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Planning for Prosperity

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ConnectedCities © 2016 ConnectedCities Ltd Rights and Permissions

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Planning for Prosperity

Contents iv _ _ _

Forewords

vi _ _ _ Acknowledgments vii _ _ _ Origins of ConnectedCities 1 _ _ _ _ Introduction

56 _ _ _ New Green Towns 58 _ _ _ Governance 60 _ _ _ Case

Studies

62 _ _ _ The ConnectedCity approach

2 _ _ _ _ Sustainable growth

68 _ _ _ Scenario 1 - No Greenfield Development

4 _ _ _ _ Concept

72 _ _ _ Scenario 2 - Fully developing the

6 _ _ _ _ The ConnectedTowns 8 _ _ _ _ Vision

from 2050

10 _ _ _ Even growth 12 _ _ _ Idea 14 _ _ _ Pedsheds 16 _ _ _ Prosperity 18 _ _ _ Form 20 _ _ _ HubTowns

pedsheds of existing stations 76 _ _ _ Scenario 3 - New freestanding towns 80 _ _ _ Scenario 4 - Extending existing towns 84 _ _ _ Transport 86 _ _ _ Hertfordshire 88 _ _ _ SouthEast England 90 _ _ _ USA case studies 92 _ _ _ Tirunelveli, India

22 _ _ _ The Hub

102 _ _ Delivery

24 _ _ _ SisterTowns

104 _ _ Methodology

26 _ _ _ Green Belt

106 _ _ Benefits

28 _ _ _ Travel

108 _ _ Analysis

30 _ _ _ Local Transport

110 _ _ Consultation

32 _ _ _ Inter-town

111 _ _ Cities Act

34 _ _ _ Stations

112 _ _ Plan

35 _ _ _ Cars and Vans

114 _ _ Guidelines

36 _ _ _ Pedshed Principles

116 _ _ New Green Quarters and New

38 _ _ _ Town Centre

40 _ _ _ High Density Mixed Use

118 _ _ Finance

42 _ _ _ Employment & Education

120 _ _ Implementation

44 _ _ _ Family Housing - Villages

122 _ _ Land tenure and procurement

46 _ _ _ High Streets

124 _ _ Financial model

48 _ _ _ Green Spaces

126 _ _ Planning for prosperity

50 _ _ _ Town Growth Zones

127 _ _ Actions

52 _ _ _ Malls

128 _ _ Credits

54 _ _ _ New Green Quarters

129 _ _ Illustration Credits

Green Towns

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ConnectedCities

Foreword As planners and politicians grapple with the immediate issues of housing and growth it is heartening to see a longer and broader vision emerge. Connected Cities draws on the founding principles of the English planning system and projects them forward to show how growth can be achieved whilst maintaining local centres, green space and effective infrastructure. Essentially focused on southeast England, the principles could be applied to other parts of the country and globally, where planning for growth along sustainable transportation routes could provide many more opportunities for development. The book is clearly illustrated and communicates the core principles in an accessible and engaging manner that will help it to inspire professionals and decision makers alike. Ruth Reed BA DipArch MA PGCertEd Frias HonAIA PPRIBA Past President Royal Institute of British Architects Chair of the RIBA Planning Group

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Planning for Prosperity

Foreword A new book that shows how our habitations might develop in a connected way must be welcome, if only because we are very short on spatial visions. There are plenty of books arguing for sustainable development, but few that set out a coherent set of principles for achieving the objectives. ConnectedCities start by making the most of the existing railways in a bid to reduce car use and congestion. The book aims to bring Ebenezer Howard’s Social City diagram up to date. Useful distinctions are made between Town Growth Zones, Malls and Green Towns, the latter term replacing the somewhat abused Garden City concept. Tested through a number of examples, the book suggests that a government could avoid much of the conflict that bedevils planning by offering fresh powers to local authorities. These include importantly land assembly and finance. The Green Belt is rethought as a series of green wedges, thus achieving one of the original aims of opening up access to the countryside. While there is little that is fundamentally new, what is fresh is a series of visions for what Britain might be like if the approach was adopted. There are also some excellent proposals for what a new Cities Act should contain. Examples show how ConnectedCities principles apply to Hertfordshire to the North of London, and have also been tested in an expanding city in the South of India, so the ideas are truly universal. When cities all over the world are facing unprecedented pressures, it is good to see some creative thinking coming out of the UK, and not just a rehash of American ideas for Smart Growth and Transit Oriented Development. ‘Only Connect’, EM Forster’s famous phrase, provides a starting point for rethinking how places should grow that will produce far better results than simply responding to market forces. As a Wolfson 2014 Economic Essay prize winner who sought to apply Howard’s basic thinking to historic cities such as Oxford and York, I can only hope the book and related web site reach beyond planners and architects to those who are looking for practical inspiration. There are some 2,500 railway stations in the UK and a good place to start is with the many hundred that serve as junctions, particularly those in areas of high demand for housing. So let us hope the book is read by transport engineers, as well as by members of the public who want an alternative to endless urban sprawl. Dr Nicholas Falk, economist and urbanist, founded his research and consultancy group URBED in 1976, and is advising several new garden city type developments. vii


ConnectedCities

Acknowledgments When Oliver Christopherson had his inspiration for ConnectedCities he was unaware of Peter Hall’s invaluable book Sociable Cities which had proposed a similar approach several years earlier. Sir Peter’s many works and those of countless others in the field have contributed to the development of the concept. The subject is vast, but in particular we would like to acknowledge the influence and input of the following. The team at the Town & Country Planning Association, whose tireless efforts to promote the ideals of Ebenezer Howard have produced countless invaluable reports and documents and brought the Garden City right to the heart of the public debate on housing and planning. Various ‘think tanks’ such as Policy Exchange, Institute for Public Policy Research and Adam Smith Institute, all active in contributing to the pool of ideas, as are campaigning groups such as Living Streets, Smart Growth UK, Brownfield Briefing, the Ramblers Association and the hugely influential Campaign for the Protection of Rural England. The Urban Design Group and the Academy of Urbanism continue to provide the necessary platforms on which the debate develops and new thinking and best practice is discussed. Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation magnificently bears Howard’s torch, promoting the work of the Community Land Trust, etc., while the New Garden Cities Alliance is playing an invaluable role in taking forward Howard’s concept. It is essential to recognise the work on Sustainable Urban Form done in the UK by academics such as Katie Williams and Hugh Barton at UWE, also Tim Stonor at Space Syntax and his mentor Bill Hillier. The international scene features equally inspirational work, including most profoundly that of Peter Calthorpe in the USA, who developed the ideas of Transit Oriented Development in the late 1980s, and all those involved in the promotion of “New Urbanism”, especially Dittmar and Ohland’s editing of the seminal work, The New Transit Town. More recently the World Bank publications ‘Transforming Cities with Transit’ and ‘Financing TOD with Land Values’ by Hiroaki Suzuki et al have hugely moved the movement forward. Lastly, we would like to express our warmest thanks to Nick Falk and URBED for their vigorous contributions over the years, particularly for their work in developing the concept of Sustainable Urban Neighbourhoods, which culminated in their success in winning the Wolfson Economic Prize for a proposal to deliver a new garden city. All these individuals and organizations and many more have provided, and will continue to provide, the flow of ideas and initiatives which will be required to provide built environments which enable people to live balanced lives and give of their best, not only in the UK but across the planet. Brian Q Love London, 2017

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Planning for Prosperity

Origins of ConnectedCities

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Oliver & Kari-Anna Christopherson (2nd & 3rd from left) unveiling the Braille plaque at the Forster Memorial, 24 June 2006 © Friends of the Forster Country

One day in 2006 my wife Kari-Anna and I found ourselves in St Nicholas churchyard in Stevenage, at the unveiling of a Braille plaque next to the monument to E M Forster: “Only connect”. In this peaceful setting, looking at the monument and out over the Forster Country, I was suddenly aware both of the value of this archetypal piece of Hertfordshire countryside and of its relationship with the towns which surround it - Stevenage, Hitchin and Letchworth, three towns close to each other geographically yet very different in their history and nature: Stevenage, the first post-war New Town; Hitchin, an old-established market town; and Letchworth, the first of Howard’s Garden Cities. How good it would be, I thought, if these three towns, which between them have the potential to become a great and marvellous city, could be brought together - not physically joined, but sharing a common purpose and identity. So the idea of the ConnectedCity was born. The obvious model for the ConnectedCity is Ebenezer Howard’s “social city” – a group of new settlements in the countryside organised around a larger central settlement. But here we are not trying to create the city from scratch, we are taking a collection of towns and developing and unifying it to form a coherent city. To achieve this, Government and people must act together. Oliver Christopherson Stevenage, 2010

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ConnectedCities

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Introduction

Introduction ConnectedCities is a non-partisan initiative proposing a global sustainable development strategy which is highly relevant to the UK. The UN predicts that the world population will increase by 2.4 billion by 2050, and to deal with the challenge has set seventeen sustainable development goals. ConnectedCities is a method of ensuring growth minimises energy usage and carbon emissions by integrating brownfield and greenfield development into a unified system focused on public transport. The UK’s crisis in housing supply, the overhaul of its planning system and the need to address climate change and car dependency all offer an opportunity for a far-reaching new approach to strategic planning, which is applicable globally. Vision ConnectedCities draws its inspiration from Ebenezer Howard’s Social Cities. The vision is for compact, high-quality, walkable developments around existing and new railway stations. Groups of settlements - some existing, some new are linked by existing rail corridors and clustered around ‘hub towns’. Together they form a ConnectedCity. All undeveloped land is protected as green belt. Case studies The ConnectedCities approach to development applies in a broad range of circumstances: • A town growth zone within an existing town • A new green quarter on the edge of an existing town • Or a new green town Delivery ConnectedCities accepts a wide range of delivery mechanisms depending on local circumstances, including an innovative approach for new settlements, focused as Howard suggested on public ownership of land value and removal of land cost from house prices. The choice of how and where to build is made by the local population. 1


ConnectedCities

Sustainable growth The UN predicts that, ‘India will become the largest country in population size around 2022, while Nigeria could surpass the United States by 2050’. In the UK, Government forecasters expect the population to increase to around 80 million by 2051, and possibly over 90 million by 2081, as a result of rising birth rate and longer living. 15 to 25+ million people in addition to those already affected by the housing shortage will have to be accommodated somewhere. It is essential to plan on a long timescale and to look 35 to 65 years ahead. Wherever these people reside has to enable them to enjoy sustainable lifestyles which minimise carbon emissions. The UN states: ‘The climate debate and action often focuses on energy and industrial activity as the key sectors contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. However, the transport sector, which is responsible for one quarter of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, with its emissions increasing at a faster rate than any other sectors, must be included in any effective policy response to climate change. Sustainable transport must be viewed and integrated as an essential ingredient in sustainable development strategies. Transport infrastructure lasts for decades, which means that the decisions that the local and national governments make today will have long-lasting impacts on urban development and form, as well as climate.’ The first of the many sustainability criteria for new homes and workplaces must be permanent way public transport. The occupants of even the most efficient buildings will consume unacceptable amounts of energy and greatly increase traffic congestion if they have to use private cars for everyday journeys. Their housing and workplaces must be in locations connected by excellent and attractive rail services. New infrastructure costs billions and takes years to build, so it is essential to make full use of the existing networks to provide the spines to serve the necessary growth, and to concentrate large-scale development within walking distance of rail stations - either existing or new. Only after the transport conditions have been satisfied should the other sustainability criteria such as economics, energy, water, waste, food, biodiversity, etcetera be investigated to find suitable locations for truly sustainable development. ConnectedCities offers a methodology for the process based upon the proven success of Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities, and his vision for groups of towns combining to create Social Cities.

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Ref 590g791d01 - Gold rail green uk 2010

Introduction

Existing rail corridors provide the framework for sustainable growth which does not increase pollution or congestion 3


ConnectedCities

Concept Howard’s Social City Ebenezer Howard proposed that garden cities of 30,000 should be linked by electric railways passing through the countryside between the settlements, combining into a social city of 250,000 with all the amenities of a large city plus easy access to the rural environment necessary for healthy living. But when he wrote the UK population was 40 million and the interwar sprawl of towns had not occurred. Today there are no open tracts of land which would accommodate a new city of ¼ million without impacting on its neighbours.

The ConnectedCity ConnectedCities realise Howard’s vision of the social city by creating clusters of towns that together combine the resources of a city with easy access to open countryside. They utilise under-used rail lines to unite their towns into a thriving city. Denser development around existing stations, together with new stations surrounded by compact new settlements, create a self-contained ConnectedCity in which most people live just a short walk and brief train ride from all the resources of commerce, entertainment, healthcare, education, etc. All growth occurs in the walkable ‘pedsheds’ of its stations. ConnectedCities provide the benefits of cities yet preserve the individuality of existing towns and villages by linking them together for their mutual advantage. The views of developers and conservationists are often diametrically opposed. ConnectedCities provides common ground. It is in favour of urbanisation in appropriate locations and opposed to remote urban extensions. It accepts that new neighbourhoods and new towns will be needed, but insists that they are sustainable and coherent, with excellent public transport by a choice of modes. The decision to become a ConnectedCity is not imposed from above, but made by the local population and only if it chooses to do so. Growth is accommodated not by extending our already sprawling cities and towns, but by preserving and integrating the existing pattern of small settlements in the countryside.

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Introduction Concept A ConnectedCity is a federation of towns linked by frequent rail services. Growth is encouraged only around stations, whether existing or new.

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A ConnectedCity

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ConnectedCities

The ConnectedTowns The ConnectedTowns of a ConnectedCity all have access to the resources of the other towns via frequent or on-demand trains. The towns will contribute different qualities: some will be old, and some new; some large, some small; some commercial, some academic; some busy, some quiet; some expensive, some cheaper – giving unity with the diversity of a city. All development in ConnectedTowns is close to stations. Away from the stations all undeveloped areas are preserved as green belt. The population of the towns in a ConnectedCity jointly decide where to accommodate the whole city’s growth. Three possibilities combine as described below. Existing towns with a Town Growth Zone (TGZ) These accommodate their growth with no sprawl. The town stays strictly within its existing boundaries. The area around the station is improved and densified, giving growth at its centre. If the existing centre is not where station is located, then the two are linked by a mall. There is no development pressure on most of the town, as growth only occurs around the station. Countryside on edge of town is completely protected, with no piecemeal eating away of it. Existing towns with a TGZ plus New Green Quarter(s) (NGQ’s) These towns improve and densify their centre in a TGZ around the station. They also extend at their edge but only where a new station is built – at the point where the railway crosses the edge of the town. The new station makes the town ‘smaller’, as journey time within the town is reduced. It serves both new housing and the existing town periphery, which was previously far from the centre. New shops, services, etc around the new station add resources to the edge of the town and provide excellent public transport where ‘out of town’ facilities otherwise encourage car use. Again, there is no development pressure on most of the town, as growth only occurs around the stations. Countryside on edge of town is completely protected, with no piecemeal eating away. New Green Towns (NGT’s) These are entirely new compact settlements around new railway stations. They are quite small, with a radius of 1km and a population of 30,000 - the same as Howard’s Garden City - but over 40% of their land is green space. The whole town is walkable, with protected walkways converging on the town centre around the new station. As a result walking, cycling and public transport are the natural form of travel, and there is limited demand for cars. A New Green Town has its own commercial area and jobs, schools, shopping and leisure centres, etc. But crucially it also has easy access to all the existing facilities of its ConnectedCity e.g. Hospital, colleges, employment opportunities, retail choice, which a small town cannot provide – especially when new. NGT’s are penetrated by green wedges which bring the surrounding countryside right into the town centre. Meanwhile the countryside at its periphery is completely protected and made available for public enjoyment.

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Introduction

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An existing town with a Town Growth Zone and two New Green Quarters around new stations at the edge of the town.

A New Green Town around a new station. These complete new settlements are never larger than 1km in radius. They are usually sited where an existing road crosses the rail line.

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The core of every settlement is a high-density mixed-use development around the station. Here are most of its retail and social facilities, plus apartments for people without children - like the core of a Cathedral city.

Ref Concept_village 11

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An existing town with a Town Growth Zone around its station.

Further from the station villages of family houses with private gardens, communal greens, protected walkways and each with its own high street, are separated by green corridors of trees, open spaces and allotments.

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ConnectedCities

Vision from 2050 From the second decade of the present century vigorous sustainable growth has occurred throughout the UK in a network of thriving ConnectedCities linked by a radically improved local rail network. Energy consumption and carbon emissions have fallen markedly as a result of the shift to rail. Sixty per cent of the workforce now travel to work by public transport, by bicycle or on foot. Many more now live close to the countryside. ConnectedCities are clusters of separate towns in the countryside linked by railways. Each ConnectedCity has a recognisable city centre in the hub town, usually the largest, from which its sister towns are no more than 15 minutes rail journey. Almost all development in the ConnectedCities has been within 1km of a station, in walkable areas called pedsheds. People use weather protected pathways to get to their local station. Cars are not excluded, but are mainly used to travel to places not accessible by public transport. ConnectedCities have generated wealth. Their prosperity is due to their plentiful sites and easily accessed workforce; the larger economic units they created and the ease with which everyone can get to all the facilities of their ConnectedCity and beyond. The previously under-utilised railways within and between the ConnectedCities have modern trains and infrastructure. The inter-town routes have frequent, metro-style services and some routes have on-demand services. The many new pedshed developments along the railways have both contributed to and benefited from the improved services. The public subsidy to local rail is lower. Every pedshed has unique features. Some are in an older town, where a growth zone around the station is now a vibrant new centre, incorporating the old centre or linked to it by a pedestrian mall. Some are new green quarters on the edge of a town, where a new station serves both part of the town and new greenfield development. Others are new green towns, built around village stations or new stations in the countryside. 8


Vision from 2050

The core of the pedshed is a high-density mixed-use development around the station. Here are located most of its retail and social facilities, and apartments for people without children. Further from the station villages of family houses with private gardens and communal greens are separated by green corridors of trees, open spaces and allotments. House prices in ConnectedCities are relatively low. Land around the towns is protected from development. It produces food for local consumption, and much of it is publicly accessible. Every ConnectedCity has a master plan, usually made originally by the local authorities under a co-operation agreement. Each now has a single council. Together these councils cover most of the country. The ConnectedCities model has ensured that growth is widely distributed across the country, and that no-one has to move too far to find a home. In many ConnectedCities, development is happening simultaneously at several locations. Towns and villages not on the rail network have had very little growth, as development pressures were released by expansion in the pedsheds of the ConnectedCities. Combined with the policy of only building within I km of a station, this has preserved the traditional pattern of small towns in the countryside. ConnectedCity councils are working with partners in the public and private sectors to improve the transport network, re-open disused rail lines and create new inter-town routes, which transform rural towns into connected towns, and enable them to be part of the prosperity which the ConnectedCities model of sustainable development brings.

