DECEMBER 2012

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THE SCIENCE JOURNAL Special DOUBLE Issue Covering Group 18 AND Period 2 By Julia Olson, Conner Mann, and Nathan Nyakundi

Starting things off... Greetings this Holiday Season! With the holiday day spirit in the air and as it comes time to turn on that old fireplace again, we hurried to rush one last issue of The Science Journal on the shelves before yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s end. It is our hope this issue will find you well in this busy Holiday Season.

IN THIS SPECIAL DOUBLE ISSUE OF THE SCIENCE JOURNAL, LOOK FOR COOL SURPRISES WHILE LEARNING MORE ABOUT THE TRENDS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE!

It has been a great year for us here at SJ. We have uncovered the many secrets behind the Periodic Table, and we have found patterns, or trends we call them, to go along with the secrets.

comparing melting/boiling points counting valence electrons, and much more! As always, I encourage you to read cover to cover, staying informed of what is going on in the scientific world.

Specifically in this double issue, Have a Happy Holiday Season! we will focus on Group 18 and Period 2 ~The Gang at the Science Journal in the periodic table. We will look at trends and bonding patterns, while

SJ COMMON NOBLE GASES

SCIENCE JOURNAL

BORON IS IN PERIOD 2

HELIUM

Meet the Elements

Atomic Structure

How to find the average atomic mass for an element..

PROTONS: 2 NEUTRONS: 2

To find the average atomic mass of an atom, use all of the isotopes that exist for the atom and the percentage of each type.

ELECTRONS: 2

Example Helium has 2 stable isotopes: Helium-3 and Helium-4. Helium-3 has an abundance of 0.000137% with an average atomic mass of 3.0160293 amu. Helium-4 has an abundance of 99.999863% with an average atomic mass of 4.002602 amu. .00000137* 3.0160293 = 0.00000413196 amu .99999863* 4.002602 = 4.002596516 amu 0.00000413196+ 4.002596516 = 4.0026006 amu

N E ON Atomic Structure

NEUTRONS: 10 ELECTRONS: 10

AR GO N

Atomic Structure

TO THE RIGHT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF GROUP 18. THEY ARE COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE NOBLE GASES

NEUTRONS: 22 ELECTRONS: 18

KRY PTO N Atomic Structure PROTONS: 36

Atomic Mass 83.798(2)

NEUTRONS: 48 ELECTRONS: 36

XE N O N Atomic Structure

Continuing with trends.... The next page will further examine The Noble Gases of Group 18 by looking at reactivity, ionization, Lewis Structures, as well as phases of matter and melting/ boiling points, along with many more.

PROTONS: 54

Atomic Mass 131.29

NEUTRONS: 77 ELECTRONS: 54

UNUNOCTIUM

Atomic Structure

ELECTRONS: 86

Atomic Mass 39.948

PROTONS: 18

Bonding Between the Elements Bonding between the Noble Gases is very special. Each Noble Gas has its required number of valence electrons to be considered stable. Though there are few compounds able to be made, below are a few. HeH+ HArF KrF2 RnF2 As well as many compounds formed between Xenon and Fluorine. In basic chemistry however, bonding with the Noble Gases tends to be avoided due to the stability of each molecule.

NEUTRONS: 136

Atomic Mass 20.180

PROTONS: 10

Very close to 4.0026 found on the periodic table!

PROTONS: 86

Atomic Mass 4.0026

Atomic Structure

Atomic Mass 222.02

PROTONS: 118 NEUTRONS: 175* ELECTRONS: 118

Atomic Mass 294*

Continuing with trends... Below are trends that make Group 18 unique. Take a look at each one in order to learn more about The Noble Gases. ATOMIC RADII He: 31pm Ar: 98pm Xe: 131pm

He- 31pm Ne-71 Ne: pm 71pm Ar- 98 pm Kr- 112Kr: pm112pm Xe- 131 pm Rn- 141Rn: pm141pm Uuo- N/A

Uuo: N/A *Atomic radii increases down a group on the periodic table. As electrons occupy sublevels in higher energy levels, they become farther from the nuclease, resulting in a larger atomic radius.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY He: N/A

Ne: N/A

Ar: N/A

Kr: 3.0

Xe: 2.6

Rn: 2.4

REACTIVITY

Elements in Group 18 DO NOT have an ionic radius, they have eight valence electrons in there last shell, so they don’t form ionic bonds.

