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Muscles Of The Arm The Arm or upper limb is made up of over 15 different muscles with different attributes which people use every day. The 3 muscles that most acknowledge is the Deltoid, Triceps and Biceps. The Deltoids are probably the most used muscle on the arm as they are used in all side lifting movements and any movement of the humerus (Higher arm bone) on the scapula (Shoulder blade). It is divided into two portions, anterior and posterior, with the fibres having different roles due to their orientation. The Biceps brachii or abbreviated as the bicep crosses both the elbow and shoulder joints. Its action on the shoulder joint is very weak flexion. The Biceps works most efficiently in flexing the elbow joint when the forearm is facing upward. The bicep curl is the most commonly used exercise to strengthen this muscle. The bicep is used in any pulling motion but is no very strong compared to other muscle within the arm. The Triceps Brachii or abbreviated as the triceps also assists Latissimus Dorsi (Back muscle) in extending the shoulder joint. It contracts strongly during the up phase of a push-up, to straighten the arm. The triceps connects the Humerus, Scapula to the Ulna (long and thin bone within the forearm). The Triceps Brachhii muscles are primarily responsible for the extension of the elbow joint (straightening of the arm). They are the largest muscles in the upper arms.


Arm Step by Step 1 - To start off the step by step process of drawing the arm and muscles, you need to draw guidelines to help you keep realistic proportions. The blue line in step represent the guidelines and these will be visible throughout all steps. Draw one vertical line and 3 horizontal, the horizontal line should be split into thirds one being in the centre. 2 - The red line represents a rough outline of the arm and the largest muscles within said picture. The line work on the outline does not need to be smooth and consistent, you can clear up the line after when you have filled in all the muscle positions. This step is simpler if you have a picture to refer too. 3 - The green line represents the smaller muscles within the picture and therefore can be scaled compared to the larger ones so that you are atomically correct. Same as step 2 the line can be rough as you can clean them up later. If you make any mistakes or miss a muscle you can easily add to it. 4 - Looking at the step by step picture there a is a huge difference visually, even though there is not. If u start by removing your guideline yo will be left with a rough sketch of an arm and part of the chest. Shading the muscles to separate them is simple. Start by reducing the opacity on your brush to 60% and select pen pressure. This will allow you to have different shades and simple shade each muscle part by part. Where the muscles join and tuck in, for example under the arm show this by making it a solid black like shown. NOTE: Anatomical reference may help when doing this process.


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Muscles of the Leg The Leg or lower limb is consists of several muscles but has 3 major muscle groups. Those muscle groups being the Hamstring, Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius. Your hamstrings include 3 large muscles that run along the back of your thighs, from your pelvis to the top of your lower legs. The muscle group consists of Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus. play an important role in activities such as walking, running and jumping. The hamstrings function to bend your knees and move your hips backward. The main function of your hamstrings is to bend your knees. This movement is performed during daily activities such as walking, running, climbing stairs and jumping. Your hamstrings also help rotate your lower leg. Two hamstrings attached to the inside of your knees rotate your lower legs inward. The third hamstring, attached to the outer border of your knees, rotates your lower legs outward. These movements fine-tune the position of your lower legs as you walk. Your hamstrings also function like brakes on a car to slow the speed at which you swing your leg forward while kicking or running.


Muscles of the Leg Continued The quadriceps femoris also called simply the quadriceps, quadriceps extensor, or quads, is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur. [NHS] All four quadriceps are powerful extensors of the knee joint. They are crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting. These muscles can be strengthened by using simple leg exercises such as Leg press and squats. The gastrocnemius is the largest and most superficial of the calf muscles. Together the Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Plantaris are known as Triceps Surae. The Gastrocnemius is the main propellant in walking and running. This large posterior muscle of the calf of the leg. It originates at the back of the femur (thighbone) and patella (kneecap) and, joining the soleus (another muscle of the calf), is attached to the Achilles tendon at the heel. The action of the gastrocnemius pulls the heel up and thus extends the foot downward; the muscle provides the propelling force in running and jumping.