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ConnectedCities

Even growth Vision from 2050 The global population is 9.7 billion. In the UK it is 78 million, a 23% increase from 63 million in 2011 (source: Office for National Statistics). Each local area chose whether or not to accommodate their pro rata share of the growth. Those that chose to grant planning permission for more than their share were assisted with government funding raised from those that chose to provide less. Thus some localities experienced no or minimal growth by voting to assist those which wished to expand. As a result, London and the South East have not experienced over-intense development, but now have an additional 5-6 million people enjoying improved access to both Central London and the countryside. Job growth has mainly occurred in the new ConnectedCities, easing the pressure on commuting. Prosperity has spread out from the South East to the Midlands and West. The North, united by greatly improved transport infrastructure, has again become a major economic driver. There are ConnectedCities in all the main regions. Sustainable growth has occurred on both brownfield and greenfield sites, and full employment is now the norm. Until about ten years ago the focus was on dealing with the housing shortage, and the growth occurred equally in new green quarters, new green towns and town growth zones, all served by frequent, popular and constantly improving rail services. Now the economic drive of the construction surge is abating, but the commerce and manufacturing which grew in the ConnectedCities as small towns became more efficient and prosperous is enabling the focus to shift towards the provision of services and amenities. Both the ConnectedCities and the large metropolitan cities have a balance of jobs and homes. Most people live and work in the same ConnectedCity or a neighbouring one. But they also have an easy journey to the cultural capital of the region, with its cosmopolitan atmosphere and range of cultural, commercial and administrative facilities. Longer-distance commuting has fallen. Those still obliged to commute into the metropolis often travel only on certain days and work in local TeleCentres or at home on the other days.

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Vision from 2050

Even growth has been assisted by the reopening of many closed rail lines financed by new sustainable development 11


ConnectedCities

Idea Ebenezer Howard imagined his social city as a cluster of new garden cities in the countryside linked by new railways. ConnectedCities uses the idea to rationalise the settlement structure around existing railways. They are modelled on Howard’s social city, but are not built from scratch; they are a blend of what is already there and new sustainable development.

Vision from 2050 There are hundreds of ConnectedCities throughout the country. They vary in size from under 50,000 people to more than a million. Each ConnectedCity is a group of towns in the countryside linked by frequent rail services. The city centre in the largest town plays a key role in the federation’s prosperity. Here is the central transport interchange (the hub), where public transport converges, and many of the commercial and cultural developments that contribute to the city’s success. The other towns are no more than 15 minutes travel from the hub and each contributes its unique ‘offer’ to the city. Together they prosper. Unlike Howard’s social city, most ConnectedCities already had the transport infrastructure they needed. Howard suggested a population of 250,000, with 60,000 in a central city. In a ConnectedCity the central city role is played by towns of many sizes. In place of Howard’s six “spokes” a ConnectedCity has inter-town transport routes running outwards from the hub, with connected towns on each. The ConnectedCity’s new green towns are similar to Howard’s garden cities, but in place of Howard’s wards and green rings they have villages separated by a green infrastructure network. Howard had all the industrial premises in his garden cities served by orbital railways, whereas a ConnectedCity’s employment land is usually located beside the existing railway. Howard’s public transport allowed workers to live in one garden city and work in another; but he did not expect them to travel further. Some commuters in 2050 still travel far to work, but public transport competes effectively with the car. Inter-town routes serving a ConnectedCity also connect it with its neighbours, and provide journeys to many other destinations including the metropolis.

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Vision from 2050

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Howard’s Social City diagram showing towns linked by ‘Inter Municipal Railways’

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ConnectedCity diagram showing towns linked by existing railways but with no station more than 15 minutes travel from the hub town.

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ConnectedCities

Pedsheds Healthy sustainable growth is the norm in a ConnectedCity, but it is not possible to build everywhere. To protect the countryside and prevent sprawl the presumption in favour of sustainable development is only in the 1km radius circles around stations where everyone has easy access to frequent or on-demand public transport. These areas are called Pedsheds.

Vision from 2050 – Walkability Pedsheds are designed so that within them walking is the first choice of transport because it is simple and comfortable. Walkers and cyclists don’t have to encounter general traffic if they do not want to, and are always in safe ‘defensible space’ which is overlooked by residents. Walking is comfortable in all weathers because protected walkways run everywhere, ensuring that rain or shine it is easy and comfortable to move around. These glazed canopies incorporate photo voltaic cells which pay for their installation and also provide street lighting and cctv. Many collect and harvest rainwater, and some incorporate wind turbines which reduce air turbulence. The walkways are pedestrian priority, but are shared by walkers, bicycles and ‘small traffic’ – buggies and compact smart town cars. Nowhere in a pedshed is ever more than 10-12 mins walk from station or 5 mins from shops and services, and the longer stretches of journey are made quicker and easier by moving walkways. Protected canopies also run alongside roads and cover all parking areas. They lead to the walkways and pedestrian priority street crossings. Nearer to the station the walkways become covered streets and malls, and the centre of every pedshed is either a pedestrian precinct with overall glazed roof or canopies within an existing street pattern. The Pedshed Centre is 100% pedestrianised with access only for service vehicles. Further from the station is a Mixed Use zone which is still pedestrianised, but with access for service vehicles, taxis and residents’ car club vehicles only. The outer part of a pedshed has Villages into which the small traffic walkways extend. Their streets are Home Zones in which normal traffic has access but they are shared surfaces on the understanding that pedestrians have priority. The main vehicle route through the town does not pass through the centre, but links the villages. On these High Streets are local shops, schools, and other amenities, all of which are also served by the protected walkways.

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Vision from 2050

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Pedshed Principle Diagram Weather protected routes run throughout the pedshed to provide safe and comfortable walking and cycling to all key destinations, especially public transport.

Protected walkways take many different forms

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ConnectedCities

Prosperity Opportunity breeds prosperity People in larger places have more incentives and opportunities. They work more and learn more, and their learning helps them work more efficiently, which is why cities tend to prosper where small towns and villages struggle. The towns which have come together to form ConnectedCities have benefited in two ways: • •

They have grown significantly They are now parts of city-scale social and economic entities

Vision from 2050 Businesses – Most growth in the past 35 years has occurred in ConnectedCities. New industrial parks and employment areas are invariably located in a pedshed, guaranteeing excellent access to their workforce and distribution networks. Government incentives for businesses setting up or relocating in pedsheds are not so generous as to attract businesses which have no reason to move, but the environmental and economic benefits for the whole country of linking growth to a highly efficient transport system have been so great that administrations of all political persuasions have supported them. Many ConnectedCities have a local rail freight interchange which is often one of the largest employers in a new green town. Commuting – Most people living in a ConnectedCity work in their city or a neighbouring one. Even close to the metropolis ConnectedCities are not dormitories for commuters, but have a balance of jobs and homes. The redistribution of population and jobs means that long commutes into metropolitan cities are less common than they were, but they still exist where households have members working in widely different places. Lifestyle – Prosperity is more than just money: it is quality of life. ConnectedCity residents enjoy the benefits of easy access to an urban lifestyle yet they live in close proximity to countryside. Together with much easier walking/cycling, and settlements with strong communities, the result has been a noticeable reduction in stress. People live longer, but there is little unemployment as the increased efficiency means society can afford extra jobs like mending roads, teaching and elderly care that benefit society but are not directly wealth-creating. The city centre – The residents of a ConnectedCity have gained a first-class city centre in the hub town, where shops, cafes, offices, hotels, event venues, learning centres, leisure and cultural facilities harmonise with urban dwelling. In large hub towns new development also occurs along tentacles and sometimes in new green quarters.

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Vision from 2050

Ref House prices_590w032

House prices are affordable

Housing Although the global population has increased to 9.3 billion, and many countries have experienced dramatic enlargement of their communities, because the ConnectedCities methodology distributed housing and work around countries, there is much less pressure than there used to be. In the UK there is no longer a housing shortage. House prices are affordable and have not risen greatly since 2020, even though the population of Britain has grown by some 20 million. This has been achieved by vigorous housebuilding, facilitated by: • The presumption in favour of sustainable development • The National Planning Policy Framework, which required local planning authorities to establish green belt boundaries and safeguard land for future development • Identification in ConnectedCity plans of potential pedsheds containing large areas of land suitable for sustainable housing development • Simplified planning process for development in accordance with a pedshed plan • Division of housing land into blocks, lots and plots, providing opportunities for builders of every kind, from the volume housebuilders to individuals, to be involved in housing delivery • Retention of the value of greenfield housing land in public hands in the form of an indexed ground rent

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ConnectedCities

Form Like Howard’s Social City, ConnectedCities consist of: • • •

A single hub town, which contains the main transport interchange A number of connected towns or villages, with easy access by rail to the hub town A rural hinterland

Vision from 2050 Normally, each town within a ConnectedCity is a distinct entity, separated from the others by the rural hinterland. However, where towns coalesced before World War II, the ConnectedCities methodology (see page 104) treats them as separate towns. The methodology is a means for determining which towns will be hub towns, and which sister towns. Its application produces two slightly different types of ConnectedCity: Large ConnectedCities and Small Connected Cities. Large ConnectedCities tend to have several rail routes converging on the hub town. Their population can vary from around 50,000 to over a million. Some are based on existing cities such as Sheffield or Canterbury, while others have large towns as their hub, e.g. Colchester or Crewe. Small ConnectedCities are often linear, with their hub town and ConnectedTowns along a single railway. Their population can be as low as 20,000 but at the higher end they approach 50,000. Examples of their hub towns are Andover and Sudbury. Although some sister towns are quite large, they are generally much smaller than the hub town. They all have easy access (within 15 minutes) to the hub town by a frequent rail service.

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Vision from 2050

Ref 590g704d03

Form Large ConnectedCities often have complex forms with several lines but they are still defined by a maximum 15 minutes travel time from the hub town.

Ref 590g704d03

Form Small ConnectedCities are generally on a single rail line

19


ConnectedCities

Hub towns Every ConnectedCity has a hub town through which all its inter-town routes pass. It is nearly always the largest town in ConnectedCity, and fulfils a key role in relation to the city’s ConnectedTowns and rural hinterland. The hub, the ConnectedCity’s central transport interchange, is located in the hub town. Here both its inter-town transport and its local transport converge.

Vision from 2050 Growth in hub towns over the past 40 years has been striking. However, to ensure growth areas are easily accessible by public transport they are always contained within the pedsheds around their stations. Hub towns vary in population from over 75,000 to about 10,000. All have town growth zones around the hub transport interchange, providing a vibrant, highly accessible core. Most have ‘hub tentacle development’ (see next page) which takes advantage of the hub’s high connectivity to further power their growth. Where the station is not in the historic centre, hub towns have a mall or avenue with a PRT system linking the old centre to the station. Often the town growth zone around the station is as prosperous and attracts as many visitors as the historic centre, which has retained its character as it was not subject to overdevelopment pressures. Many hub towns also have new green quarters around new stations. These new sub centres have made previously remote parts of the town more accessible and added new facilities to areas where provision was poor. Of course many older areas of hub towns are outside the pedsheds. These areas have changed little and often still rely on buses for their local transport, but a significant number have benefited from the introduction of PRT (see pages 30-31) made financially viable by the town’s growth. Where there was room for only one new green quarter between the hub town and a sister town, it has generally been added to the hub town, where the residents enjoy a wider range of facilities.

20


Ref 590g0104d01

Vision from 2050

A typical hub town with its Town Growth Zone and two new stations serving the outer areas around which are New Green Quarters.

21


ConnectedCities

The hub The hub is a ConnectedCity’s central transport interchange, on which its intertown transport and its local transport converge. Typically the hub comprises a railway station and an adjacent bus and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) station, but there are many variations – for example, the station and the bus station may be some distance apart with a mall connecting them.

Tentacles In large hub towns Tentacles are sections of local bus and PRT routes radiating from the hub on which new development is allowed within 200 metres of a tentacle micro-station, even though it’s not within the town growth zone. Tentacles generally follow arterial roads with several bus/PRT routes, which between them provide a frequent service.

Vision from 2050 Most hubs have comfortable lounges and waiting areas with retail outlets, adequate car parking, taxi and microcab ranks and a cycle centre. Even small hubs have staffed information points and step-free access between their various parts, so that wheelchairs and people with buggies, baggage trolleys and trolley cases can circulate freely. Walking connections within the hub are no more than 400 metres (4-5 minutes walk) and are well-signed and branded for easy navigation. Tentacles have extended up to ten minutes by bus/PRT from the hub. Beyond there has been no new development - unless it is in the pedshed around another station in the town. Where there is no PRT the buses run at least every five minutes during the day and every ten minutes in the evenings. Tentacles serve several purposes. They: • • •

22

Brought new passengers and thus enabled local transport to run more frequently Allowed some high-density redevelopment in areas of the hub town where there are no stations Helped to organise the inner suburbs into human-scale neighbourhoods


Ref Tentacles_590g0106d03

Vision from 2050 Tentacles radiate for ten minutes travel time from the hub. Growth is encouraged along them in Micropedsheds 200m in radius.

Hub location Some towns had a bus station of some kind in the historic town centre but their rail station was in the outskirts some distance away. They all now have excellent public transport and cycle links between the two. Hub towns that have their stations in the outskirts and chose to have their hub at the town centre can be at a disadvantage: journeys from the hub to the connected towns are usually longer and because they can’t be more than 15 minutes, these ConnectedCities are often smaller than they might otherwise have been. Consequently this is a problem affecting inter-town trains as inter-town trams and buses converge on the hub, and tram-trains have a light-rail spur or loop off the railway.

23


ConnectedCities

Sister Towns If an historic settlement was wholly or partly in the pedshed of a ConnectedCity station it’s a sister town or a sister village. These ConnectedTowns and ConnectedVillages retain their unique identity, but benefit from the resources of the whole city.

Vision from 2050 In sister towns urbanisation takes place only in town growth zones around their traditional station, unlike hub towns which also have development along tentacles. Some sister towns do also have a new station at the centre of a new green quarter, but it is unusual. Where the traditional station is not in the town centre, the two are connected by a mall with bus or PRT and cycle routes. Many older areas of sister towns lie outside the pedsheds. These areas have experienced little development, but have improved buses or PRT for their local transport. Sister villages have kept their identity and are still partly surrounded by countryside, but many are now one of a cluster of villages incorporated into a new green town, and have benefited from the common facilities of its centre. Residents who chose not to stay and take advantage of the rise in property values that occurred, instead took the financial assistance to which they became entitled and moved elsewhere.

24


Vision from 2050 Typical Connected City Uniting Existing Towns

Ref Sister towns_590g0100d03 - CC Towns

Sister towns retain their integrity and identity. They are not swallowed up by the ConnectedCity or swamped by the hub town. Instead, they are part of the consultation process on whether to accommodate growth, and if so, where.

25


ConnectedCities

Green belt Under the ConnectedCity master-plans all undeveloped land not in a pedshed is designated as Green Belt and protected from development.

Vision from 2050 In most countries, despite the growth in population, the countryside is almost unchanged, except for improved sanitation, housing and agriculture. Where railways have been extended change has come with growth. But elsewhere the improvements have been for the existing population only. As a result the traditional pattern of small settlements in the countryside has been preserved, The population of the villages and rural towns not in walking distance of inter-town transport has remained more or less static. Development in this rural hinterland is limited to, for example: • • •

Small scale projects in rural towns and villages to provide housing, employment or facilities for local people Building in the interests of sustainability, such as green energy generation Making appropriate use of a heritage building; or development in its grounds to fund its restoration

Public access There is much more public access to the countryside, particularly around the ConnectedTowns. The paths through the green corridors separating the villages of new green quarters and new green towns continue through the protected rural land around them, creating coherent cycle and footpath networks across the country. In the past adding to the edges of towns cut off exactly the parts of the countryside which townspeople most valued, as they used them for recreational purposes and visual enjoyment. New green towns sited away from existing settlements had far less impact.

Agriculture Agriculture is much more integrated into the life of ordinary people than it was fifty years ago. Local food production is the norm, much of it from gardens, vegetable plots, community farms, farmshares, and intensive hydroponic farms. Despite the increased population, most countries are almost self-sufficient in food. Diets are greener and healthier, with more locally grown food. Imported food is mostly delivered by rail to local rail freight interchanges.

26


Vision from 2050

Ref Green belt_tring

Green belt All undeveloped land is designated as green belt and protected from development.

Policy In the UK National Policy for Green Belts was included within the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). There were five purposes of Green Belt: • • • • •

To check the unrestricted sprawl of large built-up areas To prevent neighbouring towns merging into one another To assist in safeguarding the countryside from encroachment To preserve the setting and special character of historic towns To assist in urban regeneration, by encouraging the recycling of derelict and other urban land

In addition it was widely recognised that Green Belt should increase access to the countryside, and that Green Belt boundaries should be ‘defensible’ by being marked by clear landscape features not vulnerable to developmental pressures. Previous piecemeal development of settlement edges had contributed to sprawl, sometimes causing towns to merge and so encroach into the countryside. It also moved the countryside further from the people. Where New Green Towns of ConnectedCities were developed in what was previously the Green Belt they were always in carefully selected new locations so that they did not cause sprawl, the merger of towns or impact upon the setting of historic towns. They were also confined to defensible boundaries. The new settlements inevitably caused physical encroachment on the countryside, but to a much lesser degree than the same amount of development on a settlement edge. Most importantly, they were located to maximise sustainable transport and minimise car use. 27


ConnectedCities

Travel Vision from 2050 Freedom of movement for all (adults and children) is a hallmark of a ConnectedCity. Moving between towns is easy. There are frequent inter-town services 24/7, and many towns have personal rapid transit. All new development is close to a station and walkable using protected well-lit routes. Reaching the hub from any station takes no more than 15 minutes, so even the longest journey within the city generally takes less than an hour. Bikes and small electric vehicles move freely about the city using the cycle network, which is safe and popular. People still use cars and vans, but mainly to travel to places not on the rail network. Car ownership is low as it’s easier and cheaper to travel by public transport or taxi and hire a car when needed.

Locally Comfortable walking, cycling and other on-demand means of travel make movement within a ConnectedTown simple and attractive.

Citywide Movement between the ConnectedTowns of a ConnectedCity is normally by fast and frequent rail services, which are easily accessed via the local transport.

Long Distance The hub towns are the stopping points of express rail services, although some still run non-stop from metropolis to metropolis. Travel by car and coach has increased, but the greatest increase has been in travel by rail, on both the new high-speed lines and the heritage lines. Domestic flights between megacities. New High Speed rail was not a necessary part of ConnectedCities, but helped their development by: • • •

Freeing extra capacity in the heritage network for local and regional rail services Allowing ConnectedCities to share in the increased prosperity by bringing them closer to the larger markets of major metropolises Greatly improving the national freight network

Improvements in the signaling and control systems, electrification and modest track upgrades such as loops, crossovers and track doubling have greatly increased the efficiency and capacity of the heritage network.

28


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Ref Walking & Cycling – 590c720

Ref Walking & Cycling – 590c723

Vision from 2050

Walking is made comfortable and often assisted

Train and Freight

High speed rail

Local flight

29


ConnectedCities

Local transport Vision from 2050 Walking & Cycling In ConnectedCities to walk or cycle is the norm because they are the easiest options. Covered walkways run to the pedshed centre and in older towns have been retrofitted. Pavements have protection from the elements - canopies, walls, fences, trees and hedges – and main roads are easy to cross. Moving walkways speed pedestrian flows when required, particularly at interchanges and in city centres. Roads and surfaced paths are available to cyclists and small traffic as well as pedestrians, and are well engineered, lit, signed and well used. Bicycle hire schemes have docking stations everywhere.

