide a wide distribution with new uplight, for a neighbor-friendly, full-cutoff solution. Visit www.hubbelloutdoor.com or Circle 301.
6 Articulating A Solution The articulated, linkable Series 6000 LED luminaire from Tempo Industries now features a housing fabricated from die-cast zinc, instead of the former cast-aluminum, to reduce energy consumption during the manufacturing process. The material also features a higher thermal coefficient than cast aluminum, for a more efficient heat sink. Visit www. tempoindustries.com or Circle 300.
Architectural SSL â€˘ 05.12 â€˘ 41
A Certain Drive The LEG series of LED drivers includes industrystandard F-Can in 75-, 100-, 120- and 150-watt optionss, with dimmable versions available. Developed by Thomas Research Products, the units can be incorporated by OEMs or installed as LED retrofits in the field and provide over-voltage, over-current and short-circuit protection. Visit www.trpssl.com or Circle 299.
On the standardization front, Zhaga continues to makes strides, recently developing standards for light engines, and working on new guidelines for drivers, troffer-style fixtures and street lighting.
Dyna-Mite The Dyna Series HO (high-output) indoor/outdoor linear wall and cove fixtures operate at 20 watts per ft., with an efficacy of 49 lm/watt. Developed by Acclaim Lighting, DynaGraze and DynaCove luminaires are available in 1-ft. and 4-ft. sections and linkable up to 40 ft. using 120VAC and 80 ft. using 240VAC. Specifiers can choose from 2700K, 3000K, 3500K and 4000K models, all with interchangeable lens options available. Visit www. acclaimlighting.com or Circle 298.
Prices of LEDs and components is normalizing after dramatic reductions. Manufacturers too, are reducing inventories, meaning there may be periods of tightness as far as availability.
Defining spaces. Redefining performance. The epitome of simple sophistication, TruGroove delivers pure, uninterrupted luminance â€” making a definitive statement in any architectural space. Innovative optical design and patented MesoOptics technology, elevate performance to a whole new level in narrow aperture recessed LED and fluorescent lighting.
LEDs Take a Starring role Ostar Stage LEDs allow spotlights to be both brighter and more compact thanks to their flatter profile, narrow beam angle and significantly higher luminance. Developed by OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, the devices incorporate red, green, blue and white chips, so they can produce almost any color, and they can be used in spotlights of any size, from small stage spotlights to large, moving-head luminaires. Visit www.osram-os.com or Circle 297.
SSL will make steady inroads, as its ability to deliver the qualities of incandescent, the efficiency of fluorescent and the light emission density of HID sources, in a single and significantly smaller package, will help it chip away at other markets more than any other light source.
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Cove Coolness Available in two lengths and lumen packages, the Eco-Cove cove-lighting system by CSL offers a linkable design for a range of cove applications. Options include a 12-watt, 21-in. model producing 600 lm, and a 6-wtt, 10.5-in. model producing 300 lm. Both offer 120˚ rotation, are ELV dimmable and UL- and wet location-listed. Visit www.csllighting.com or Circle 296.
While SSL is making great progress, there remains a need to continually improve efficacy and evolve fixture design to provide effective lighting, while minimizing glare.
1 Spot On The latest addition to RAB Lighting’s line of exterior floodlights is the HSLED13, which features a spot focus designed for illuminating flags and other architectural elements up to 50 ft. high. A precision die-cast aluminum housing, hood and mounting arm aid the fixture’s durability. Visit www.rabweb. com or Circle 295.
2 New Option CSL has redesigned its Silo fixture to accommodate either a single 10- or dual 20-watt LED source. The new version features a ridged design and comes with three interchangeable optics at 25, 45 and 65 degrees to provide multiple illumination options. Visit www.csllighting.com or Circle 294.
3 Get Direction The Zelara series of recessed LED luminaires are available in 4.65 in. and 6.7 in. diameters. Featuring an adjustable spot, the fixtures can achieve illumination levels of up to 70 lm/watt. Units can be ordered in either 2700K or 5700K color temperatures, providing alternatives to halogen or HID sources. Visit www.zenarolighting.com or Circle 293.
ArCHITECTUrAL SSL • 05.12 • 45
Kim Lighting / hubbell
ledalite / philips
lumileds / philips
The continuing architect
toshiba led lighting
letters to the editor: Editor’s Note: Following are a couple of letters we received looking for some advice. If you’ve got any ideas, please fire them back to email@example.com and we’ll post them on SSL Interactive.