Leg Step by Step 1 - To start off the step by step process of drawing the Leg and muscles, you need to draw guidelines to help you keep realistic proportions. The blue line in step represent the guidelines and these will be visible throughout all steps. Draw one vertical line and 3 horizontal, the horizontal line should be split into thirds one being in the centre. 2 - The red line represents a rough outline of the Leg and the largest muscles within said picture. The line work on the outline does not need to be smooth and consistent, you can clear up the line after when you have filled in all the muscle positions. This step is simpler if you have a picture to refer too. 3 - The green line represents the smaller muscles within the picture and therefore can be scaled compared to the larger ones so that you are atomically correct. Same as step 2 the line can be rough as you can clean them up later if you make any mistakes or miss a muscle you can easily add to it. 4 - Looking at the step by step picture there a is a huge difference visually, even though there is not. If u start by removing your guideline you will be left with a rough sketch of a Leg. Shading the muscles to separate them is simple. Start by reducing the opacity on your brush to 60% and select pen pressure. This will allow you to have different shades and simple shade each muscle part by part. Where the muscles join and tuck in, for example under the arm show this by making it a solid black like shown. NOTE: An atomical reference may help when doing this process.


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Muscles of the Chest The chest consists of 3 major muscle groups, those groups being Pectoralis Major, External Abdominal Oblique, and Trapezius. The pectoralis major muscle is a large muscle in the upper chest, fanning across the chest from the shoulder to the breastbone. The two pectoralis major muscles commonly referred to as the “pecs,� are the muscles that create the bulk of the chest. A developed pectoralis major is most evident in males, as the breasts of a female typically hide the pectoral muscles. A second pectoral muscle, the pectoralis minor, lies beneath the pectoralis major. The external oblique muscle is one of the largest parts of the trunk area. Each side of the body has an external oblique muscle. The external oblique muscle is one of the outermost abdominal muscles, extending from the lower half of the ribs around and down to the pelvis. Its lowest part connects to the top corner of the pelvis. Along with the latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, and levator scapula, the trapezius muscle is one of the widest back muscles. Broad muscle bands cross the back, providing upright posture support. The trapezius and semispinalis capitis muscles create a muscle column along the back portion of the neck.


Chest Step by Step 1 - To start of the step by step process of drawing the Chest and muscles, you need to draw guidelines to help you keep realistic proportions. In this drawing, u will on draw one-half of the chest and copy then flip at the end. The blue line in step represent the guidelines and these will be visible throughout all steps. Draw one vertical line and 3 horizontal, the horizontal line should be split into thirds one being in the centre. 2 - The red line represents a rough outline of the Chest and the largest muscles within said picture. The line work on the outline does not need to be smooth and consistent, you can clear up the line after when you have filled in all the muscle positions. This step is simpler if you have a picture to refer too. 3 - The green line represents the smaller muscles within the picture and therefore can be scaled compared to the larger ones so that you are atomically correct. Same as step 2 the line can be rough as you can clean them up later if you make any mistakes or miss a muscle you can easily add to it. 4 - Looking at the step by step picture there a is a huge difference visually, even though there is not. If u start by removing your guideline you will be left with a rough sketch of a half a chest. Shading the muscles to separate them is simple. Start by reducing the opacity on your brush to 60% and select pen pressure. This will allow you to have different shades and simple shade each muscle part by part. Where the muscles join and tuck in, for example under the arm show this by making it a solid black like shown. 5 - Copy your final image for step 4 and then flip horizontally and align so you have a full chest.


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Muscles of the Neck The three major muscles in the neck are the Sternohyoid muscle, Platysma and the digastric muscle. However, some muscle from the chest such as the deltoid and trapezius overlap into the neck. The sternohyoid muscle is a long, thin muscle located along the entire length of the front of the neck. This muscle is connected by tendons strong, flexible tissue that usually connects muscle to bone to the hyoid bone at its top end, and connected to the sternum at its lower end. Due to its location, the sternohyoid is useful for several functions, including depression (lowering) of the hyoid bone, head and neck movement, and speech. The platysma muscle is a band of tissue found in the chest, neck, and facial region. This muscle covers a portion of a neck muscle known as the sternocleidomastoid. The platysma muscle is expansive in size, with a broad width that spans the collarbone, or clavicle. The digastric muscle is located in the neck, beneath the jaw. This muscle belongs to the suprahyoid muscle group, and it assists in opening and closing the jaw.