On-demand Transport A ConnectedTown has on-demand public transport that is always available and can be used without waiting. Personal Rapid Transport are small auto-driving pods which operate like taxis. They run mainly on roads. Battery powered podcars recharge while waiting to pick up passengers. PRT is used to link key destinations (stations, shopping centres, employment). The routes generally avoid the main roads and are often loops. Taxis, mostly driverless, are summoned by mobile phone. Microcabs are slower than taxis, only carry one or two people but are cheaper and use paths as well as roads.

Buses Bus routes are usually cross-city or cross-town, calling at town centres and stations. Those serving ConnectedCity villages run at least every ten minutes, day and evening, and also provide links to the older settlements in the ConnectedCity hinterland.

Driving Non-polluting city cars and buggies are widely used and every family house has a parking space for one. For ordinary cars and vans driving around a ConnectedTown is easy, but speed limits on the mainly shared streets make it slow. However, after parking a protected walkway leads to one’s destination. Congestion charges discourage driving at busy times, and as other modes are easy most people use cars only for shopping and leisure. The main beneficiaries of congestion charges are people who need their car or van for work.

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Vision from 2050

Walking and Cycling will be promoted and assisted

Bus and Tram

Driverless Electric Taxi

Personal Rapid Transit Vehicle

Van

Electric Town Car

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ConnectedCities

Inter-town Inter-town transport linking the towns of ConnectedCities has stops a mile or more apart; it is much faster than local transport, which has three or four stops per kilometre. ConnectedCities were chosen for their relationship to the heritage rail network, and although their inter-town transport is mainly electric trains, there are new light rail routes and many technical advances.

Electric trains The inter-town services within and between the ConnectedCities are mainly lightweight metro-trains with fast acceleration/deceleration and wide, level-access doors to speed boarding. They provide at least a ten minute service. Where all trains stop at every station they can have a service as frequent as the London Underground. Few trains have drivers: they usually operate automatically, supervised by staff in control centres.

RailTaxis and Tram Trains RailTaxis are individual vehicles which run autonomously and automatically on existing rail tracks. They provide a turn up and go service from a station, so users do not have to wait. At peak demand when the system is operating near to capacity, the individual vehicles are combined to form conventional trains. Advances in energy storage mean that trams no longer need overhead wires. They are very short vehicles with seats at either end and a single set of sliding doors on each side. At busy times they link together in sets and operate like metro-trains. The convenience of never having to wait more than two or three minutes makes these inter-town routes very popular.

Guided Buses There are also a few inter-town routes operated by high-ambience buses.

Freight Most countries have a comprehensive rail freight network. Freight travels from its point of production or entry into the country by rail to freight interchanges, where the containers or their contents are placed on lorries and vans for final distribution. The high-speed railways carry both passengers and freight. New freight lines have been opened and lines with speed, weight or other restrictions have been improved. Together they form a coherent network that serves rail freight interchanges throughout the country and does not generally interfere with the passenger services, allowing goods to be carried by rail for the major part of their journey. Where railways are only two-track passengers have priority on the inter-town routes, and freight movements take place during the small hours. The introduction of RailTaxi technology means that rail is used to distribute smaller packages of goods close to their final destination. Railfreight distribution and maintenance is a major source of employment in New Green Towns and was a major economic driver when they were established.

32


Vision from 2050

Ref 740a700

Ref intertownrail

Electric trains were used from the outset

RailTaxis providing on-demand rail travel at off peak times and combining to form traditional trains at peak times were phased in as lines upgraded with the new development.

Ref Freight_590w009

Freight distribution uses the rail system much more, often with only the last few miles being delivered by road.

33


ConnectedCities

Stations Vision from 2050 Stations are bright, comfortable and fully protected from the elements. Typically they are at the centre of an active area of extensive facilities for passengers and the public. Full information, step-free access, help points, toilets and secure cycle storage and hire are almost universal. When there is no staff on duty, CCTV cameras and a public address system ensure safety and challenge misbehaviour. Retail choice is good, with refreshments, reading matter, etc., available throughout the day. People generally arrive at the station on foot or by local transport. Some stations serve a wide catchment area and typically have multi-storey parking.

New stations Most new stations in ConnectedCities have been built to serve a new green town or new green quarter. A station serving the latter is near the edge of the pre-existing urban area and also serves new development. In new green towns the new station is usually sited near an old village – far enough away to allow room for the core of the pedshed but near enough for the village to be part of the new green town. Some new stations started as temporary stations when the pedshed core was under construction, but soon a permanent station was provided.

Interchanges Wherever passengers have to change stations or services it’s convenient and cost-free. If a walk is involved there is a pleasant mall. The connections are punctual and reliable. The walk is never more than 400 meters, and often assisted by a travelling walkway.

Ref New stations_590w030

Tranbay Transit Centre and Tower Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects

34


Vision from 2050

Cars and Vans ConnectedCities are not averse to private cars and vans, but function in such a way that most journey are easier by a combination of walking, bicycling and public transport, so that demand for cars is low. Cars are mainly used to access places not on the rail system, and in such places growth is not encouraged.

Vision from 2050 Most ConnectedCities have no more traffic than before the city was formed and despite their population growth many have less congestion because of the shift to rail which has occurred. Driving around the ConnectedCity is easy, but the tough speed limits and numerous traffic lights (even though they change frequently) make it rather slow. There are shared streets to negotiate. However, after parking, a protected walkway leads to one’s destination. In addition to charges for parking there are congestion charges that discourage driving at busy times, so most people travel to work or school by public transport, by bike or on foot and use their car only for shopping and leisure. The main beneficiaries of congestion charges are people who need their car or van for work. Before congestion charging, they were constantly delayed by the large amount of traffic on the roads, and were unable to do their jobs properly. Now they can drive around without difficulty. Self-driving taxis are commonplace, and widely used by people with large or heavy items to move.

Ref file6701235655724

Tradespeople and others needing to carry items in the course of their work now find that traffic congestion has eased due to the shift to rail.

35


ConnectedCities

Pedshed Principles

These walkable areas are called pedsheds. Pedsheds are laid out according to 9 pedshed principles which apply to all pedsheds. Their effect is seen most clearly in new green towns created from greenfield sites. But where the pedshed was already developed they are retrofitted into the existing urban fabric.

Ref 590g781d00

In ConnectedCities new development takes place only within 1 km radius of a railway station, which gives a maximum walking distance of 1200 metres or 12-15 minutes.

Existing features

As well as a railway line, there will always be pre-existing buildings, rivers, woods, etc. The important ones are protected and enhanced.

Ref 590g784d00

Any motorway or main road passing through the pedshed is separated from the development by noise-screening earth barriers which are part of the green infrastructure network. The nearest junctions lie outside the pedshed.

Protected walkways

Ref 590g787d01

All areas have covered or protected routes for pedestrians and small traffic (bicycles, electric scooters, etc.) which are the easiest and quickest routes to the centre.

Employment

The areas either side of the rail line are employment uses. Warehousing and manufacturing may have sidings with direct rail access.

36


Ref 590g785d00

The core is a pedestrian area which is the focus of public transport, retail, educational, health, community and commercial facilities. In a new green town this is the town centre; in a hub or sister town it’s a district centre.

High density mixed use

Ref 590g786d01

The inner area is mixed use, high density and pedestrian priority, with limited vehicle access, as in the traditional centre of York or Canterbury.

Family housing - Villages

Family housing is medium density, low rise in pedestrian priority villages with protected walkways, greens and play areas.

Ref 590g783d00

Green areas

Greenery and water are integral with the built environment. A green infrastructure network permeates the pedshed, with green corridors between the villages converging on a central park and meeting place.

Ref 590g788d01

Pedshed centre

Vehicle routes

Traffic does not pass through the centre, but uses other bridges over or under the railway on a circular route on which a PRT/bus service links the villages to each other and the pedshed centre. In family housing areas vehicles use pedestrian-friendly roads without extraneous traffic.

Ref 590g789d01

Ref 590g782d00

Vision from 2050

High streets and community

There are higher density developments on the bus/PRT route with flats, mixed-use houses and community uses. Spiritual nourishment, meeting-places and community cohesion are integral to the life of the community and embrace both green and urban areas. 37


ConnectedCities

Town Centre The pedshed core is the area within 150m of the rail station at the centre of the pedshed. It is approximately 10 hectares, with amounts varying depending on circumstances. It is a pedestrian space, although service vehicles are allowed access for street cleaning, deliveries, etc. and contains primary civic and leisure facilities. Since they are all so close to the station these serve not only its host town but the whole of the ConnectedCity. The typical facilities are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The public transport hub Rail Station PRT and bus stops Civic buildings Town hall Central Libraries Houses of Worship Cinemas Theatres Entertainment venues Retail Restaurants, cafes, etc. Hotels Prestige offices

Prestige residential apartments are located on some upper floors.

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Their density is approximately 80-120 dwellings per hectare or 250-350 persons per hectare with a population around 2,500 – 3,500.

Family Housing

Employment & Education

38

Ref 590g1114d03

Green space


Ref 590g782d00

Vision from 2050

Ref 590g752d00

Ref 590g1114d03

The core is nearest to the station. Its urban form can take many varieties.

The pedshed core is urban and pedestrianised with a high density of activity similar to the core of a medieval city. Some cores are high rise, but most do not exceed six or seven stories. All have large areas of weatherprotected spaces for comfortable walking. 39


ConnectedCities

High density mixed use The mixed use area is the band 150m to 300m from the rail station. Thus walking time to public transport is 2 to 4 minutes. The area is approximately 20 to 25 hectares, of which about 6 ha is green space. At ground level are commercial activities such as • Retail • Restaurants • Bars • Public houses • Health and fitness facilities • Offices The design of the buildings ensures a high level of footfall and natural public realm surveillance, with frequent doorways on to, and windows overlooking, the public zone, while maintaining defensible space to buffer residents and workers from its direct impact. Intermediate levels contain offices and some high-tech light industrial uses such as rapid prototyping. On the upper levels there is housing to a density of 80dph to 120dph, providing living accommodation in apartments for persons without children. Most flats have generous external balconies with private roof gardens. The area of housing within them is typically about 15-20 hectares, with a density of approximately 80-120 dwellings per hectare or 250-350 persons per hectare and a population of around 5,000-7,000.

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Cars are not permitted, but provision is made for residents’ car clubs.

Family Housing

Employment & Education

40

Ref 590g1114d03

Green space


Ref 590g785d00

Vision from 2050

Ref 590g753d00

Ref 590g1114d03

The mixed use zone occupies the central third of the pedshed. There are no fixed rules for its shape or layout.

On the outer edge of the mixed use zone residential facilities often occupy the ground floors, but closer to the centre are retail and other uses. Upper floors are various combinations of residential and commercial, depending upon circumstances. 41


ConnectedCities

Employment & Education Adjacent to the railway line which runs through every pedshed are four employment areas which together are about 50 ha. These locations accommodate the main employment activities. They have both protected walkways from the station and direct access to the main vehicle route. Within them are • • • • • •

Offices Commercial and industrial uses Business parks Colleges Secondary schools High rise car parking

Vision from 2050 Around the world the industries which were attracted to the ConnectedCities varied widely; however, much growth tended to be of the kind generally known as medium tech manufacturing and production, e.g. 3D printing, hydroponics, vehicle maintenance, etc. as well as electronics and communications. There was also great growth in rail distribution centres, as freight shifted to rail and smaller freight units became available. For the first ten to fifteen years of many new green towns’ life construction was a major employer, and the skill base built during these years remained and thrived. Many ConnectedCities took the opportunity to produce their own power/heating and process their waste, which provided significant employment.

Rail Freight Interchanges In the UK since the early days of this century the government has supported the creation of strategic rail freight interchanges (SRFIs) at key locations, particularly in the South East. Initially, sites for these SRFIs proved difficult to find, as they needed large sites fairly close to London and required both road and rail access. With the advent of ConnectedCities, several of the new green quarters and new green towns in the South East provided sites for SRFIs. SRFIs in new green towns tend to have around 2000 employees. This makes the SRFI the major employer, but without dominating the town. In size, SRFIs tend to be around 200 hectares, but only about 35 hectares is generally within the pedshed, so there is plenty of room for other development.

42


Ref 590g787d01

Vision from 2050

Ref file0001651989947

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Ref 590g757 - College Atrium

Employment and Education areas are adjacent to the railway

Ref 590g756d01 - Freight - SRFI_diagram

A typical employment area is served by protected walkways giving access to the centre, but also connects with the main vehicle circulation route.

New Green Town Diagram showing approximate size of Strategic Rail Freight Interchange (SRFI) in relationship to a pedshed 43


ConnectedCities

Family Housing - Villages ConnectedCity villages are part of a new green town or new green quarter. They are always grouped around a pedshed centre with a station, which must be open before the new dwellings are occupied, so that residents have services and inter-town transport from the outset and don’t depend on cars. This is a universal stipulation.

Vision from 2050 All ConnectedCity villages follow the pedshed principles and ConnectedCity guidelines. • They are human in scale, small enough for the whole layout of the village to be understood and visualised - some people are acquainted with almost everyone in the village • They are surrounded by a green infrastructure network of trees, allotments and open space, yet closely linked to neighbouring villages, the town or pedshed centre by paths and walkways • Most of the village is terraced energy-efficient family houses, with private open space and communal greens and play areas • A bus/PRT route runs through the village, with stops serving mixed-use developments on the edges of the village and at the village centre, where flats and cottages for singles and couples without children are located • Housing for low-income households is pepperpotted in the general housing • Some parts are developed by the volume house builders, others by small builders or co-operatives, and there are plots for those wishing to build their own house • Primary schools are adjacent to the green corridor at each end of the village where they can be shared with the next village They vary in a variety of respects: • The high streets on the bus/PRT route and the village greens or gardens vary greatly in form • In smaller towns villages tend to be low rise, their high densities achieved through compact layouts • Those in new green quarters of large towns are sometimes higher rise, with more flats and houses with terrace gardens in place of gardens

Ref 590g1112d01

They are 300 metres to 1 kilometer from the pedshed core, and each approximately 20-25 hectares. Their densities vary from approximately 50-80 dwellings per hectare or 150-200 persons per hectare and they have a population of between 5,000-7,000. All houses have private gardens, but they can take many different forms.

44


Vision from 2050

Villages are distinct and separated from each other

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All villages are ‘Home Zones’ with cars admitted for parking but no through vehicle routes. Pedestrians have priority and weather protected walkways.

Low rise housing with front and rear gardens, and often communal private open space, is linked to local shops, schools, etc. by covered walkways which then lead on to the pedshed centre.

45


ConnectedCities

High streets Every new green town has an orbital road carrying the bus/PRT route through the ConnectedCity villages and the employment area. The section running through each village is known as its high street.

Vision from 2050 Villages in new green quarters also have a high street, with similar provision of bus/PRT routes through town growth zones. High streets are where the village shops and local amenities are located, and the protected walkways and village roads lead to them. Longer high streets have three pairs of bus/PRT stops, one at the village centre and one at the gateway at each end. A very short high street may have only a single stop at the village centre. To varying degrees, high streets are modelled on a traditional high street, with long-life, multi-use houses of up to three or four storeys, on sites wide and deep enough for some of them to have rear courtyards surrounded by buildings. These houses and buildings have a mix of commercial, professional, light industrial, residential and community uses. Some of the dwellings are town houses with gardens, others are flats or cottages. The uses vary over time: as commercial activities ebb and flow, so the high street slowly changes its functions from generation to generation, ensuring that the village continues to enjoy social interaction and continuity as the world changes around it.

Ref 590g1113d02

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The area of High street vary dramatically, but generally they are about 6 hectares, of which approximately half is residential, housing 500-600 persons at densities of 80-100 dwellings per hectare.

Section across typical high streets showing services and retail (blue) with residential flats above plus weather protected pedestrian areas.

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en

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Vision from 2050

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High streets are located along the main vehicle circulation

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Crossing the main road

Although high streets have vehicle access and parking, they are always safe and comfortable for pedestrians. 47


ConnectedCities

Green spaces Green space permeates every part of a ConnectedCity pedshed. It can take many forms, depending on circumstances and location. Public green space is always about 35% of the area within new pedsheds. In addition there are semi private communal green areas which make up 15% and private gardens can be as high as a further 30% depending upon design. Green wedges penetrate from the surrounding countryside right to the station at the heart. Further out, where the wedges are wider they provide separation between the ConnectedVillages, and also from the employment and education areas. In the case of new green towns and new green quarters there is access directly to the surrounding countryside, which is never more than a kilometre away. It is publicly accessible for recreation and food production, and often owned by the town. Woodlands, rivers and water-meadows which antedated the pedshed have been incorporated into the fabric and are now a communal resource. School and community playing fields, allotments for growing vegetables, and various parks both formal and informal can all be found in the green wedges. In villages houses have both front gardens to buffer them from the movement in the streets and walkways, and rear gardens for privacy. Communal green space within blocks for safe play is also commonplace. Apartments are likewise provided with private communal gardens as well as generous terraces and roof gardens.

Ref 590g783d00

Greenery within the atria and covered areas of the pedshed centre is a common feature, softening the environment.

Ref Green spaces – 590c720

Green space permeates the entire pedshed

48


Vision from 2050 Green space comes in many types:

Ref G590c710

Parks Playgrounds

Ref 590c715

Ref 590c712

Ref 590c718

Countryside Woods

Ref 590c713

Ref 590c711

Allotments Gardens

Ref 590c716

Ref 590c714

Urban Park Playing Fields

Ref 590c719

Ref 590c717

Indoor Garden Earth House

49


ConnectedCities

Town growth zones Town growth zones are pedsheds around stations in what were already built-up areas. They have become more urbanised and development is continually taking place there, particularly in and around the pedshed centre. This is often a new high-density mixed-use area linked with the traditional town centre by a mall.

Vision from 2050 These zones have grown rapidly at their own pace but where the redevelopment of individual sites did not result in a satisfactory urban form, the local plan provided for key areas to be comprehensively redeveloped. Development within the zone follows the pedshed principles. Common features are: • • • • •

High-density, mixed use and residential development at and around the station Changes to the traffic flows Better pedestrian access to the station with protected walkways A comprehensive cycle network Improvements to the green infrastructure

Conservation areas are protected against major redevelopment and so remain largely unchanged, but have seen environmental improvements and buildings change use. Outside these heritage areas, town growth zones have relaxed permitted development rules that may allow, for example: • • • • •

One additional storey 5m rear extension not higher than the main building roof apex Single storey combined rear and side extensions Conversion of building to maximum 4 flats Change of use between office/retail/commercial/housing for buildings less than 400sq.m

Town Growth Zones tend to have a population in the order of 25,000, of which 5,000 to 10,000 are in new dwellings.

50


Ref 590g140d00

Vision from 2050

A typical Town showing the pedshed of the Town Growth Zone. The places available for development are those outside the Conservation Area (lightbrown dashed line) but inside the pedshed (green dashed line). Very often this includes large areas of low density, poor quality industrial land.