The elements in Group 18 are not reactive because of the Octet rule. Since they already have a full shell, they do not react with anything.

IONIZ ATION ENERGY He: 24.5874

Ne: 21.5645

Ar: 15.7596

Kr: 13.9996

Xe: 12.1298

Rn: 10.7485 Uuo: N/A

Ionization energy is organized according to Periods

L E W I S S T RU C T U R E

Uuo: N/A

VARIUS NATOQUE TURPIS * The closest oneEST. gets toDUIS Fluorine, the ELEMENTUM higher electronegativity one has. The MONTES, TELLUS farther away, theLOBORTIS lower. In the groups, the electronegativity LACUS AMET ARCU ET. decreases going down.

Helium (He) Neon (Ne) Argon (Ar) Krypton (Kr) Xenon (Xe) Radon (Rn) Ununoctium (Uuo) DENSITY

Increases in orbits as you go down the Group. MELTING POINT

He: -269º C

Ne: -246ºC

He: -272º C

Ne: -245ºC

Ar: -186ºC

Kr: -153ºC

Ar: -189º C

Kr: -157ºC

Xe: -108º C

Rn: -62ºC

Xe: -112º C

Rn: -71ºC

The higher the atomic number, then the higher the boiling point.

STATE O F MATTER AT 25º C

NONMETALS IN GROUP 18

He-1s2 Ne-[He]2s2 2p6 Ar-[Ne]3s2 3p6 Kr-[Ar]3d10 4s2 4p6 Xe-[Kr]4d10 5s2 5p6 Rn-[Xe]4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Uuo- [Rn] 6d10 7s2 7p6

Uuo: N/A

He-2 Ne-8 Ar-8 Kr-8 Xe-8 Rn-8 Uuo- 8

All Group 17 elements are gases.

ELEC TRON CO NFIGURATION

BOILING POINT

VALENCE ELECTRONS

Uuo: N/A The higher the atomic number, then the higher the melting point.

He- 0.1786 g/dm3

Kr- 3.708 g/dm3

Ne- 0.9002 g/ dm3

Xe- 5.851 g/dm3

Ar- 1.7818 g/dm3

Rn- 9.97 g/dm3

Uuo: N/A The higher the atomic number, then the greater the density.

Meet the Elements

LITHIUM

How to find the average atomic mass for an element:

Atomic Structure PROTONS: 3

To find the average atomic mass of an atom, use all of the isotopes that exist for the atom and the percentage of each type.

NEUTRONS: 4

Example Boron has 2 stable isotopes: Boron-10 and Boron-11. Boron-10 has an abundance of 19.91% with an average atomic mass of 10.113 amu. Boron-11 has an abundance of 80.09% with an average atomic mass of 11.009 amu. 0.1991* 10.113 amu = 2.0134983 amu 0.8009* 11.009 amu = 8.81781081amu 2.0134983+ 8.81781081= 10.8306 amu Very close to 10.81 amu found on the periodic table!

Atomic Mass 6.94

ELECTRONS: 3

BERYLLIUM Atomic Structure PROTONS: 4 NEUTRONS: 5

Atomic Mass 9.0122

ELECTRONS: 4

TO THE RIGHT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF PERIOD 2. THEY ARE COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE NOBLE GASES

BORON

Atomic Structure

Bonding Between the Elements Bonding between Period 2 elements can be done by looking at valence electrons. The goal is to find elements in period 2 in different groups that add up to 8 valence electrons. When doing the math, Group 1 bonds with Group 17 and Group 2 bonds with Group 16, Boron, Carbon, and Nitrogen tend to share electrons when bonding and are the least likely to bond to other Period 2 elements. Below are a few examples of bonding combinations between Period 2 elements: Li20 BeO B2O3 N2O5 N2 O2