• Solid State LED • 20 W LED providing 2000 Initial Lumens • Virtually Shadow Free • Dimmable • ADA Compliant • LED Color Temperature: 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000K or 5000K • Size: 24”, 36” or 48”
INDOOR & OUTDOOR
Decorative Sconces by Eclipse Lighting. To learn more about our products visit our booth at LightFair (#1737) and AIA (#3414)
HPS Conversion Help I am hoping you, or any of your readers, might be able to direct me to an LED source for an exterior wall sconce. It is currently an HPS setup with a 100-/150-watt lamp. The sconces need to be rebuilt with a new ballast and source. I will have to take them down and drill out screws to get at the parts so it is very time consuming for maintenance. I would love to convert to LED. Heat may be an issue but the fixture could be altered to allow for that. A retrofit mogul base 360 dg LED would be perfect. I did find one for $500, but that seems excessive. Any thoughts? Andrew Bowes Syracuse, NY
RGB Issues I am the “everything” technician at a Midwestern events facility and I’m seeking advice on several specific LED problems:
1. Finding blue LEDs that last. Ours are dropping like flies, albeit one expensive outdoor wall wash does work well, but somehow creates its own program and blinks randomly instead of following the DMX scrolling program from its 8-channel console. 2. Finding RGBW (DMX controllable, line voltage powered) LED tape or strip lighting. Many vendors are pushing 16-ft. long (max) LED tape strips and we are currently ringing the perimeter of one of our banquet rooms in such a manner. But these things are a maintenance nightmare. Again the blues—and a percentage of the greens—are dropping out and those remaining are flickering like fireflies. The total length I am seeking is 300 ft. per room, in a repairable arrangement—not like ‘NON-NEON’ rope light with all the inherent pin problems. 3. The next problem is one that I am only just opening up: While trying to provide an ever-changing color/ mood-room ambient lighting, I’m trying to still provide adequate lighting for flicker-free video recording. Wedding videographers do not like the LED lighting, and I’ve noticed our LED lights individually change intensity slowly over an hour period for a given controller setting. Our management is infatuated with LED technology, so I know there will be more LED in a planned new venue. Do other lighting designers have these issues? Mystified in the midwest
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Search at the Speed of Light
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It works the way you think
4/16/07 9:25:12 PM
By Kevin Willmorth
The Potential for a Real Dust Up Before Us With the advance of solid-state lighting comes a swarm of new players to the game. But when the wave of throw-away electronics products and practices meets the wall of desire for sustainably designed buildings, what will survive the collision?
the energy of innovation—is bashing about in our
seen what happens in the auto industry. Where
quiet little garden, spoiling for a fight. Tearing
cars built before the 1970s are re-buildable
away at the old sod of light bulbs to plant little
indefinitely, modern electronics infused cars are
silicon seeds, the intrusion is visibly disruptive.
scrapped when their circuits are shot, regardless
There is a storm upon us and our once sleepy
of their mechanical state. This is not a model we
little lighting town is feeling it.
can apply to the building industry. Buildings are
Like the grasshoppers that invaded the dust
giant custom assembled durable goods. Sure, we
bowl on the hot winds of change, new SSL players
can use electronic stuff when it’s plugged into a
are on the horizon, bearing down on our fertile
universal wall socket, or sitting on a desk. But,
fields. These invaders move at a different speed
permanently integrated into the building itself?
and carry strange and powerful new tools. They
Modularity here is critical to maintenance, which
are also fueled by riches earned from beyond—
requires long term vision that looks beyond
distant revolutions in communications, comput-
patents and marketing campaigns.
In the early 1900s, 100 million acres was rapidly
ing and display markets. They have an insatiable
While the electronics industry has solved
converted from grassland to farmland, generat-
appetite for growth that forces them to seek new
big problems in the past, they have not proven
ing a livelihood for thousands of new settlers.
markets to consume. Lighting is now on their
adept at delivering solutions that last decades
This seemed a garden of Eden. Then, in a few
radar, suffering from years of economic drought.
with minimal service, backed by availability of
short years paradise collapsed. The combined
The likes of Toshiba, Samsung, LG, Pana-
replacement parts. LEDs, as sources, can achieve
effect of draught and stripping of topsoil turned
sonic, Philips, Citizen, Sony and others behind
this. However, will the electronics goliaths find a
Eden into a torrid man-made disaster known as
the scenes, have technical, manufacturing and
way to transcend their cultural myopia to deliver
‘The Dust Bowl’. The resulting black storms of dirt
financial capacities exceeding anything lighting
end products that are intended to last, setting
and sand extended as far east as New York. In an
can put up in defense. This may turn out to be
aside their cultural propensity for rapid techno-
effort to recover, settlers worked the land harder,
the ultimate revolution so talked about in solid-
logical evolutions, and cultural lack of long term
accelerating the transformation from grassy
state. Where lighting manufacturers approach
support for obsolete product?
fields to a moonscape that remains to this day.
LEDs as parts to be screwed and wired into
The lighting industry has enjoyed periods
In the current infant state of SSL today, it is
metal boxes, electronic manufacturers have a
too early to tell whether our plowing and sowing
of fertile harvests of its own over the last 120
more refined imagination that looks to integrate
will return a bountiful harvest, or be food for a
years. Working at a leisurely pace in slow evolu-
and consolidate, while approaching markets in
force of invading grasshoppers. No matter what,
tionary steps, it has been a prosperous environ-
there is certainly going to be a dust up in the off-
ment. Lighting has also enjoyed being a closed
But, these party crashers have a serious
community. Settlers both small and large have
weakness. They have built their own universe
found a place in the green fields of opportunity,
around IP protected planned obsolescence
un-harassed by mega corporate invaders who
in rapid succession to milk markets through
have chewed surrounding markets into dusty
infinite cycles of re-purchasing of short lived
remnants of their former selves.
products. In an industry designed to deliver
The intrusion of SSL brings with it a wave of party crashers. This band of raiders—fueled by
48 • 05.12 • ArchitecturAl SSL
buildings that live for decades, there could not be a poorer mismatch of approaches. We have
ing, as the two forces battle for dominance.•
about the author:
Kevin Willmorth, a lighting expert and fixture designer, has been instrumental in helping create a vision and mission statement for Architectural SSL.
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This is the Next Revolution in LED Outdoor Lighting. This is Kim Lighting.
“Every revolution was first a thought in one man’s mind.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
www.kimlighting.com Circle 20
Chronicling the advancement of LED and solid-state lighting in the built environment.