51


ConnectedCities

Malls A mall is a high-density, mixed-use corridor with a strong retail element, that links centres of activity e.g. traditional town centre to the Town Growth Zone (TGZ) around the station, or a pedshed centre to a drop-off area/car park. Malls are both a thoroughfare and a destination: something between the English “shaded public avenue” and the American “enclosed shopping center”. Longer malls may have integrated PRT or other public transport. ConnectedCity malls have several functions. They: • • • •

Cater efficiently for pedestrian movement Articulate the structure of the town and help visitors find their way Provide sites for businesses and organisations looking for maximum exposure to the public Incorporate housing for singles and couples

Many malls are part of a transport interchange, perhaps with a railway station at one end and a bus station or micro-station at the other. Any road at the end of, or crossing, a mall has a pedestrian priority crossing for the mall, sometimes with an all-over roof. Malls vary widely in size and form. In city centres, they are usually supplied from rear service yards or by lifts from basement or roof level. Some malls are simply streets closed to through traffic. Some are covered, some open, and some a combination of the two. They mostly have retail frontages at ground level and offices and flats above. At the higher levels the buildings often reduce in depth from floor to floor, so that each flat has private open space. In malls created from or built in the style of traditional streets there may be adaptable, mixed-use houses on the frontage with flats and cottages in courtyards behind.

52


Ref Malls_shared space

Vision from 2050 Malls are shared spaces linked by centres of activity to ensure the new and existing are linked and both support each other and thrive.

Ref 590a112d06 Malls_shared space

Ref 590g112d06

Malls connect traditional town centres to the railway thereby increasing their catchment area to the whole ConnectedCity.

53


ConnectedCities

New green quarters New green quarters are pedsheds around new stations on the edges of both hub towns and sister towns. They contain new ConnectedCity villages on greenfield land and often a new employment area, but the station and pedshed centre also serve a substantial area of the pre-existing town. The greenfield land beyond them is always protected from development.

Vision from 2050 New green quarters contain much of the new housing in ConnectedCities, as they are easier to implement than new green towns and bring prosperity to the town as well as to the wider city. The station must be open before the new dwellings are occupied, so that residents have inter-town transport from the outset and don’t depend on cars. This is a universal stipulation for all new green quarters. The pedshed plan ensures that the part of the existing town that’s in the pedshed develops in accordance with the pedshed principles. Where a stretch of railway had room for only one new station it usually serves a new green quarter rather than a new green town, because: • • •

The facilities and employment opportunities of the town are more accessible to the new residents The new station provides the town’s existing residents with better access to inter-town transport There is a ready made market for retail facilities

New Green Quarters tend to have a population in the order of 20,000, of which about 15,000 will be in new dwellings.

54


Ref 590g130d00

Vision from 2050

Ref 590a5100d06

New Green Quarters add transport links to the edges of the existing towns which would otherwise be car dependent, and provide sustainable access to out-of-town facilities.

55


ConnectedCities

New green towns Often referred to as garden cities, new green towns combine a high-density mixed-use centre around a station with a surrounding cluster of villages and an employment area, all within walking distance of the station. The greenfield land beyond their pedsheds is always protected from development.

Vision from 2050 Many ConnectedCities include these brand-new towns. New green towns and new green quarters provided, and still provide, opportunities for years of growth in areas where the demand for housing exceeded the supply of brownfield sites. They enable housebuilders, large and small, to quickly build housing where it’s needed. Most new green towns are in locations that previously contained only one or two small villages, or were undeveloped. Some have new rail stations; others surround old village stations. Apart from outlying areas of any pre-existing village(s), they are wholly within the pedshed of a single station. The pedshed plan, which is also the town plan, embraces established features such as woods, waterways, footpaths, roads, etc. Each new green town is different, but the pedshed principles make them all recognisably descended from Howard’s garden city diagram. They are the same size (Howard’s housing is all within a kilometre of the centre, the same as a pedshed) and are divided into villages similar to Howard’s wards. The main differences are: • • •

Howard’s industrial sites were around the edge of his garden city, but in new green towns the employment area is usually alongside the railway In Howard’s model most open space is in his circular grand avenue and central park, but in a new green town green corridors of woodland, open space and horticulture are around and between the villages, converging on a central meeting-place New green towns have radial walkways and paths separate from the general traffic, so that it’s an easy and pleasant walk or ride from the town centre to the furthermost edges of the town

The station and some of the core is always opened before the new dwellings are occupied, so that residents have services and inter-town transport from the outset and don’t depend on cars. This is a universal stipulation in all new green towns. New Green Towns tend to have a population in the order of 30,000, of which about 28,000 are in new dwellings.

56


Ref 590a7100d03

Ref 590g120d00

Vision from 2050

New Green Towns are a cluster of villages with a common core around a station. Together they create self-contained settlements which benefit from the resources of their host ConnectedCity. They are compact and walkable, and their boundaries fully protected from further expansion.

57


ConnectedCities

Governance The Cities Act (see page 111) gave local authorities outside London and the core metropolitan boroughs the powers to establish ConnectedCities and supervise their development.

Vision from 2050 Where several districts or boroughs were involved they acted through a joint committee, set up under a co-operation agreement. Where county councils existed they continued to administer county services and transport planning. Once the ConnectedCity had become a reality, however, local government was re-organised. County and district councils were replaced by a single council for the whole ConnectedCity which is also responsible for its rural hinterland. These councils cover most of the country. Some have big budgets and staff; others are small and share officers with a larger neighbour.

City Regions In the early days of ConnectedCities the government invited major regional cities to enter into consultations with the ConnectedCities within easy reach to prepare regional plans covering transport, economic development, power, water, waste, housing and other topics, thereby creating city regions, each with a metropolis at its core.

Core metropolitan boroughs The boroughs of Greater London and the major conurbations have taken what they find useful from the ConnectedCities methodology but not used the Cities Act. However, Metropolitan boroughs like Leeds, Sheffield, Doncaster and Coventry have adopted the Act and become hub towns.

Town and parish councils Almost every town has a town council, and almost every rural village a parish council. They provide leadership, secure local amenities, decide some planning applications and communicate the views of the local people to the city council. The resulting structure of: • • •

City regions ConnectedCities Towns and parishes

now covers the country. The costs of re-organisation were considerable, but having all local services administered by single ConnectedCity councils has saved money.

58


Vision from 2050

Ref Governance_590w0333

A ConnectedCity has its own government, which is responsible for all its towns and hinterland. Some ConnectedCities have chosen to have an elected mayor.

59


ConnectedCities

Case Studies Introduction - Growth The United Nations predicts the world population will increase from 7.3 billion to 9.7 billion by 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100. The UK population at the 2011 census was 63M. The Office of National Statistic’s median population forecast for 2050 is 78M, and for 2080 it is 82M. If life expectancy continues to increase the figures rise to 80M and 90M. Additionally, in 2015 1.8 million households were on Council waiting lists which represents approximately 5M persons who already need housing. To house all the existing (5M) and forecast (15M to 19M) demand the UK must provide for at least 20M additional persons by 2050 and 24M by 2080. To put the figures in perspective, to house 24 million people in Howards 30,000 person towns would require 800 new Garden Cities. ConnectedCities is a way to accommodate this growth with the minimum impact on the existing population and settlements, and with the least traffic generation and energy usage. Each area is required to provide for at least its pro rata portion, either internally or by assisting other areas to shoulder an additional share of the burden. The metropolises may decide to accommodate their share internally, in which case the population of London will rise from 8.2m to 10.8M by 2050 and 11.3M by 2080. Birmingham will rise from 1.1M to 1.4M and 1.5M. To do so in sustainable locations will be easiest if growth is focused on pedsheds of rail stations. A good example is Lewisham in SE London where the population around the station has grown from 500 to nearly 5000. Alternatively the metropolises may choose to transfer their growth to adjacent ConnectedCities. Broadly, three projections are possible. 60


Case Studies

Option 1 - No Green Belt Development in the South East. Growth has continued but in the SE the district and parish councils and the pressure groups have successfully defended the whole of the green belt against development, even where it’s within walking distance of a station. There are no new stations. The whole burden of residential growth has fallen on the pedsheds of the existing stations and has spilled out into the neighbourhoods of the hub towns, which now have numerous tentacles served by high quality bus services and PRT. In the pedsheds of the stations, comprehensive redevelopment has produced a much more compact urban form, visibly contrasting with the surrounding areas. Elsewhere in the country there are many ConnectedCities on greatly upgraded rail lines. They have benefited from the financial incentives to expand, building new green towns and new green quarters. Option 2 - Evenly Distributed Growth By either building on green belt land within existing station pedsheds, or creating new green towns around new stations, both the South East and the rest of the country are growing at about the same rate. Along most existing railways in the country there are ConnectedCities, each with a couple of new stations on greenfield sites at the centre of a new town. Freight and passengers are distributed to local destinations by small automated rail vehicles, radically increasing the competitiveness of businesses in the new ConnectedCities. Option 3 - Market Driven South East Expansion No attempt has been made to divert growth to the regions. As a result South East England and London have continued to grow at 9% per decade as they did between 2001-11. By 2050 they have a population of nearly 23M, and by 2080 29M. All existing railways in the SE have ConnectedCities along their length with many new stations, mostly serving new green towns and new green quarters. New inter-urban routes have been built linking hub towns. 61


ConnectedCities

The ConnectedCity Approach The study is of Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, typical Home Counties under high development pressure. The methodology identifies nine potential Hub Towns for ConnectedCities, and the areas of search for development sites within a maximum of 15 minutes travel time from their Hub stations.

First ConnectedCity The ‘First ConnectedCity’ (FCC) is in North Hertfordshire and East Bedfordshire on the East Coast Main Line. Its towns include Letchworth (the first Garden City), and Stevenage (the first New Town), the market town of Hitchin and adjacent small towns and villages. The settlements and their rural hinterland currently has a total current population of 225,000. The towns are served by trains approx. every 15 minutes 18 hours/day from Kings Cross to Peterborough and Cambridge.

Background The name ‘First ConnectedCity’ is used in this case study for reasons of democracy and historical precedent. - Democracy because the names of ConnectedCites will not be imposed from outside but decided by the inhabitants of the towns of which they are composed, and; - Historical precedent because First Garden City Ltd established and ran Letchworth, the first Garden City.

Context Both North and East Hertfordshire are in the lowest third of district population densities in England, with North Herts ranked as 211th of the 326 districts and an average density of 340 person/sq.km and East Herts 224th with a density of 291 p/sq.km. The average for England is 395 p/sq.km. The now defunct East of England Plan proposed large-scale development to the west and north of Stevenage. North Herts council have recently published proposals for development there and in other areas, none of them well-served by inter-town transport.

FCC Even Growth Target Population The population of the towns is around 225,000, which is 0.35% of the total UK population. If the FCC is to accommodate its pro-rata proportion of the national demand, it must provide housing for 0.35% of 20M by 2050, and 0.35% of 24M by 2080. Thus the ‘even growth’ scenario indicates that by 2050 the population of the towns of the First ConnectedCity would have increased by 71,000 to 295,000, and by 2080 it will have increased by 85,000 to 310,000.

62


Ref 600x0101d03

Ref 590x0100d00

Case Studies

First ConnectedCity Location

Potential ConnectedCites in Hertfordshire, showing the areas of search for sites for sustainable development. The methodology first identifies the largest towns on a railway. It then considers towns within 15 minutes travel time of these ‘hub towns’. 63


ConnectedCities

The Existing Towns

The ConnectedCities methodology identifies Stevenage as a potential hub town. It has a population of 89,000 and is one of the largest towns in Hertfordshire. It is the first of the post-war new towns, with a growing regional acute hospital (Lister Hospital). Within 15 minutes rail travel of Stevenage are: • • • • • • •

Hitchin (pop. 33,000) – an ancient market town that has successfully adapted to the challenges of the centuries Letchworth Garden City (pop. 33,000) - the first garden city Baldock (pop. 10,000) – another old market town, much smaller than Hitchin and Letchworth Arlesey (pop. 5,000) – a small, straggling, largely unplanned town in Central Bedfordshire. Its present station is too far north to serve the town properly Knebworth (pop. 4,000) – a large village centred on a station Watton-at-Stone (pop. 3,000) – a village entirely to one side of a station Not on the railway but in the area is Stotfold, a small town in Central Bedfordshire, and various villages, which together with the town have a population of approximately 41,000

Local government

The first ConnectedCity is in at least four local government districts: Stevenage Borough, North Hertfordshire, East Hertfordshire, and the unitary council of Central Bedfordshire. If it has a station at Woolmer Green it will also include part of Welwyn-Hatfield.

Transport

Stevenage is an Intercity station on the East Coast Main Line. North of Stevenage a line to Cambridge diverges at Hitchin, and to the south a loop line via Hertford North diverges, rejoining it at Finsbury Park. The FCC is identified in the Hertfordshire CC Transport Vision as being in both Corridor 3 (N-S) and Corridor 7 (E-W) including links to and between Luton and Stansted airports.

Rail

Rail services within the FCC are good, with 2 rail operators and 7 stations. Stations

Rail Operators • •

East Coat Main Line - Stevenage Thameslink and Great Northern

• • •

Arlesey Baldock Letchworth

• • • •

Hitchin Stevenage Knebworth Watton-at-Stone

The main line is four-track, but its capacity is limited by a two-track section at Welwyn viaduct and Welwyn North station. There is a flyover south of Stevenage at the junction with the Hertford loop, and another north of Hitchin for trains to Cambridge. The European Rail Traffic Management System (a ‘system which will replace traditional railway signals with a computer display inside every train cab’, enabling trains to ‘run at an appropriate safe speed, allowing more trains onto the tracks’) is being tested on the Hertford Loop.

Walking & Cycling

Stevenage was designed with dedicated cycleways and a network of pedestrian routes which avoid vehicle traffic. Hitchin and Letchworth both have extensive existing networks of pathways centring on their stations.

Buses

At present Stevenage has a large bus station in the centre of the town. Services from it are both local to Stevenage and also serve the other towns of the FCC. 64


Case Studies

Ref 590x0101d02

The towns of the First ConnectedCity

65


ConnectedCities

Form of development The growth population could be housed in a combination of: Partial Town Growth Zones (TGZ’s) - urbanisation solely in the existing fabric of the towns within the 1km radius pedshed of the rail stations at: • Stevenage • Hitchin • Letchworth Garden City • Baldock • Knebworth • Watton at Stone Full Town Growth Zones (TGZ’s) – as above but including Green Belt land within the pedshed of the rail stations at: • Baldock • Arlesey • Knebworth • Watton at Stone New Green Quarters - new neighbourhoods around new stations added to existing towns - Possible sites are: Two in Stevenage; • Lister Hospital - the main regional hospital on the north boundary • Bragbury End - at the south eastern extremity New Green Towns - new village clusters located around new railway stations – Possible locations are: • Arlesley Town • Ickleford • Woolmer Green Scenarios Four possible scenarios have been considered. Each scenario analyses an alternative means of accommodating the increased population: Scenario 1: No Green Belt Development. Development only in Town Growth Zones around existing rail stations, but not on Green Belt even where it falls inside a TGZ pedshed Scenario 2: As Scenario 1 but also developing green belt land within the existing station pedsheds Scenario 3. New Towns. As Scenario 1 plus construction of 2 New Green Towns around new rail stations at Ickleworth and Woolmer Green Scenario 4. Enlarging Existing Towns. As Scenario 2, plus growth within New Green Quarters around new stations on the edges of Stevenage. Two housing densities are examined for each scenario: • Average – a mix of densities between 30 and 80 dwellings per hectare • Medium – a mix of densities between 30 and 120 dwellings per hectare NOTE: These densities apply to the built areas of pedsheds. As each pedshed has at least 30% open green areas (parks, etc.) the overall densities are much lower.

66


Case Studies

The potential to provide for the even growth target population is as follows:

Ref 590a0903d02

The potential to provide for the even growth target population

67


ConnectedCities

Scenario 1 - No Greenfield Development Development would take the form of an intensification of existing built areas around town railway stations. Stevenage would see an expansion in population of between 20,000 and 26,000, with the land around Stevenage station comprehensively redeveloped. The single storey shops and surface car parks would be replaced by high-density mixed-use development. Within 10 minutes travel of the hub, redevelopment would occur on tentacles leading to district centres providing accommodation for a further 5,000 to 7,000. A new bus station would be required, adjacent to the station, and a pedestrian mall leading from it to the town square. Hitchin would see high-density development with an increase of 9,000 to 13,000 across the town growth zone around the station, which would be linked by a mall and Private Rapid Transit (PRT) to the historic town centre. In Letchworth a large part of the conservation area is inside the pedshed. This would not be developed, but elsewhere around the station low-rise buildings and car parks would be redeveloped to house 5,000 to 9,000. Baldock, most of which is within the pedshed of the station, would increase by 2,00 to 4,000 in the town, but the large area of greenfield land also within the pedshed would be untouched. From the figures in the table below it is clear that if green belt land is not built upon, it will not be possible to accommodate pro-rata growth. Even at medium densities by 2050 there will be a shortfall of housing for 22,000 persons. Thus if the area is not to provide financial incentive for its portion of the growth to be accommodated in another part of the country, green belt land must be considered. Scenario 1 – TGZ's only. No incursion on Green Belt

Growth Area Scenario 1 A

Scenario 1 B

Average Density Town 1.

Station Type

Stevenage

Pedshed

Type of devt:

2011

2050

2080

Extg town outside pedshed

none

76

76

76

76

71

71

TGZ

4

20

20

4

26

26

existing

Stevenage tentacles

Tentacles

3

5

5

3

7

7

none

Lister Hospital

none

3

3

3

3

3

none

Bragbury End

none

3

3

3

3

3

3

89

104

104

89

107

107

existing

existing

none

30

30

30

30

30

30

Hitchin TGZ

TGZ

3

13

12

3

17

17

33

43

42

33

47

47

Extg town outside pedshed

none

25

25

25

25

25

25

Letchworth TGZ

TGZ

8 33

12 37

15 40

8 33

16 41

16 41

Total Letchworth 4. Baldock

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Baldock TGZ

none TGZ with no GB

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Arlsey TGZ

none

existing

9 14

none

0.5

0.5

TGZ with no GB

0.5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1.5

1.5

1

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

none none

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Watton at Stone TGZ

TGZ with no GB

none

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Ickleford NGT

none

Total Ickleford 10. Woolmer Green none

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

4

4.5

4.5

4

6

6

4

4.5

4.5

4

6

6

3

3.5

3.5

3

4

4

3

3.5

3.5

3

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

0

0

0

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Woolmer Green NGT

none

2 4

2 4

2 4

2 4

2 4

2 4

Total Woolmer Green none

0.5

none TGZ with no GB

Total Watton at Stone 9. Ickleford

5

9 14

Arlsey NGQ

Extg town outside pedshed existing

5

5 10

Total Knebworth 8. Watton at Stone

5

8 13

Extg town outside pedshed

Knebworth TGZ

5

7 12

Total Arlsey Town 7. Knebworth

5

5

Total Arlsey 6. Arlesey Town

5 10

Total Baldock 5. Arlesey

3

Extg town outside pedshed

Total Hitchin 3. Letchworth

Ref 590a902d06

2011

Stevenage centre

2. Hitchin

68

Medium Density 2080

existing

Total Stevenage

11. Rural Hinterland

2050

none Total Pop

40

40

40

40

40

40

223

256

259

223

269

269

33 294

36 308

46 294

46 308

-38

-49

-25

-39

Total pop increase Even Growth Target pop Surplus/Shortfall

Capacity for growth showing predicted population of each town to 2080 if no green belt land is developed. Growth is highlighted yellow.