Neck Step by Step 1 - To start off the step by step process of drawing the Neck and muscles, you need to draw guidelines to help you keep realistic proportions. In this drawing, u will on draw one-half of the neck and copy then flip at the end. The blue line in step represent the guidelines and these will be visible throughout all steps. Draw one vertical line and 3 horizontal, the horizontal line should be split into thirds one being in the centre. 2 - The red line represents a rough outline of the Neck and the largest muscles within said picture. The line work on the outline does not need to be smooth and consistent, you can clear up the line after when you have filled in all the muscle positions. This step is simpler if you have a picture to refer too. 3 - The green line represents the smaller muscles within the picture and therefore can be scaled compared to the larger ones so that you are atomically correct. Same as step 2 the line can be rough as you can clean them up later if you make any mistakes or miss a muscle you can easily add to it. 4 - Looking at the step by step picture there a is a huge difference visually, even though there is not. If u start by removing your guideline you will be left with a rough sketch of a half a neck. Shading the muscles to separate them is simple. Start by reducing the opacity on your brush to 60% and select pen pressure. This will allow you to have different shades and simple shade each muscle part by part. Where the muscles join and tuck in, for example under the arm show this by making it a solid black like shown. 5 - Copy your final image for step 4 and then flip horizontally and align so you have a full neck.


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Step by Step full skeleton 1) The first step to drawing a simple skeleton is to draw guidelines that will be the basis for all steps. The purpose of these guidelines is to set shape and size for the whole skeletal drawing. This step is better done as a quick sketch as you are only drawing simple shapes and lines. 2) Set your step 1 drawing to about 20% opacity and create a new layer. In this step of the drawing, you want to set the width of the arms and legs. Refer to the image, the part entitled ‘2’ is what your image should look like after step 2 is complete. This step can still be rough and quick as this is not your final product just a more detailed guideline compared to step 1. 3) This step is a little more complicated due to all the little but crucial detail needed to be atomically correct. using your guideline from step 2 you should already have the basic shapes needed to draw a full simple skeletal structure. Refer to the part 3 in the image, this can be used as a reference to help and it should also be used a guideline of what the finished product can look like. AT the end of the project if you wish you can clear up the line work and add shadows to show depth and the size of the individual bones.


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Rib Cage Step by Step When drawing a rib cage you will only need to draw half of the ribs and copy then flip to have a finished full rib cage. How this copy and paste method will only work when digital painting. However, if you are pencil drawing on paper you can do half again and do the same process on the other side. 1) When drawing bones or muscles or anything to do with anatomy it helps to have a guideline to be atomically correct, it will also help to split the process so you can focus equally on each part of the rib cage. 2) In this step you will draw the sternum, think of the sternum as the centre point. Each part of the rib cage hangs off it. On your guidelines, the centre point where both lines connect is where the bottom of the sternum ends. The lines coloured in red is what your rib cage should look like at the end of the step. 3) This step is a little different, you will be drawing the bottom of the spine that hangs just below the sternum and levels with the bottom rib. Same as the last step the lines in red is what your rib cage should look like when the step is finished. The green lines are drawings from previous steps. 4) The actual ribs have been split into 2 sections. The first section and the one used for this step connect to the sternum. When drawing these use a reference so that your drawing will be atomically correct. 5) For this step you will draw the second portion of the rib bones, once again use a reference so that you can be atomically correct. Your rib cage should look like number 5 on the image provided if you followed all steps.


6) This is the final step of the physical drawing part, you will be drawing the back of the ribs, they will not be fully seen by can be drawing through the gaps of the rib bones at the front. 7) this is what your finished product should look like if the scaling is off or you missed a few atomical details go back and correct them or start over and do a quick rough try until you are familiar with the structure.

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Hand Step by Step The hand is a little more complicated to draw due to all the same bones included within, however, the steps are simplified as much as possible. As always keep looking at the guidelines so you stay proportionate and atomically correct. 1) The guidelines for this are a little rough and loose as all guidelines are. However, if you set the opacity of them to 30% you will still be able to see the guidelines but they will not be in the way of your hand drawing. 2) The first main step is to draw all the little bones located at the base of your hand but located at the top for the purpose of this image. At the end of this step, the red lines shown on number 2 in the image is what your image should look life if it is atomically correct. 3) The third step is to start drawing the bottom of the fingers also known as the metacarpals. These bones are simple to draw, although they still needed be drawn correctly and to proportion. This is where the guidelines you drew earlier will help. 4) This step after you have drawn the metacarpals is to draw the phalanges. The phalanges are the bones going from the top of the metacarpals to your finger tip. Again they are simple to draw but using your guidelines is necessary to be atomically correct. 5) In this step, you are drawing the middle phalanges the bone just below your fingertips. These bones are smaller but still fit into your guidelines.