PROTONS: 5 NEUTRONS:6 ELECTRONS: 5

C AR BO N Atomic Structure PROTONS: 6 NEUTRONS: 6

N IT ROG E N Atomic Structure

NEON

Atomic Structure

NEUTRONS: 10

Atomic Mass 12.011

ELECTRONS: 6

Continuing with trends.... The next page will further examine the elements of Period 2 by looking at reactivity, ionization, Lewis Structures, as well as phases of matter and melting/ boiling points, along with many more.

PROTONS: 10

Atomic Mass 10.81

PROTONS: 7 Atomic Mass 20.180

NEUTRONS: 7 ELECTRONS: 7

ELECTRONS: 10

OX Y G E N

F LU O R IN E

Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure Atomic Mass 18.998

PROTONS: 9 NEUTRONS: 10 ELECTRONS: 9

Atomic Mass 14.007

Atomic Mass 15.999

PROTONS:8 NEUTRONS: 8 ELECTRONS: 8

Continuing with trends... Below are trends that make Period 2 unique. Take a look at each one in order to learn more about the elements. IONIC RADII ATOMIC RADII Li-152 pm Be-112 pm B-85 pm

*Li+- 76 Be2+-45 B- none C4--260 N3--146 o2--140 F--133 Ne-N/A

Li-152 pm Be-112N-75pm pm B-85 pm O- 73pm C-77 pm N-75pm

F-72 pm

C-77 pm

Ne-71 pm

* Atomic radii decreases from left to right as the nuclear charge increases. This is because as electrons are being added to the element, they are pulled in toward the nucleus.this increased pull decreases the atomic radii.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY Li-1.0 Be-1.5 B-2.0 C-2.5 N-3.0 O-3.5 F-4.0 Ne- N/A TURPIS VARIUS NATOQUE *The electronegativities tend to increase ELEMENTUM EST. DUIS going across each period. The most electronegative elements are in the MONTES, TELLUS LOBORTIS upper right of P block, and the lowest LACUS AMET ARCUareET. electronegative elements in lower left of S block.

ELEC TRON CO NFIGURATION Li-[He]2s1 Be-[He]2s2 B-[He]2s2 2p1 C-[He]2s2 2p2 N-[He]2s2 2p3 O-[He]2s2 2p4 F-[He]2s2 2p5 Ne-[He]2s2 2p6 Increase of one orbital space in each element

BOILING POINT

The metals at the left, tend to form cations and the nonmetals at the right from anions. Cationic Radii decreases across the periodic table, as the electrons want to lose electrons to from a full shell, causing them to become positively charged. Anionic Radii increases to the right of the periodic table as elements are willing to accept electrons to have a full outer shell. The more positive ions ( cation) you have the smaller the ionic radii, the more negative ions you have ( anion) the larger the ionic radii, so the metals in period 2 decrease in ionic radii, while the nonmetals increase in ionic radii across the periodic table.

*reactivity increases as you go from the left to the right of the periodic table. Until you get to group 18. VALENCE ELECTRONS

Li-1 Be-2 B-3 C-4 N-5 O-6 F-7 Ne-8

IONIZ ATION ENERGY Li-5.3917

N-14.5341

Be-9.3227

O-13.6181

B-8.298

F-12.4228

C-11.2603

Ne-21.5645

Ionization energy increases are you move to the right. L E W I S S T RU C T U R E

STATE OF MATTER AT 25ºC In Period 2, if Valence electron number is less than 4, then it’s a solid. If the Valence electron number is greater or equal to 4, then it’s a gas. METALS IN PERIOD 2

Lithium (Li) Beryllium (Be) METALS IN PERIOD 2

MELTING POINT Li: 180º C

N: -210º C

Li: 1347º C

N: -196º C

Be: 1278º C

O: -218º C

Be: 2970º C

O: -183º C

B: 725 ºC

F: -220º C

B: 2550ºC

F: -188º C

C: 3500ºC

Ne: -245º C

C: 4827ºC

Ne: -246º C

These properties are based upon whether the element is a metal/ nonmetal, and what state of matter it is in.