Ref 590a0112d03

Case Studies

5

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

0.5 1 1 1 1

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

5 7 9 8 9

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

8 13 17 13 17

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 12 16 12 16

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 25 32 25 32

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 4.5 6 4.5 6

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

2080

2080

4 3

2080

2080

2

2080

1

2080

7

2080

8

Potential for population growth in existing town pedsheds without developing green belt within them.

69


Ref 590x6000d04

ConnectedCities

Hitchin pedshed Area of search for development sites within distance from station. Aerial view of Existing

Hitchin Hitchin is an example of a Town Growth Zone which would be fully developed. The existing station is a single-storey structure, and the areas around it are land used for industrial and storage purposes. These would be redeveloped into the new Centre, with mixed used buildings of several stories. The historic areas of the pedshed would be protected. Relaxed permitted development rules would encourage small-scale development of the existing housing to accommodate additional population. More housing would be provided by the redevelopment of the existing neigbourhood centres to multi-storey buildings with shops and services at ground level and apartments above.

70


Ref 590a6100d06

Ref 590a6100d07

Case Studies

Hitchin pedshed shown fully developed as a Town Growth Zone

Ref 590a6902d01

Hitchin

Area No. Persons per No. (ha) dph dwellings household Centre 10 80 800 2 HD Mxd Use 20 80 1600 3 Extg Family Hsg 190 30 5700 2.5 New Family Hsg nil 0 Local Centres 3 4 80 320 2 Employment 10 234 8420 TOTAL NEW POP Green Areas 66 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) Average dph excluding Green Areas Average dph including Green Areas

Hitchin

Ref 590a6903d01

(TGZ)

(TGZ)

Extg %age pph Pop inc 160 240 75 14250 10 160

New Pop 1,600 4,800 1,425 nil 640 nil 8,465

Average densities permit a maximum population of 19,500

22,715 36 28

Area No. Persons per %age New Pop No. (ha) dph dwellings household pph Extg Pop inc Centre 10 120 1200 2 240 2,400 HD Mxd Use 20 120 2400 3 360 7,200 Extg Family Hsg 190 30 5700 3 90 17100 20 3,420 New Family Hsg nil nil Local Centres 3 4 120 480 2 240 960 Employment 10 nil 234 9780 TOTAL NEW POP 13,980 Green Areas 66 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) 31,080 Average dph excluding Green Areas 42 Average dph including Green Areas 33

Medium densities permit a maximum population of 27,000

71


ConnectedCities

Scenario 2 – Fully developing the pedsheds of existing stations In addition to the development in Scenario 1, Scenario 2 assumes there would also be construction on the greenfield land that falls within 1km of a station. Baldock, most of which is within the pedshed of its station, would acquire a new green quarter to the north of the station, with an additional population of 8,000 to 10,000. At Arlesey approximately 25% of the pedshed is in a flood plain and cannot be developed. In the remaining area a new green quarter would accommodate 15,000 to 20,000. The existing Knebworth village would experience moderate infill, with a slightly more dense core at the station. Developing wedges of the land outside the village but within 1km of the station would permit 17,000 to 22,000 more persons to be housed. Watton at Stone would experience small growth within the existing village, but gain a new centre at the station servicing both the existing village and two new villages on the western side of the railway. The villages would house 18,000 to 23,000. Scenario 2 – TGZ's including Green Belt (I.e. New Green Quarters)

Town

Type of devt:

2011

2080

2011

Extg town outside pedshed

none

76

76

76

76

71

71

TGZ

4

20

20

4

26

26

existing

Stevenage tentacles

7

2050

2080

Tentacles

3

5

5

3

7

Lister Hospital

none

3

3

3

3

3

none

Bragbury End

none

3

3

3

3

3

3

89

104

104

89

107

107

existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Hitchin TGZ

TGZ

Total Hitchin 3. Letchworth existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Letchworth TGZ

TGZ

Total Letchworth 4. Baldock

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Extg town inside TGZ

none TGZ inc GB

Green Belt inside TGZ Total Baldock 5. Arlesey

Extg town outside pedshed existing

none

25

25

25

25

13

15

8

17

17

38

40

33

42

42

5

5

5

7

7

5

0

5

8

5

8

10

12

12

10

1

0.5

1 1

1

0

20

20

21

21

1 15

1

5

5

9

9

10

10

14

14 1

17

17

1

0

0

0

0

Arlsey NGQ

none

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

none

0 4

5

5

4

5

5

0

17

17

0

22

22

4

22

22

4

27

27

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

4

4

3

4

4

0

18

18

3

23

23

3

22

22

3

27

27 2

none

Green Belt inside TGZ

TGZ inc GB

0

0

0

0

TGZ inc GB

Extg town inside TGZ

0

0

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

Ickleford NGT

none

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Woolmer Green NGT

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

none

40

40

40

40

40

40

223

223

Total Woolmer Green none

25

8 33

1

Total Ickleford

none

25

15

Total Watton at Stone

10. Woolmer Green

46

1

Extg town inside TGZ

none

16

46

1

Extg town outside pedshed

9. Ickleford

30

16

33

1

Total Knebworth

existing

30

3

42

none

Green Belt inside TGZ

8. Watton at Stone

30

12

42

Extg town outside pedshed

Extg town outside pedshed existing

30

12

0

Total Arlsey Town 7. Knebworth

30

3 33

none

Total Arlsey 6. Arlesey Town

3

30

TGZ inc GB

Extg town inside TGZ Green Belt inside TGZ

Ref 590a902d06

2050

none

2. Hitchin

72

Medium Density

Stevenage centre

Total Stevenage

11. Rural Hinterland

Scenario 2 B

Average Density

existing

Station Type

1. Stevenage

Pedshed

Growth area Scenario 2 A

306

308

333

333

Total pop increase

83

85

110

110

Even Growth Target pop

294

308

294

308

Surplus/Shortfall

12

-0

40

25

Total Pop

Capacity for growth showing predicted population of each town to 2080 if all land within pedsheds is developed. Growth is highlighted yellow.


Ref 590a0113d03

Case Studies

5

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

1 16 21 16 21

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

5 15 19 15 19

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

8 13 17 13 17

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 12 16 12 16

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 25 33 25 33

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 22 27 22 27

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 22 27 22 27

2080

2080

4 3

2080

2080

2

2080

1

2080

7

2080

8

Potential for population growth in existing town pedsheds including developing green belt within them.

73


Ref 590x12000d02

ConnectedCities

Watton at Stone Area of search for development sites within walking distance from the station. Aerial view of Existing

Watton at Stone Watton at Stone is an example of a Town Growth Zone in which there are large areas of green belt land within 1km of the station, and these would be developed. The existing village has a small high street on what used to be the old road from Stevenage to Ware. Along with the village and woodlands these would be protected. The station is on the western edge of the existing village. It would be redeveloped at fairly high density as a pedestrian town centre and serve both the present village and two new villages further west. All would have access to new employment areas alongside the railway.

74


Ref 590x12100d04

Ref 590x12100d03

Ref - 590a12000d--

Case Studies

Watton at Stone pedshed shown fully developed as a Town Growth Zone

Ref 590a12902d01

Watton at Stone (NGQ)

Area No. Persons per No. (ha) dph dwellings household Centre 10 80 800 3 HD Mxd Use 20 80 1600 3 Extg Family Hsg 29 25 725 3 New Family Hsg 68 50 3400 3 Local Centres 6 14 80 1120 2 Employment 28 169 7645 TOTAL NEW POP Green Areas 131 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) Average dph excluding Green Areas Average dph including Green Areas

Ref 590a12903d01

Hitchin

(TGZ)

pph 240 240 75 150 160

Extg %age Pop inc 2175

10

New Pop 2,400 4,800 218 10,200 2,240 nil 19,858

Average densities permit a maximum population of 22,000

22,033 45 25

Area No. Persons per %age New Pop No. (ha) dph dwellings household pph Extg Pop inc Centre 10 120 1200 2 240 2,400 HD Mxd Use 20 120 2400 3 360 7,200 Extg Family Hsg 190 30 5700 3 90 17100 20 3,420 New Family Hsg nil nil Local Centres 3 4 120 480 2 240 960 Employment 10 nil 234 9780 TOTAL NEW POP 13,980 Green Areas 66 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) 31,080 Average dph excluding Green Areas 42 Average dph including Green Areas 33

Medium densities permit a maximum of population 30,000

75


ConnectedCities

Scenario 3: New freestanding towns Building new Green Towns in the Green Belt with new railway stations would reduce the need to develop elsewhere. Development around stations in the existing towns combined with one new town at medium density around a new station could accommodate growth until 2050. Thereafter a second new town would be needed to accommodate all growth to 2080. The two New Green Towns would each be for 25,00 to 33,000, one at Ickleford and the other at Woolmer Green. The remaining growth to be accommodated within the existing settlements would be between 15,000 and 44,000 depending upon the densities in the new towns. As the Scenario 1 figures show, this could easily be accommodated just in Stevenage and Hitchin, or could be distributed to all the existing towns at lower densities. For example 26,000 population could be located in a combination of Stevenage (14,000), Hitchin (8,000) and Letchworth (4,000). Scenario 3 – TGZs with no GB + NGTs

Town

Growth area

2011

2050

2080

2011

2050

none

76

71

71

76

71

71

existing

Stevenage centre

TGZ

4

20

20

4

26

26

existing

Stevenage tentacles

Tentacles

3

5

5

3

7

7

Lister Hospital

none

3

3

3

3

3

3

none

Bragbury End

none

3

3

3

3

3

3

89

102

102

89

110

110

existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

30

30

30

30

30

30

Hitchin TGZ

TGZ

3

12

12

3

16

16

33

42

42

33

46

46

Total Hitchin 3. Letchworth existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

25

25

25

25

25

25

Letchworth TGZ

TGZ

8

13

15

8

17

17

33

38

40

33

42

42

Total Letchworth 4. Baldock

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Baldock TGZ

none

5

5

5

5

5

5

TGZ with no GB

5

8

8

5

10

10

10

13

13

10

15

15

none

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

1

TGZ with no GB

0.5

1

1

0.5

1

1

1

1.5

1.5

1

2

2

Total Baldock 5. Arlesey

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Arlsey TGZ

Total Arlsey 6. Arlesey Town none

Extg town outside pedshed

none

0

Arlsey NGQ

none

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Total Arlsey Town 7. Knebworth

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Knebworth TGZ

8. Watton at Stone

Extg town outside pedshed existing

Watton at Stone TGZ

new

0 4

4.5

4.5

4

6

6

4

4.5

4.5

4

6

6

none TGZ with no GB

new

0

0

0

0

3

3.5

3.5

3

5

5

3

3.5

3.5

3

5

5

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Ickleford NGT

NGT

0

25

29

0

33

38

2

27

31

2

35

40

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Woolmer Green NGT

none

2

2

25

2

2

33

4

4

27

4

4

35

40

40

40

40

40

40

223

280

309

223

Total Woolmer Green none

0

Extg town outside pedshed

Total Ickleford 10. Woolmer Green

0

none

Total Watton at Stone 9. Ickleford

0

TGZ with no GB

Total Knebworth

none Total Pop

Ref 590a902d06

2080

none

2. Hitchin

76

Medium Density

Type of devt:

Total Stevenage

11. Rural Hinterland

Scenario 3 B

Average Density Extg town outside pedshed

Station Type

1. Stevenage

Pedshed

Scenario 3 A

307

343

Total pop increase

57

86

84

120

Even Growth Target pop

294

308

294

308

Surplus/Shortfall

-14

1

13

35

44

31

36

15

Pop to be housed elsewhere after NGTs built

Capacity for growth showing predicted population of each town to 2080 if new green towns are developed. Growth is highlighted yellow.


Ref 590a0114d03

Case Studies Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

0.5 1 1 1 1

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

5 8 10 8 10

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

8 13 17 13 17

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

0 25 30 29 38

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 12 16 12 16

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 25 33 25 33

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 4.5 6 4.5 6

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 3.5 5 3.5 5

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

2 2 2 25 33

2080

5

2080

4 3

2080

9

2080

2

2080

2080

1

2080

7 8 10

2080

2080

Potential for population growth if new green towns are developed

77


Ref 590x7000d04

ConnectedCities

Ickleford pedshed Area of search for development sites within distance from station. Aerial view of Existing

Ickleford Ickelford is a small village without a station just to the north of Hitchin. The railway runs close to its northern edge. The existing village and outlying farmhouses would be protected. A new station would be built at the point where the existing road to Arlesey passes beneath the tracks. A pedestrianised town centre would be located here with a surrounding area of high density mixed use. Together they would accommodate between 7,000 and 11,000 inhabitants. Beyond, four new villages would provide homes for between 16,000 and 23,000 people living in family houses, and 3,000 to 4,000 in flats at village centres. Employment areas either side of the railway and green areas extending into the centre of the town would provide a buffer to the rail traffic. Road vehicles would pass through a central ring road, diverting traffic from the existing village.

78


Ref 590a7100_2d00

Ref 590a7100_2d00

Case Studies

Ickleford pedshed shown fully developed as a New Green Town

Ref 590a7902d02

Average densities permit a maximum population of 28,000

Ref 590a7903d02

Medium densities permit a maximum population of 40,000

79


ConnectedCities

Scenario 4: Extending existing towns Creating New Green Quarters around new stations at the edge of the present towns combined with development around their existing stations would house the even growth target population at average densities. At medium densities the choice would be to not develop all the possible pedsheds or to have greater than even growth. In this scenario, in addition to growth in the pedsheds of all the towns as in Scenario 2, Stevenage would have major expansion. There would be significant development around the existing station in Stevenage centre (25,000 to 33,000) but also around new ones at Lister Hospital (20,000 to 26,000) and possibly Bragbury End (15,00 to 20,000). The new station adjacent to Lister Hospital, which is the regional hospital, would offer immense benefits to the whole area, far beyond the First ConnectedCity. The currently disused station at Arlesy Town would be reopened, and be at the core of a new green quarter accommodating 15,000 to 20,000. If the FCC chose to exceed its even growth quota and accommodate some of London’s expansion, the above would probably be the chosen scenario. However, the new population would not be merely London commuters, but would have the opportunity to work within the FCC in its new employment areas. As offices are converted to housing in London these will become progressively more attractive to businesses. Scenario 4 - TGZs and NGQs

Town

Growth area

Station Type

1a

Type of devt:

2011

2080

2011

2050

2080

Extg town outside pedshed

none

76

71

72

76

71

71

Stevenage centre

TGZ

4

20

20

4

26

26

existing

Stevenage tentacles

Tentacles

3

5

5

3

7

7

3

20

20

3

26

26

Pedshed

new

Lister Hospital

TGZ

new

Bragbury End

none

Total Stevenage 2. Hitchin existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Hitchin TGZ

TGZ

Total Hitchin 3. Letchworth existing

Extg town outside pedshed

none

Letchworth TGZ

TGZ

Total Letchworth 4 Baldock existing

existing

new

existing

existing

none

Ref 590a902d06

none

80

20 149

30

30

30

30

30

30

3

12

12

3

16

16

33

42

42

33

46

46

25

25

25

25

25

25

8

13

15

8

17

17

33

38

40

33

42

42

5

5

Baldock TGZ

NGQ

5

20

20

5

26

26

10

25

25

10

31

31

Extg town outside pedshed

none

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

1

Arlsey TGZ

TGZ

0.5

15

15

0.5

20

20

1

15.5

15.5

1

20

20

Extg town outside pedshed

none

0

Arlsey NGQ

NGQ

4

4

15

4

4

20

4

4

15

4

4

20

0

Extg town outside pedshed

none

0

Knebworth TGZ

TGZ

4

4.5

15

4

6

20

4

4.5

15

4

6

20

0

Extg town outside pedshed

none

0

Watton at Stone TGZ

NGQ

3

3

20

3

3

26

3

3

20

3

3

26

0

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Ickleford NGT

none

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

Extg town outside pedshed

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

Woolmer Green NGT

none

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

Total Woolmer Green none

3 133

5

Total Ickleford 10. Woolmer Green

3 89

5

Total Watton at Stone 9. Ickleford

15 132

5

Total Knebworth 8. Watton at Stone

3 119

5

Total Arlsey Town 7. Knebworth

3 89

none

Total Arlsey 6. Arlesey Town

2050

Extg town outside pedshed

Total Baldock 5. Arlesey

11. Rural Hinterland

Scenario 4 B Medium Density

existing

1. Stevenage

1b

Scenario 4 A Average Density

none Total Pop

40

40

40

40

40

40

223

297

351

223

330

399

74

128

107

176

294

308

294

308

3

43

36

91

Total pop increase Even Growth Target pop Surplus/Shortfall

Capacity for growth showing predicted population of each town to 2080 if new green quarters are added to existing towns. Growth is highlighted yellow.


Ref 590a0115d03

Case Studies

5

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

0.5 16 20 15 20

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 4 4 15 20

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

5 20 26 20 26

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

8 13 17 13 17

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 12 16 12 16

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 20 26 20 26

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 25 33 25 33

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 3 3 15 20

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

3 3 3 20 26

Year

Density

Pop.000’

2011 2050

--Av Med Av Med

4 4.5 6 15 20

2080

2080

4

6 3

2080

2080

2

2080

1a

2080

1

2080

1b

2080

7 8

2080

2080

Potential for population if new green quarters are added to existing towns.

81


Ref 590x5000d03

ConnectedCities

Lister hospital pedshed Area of search for development sites within distance from station. Aerial view of Existing

Lister Hospital - Stevenage Although it is the regional acute hospital, Lister Hospital is not well served by public transport. A new station would be located within easy walking distance, near the point where the rail line and A1 motorway cross. Protected walkways would lead directly to the hospital, as well as all other parts of the pedshed. The famous Forster Country landscape to the north of the hospital would be preserved and turned into a countryside park. Immediately beside the new station is a historic woodland which will be protected and preserved, along with the adjacent village. The site of the new centre and mixed-use area which would serve the whole of the north of Stevenage is currently occupied by a council depot and a supermarket car park. In the existing housing area next to the new centre relaxed permitted-development rules will encourage individual development within the pedshed. To the west and north two new villages will accommodate between 8,000 and 12,000 persons in family houses and 1,500 to 2,000 in flats at village centres. The existing employment area to the north west will be extended along the railway.