6) The last bone you will need to draw are the fingertip bones, very small but it is still needed to be drawn correctly. Once again use your guidelines to help. 7) Your finished product should look like the picture 7 in the image connected. If not go back through the steps and see what went wrong and try again. 8) If you are happy with your image, you can draw shadows and scuff marks to create a more realistic effect as no bone is perfectly smooth.

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Shoulder and Arm Step by Step 1) This step by step is the shoulder blade bone also known as scapula and the arm bones known as Humerus, Radius and Ulna. As always draw a rough and simple guideline to set the proportion and scale for the whole drawing. Simple shapes are always the best to used for a guideline. 2) In this step, you will draw the scapula. Using a reference or referring to the image provided your drawing will be atomically correct. However, this part doesn’t need to be done roughly as you are trying to draw accurately. 3) Step 3 is drawing the Humorous, very simple looking bone but still needs to be the correct proportionally and accurate atomically. At the end of this your drawing should look similar to number 3 in the image. 4) The final drawing step is to draw the Radius and Ulna. The radius is thin and the ulna is slightly thinker. It is important that you show proportion difference in your drawing so that you are atomically correct. 5) In the image above number 5 is what your finished piece should similarly look like if you follow all steps correctly. However, if it’s not go back and see what went wrong and try again. 6) If you are happy with your piece add some scuffs and perspective to give your image a more realistic view.


Leg Step by Step 1) The first step as always is to draw the guidelines. You need to draw guidelines for the patella also known as the knee cap, the fibula and tibia. The guideline can be rough as it is just to keep proportion so in the end your drawing will be atomically correct. 2) When the guideline has been drawn by using basic shapes, you will draw the Patella also known as the kneecap. Even though in the image provided the Patella look fairly simple to draw but will still be needed to be drawn to proportion. 3)After the kneecap is drawn you will draw the Tibia. The larger bone in the leg. On the image, it is the one on the right of step 3. 4) The second bone long bone on the leg is called the Fibula. The fibula is the same length as the Tibia but a much thinner bone. Same as always use the guidelines they will help you keep your drawing proportionally so, therefore, it will be atomically correct. 5) The last step is to draw the shin bone, very simple but important to complete the drawing. When finished your drawing should look similar to number 6. When you are happy with your drawing, try to add shading scuff marks to give your image a realistic look. Refer to image 7 for a reference.


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Foot Step by Step 1) First, as always you will need to draw a guideline. This guideline is built of basic shapes, this sets the proportion for the whole drawing. If you keep to the guide your drawing will be atomically correct proportion wise. 2) After the guidelines are drawn you will draw the bottom of the shin and ankle bone. This is where the foot hangs from, therefore, do not make it too thin. 3) The next step is to start drawing the actual foot. First, you will need to draw the base of the foot. The part where all a person’s weight is put on. This means the base will be thick and bulky. 4)After the base is drawn you will draw the metatarsus. These are the long thin bones attaches to the base of the foot. The Phalanges or toes hang from these thin bones) 5/6) In these 2 steps you will be drawing the phalanges or the toes. These are small but a very important to be drawn atomically correct. When finished you drawing should look like image 7. If you are happy you can try to add little details and stuff to make your image more realistic. ^^

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Skull Step by Step This step by step drawing is different from the others as this from a corner perspective and no a straight on one. 1) As always you draw your guidelines first, these guidelines are made up of simple shapes. These lines do not need to be particular as it is used as a way to set the proportion of the image. 2) After the guideline is drawn, you will draw the outline of the skull next. When the outline is drawn it should look like the image entitled ‘2’. At first, it may look empty and not like a skull but once you add the features it will come together. 3) Next, you will draw 2 of the main features of the skull. The eyes and nose. You after the eyes and nose are drawn, next will be to draw the cheek bone which will add perspective to the image. When finished it should look similar to the image entitled ‘3’. 4) The final step and the feature that will bring the whole image together is the mouth. The mouth is the largest and most complicated part of the skull as if it’s too big or too small the whole image will be out of proportion. Refer to image ‘4’ for help so that your image will stay atomically correct. In image ‘5’ this is what your finished image should look similar too. If not go back through the steps and try again. However, if you are happy with your image you can go further and add suttle details such as surface crack shown in image ‘6’. Or even depth showing under the cheek bone.


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Other Examples


Anatomy Drawing - Conor Power