These properties are based upon whether the element is a metal/ nonmetal, and what state of matter it is in.

REACTIVITY

Boron (B) Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Fluorine (F) Neon (Ne) DENSITY

Li: .534 g/cm3

N: .00125 g/cm3

Be: 1.85 g/cm3

O: .00149 g/cm3

B: 2.34 g/cm3

F: .001696 g/cm3

C: 2.267 g/cm3

Ne: .0008999 g/cm3

FIN A L WO R D S There are many partners we would like to thank who are a vital part of making SJ function! Please take a minute and acknowledge them!

"Atomic and Ionic Radius." Atomic and Ionic Radius. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. <http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/properties/atradius.html>. "Chemistry Glossary - Definitions of Terms in Chemistry." Chemistry Glossary - Definitions of Terms in Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. http://www.chemistry-reference.com/glossary_mz.asp#valence_electrons "Chemistry Resources at BPC: Chemistry at Brewton-Parker College." Welcome to Brewton-Parker College. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bpc.edu/mathscience/chemistry>. "Chemistry 11." : Electronegativity and Polarity. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012.<http://mageechemistry11.blogspot.com/2012/04/ electronegativity-and-polarity.html>. "Electron Configuration." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. http://library.thinkquest.org/10429/low/eleconfig/electron.htm "Electronegativity." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Dec. 2012.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Electronegativity>.

A NOTE FROM SJ: YOU MAY HAVE NOTICED AN ASTERISK * BY ELEMENT 118: UNUNOCTIUM IS A FAIRLY NEW ELEMENT. IT HAS NOT BEEN GIVEN AN OFFICIAL NAME YET, ACCORDING TO THE IUPAC. FOR THAT MATTER, ALL THE CHARACTERISTICS MENTIONED ON PAGES 2-3 ARE JUST APPROXIMATES OR GUESSES. SCIENTISTS ARE STILL RESEARCHING AND WORKING TO OBTAIN MORE INFORMATION ON THIS NOBLE GAS.

"General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, v. 1.0." Flat World Knowledge. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012.<http:// catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/4309?e=averill_1.0ch07_s02>. "Lesson 6: Reactivity Trends (Lab Work)." Lesson 6: Reactivity Trends. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012.<http://dl.clackamas.edu/ ch104/lesson6reactivitytrends.html>. "List of Elements of the Periodic Table - Sorted by Ionization Energy." Welcome to the Instructional Web Site of Green River Community College. N.p., n.d. Web. Dec.-Jan. 2012. "States of Matter." The Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.elementalmatter.info/states-of-matter.htm>. " The chemical elements of the periodic table sorted by melting point." Water Treatment and Purification - Lenntech. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart-elements/ boiling-point.htm\ "Group 18: The Noble Gases." Chemwiki.com. UCDavis, n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Inorganic_Chemistry/ Descriptive_Chemistry/Main_Group_Elements/ Group_18%3A_The_Noble_Gases>

Finishing things up... Wow! What a great year at The Science Journal. We truly hope you the reader has learned something valuable about trends in the periodic table. Specifically in this issue, we tried to make you aware of The Noble Gases and their stability as well as Period 2 and the role it plays We started off with an identification of Group 18 elements on page 2, then moved on to 13 trends and characteristics found in the Noble Gases on page 3. We then moved onto page 4 with our second half of the December double issue. We identified

the Period 2 elements, their location on the periodic table, as well as how to find the average atomic mass. On page 5 we were treated once again to 13 trends and characteristics found in Period 2 elements. FInally on page 6 we wanted to take the time this holiday season to thank all our resources that help The Science Journal. But while those resources are important,YOU the reader are most important, so for that we thank you this Holiday Season: From the gang at The Science Journal!

Periodic Table PBL