82


Ref - 590a5100d06

Ref - 590a5100d07

Case Studies

Lister Hospital Pedshed on the edge of Stevenage pedshed shown fully developed as a New Green Quarter

Ref 590a5902d01

Lister Hospital (NGQ)

Area No. Persons per No. (ha) dph dwellings household Centre 17 80 1360 2 HD Mxd Use 16 80 1280 3 Extg Family Hsg 31 30 930 3 New Family Hsg 56 50 2800 3 Local Centres 4 10 80 800 2 Employment 57 187 7170 TOTAL NEW POP Green Areas 113 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) Average dph excluding Green Areas Average dph including Green Areas

Ref 590a5903d01

Lister Hospital (NGQ)

pph 160 240 90 150 160

Extg %age Pop inc 2790

10

New Pop 2,720 3,840 279 8,400 1,600 nil 16,839

Average densities permit a maximum population of 19,000

19,629 38 24

Area No. Persons per %age New Pop No. (ha) dph dwellings household pph Extg Pop inc Centre 17 120 2040 2 240 4,080 HD Mxd Use 16 120 1920 3 360 5,760 Extg Family Hsg 31 30 930 3 90 2790 20 558 New Family Hsg 56 70 3920 3 210 11,760 Local Centres 4 10 100 1000 2 200 2,000 Employment 57 nil 187 9810 TOTAL NEW POP 24,158 Green Areas 113 TOTAL PEDSHED POPULATION (New & Existing) 26,948 Average dph excluding Green Areas 52 Average dph including Green Areas 33

Medium densities permit a maximum population of 27,000

83


ConnectedCities

Transport Transport Authority

When the FCC takes the powers which come to it under the new Cities Act, one of them will be to run and provide local transport services. These have to integrate with the plans for the whole county and beyond. Hertfordshire CC is finalising its Transport Vision. The consultation document states: “If new developments are not built with sustainability and sustainable transport in mind then attendant pressures on local areas would emerge. Particularly, this would involve failing to influence modal shift soon after the movement to a development and ingraining unsustainable habits on the parts of residents� This is what ConnectedCites seeks to avoid. The FCC will be able to generate the capital investment needed to increase public transport service frequency by development of railway lands around stations, and the running cost for the TOCs will be covered by revenue from increased passenger traffic from the new population. Initially more, smaller, trains will run between the existing services. These would not continue into London where there is a lack of capacity at peak times, but would terminate outside London, e.g. Alexandra Palace, and use existing crossovers or new ones, for example north of the Welwyn Viaduct bottleneck. As the national Rail Technical Strategy is implemented, so the running or RailTaxis and other on-demand travel services will be possible. The new transport Hub where rail, buses, PRT, etc. will interconnect, should be situated closer to Stevenage rail station. Important development space in the centre of the town will thereby be released, as well as easing interchanges. For efficient use of space buses will pick up and put down at the Hub, but will not park or be serviced there. Those functions will take place in a depot elsewhere, in the employment area of a pedshed.

Bus/PRT

Bus (and later PRT and driverless taxis) routes will serve the towns but will be more focussed on the stations. As the inter-town rail service improves they will tend to serve each town rather than link between towns. Stevenage as the hub town will have development along the tentacles within 10 minutes of its hub, and these services will be particularly frequent.

Walking & Cycling

The existing networks of pedestrian routes will be made more comfortable by installation of covered canopies to provide protection in all weathers. The cost will be covered by them being partly fitted with photovoltaic cells producing an income over thirty years. A similar approach can be taken with cycleways.

Local Democracy

The decision as to how the towns of the FCC should develop has to be taken by the local population. However, a combination of the four basic scenarios will probably emerge as the most satisfactory outcome. For example, a new station adjacent to Lister Hospital, which is the regional hospital, would offer immense benefits to the whole area, far beyond the First ConnectedCity. In combination with the creation of a new green town it would provide sufficient capacity to keep the changes to the existing towns to a minimum while providing better transport services so that everyone benefits from the greater choice and opportunity a city offers.

84


Case Studies

Conclusion

Ref 590a8701d00

Ref 590x8701d00

Ref 590x8700d00

The population of the ConnectedCity has to decide where it wants to see change. If the towns are not to be simply extended at their edges, and find themselves overrun with more cars, which people are forced to use because they have no serious alternative, housing, shops and employment to accommodate the inevitable growth must be around rail stations. The choice is not between extensive reworking of the areas around the existing stations, or creating new stations serving new communities integrated with the existing towns. Both solutions are required. Together they support each other.

Aerial view of Letchworth Garden City Centre as high-density mixed use. Existing listed buildings are retained but the service areas behind them are redeveloped with parking below and private gardens for housing above. Protected walkways extend from the centre to the whole pedshed.

View of Letchworth Broadway as existing, looking toward station

View of Letchworth Broadway if town centre is redeveloped over time to accommodate an additional 5,000 persons.

85


ConnectedCities

Potential ConnectedCities of Hertfordshire Initial analysis indicates that there are potentially eight other ConnectedCities in Hertfordshire. However, the comments below are very preliminary, and all need to be subject to in-depth studies and consultation before detailed conclusions can be drawn. Below are the cities with their growth potential: Broxbourne has little room for greenfield development as it is part of flood plain of the River Lee, which affects much of Cheshunt, and so restricts the available space for development within the pedsheds.

Greater Watford has reasonable potential but low until the interurban transport is improved.

Greater Hertford has big potential but it is low until there is interurban transport across the county town of Hertford.

Hempstead has considerable scope for town growth zones and new green quarters.

Greater Royston can probably continue to grow until the end of the century and beyond.

Stortford could accommodate possible new green town(s).

Greater St Albans is limited because the Abbey line does not connect with the main rail station which will be the hub.

Welwyn-Hatfield contains potential sites for new green towns.

Herts Orbital Transit Suggestions for an east – west transit connecting town centres, suburban areas and major development sites across Hertfordshire’s central belt were first made in the 1980s, when some local interests proposed a Colne Valley Transit linking Watford and Hertford. This was studied in the 1990s by the County Council as the Central Herts Transit but no practical project emerged. The concept has since been developed as the Herts Orbital Transit project, which would create a state of the art tramway from Broxbourne to Watford, routed through Hertford, Welwyn Garden City, Hatfield and St Albans providing high quality public transport through a corridor with a population of about 300,000 and serving the town centres, other commercial and activity centres, the University of Hertfordshire and residential areas. It would function as an additional spine for several ConnectedCity, capturing the resulting uplift in land values. Its impact on the development potential of Hertfordshire’s ConnectedCities would be enormous. Greater Hertford would open up dramatically by connecting its two rail stations which are currently on either side of the town centre, and gain potential pedsheds on the new line to Welwyn. Welwyn-Hatfied could incorporate a new green quarter to the east of Welwyn, a new green town at Cole Green and new green quarter to the west of Hatfield. Greater St Albans would benefit greatly from linking the Abbey line to the main station, and from opportunities for a new green quarter at Hill End and a new green town at Smallford. Greater Watford’s stations would operate in a more coordinated manner, and Bricket Wood could become a new green town around the new station, incorporating a community forest. 86


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Case Studies

The nine potential ConnectedCities of Hertfordshire showing potential pedsheds. Those of the same colour are in the same ConnectedCity Herts Orbital Transit Reg Harman, Interfaces / URBED The HOT would use the two branch existing lines (Hertford East and St Albans Abbey) and trackbeds of closed east – west lines, complemented by new sections through the towns on roads. 87


ConnectedCities

SouthEast England SE England has potentially nearly 50 Large and 50 Small ConnectedCities accommodating at least • • •

10 Million people 50,000 hectares of commercial land 30,000 hectares of greenspace within the Pedsheds Sheet1

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Large ConnectedCities Hub Towns Aldershot Ashford Aylesbury Basildon Basingstoke Bedford Bognor Regis Bracknell Brighton Cambridge Chatham Chelmsford Cheshunt Clacton on Sea Colchester Crawley Eastbourne Eastleigh

Fareham Farnbrough Gillingham Gravesend Grays Guildford Harlow Hastings Hemel Hempstead High Wycombe Hove Ipswich Littlehampton Luton Maidenhead Maidstone Margate Milton Keynes

Small ConnectedCities Hub Towns Oxford Portsmouth Reading Redhill Slough Southampton Southend St Albans Staines Stevenage Tunbridge Wells Watford Weybridge Woking Worthing

Amersham Andover Banbury Bicester Bigggleswade Bishops Stortford Braintree Brentwood Canterbury Chichester Crowbrough Deal Didcot Parkway Dorking Dover East Grinstead Felixtowe Folkstone

Harwich Havant Haywards Heath Hazlemere Henley on Thames Herne Bay Hertford Horsham Leatherhead Leighton Buzzard Lewes Lymington Town Marlow Newbury Oxted Queenbrough Ramsgate Royston

Seaford Sittingbourne Sudbury Swanley Tonbridge Welwyn GC Wickford Wokingham

The capacity is equivalent to all the conurbations in SE England outside London combined - but uses less than 3% of the SE’s undeveloped land.

Nationally Preliminary studies indicate that using existing railways • •

25 to 30 Million people can be housed in ConnectedCities across the UK All within walking distance of public transport and mostly a stroll away from countryside

If the pedshed system is applied to the large metropolises the figure rises to more than 35 million. If old rail lines are re-opened the capacity rises to more than 45 million.

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Case Studies

The potential ConnectedCities in SE England

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ConnectedCities

USA case studies In the USA a movement has been established which has a similar philosophy to ConnectedCities, but which generally focuses on new rapid transit systems. It has various names: • • •

Transit Oriented Development Smart Growth New Urbanism

The oldest example is the Rosslyn-Ballston corridor in Virginia. Planned and built over fifty years, it is now a prosperous, mature community of high-density development around subway stations, sitting within a preserved neighbourhood of single storey family housing. There are many other examples, including: • • • •

Addison Circle, Texas Ohlone-Chynoweth, San Jose, CA Mockingbird Station, Dallas Orenco, Oregon

To European eyes these developments appear normal, and quite car-oriented. But by US standards they represent a radical shift away from the freeway/parking-lot/strip-mall suburbia which has been the norm since WW2.

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Streetscape Source: Continuum Partners

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Case Studies Arlington City R/ BPlan (Dunphy and Leach) showing density of development around subway station

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Pedestrian streets around Addison Circle station. Source: Paris Rutherford, David Whitcomb/RTKL

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ConnectedCities

Global application The ConnectedCities methodology is applicable to anywhere with a rail system. In the developing countries of Asia, Africa and America it offers a means of accommodating their very fast growth that avoids migration to the already overstretched mega-cities. These already suffer from urban sprawl, intense high-rise living, severe air pollution and sometimes dense slums, and their urban infrastructure is often overloaded even before car usage rises to Western levels. This case study investigates how the ConnectedCities principles can be applied to shift sustainable growth to the more rural areas in which provincial cities are located. It studies India, where currently only 30% of the population live in towns, in comparison with the world average of 50%. With rising expectations and educational levels young people no longer want to stay in the villages, so the challenges are: where should they go; how can they earn enough to support themselves and their families; and what can be done to raise agricultural productivity and incomes? The example is Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, chosen as typical ‘metro city’ (city population ½ to 1.5 million) sited on an existing railway junction.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is the southernmost state of India, and has a climate classified as tropical savannah. Its population is 78 million, and the growth rate for the decade before the last census was 16%. The major city is Chennai, whose population expanded by 63% between 2001 and 2011. The rail system has 5,952 km (3,698 mi) of track and 532 railway stations. Tirunelveli District is located in southern Tamil Nadu, and has a population of 3 million in an area of 6,700 sq.km. Tirunelveli City has just under 500,000 inhabitants in an area of 150 sq. km. Its population expanded by 15% between 2001 and 2011. At present young people are forced to leave the city and move to the mega cities to find housing and work: hence the dramatic growth in Chennai. The ConnectedCites methodology identifies Tirunelveli as the hub town of the potential ConnectedCity. Tirunelveli has two stations: Tirunelveli Junction and Tirunelveli Town. The former is much larger than the latter, and the natural Hub.

Rail

Tirunelveli is at the junction of four rail lines, all operated by the Southern Railway Zone. The north-south routes are electrified single track, and the east-west are non electrified single track. In February 2015 Indian Railways sanctioned the double tracking of the north-south line between Maniyachi-Tirunelveli-Nagercoil, a distance of 170km costing 1.7 billon rupees. There are seven rail stations within 15 minutes travel time of Tirunelveli Junction: • • • • • • •

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irunelveli Town - 8 trains per day T Cheranmadevi - 8 trains per day Palayamkottai - 6 trains per day Pettai - 4 trains per day Sengulam - 1 train per day Seydunganallur - 7 trains per day Thalaiyuthu - 5 trains per day


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Case Studies Map of India showing location of Tamil Nadu and map of Tamil Nadu showing rail network and location of Tirunelveli district

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Map of Tirunelveli district showing location of Tirunelveli City and rail services

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ConnectedCities

Local Government and infrastructure

Tirunelveli Muncipal Corporation is responsible for the City, the two adjoining municipalities of Palayamkottai and Melapalayam, and twelve other towns of approximately 20,000 population each. The Corporation is responsible for 475 miles of roads. Most are single carriageway, but National Highway NH7 to the port town Thoothukudi is dual carriageway. Motorised vehicle ownership for the District in 2011 was 24% of households for two wheelers and 3% for four wheelers. One third of commutes to work are on foot. In Tirunelveli District bicycle ownership averaged 46% of households. In 2015, 650 buses were operated in Tirunelveli District by Tamil Nadu State Corporation and 275 were registered to private operators, as well as 250 mini buses. There were 4,000 taxis, 3,000 maxicabs and over 8,500 registered auto-rickshaws. The average household size in Tamil Nadu is 3.5 persons. 55% of households do not have their own toilet.

Water & Trees

The average annual rainfall is 680 millimetres. Maximum precipitation is during the northeast monsoon in October (166mm) and November (195mm), when extensive flooding occurs. Lowest precipitation is June (16mm) and July (13mm), when water shortages are common. In the city water supply is provided by the Tirunelveli City Corporation from the Tamirabarani River. Tamil Nadu Water supply And Drainage Board (TWAD) is responsible for the rest of the District. Trees have been disappearing from the landscape in recent generations, but local charity SCAD has a programme of planting 100,000 indigenous new trees and sowing about 50,000 seeds per annum. Trees increase green cover and provide fodder and fuels. In turn increasing trees brings more rainfall.

Commerce & Education

Agriculture and food processing are the largest sectors. There are also cement factories, tobacco companies, workshops for steel-based products and mills for cotton textiles. Tirunelveli is known for its educational institutions, many of which are located at Palayamkottai (east of Tirunelveli) known as the “Oxford of South India”. The District has a literacy rate of 77%, which is above the state average. As of 2005–2006, the District had a total of 2,500 schools, one university, four government colleges, eleven government-sponsored and seven private colleges.

Population Growth

The District population growth in the decade 2001 to 2011 was 14%, with rural areas growing at 12% and Tirunelveli City growing at 15%. The Tirunelvlei Local Planning Authority (TLPA) has a master plan to 2021, and within it detailed plans for each area. The plan proposes an expansion of residential areas into the existing agricultural areas on the edge of the city. In the seven years between 1999-2006 the built-up area of the city expanded by about 40 sq.km, while agricultural land declined almost 75 sq.km and water bodies reduced by 21sq.km. Much of the land built upon was previously used to feed the local population.

Smart City

Tirunelveli entered Prime Minister Ghodi’s Smart City Challenge, and was ranked 56th nationally. The bid was based on a widespread public consultation including social media, and proposed pedestrianisation around the temple area and construction of a Non-Motorised Transport corridor to promote walking, as well as a new settlement of 250 acres within 10km of the city’s boundaries. 94


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Case Studies Tirunelveli - Local Planning Area Existing land use 2005

Tirunelveli - Local Planning Area Proposed land use 2021

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ConnectedCities

Potential The aim of the study is to determine if it is possible to accommodate the predicted population in a manner that minimises the loss of agricultural land and need for cars, by developing in well-connected locations including sister towns. These will provide new housing and workplaces so that people can live close to their families and food production but still have easy access to the city. Assuming that growth in the city continues at the same rate as it did between 2001 and 2011 of 15% per decade, the population in 2050 will be 875,000, an increase of 375,000.

Tirunelvelei ConnectedCity

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Within the pedsheds of the existing stations there is potential for housing and commercial/civic/recreational facilities at average densities for 165,000 persons as follows:

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In addition, possible locations for 8 new stations as shown on the illustration have the potential to accommodate a further 200,000 plus at average densities:

At average densities 99% of predicted growth until 2050 can be accommodated within 1km radius pedsheds of existing and new stations, thereby enabling sustainable growth with minimised increase in carbon footprint and traffic congestion. At the high densities common in Indian cities (450 p.p.h.) the pedsheds could house an increase of over 1,000,000, which would be population growth of more than 30% per decade. This is equal to the city’s highest ever growth rate and would allow a trebling of population.

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Case Studies Tirunelveli ConnectedCity Proposed sites for sustainable development

Tirunelveli Junction pedshed Area of search for development sites within walkable distance from station. Tirunelveli Junction is the natural Hub for the ConnectedCity on which all public transport including bus services will focus.

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ConnectedCities

Pedsheds Hub - Tirunelveli Junction

In the area around the Hub at Tirunelveli Junction, medium rise buildings of 5 to 7 or 8 stories would sit in a primarily pedestrianised core. The building heights could be greater if it was felt that tall buildings would enable the city to display itself better as a primary modern centre. In either case creating a new hub to serve the whole ConnectedCity would relieve pressure on redevelopment of the historic city centre.

Tirunelveli Town

The Smart City proposals to preserve and enhance the best of the traditional city centre can be extended, and create a historic core which retains the charm of previous generations’ contributions to the city, and provides a source of tourist income in addition to general commerce. A pedestrian priority mixed use mall along the present appropriately named Railway Feeder Road will link the temple area to an enhanced station. Outside the conservation areas redevelopment would be encouraged as in any town growth zone, particularly to the south of the railway. Although this requires loss of good agricultural land, the effects are more than balanced by preserving such land outside the pedsheds which is currently zoned for future development.

Sister Towns

The pedsheds of the current stations serving the well-established towns of Cheranmadevi, Palayamkottai, Seydunganallur and Thalaiyuthu will be developed to preserve each one’s character and direct new growth. Analyses will be undertaken to define existing features to be retained, such as key historic buildings and high yield agricultural land. The remaining areas will be used to provide cores of medium rise mixed use buildings of 4 to 7 stories in which civic, commercial, educational and residential uses will mingle. Beyond, family housing will be in lower-rise buildings, probably terraced houses with courtyards. Growth will be restricted to the 1km radius pedshed to ensure access to food-producing land is maintained. The towns of Pettai and Sengulam are currently less developed. The pedshed principles are still applicable, and the mode of development will be in the style of new green quarters.

Infrastructure

Continued electrification and double or quadruple tracking of the railway lines within the ConnectedCity will be required to provide for the additional movement. The upgrading can be financed by capturing the uplift in land value which the new stations and services will bring. The increases in rolling stock needed for frequent or on-demand services will be covered by fares from the additional passengers. The fact that at present there are so few trains provides an opportunity to run much more frequent local services within the limits of the ConnectedCity. Five of the eight proposed new towns are on the less used east-west line. With the increase in population the road network will have to be upgraded as even with greatly improved railways demand will increase. However, since most new building will be within the pedsheds, major improvements will be primarily to routes that serve them. Outside the pedsheds development along roads will not be permitted, to ensure each settlement remains distinct with open land surrounding it. The strain on the bus services will be eased by the new rail services. Richshaws can be integrated into the pedestrian priority centres of the pedsheds, and serve the outer areas of these medium density settlements more efficiently than cars. New commerce and educational facilities are located within pedsheds to ensure excellent public transport access and to provide a buffer between rail track and housing.

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Case Studies Tirunelveli Town Area of search for development sites within walkable distance of the station The proposed pedestrianed area in the historic centre around the Arulmigo Nellaiappar temple (shown outlined in white) will be linked to the new core around the station by a mall (shown highlighted in red).

Cheranmadevi Area of search for development sites within walkable distance of the station A typical existing station pedshed showing opportunities for densification close to the core and new development opportunities within walking distance of the station. The dark green areas to the north of the Kanadian canal are agricultural and will be preserved.

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ConnectedCities

New Settlements

Development around new stations will follow a similar pattern, but because the developments are built from scratch it will be easy to ensure a Green Web permeates the whole of these new green towns. The pedshed principles require green wedges between the urban villages to be incorporated in new settlements and created where possible in existing ones. These wedges can be used to store and move away stormwater. Open cisterns to collect monsoon rains can be surrounded by trees and used to farm fish, which eat mosquito larvae and minimise public health risks. The experience of both walking and cycling within the pedsheds will be greatly enhanced by trees and protected walkways. These will generate electricity from PV panels for night streetlighting while providing daytime shade from the sun, and in monsoon periods, dry passage. The typologies of family housing will vary, but generally terraced houses with sun shaded private courtyards for cooking, and communal courtyards for kitchen gardens, offer the best means of providing suitable densities. Sanitation for all can be built in from the outset, although it may not be western waterbourne systems due to the water shortages. Instead composting or ‘worm farm’ toilets may be more applicable, as they provide safe fertiliser for local use.

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In many of the areas where the potential pedsheds are located the three landowners are: Indian Railways, the City or District and private landowners. Pooling the land would enable all parties to participate in the uplift in value, but requires a redistribution of plot ownership. Collectively the land is worth more than in independent units, so all parties emerge from the pooling with assets that are worth more than their initial value and the community also benefits.

Diagram of ConnectedVillage showing its relationship to the pedshed core and the green grid of shared surface circulation with trees and protected walkways. The green wedges between villages can be used for storage of monsoon waters. 100

Similar diagram showing private communal courtyards within housing blocks. The layout proposed is diagrammatic only. Real-life villages will follow the general guidelines but accord with local circumstances, traditions and wishes.


Case Studies Development pedshed 006 Aerial view of Existing.

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A typical pedshed around a new station. The flood areas will be incorporated as blue/green wedges in the new settlement.

Notional terraced house showing relationship between green web shared space street and semi private communal areas to the rear

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ConnectedCities

Delivery ConnectedCities will be delivered by many stakeholders working together, led by local authorities. A local authority can begin to apply the ConnectedCities methodology as soon as it recognises the need to prepare a new local plan or to revise its existing local plan. There is no need to wait for Government guidance or legislation. Application of the methodology to an area identifies its potential ConnectedCities and the inter-town routes connecting them. Those revealed in this way are only indicative and subject to consultation. Preliminary analysis indicates the potential of each ConnectedCity and intertown route for development. These brief studies are normally by local planning authorities, county councils or local enterprise partnerships. Policy-makers and the public are made aware of the urgent need for new sustainable housing, infrastructure and public transport, and the potential benefits of ConnectedCities. An open conference is held to discuss the views of local elected representatives, stakeholders and community groups on these topics. This is the first stage of public consultation. Each local authority considers adopting the Cities Act, which will give it development powers and eligibility for Government assistance. Once all the local authorities for a proposed ConnectedCity have adopted the Cities Act, its boundaries are defined by the local population and their elected representatives at conferences held for the purpose. If the proposed ConnectedCity crosses district boundaries, the local authorities enter into a co-operation agreement and appoint a joint committee to exercise the powers of the Act.

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Delivery

A master-plan for the ConnectedCity is prepared and consulted on. It replaces or incorporates the local plan(s) for the area of the ConnectedCity, and allows detailed work on the planning of each pedshed to proceed in accordance with the ConnectedCity guidelines. The master-plan has to be approved by a Government inspector after a public examination. The method of implementation in each pedshed varies depending on circumstances. The development of new green quarters and new green towns can be procured by a development corporation. Finance similarly varies. Housing sponsored by a development corporation can be built and sold rapidly without the capital value of the land leaving public ownership. Finally, a ConnectedCity council is created from the pre-existing authorities to administer the city and receive the income from community-held land, so that eventually it has little or no need of government support.

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ConnectedCities

Methodology The methodology identifies potential ConnectedCities in a region or in the whole of the country. It ensures that there are as many ConnectedCities as there can be on the existing railways and that, wherever possible, an inter-town route has development along its whole length. Stage 1. Identify all towns and cities with a population over 10,000 and all railways other than the HS Rail. Ignore towns under 10,000 as they are unlikely to become hub towns. Stage 2. The towns and cities on a railway or light railway are potential Hub Towns or Sister Towns. Treat those not on a railway as rural towns unsuitable for large-scale development. Stage 3. Treat those over 50.000 (other than those in Large cities) as potential Large Hub Towns. Stage 4. Identify all stations within 15 minutes journey time of one of these large hub towns. They will be ConnectedCity stations. At this stage ignore the potential for new stations. Stage 5. Some sections of the routes connecting the large hub towns will have gaps where stations cannot be ConnectedCity stations as they are more than 15 minutes from the large hub towns at each end of the section. These gaps are ‘filled’ by identifying one or more of the towns on the section, usually the largest or the best placed, as Small Hub Towns. Stage 6. Where there are potential overlaps, apply a formula based on the journey time from, and the population of, each hub town to place a station in its ConnectedCity. Once this exercise has been completed, an analysis of the growth potential in the pedsheds of a ConnectedCity’s stations can be undertaken, and the possibility of new stations explored. The real planning can then begin, as local communities consult together and vary these paper proposals to arrive at the solution that suits them best.

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Delivery

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The ConnectedCities Methodology explores the maximum capacity of the infrastructure to accommodate ConnectedCities

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ConnectedCities

Benefits Each local area will vote as to whether or not to accommodate their pro rata share of the national population growth. Those that choose to grant planning permission for more than their share will be assisted with government funding raised from those that choose to provide less. Local Residents: Those affected by the creation of a ConnectedCity will gain • • • • • • • •

Generous compensation for properties directly affected Higher property values from the area’s greater amenity Prospect of progressively lower local taxes Radically improved public transport Minimal increase, or even reduction of, traffic congestion Better community facilities – health centres, community colleges, etc. - all easily accessible Greater shopping choice More local job opportunities

Local Authorities Those which create a ConnectedCity gain • • • • • • • • •

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A clear strategy for dealing sustainably with the pressures of growth and increased population Support from Government for their development plans Access to funding opportunities Powers to plan and operate local transport Healthy new development Wealth creation as the groups of towns become magnets for economic growth Increasing ground rent income from new green towns and new green quarters Ability to develop solutions appropriate for local circumstances while benefiting from national support Long-term prospect of financial independence


Delivery

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Prosperity is more than just money: it is quality of life

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ConnectedCities

Analysis Application of the methodology to an area provisionally identifies the ConnectedCities and the connecting inter-town routes. Preliminary analysis of a possible ConnectedCity identifies the potential capacity for new housing and intertown rail services, as well as which local authorities and other stakeholders (e.g. NHS trusts, TOCs, etc.) must participate. When the ConnectedCity’s hub town and sister towns have been defined, ascertain the potential for its intertown routes to accept new stations. The pedshed of each existing and potential station is identified and its features investigated. The pedshed principles are applied to determine its suitability for development and the likely problems, including necessary new infrastructure. Explore alternatives: e.g. between two towns there may be room for only one new green quarter - assess the effects of giving it to one or other town.

Capacity of pedsheds and hub town tentacles 1. Ascertain the location of the hub in the hub town, and explore the development potential of its pedshed and of tentacles radiating from the hub 2. For the hub town and sister towns, identify the town growth zones around the town station and any existing suburban stations 3. Identify potential locations for new green quarters in the pedsheds of new or existing stations near the edges of the towns 4. Identify potential locations for new green towns in pedsheds of village stations or new greenfield stations 5. Study the maximum housing capacity of each pedshed using the pedshed principles and guidelines

Inter-town transport When all potential pedsheds and their capacities are determined, examine each inter-town route’s revenue potential and the extra rolling stock/infrastructure needed to provide the appropriate level of service. Some factors to be taken into account when locating new stations and their pedsheds are: • • • • • • •

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Not in a National Park, Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, SSSI or other designated land On a reasonably straight, flat section of track without a junction Sufficient distance from other stations to avoid overlapping pedsheds Able to serve enough development to justify its cost A station site is unsuitable if it is in a tunnel or too much of the potential pedshed cannot be developed because of e.g. existing uses that cannot be moved Stations near motorway junctions or fast main roads are potential parkway stations and will need room for car parks For a new green quarter, or new green town adjacent to a village, the need to have sufficient greenfield land around the station to provide the core, yet to be in walking distance of as much as possible of the existing housing


Delivery

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Areas of search for locations in which pedsheds can be located. The length of each ‘arm’ is determined by a maximum travel time of 15 minutes from the hub, which is in turn determined by number of existing stations, track conditions, etc.

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ConnectedCities

Consultation Take ye counsel together in all matters, inasmuch as consultation is the lamp of guidance which leadeth the way, and is the bestower of understanding. Baha’u’llah

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Preliminary Consultation Documents (PCDs) about the proposed ConnectedCity (in all media including video, etc.; and brief enough for an intelligent person to assimilate and comment on in one or two days) are issued to the known pressure groups and statutory consultees. They are based on the analysis, and outline the background, problems, opportunities, benefits and drawbacks, and show the growth options, probable extent of the proposed ConnectedCity and its possible pedsheds A conference of the stakeholders is held to discuss the issues General Consultation Documents (GCDs) showing the pedshed options and incorporating the stakeholder feedback are issued widely, so that those who agree with the stakeholders can say so, and those who disagree can say why Public response to the GCD is analysed A ConnectedCity Plan showing the proposed ConnectedCity extent and pedshed locations with preliminary boundaries is voted upon by local representatives or a local referendum If the proposal is defeated it is either abandoned or revised proposals are consulted upon If agreed it is examined in public before an inspector. The plan at this stage has pedshed locations and transport, sustainablity and other citywide issues (education, health, retail etc.), but not details within pedsheds On approval, detailed ‘Pedshed Plans’ are prepared by the town/parish councils showing the proposed layouts and boundaries Town PCDs are issued to all the local stakeholders A local conference of the stakeholders is held to discuss the layout and boundaries Local GCDs showing the preferred layouts and incorporating the stakeholder feedback is issued to all in the town or parish, so that those who agree with the stakeholders can say so, and those who disagree can say why Public response to the GCDs is analysed A Pedshed Plan showing proposed layout and village and core locations, but not detailed buildings, is voted upon by local representatives or a town/parish referendum

Ref Consultation

Local consultation

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Delivery

Cities Act The Cities Act confers on local authorities which adopt it powers to establish ConnectedCities, supervise their development, and eventually transfer the administration of each to a ConnectedCity council. Adoption of the Act is optional so that only local authorities which embrace the ConnectedCities approach need do so. However it mostly confers powers rather than creates duties, so not adopting cuts other authorities off from its benefits. Where a potential ConnectedCity covers more than one district or borough, the councils co-operate in implementing the Act by appointing a joint committee for each ConnectedCity, to which they delegate the powers. They can also appoint a joint transport committee covering the area of several ConnectedCities. The Act will not apply to large cities or metropolises, but as some of these are “natural” hub towns it will give the Secretary of State power to extend the Act by Order if requested. Among other things, the Act empowers local authorities that adopt it to: • • • • • • • • •

Identify the potential ConnectedCities in their area and adopt a plan for each Provide or secure provision of the necessary infrastructure to enable them to be developed Appoint development corporations with compulsory purchase eminent domain powers, placing them in the same position in relation to the city’s new green quarters and new green towns as the UK Government was in relation to the post-war new towns Borrow at preferential rates secured by government guarantees Apply the rental income and capital receipts from new development to the purposes of the Act; Grant initial rate relief for commercial development within the pedsheds and later retain the rate receipts Apply more relaxed permitted development rules within pedsheds Procure public transport, including rail services, within a group of ConnectedCities, thereby providing a coordinated transport system similar to that provided by integrated transport authorities in metropolitan areas Access infrastructure funding from central government

Ref London-Parliament

Primary legislation will be required to enable Local Bodies to have the powers required to create a ConnectedCity.

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Plan Starting from the analysis and agreed boundaries, the local authority or joint committee prepare a master plan for the ConnectedCity. It covers the whole area of the ConnectedCity: the hub town, the sister towns and villages and the rural hinterland. The master-plan replaces or incorporates the relevant local plan(s). If a local plan has not yet been examined in public it will usually be abandoned and resources switched to the preparation of ConnectedCity master plan(s). Each proposed pedshed is examined in detail in the light of sustainability criteria. Any that will not be sustainable are eliminated and the locations of new stations are adjusted where necessary. Outside the pedsheds of the ConnectedCity development will only be permitted under exceptional circumstances. The plan is prepared in consultation with the public and the stakeholders (including neighbouring ConnectedCities, the train operators and rail network).

Contents of the master plan After setting out its purposes and objectives, the master plan: • • • • •

Delineates the boundaries of the ConnectedCity Identifies the inter-town routes, the existing and new ConnectedCity stations and the precise extents of their pedsheds Safeguards the pedsheds against conflicting development Integrates proposals for the enhancement of the inter-town routes States what arrangements are to be made for the development of the new green quarters and new green towns, and the order in which they will be built

Town and pedshed action plans Approval of the master-plan is followed by preparation of action plans describing how the individual pedsheds are to be developed in accordance with the master-plan and the ConnectedCity guidelines, and integrated into the towns in which they are located.

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Delivery

Ref Masterplan 3PCworksession

ConnectedCity plans are derived from an ‘open source’ common template which is modified to accord with local circumstances in order to make most efficient use of personnel and resources. Templates are also used when preparing pedshed plans.

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Guidelines These guidelines provide a template within which stakeholders can develop inside a pedshed as they wish. Their purpose is to ensure that the ConnectedCity as whole functions efficiently and sustainably while giving the freedom of every community to shape its own form.

Sustainability is king All ConnectedCity development to be best practice of sustainable building, energy use/generation, water consumption/disposal, waste disposal, biodiversity, etc.

Keep within the pedshed Sustainable transport provision can only be achieved within pedsheds. Development beyond, however tempting, is not sustainable. When acquiring land for a new green quarter or new green town, the development corporation will inevitably acquire land outside the pedshed. This land must be community forest, amenities such as playing fields, or retained in agricultural use. It must not be used for housing.

Observe the pedshed principles The pedshed principles must be adhered to, even in existing towns and where they involve spending more on public works. Protected walkways must serve all new dwellings, and be retrofitted into existing areas where possible. The pedshed diagrams attempt to impose order on the pedshed, with the villages and the employment areas arranged around the core and the main circulation route running through them. Their circular form, suggested by Howard’s garden city diagram, and keeping development within walking distance of the station, should however be apparent only from the air.

Town growth zones Within town growth zones, in addition to planned developments, unplanned development is encouraged by permitted development rules to allow e.g. • • • • •

One additional storey 5m rear extension to height main building roof Single storey combined rear and side extensions Conversion of buildings to maximum 4 flats Change of use between office/retail/commercial/housing for buildings less than 400 sq.m

In addition Plot Passports allow owners to build additional dwellings on the land of existing buildings. They are issued by the local authority to all plots, and define parameters within which development is permitted such as daylight/sunlight, back to back distances, retention of valuable trees, appropriate materials, etc. Within these limits property owners are free to develop provided there is an increase in dwellings. Adjacent plot-owners are encouraged to consider combining plots to maximise potential.

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Delivery Ref 590g110d02 - Pedshed Diagram

Pedshed principles diagram showing the combination of all nine principles. The principles can be applied in many different ways. Provided the guidelines are followed a community can opt for anything between single storey houses or towers surrounded by open land, or a combination of both.

Ref 590g110d02

Breakdown of elements of the pedshed by area.

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ConnectedCities

New green quarters and new green towns The station, upgraded rail service and parts of the central core must be functioning before housing is occupied to ensure residents do not rely on cars. Land closest to the centre must be developed before land further away. There must be • • • • • • • •

Minimum overall housing density in each pedshed of 80-100 persons/hectare Ratio of green space to developed land within the pedshed of approximately 30:70 Car-free inner ring with only parking for car clubs. It must have a minimum density of approximately 220 pph or 100dph Minimum overall density of 50 dph in the ConnectedCity villages Maximum distance of 400m from any dwelling or workplace to countryside or a green corridor Home Zone standards on all residential streets Division of village sites into blocks, lots and plots to provide development opportunities for major housebuilders, local builders and self-builders Varied and attractive high streets with services and community facilities

Car policy ConnectedCity villages do not exclude cars, but they have a clear car policy with the following goals: • • • • • • •

Cars to be the first choice only in unusual circumstances (e.g. when moving heavy objects or going to locations not on the rail network) Pedestrians to have priority over cars Carriageways, pavements and verges to be uncluttered by parked vehicles Residents of the Core and High Density Mixed Use areas to have automatic access to car clubs if they wish Village residents’ personal parking to be protected, convenient but suitable only for scooters and small city cars Parking spaces for larger/extra cars and vans to be limited and sold/let separately from the dwellings, with a maximum ratio of 0.5 per dwelling Adequate visitor parking in designated spaces

Car policy will vary according to local circumstances.

Don’t let a motorway or fast main road spoil the pedshed Any motorway or fast main road passing through a pedshed must be separated by noise-screening earth barriers which are part of the green infrastructure network. The main circulation route through the villages, paths and walkways should be taken over or under the fast main road. Avoid new junctions, as they waste land and encourage car use.

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Delivery

Ref 590g111d02 - Diag CC village

ConnectedCity Village diagram, showing its links to the pedshed centre and neighbouring villages

Ref 590g111d01

Diagram showing possible relationships between housing, walkways and green space within a village

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ConnectedCities

Finance Seed finance Support for the early testing and analysis of ConnectedCities can come from many sources, including Government, local enterprise partnerships, local authorities, transport providers, landowners, housing associations, developers, interest groups, universities, etc.

Infrastructure finance Most of the finance for new public infrastructure will be provided by local authorities from their own resources, but will include developer contributions (e.g., via the community infrastructure levy), tax increment financing and government incentives regarding services (e.g. Health, Education, etc.) The Cities Act will free local authorities to use capital reserves and raise loans to develop ConnectedCities, and will ease restrictions on council tax increases. It may also repatriate the business rates collected by authorities adopting the Act and/or create a higher council tax band for the most expensive residential properties. ConnectedCities depend on timely and radical upgrades of the inter-town rail routes. Most of the finance for electrification and other improvements to the rail network is currently provided by Network Rail under its agreed programme but, if it is unwilling to fund a scheme despite the increase in usage, the Act will give local authorities the power to intervene. Development corporations for new green towns and new green quarters are public bodies and their early land acquisitions will be funded by long-term commercial loans underwritten by Government.

Development finance Apart from the infrastructure, the bulk of the finance for building the ConnectedCities will come from private sources, using the normal market methods. In most new green towns and some new green quarters housebuilders and housing associations will not have to buy land and only require construction and marketing finance. (See page 122) As long as people need it, social housing will be part of all new communities and will be provided by housing associations. Commercial developers’ provision of social housing under planning agreements will be confined to brownfield sites – mainly town growth zones and tentacle development in hub towns.

Long-term finance Once the early developments are built, pension funds and private investors will provide development corporations with long-term loans at reasonable rates on the security of their future income. When a development corporation is wound up the ConnectedCity council services its outstanding loans from the continuing ground rents. Over time, the inter-town routes will get busier and more profitable, the loans will be paid off, and the rising ground rents will carry more of the burden of local expenditure on education, social services, transport, etc. The benefit of ConnectedCities will then accrue to the Exchequer as savings on rate and revenue support grants. It is possible that most may eventually have no need of government assistance. 118


Delivery

Ref Financing TOD - Figure BO_1_1

Ref Finance_watering-plants

The ConnectedCities Foundation will provide initial guidance and support for those wishing to promote a ConnectedCity

Integrated land readjustment For new green quarters, land pooling as described by the World Bank for transit-oriented developments offers a mechanism which brings benefits to all parties. Landowners exchange their land for a new smaller parcel which has higher value thanks to a new station, higher densities and other local infrastructure.

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Implementation There are three basic development methods suitable for pedsheds. Generally: • Development briefs are suitable for town growth zones • Joint ventures are applicable to new green quarters and • Public land ownership is appropriate for new green towns However, the distinctions are not rigid, and the means used in each location will depend on local circumstances. Sometimes more than one method will be used in the same pedshed.

Town growth zones – development brief The local authority prepares a growth strategy for the town as a whole focused on development within the pedshed. It publishes a development brief for the pedshed to which landowners are encouraged to respond. These Town Growth Zone Action Plans: • • • • • •

Fix the boundaries of the zone Specify what new infrastructure, such as roads, paths and drainage are needed Contain detailed development briefs of key areas Set out more relaxed permitted development rules Extend or establish conservation areas where the relaxed rules will not apply Define the rules for Plot Passports issued to every building outside the conservation areas

Areas such as the station, and the mall to the old town centre if there is one, always have a detailed development brief. Other areas within the zone will have them as appropriate. Land and property owners within the zone respond to the new opportunities created by the more relaxed rules and the encouragement to develop. The uplift in property values which occurs when the growth zone is defined is captured by Community Infrastructure Levy. The new infrastructure required is funded by these developer contributions and the local authority in conjunction with the Department for Transport, Department for Communities and Local Government, etc., which have a brief to assist ConnectedCities. The process is planned but piecemeal, market-driven and uses the existing planning and land ownership mechanisms.

New green quarters – joint venture New green quarters are on land at the edges of existing towns, which tends to have a reasonably high development expectation value. As a result there is little benefit from using compulsory purchase powers unless landowners are very intractable. Since large areas are being developed a Joint Development vehicle is formed by the landowners, the Local Authorities and developers, to which each brings their expertise and resources. Refer to the diagram on the previous page which illustrates the process. Funding for the pedshed core and station comes from the Community Infrastructure Levy, the rail network and developers.

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Delivery

Ref Implementation

Once the ConnectedCity is formalised, the existence of common templates and delivery mechanisms allows work on site to be started rapidly

New green towns - compulsory purchase for community land ownership A development corporation is appointed by the local authority (or authorities) to procure the delivery of the town. It prepares an action plan in consultation with the town or parish council and acquires the land needed at compulsory purchase value, which will generally be low as the site will have small expectation value. Commercial sites are sold on long leases, contributing to the infrastructure funding. Houses are built under licence from the development corporation. When completed they are usually sold to individual purchasers on very long leases with an index linked ground rent, providing long term income against which the corporation can borrow. Developers and Individuals can build the houses without having the expense of land purchase or obtaining planning permission. Existing villages within the pedshed remain in private ownership and are developed in the same way as town growth zones. Infrastructure costs fall on the development corporation, with assistance from the highway authority. In the post-war UK New Towns the houses were rented from the development corporation. ConnectedCities offers a new procurement method that allows the houses to be bought and sold on the open market while the land itself stays in public ownership.

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ConnectedCities

Land tenure and procurement Land for new green towns, and often new green quarters, is usually brought into public ownership, either by agreement or under compulsory purchase powers. The route is: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Development Corporation (DC) buys the land freehold at compulsory purchase values Commercial sites are sold on 99 year leases – providing funding source for infrastructure Housing sites are not sold, but made available free to builders under contracts requiring the corporation to grant a 3000 year lease of each completed house The builder can be a self-builder, a small builder or a volume house builder, but has to start building on the land in accordance with the DC guidelines within two years and complete within three or the contract lapses The DC owns the land in perpetuity, and is prevented from selling housing plots by its constitution The lease provides for the payment of a ground rent for the enjoyment of the land, the value of which remains with the corporation. The ground rent is tied to an appropriate index, so it rises with inflation The builder sells each completed house to purchasers (or the self-builder completes his house) and calls on the corporation to grant the 3000 year lease. The lease is granted to the purchasers First-time buyers can be allowed a rent holiday of a number of years, during which they only have to pay mortgage instalments. This gives time for their income(s) to rise and the real cost of their mortgage payments to reduce due to inflation The house may become forfeit in the event of non-payment of the ground rent, so house owners and their mortgagees must both ensure that this does not happen When house owners want to move they sell the lease on the open market and the new purchasers then pay the ground rent The DC borrows against future rental income to fund infrastructure investment When the DC has repaid the land acquisition costs it is wound up and the ground rents go to the ConnectedCity council to be used for the benefit of the city

This method: • • • •

Allows developers and self-builders to begin building immediately, without having to pay for the land or obtain planning permission Ensures that developers’ profits come from the value added by constructing the dwellings, exactly as a manufacturer’s profit is made Breaks the link between house prices and land prices, providing a rapid supply of housing Allows the development corporation, when fixing the ground rent, to share the uplift in value with purchasers and thus make all the housing affordable

As the ground rents will continually rise with inflation, they are a reliable source of future income against which, even before they become payable, the development corporation can borrow. Although ConnectedCities prefers the above approach, the principles of which were at the core of Howard’s original thinking, there are similar methods which have been proposed. Co-operative Land Banks (CLBs) own the land, and their shares are distributed to residents pro-rata to the area occupied by their dwelling. Ownership in a dwelling or commercial building takes the form of shares in the CLB and a transferable lease from the CLB. Leases on dwellings are perpetual. Those for other buildings are time-limited. Residents gain equity in the entire site, not just the area occupied by their dwelling. The CLB is a company with shares, but there is one vote per resident no matter how many shares they may hold. ‘Pioneer’ homebuyers are issued their share gratis. Later buyers purchase the dwelling from the previous owner and the shares for the land from the CLB. 122


Ref IMG_4375

Delivery

Ref Financing TOD - Figure o_1

Ref image for land tenure and procurement

Market value of House on Land

Cost of Land

Money available for house

The value of a house in the open freehold market system consists of two elements: land and building. The person who is prepared to pay most for the land gets to build the house. But since the package of land and house together has a fixed value determined by how much potential purchasers can afford, the person who has paid the most for the land has to build the cheapest house. If the land is removed from the equation builders are no longer competing on how much they will pay for it. Instead they are competing on how attractive a product they can offer for the money which the house purchaser has available after paying land rent.

Land values and their attribution within a new green town

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ConnectedCities

Financial model A financial model is essential for all ConnectedCities.

New Green Town model

A New Green Town Development Corporation requires a model of the capital sum which will be required to purchase the land, infrastructure costs, and the receipts from lease sales and rents. Below is an example.

Costs - Land Purchase

To build a town of 300 hectares requires the compulsory purchase of 500 hectares at ‘compulsory purchase value’, which is not simply agricultural cost, but has to allow for reasonable expectation of development value. This must be one of the variables of the model, as different sites will have different expectations. On the edge of an existing town it will be high, in the middle of nowhere low. For the purposes of the example it has been taken as twice the current market value of agricultural land.

Tenure

The model assumes that the land is held by the NGT Development Corporation in perpetuity. Commercial sites are sold on 99 year leases. Housing sites are made available on 3000 year leases with a rental which covers:

• • •

The loan on the purchase cost of the land The cost of infrastructure Contribution to the running cost of the town

all amortised over 30 years.

Costs - Infrastructure

Roads, drainage, water supply, flood alleviation, refuse disposal, power supplies, etc., are included in the model. However, health and education capital cost are assumed to be funded elsewhere. A new station and associated works are included, but the funding of additional rolling stock, etc. will come from transport providers.

Income & Receipts

After house sites are allocated the occupier has to pay rent from an agreed date. Once the houses are built they can be sold on the open market, but the new owner must pay the land rent payments. The other major source of income is from sale of leases on commercial sites and commercial rent receipts in mixed use areas.

Assumptions

The station and some of the town centre must be in place before dwellings can be occupied. The example assumes that the station and a ‘wedge’ of one ConnectedVillage and the Mixed Use area between it and the station will be built first. This is approximately 1/5 of the total land. Later wedges follow.

• • • • • •

124

The land acquisition is apportioned to one ‘wedge’, i.e.100 ha. of land @ £40,000/ ha. (£8,000/acre x 2 to account for the CPO price, including development potential, being twice the market price as agricultural land) Cost of infrastructure - £5m for railway and £50m for town infrastructure Land rents for market/private units are based on yield of 1.25% on Open Market Value - a typical 5% yield, but x 25% to account for rent being due only on the land Rents for affordable rented units are @ 70% of market rents, are also based on 25% of the normal yield Infrastructure management costs @ £2,000/unit/year for the residential units and, for the commercial units, at a cost per sq. m. that corresponds to £2,000/unit There are no running costs (management/maintenance costs) for the housing or commercial units as these will be borne by others


Ref 590g790d00

Delivery

Ref 590g904d00

Conclusion

Diagram of New Green Town showing Phase 1 ‘wedge’ of development

Cashflow of phase 1 over 30 years

The whole ‘single wedge’ development comes out of deficit after 26 years, assuming a 30 year term on the mortgage, and has accumulated a surplus of £11m after 30 years. The running annual shortfall on the cash flow will be treated as an ‘overdraft’ by arrangement with the lenders. Considering the approximate nature of this exercise, these deficits are within the margin of error. Thus the whole town of five ‘wedges’ can be built within 30 years, generating a surplus in excess of £50m.

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Planning for Prosperity Globally we are at a crossroad. The UN predicts that, ‘By 2030, almost 60 per cent of the world’s population will live in urban areas, and 95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in the developing world. The world’s cities today account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions. 828 million people live in slums and the number keeps rising.’ ConnectedCities offers a route which directs this momentum towards locations and settlements which house people in a manner which allows them to live prosperous lives that are in contact with both the city and the countryside - without it costing the Earth. It is not possible to accommodate all the predicted population growth on brownfield sites, so there has to be some greenfield development. But truly sustainable development requires that brownfield and greenfield development must be coherently integrated. Using the ConnectedCities methodology development is not normally permitted unless it is both part of a ConnectedCity and is within walking distance of inter-town public transport with a high level of service. All undeveloped land is protected, including national and regional parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty and sites of special scientific interest. Without these criteria being satisfied any development will be environmentally and socially unsustainable: it will generate private car usage with the associated congestion and carbon footprint, and not be integrated into its host communities. Only within a pedsheds of a ConnectedCity is there a presumption in favour of development. By utilising both brownfield and greenfield development in these sustainable locations ConnectedCities can accommodate all predicted growth to 2080 and beyond. Growth will only be encouraged in these federations of existing and new towns linked by existing permanent way public transport with a high level of service. Concerns about the impact of development on historic towns and the countryside germinated the idea. Analysing the towns on the rail lines showed that densification around existing stations could accommodate a good percentage of the growth. However, other locations would be required to meet the shortfall. Hence the proposal for new stations with new settlements. Ebenezer Howard, the garden city movement and the post-war policy-makers and planners who created both the green belt and the new towns, saw no inconsistency between properly located and planned new settlements and preserving the countryside. ConnectedCities continues this tradition. It may be that some prosperous areas will choose to resist accommodating any of their pro-rata quota of the new population, but they are given the option of supporting expansion elsewhere. ConnectedCities is a means of planning for future growth (whether high or low) in a manner that means people will not be dependant on cars, and does the least damage to the countryside we all love. It is a framework for defining sustainable development locations and allowing local decisions to guide it to the correct places. We are about to enter a critical debate in the next few years. If humanity is to preserve its legacy and hand it on to future generations undamaged we must start planning now.

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Ref 590c750

Delivery

Actions - The future is now

Today’s Famous Five will inherit the planet we leave them.

1. Look on the Website – learn more and see examples of potential ConnectedCities at www.connectedcities.co.uk 2. Use the methodology – use the on-line tool to understand how they will work 3. Check out your area – run a simulation to investigate the options in your neighbourhood 4. Sign up – get involved with others in your location to discuss its future 5. Lobby – utilise the on-line links to influence your local decision-makers 6. Contribute – assist the ConnectedCities Foundation 7. Invest – benefit from the future prosperity of your chosen area by investing in: • • •

Shares in the ConnectedCities Development Corporation A retirement property in a community with a green future A plot of land on which to build your dream home

and later: • • • • •

Investment bonds in your ConnectedCity A new green town/garden city company/co-operative A green construction company for the new sustainable buildings A mutual training company to deliver the necessary skills Crowdsourced startups benefitting from ConnectedCity incentives 127


ConnectedCities

Credits ConnectedCities was the brainchild of Oliver Christopherson, a lawyer educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge who specialised in land law, and who had a lifelong passion for town planning and the Bahai Faith. Brian Q Love is a Chartered and Registered Architect, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and member of the Town and Country Planning Association. He is also a Bahai. The documents describing ConnectedCities have been created with the assistance of very many hard working supporters including, in alphabetical order: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Avishek Subba Bejal Keshav Elisavet Dimitriou Francesca Borghi Graham Freer Kamal Benissad Lalit (Leo) Chauhan Marwa Altai Michelle Blom Sabatino Torchitti Veronica Petruzzi Wasim Khalfey

Contact us ConnectedCities Ltd 59 Lambeth Walk Waterloo SE11 6DX @

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020 7993 4690 admin@ConnectedCities.co.uk


Planning for Prosperity

Illustration Credits 1 2 3

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590g700 590g791d01 – Gold rail green uk 2010 home_590g0110d03-450 590g0111d01 590g0112d02 590g0113d02 Concept1_590w037 Concept_village 11 New Routes_590g792d01 – Gold rail green uk 2050 590g745 590g0102d03 590g784d02 590g753d00 590g752d00 590g755d00 590g754d00 House prices_590w032 590g704d03 590g704d03 590g0104d01 Tentacles_590g0106d03 Sister towns_590g0100d03 – CC Towns Green belt_tring Walking & Cycling – 590c723 Walking & Cycling – 590c720 Local6_590w015 590g745 Inter-town_590W004 freight-train-328763_1280 file4051287945127 file0001572130494 Walk2_bobli gardens #2 590w002 – cycle-hire Getting about3_590w003 Getting about6_590w007 – tram Local4_590w033 PRT1_590w035 Cars_NHS Getting about8_590w013 intertownrail 740a700 Freight_590w009 New station_590w030 file6701235655724 590g781d00 590g784d00 590g787d01 590g782d00 590g785d00 590g786d01 590g783d00 590g788d01 590g789d01 590g1114d03 590g752d00 590g782d00 590g1114d03 590g1114d03 590g753d00 590g785d00 590g1114d03 590g787d01 590g757 – College Atrium escalator-249667_1280 file0001651989947 590g756d01 – Freight – SRFI_diagram 590g01112d01

Source Public domain Friends of the Foster Country - http://crbell.orpheusweb.co.uk/fofconlyc/nl/nl0609.html ConnectedCities Ltd. base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group Public domain Andrew Whittaker - http://www.picturesofengland.com/England/Kent/Aylesford/pictures/1061048 ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. base image from Google, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Photo : morguefile.com Public domain Public domain Photo: Andrew Crowley Public domain Public domain Kubik Petr Designer Ultra global prt - http://www.ultraglobalprt.com/ Public domain Public domain Photo : Sunil Prasannan - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Unit_378149_at_Crystal_Palace.JPG ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects - http://pcparch.com/project/transbay-transit-center-and-tower Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. Photo : North Hertfordshire College Phote : Erge - https://pixabay.com/it/scala-mobile-verso-il-basso-berlino-249667/ Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd.

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ConnectedCities

1 2 3

Attribution alone – BY – Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works and remixes based on it. Please cite the work as follows: ConnectedCities Ltd. 2016. ConnectedCities – A Global Sustainable Development Strategy. Attribution alone – BY – Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works and remixes based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits (attribution) in the manner specified by these. Public domain – CC0 – Freeing content globally without restrictions

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Copr.

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3 2 1 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 3 3

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590g700 590g791d01 – Gold rail green uk 2010 home_590g0110d03-450 590g0111d01 590g0112d02 590g0113d02 Concept1_590w037 Concept_village 11 New Routes_590g792d01 – Gold rail green uk 2050 590g745 590g0102d03 590g784d02 590g753d00 590g752d00 590g755d00 590g754d00 House prices_590w032 590g704d03 590g704d03 590g0104d01 Tentacles_590g0106d03 Sister towns_590g0100d03 – CC Towns Green belt_tring Walking & Cycling – 590c723 Walking & Cycling – 590c720 Local6_590w015 590g745 Inter-town_590W004 freight-train-328763_1280 file4051287945127 file0001572130494 Walk2_bobli gardens #2 590w002 – cycle-hire Getting about3_590w003 Getting about6_590w007 – tram Local4_590w033 PRT1_590w035 Cars_NHS Getting about8_590w013 intertownrail 740a700 Freight_590w009 New station_590w030 file6701235655724 590g781d00 590g784d00 590g787d01 590g782d00 590g785d00 590g786d01 590g783d00 590g788d01 590g789d01 590g1114d03 590g752d00 590g782d00 590g1114d03 590g1114d03 590g753d00 590g785d00 590g1114d03 590g787d01 590g757 – College Atrium escalator-249667_1280 file0001651989947 590g756d01 – Freight – SRFI_diagram 590g01112d01

Source Public domain Friends of the Foster Country - http://crbell.orpheusweb.co.uk/fofconlyc/nl/nl0609.html ConnectedCities Ltd. base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group base image from Google, Getmapping plc, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky, DigitalGlobe, The GeoInformation Group Public domain Andrew Whittaker - http://www.picturesofengland.com/England/Kent/Aylesford/pictures/1061048 ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. base image from Google, Infoterra ltd & Bluesky ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Public domain Photo : morguefile.com Public domain Public domain Photo: Andrew Crowley Public domain Public domain Kubik Petr Designer Ultra global prt - http://www.ultraglobalprt.com/ Public domain Public domain Photo : Sunil Prasannan - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Unit_378149_at_Crystal_Palace.JPG ConnectedCities Ltd. Public domain Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects - http://pcparch.com/project/transbay-transit-center-and-tower Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd. Photo : North Hertfordshire College Phote : Erge - https://pixabay.com/it/scala-mobile-verso-il-basso-berlino-249667/ Public domain ConnectedCities Ltd. ConnectedCities Ltd.


Planning for Prosperity

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Profile for ConnectedCities

ConnectedCities  

A global sustainable development strategy

ConnectedCities  

A global sustainable development strategy

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