ESP HANDBOOK AND WORKSHOP KIT THE IRELAND MAGIC CO.
From left to right, Arthur Hastings, Jay Marshall, Dr. Joseph Banks Rhine, and Robert Parrish. As a scientist, Dr. Rhine's brushes with magicians are infrequent, altho John Mulholland and Wallace Lee are among his friends. When Dr. Rhine lectured in Illinois recently, the magicians pictured above were interested to hear him speak on Extra Sensory Perception. Arthur Hastings arranged a luncheon at Elder Hall, Northwestern University, April 27, 1960 and Fabian snapped the above picture at that time.
ESP HANDBOOK WORKSHOP KIT With contributions Bert Allerton Tony Corinda U.F. Grant Arthur Hastings Edward Mario Joseph White
ÂŠ Copyright I960 Ireland Magic Co. Reprinted 1963 Compiled, Copyright & Published by Ireland Magic Co. 109 N. Dearborn St. Chicago 2, Illinois
Y A r t h u r Hastings
THE STUDY OF ESP
For his own protection, every mentalist should be familiar with some of the scientific investigations of extrasensory perception. A member of his audience will often appear after a performance and say. " Let me tell you of an odd thing which happened to my Aunt Grace last year, . . . " And the mentalist is certain to hear about what seems ( to the spectator, at least) to be a psychic incidents Or someone may ask about the experiments at Duke Uni versity, or one of the many other places where research is continuing on ESP. As a mentalist, you are expected to be able to comment on these subjects. This article will mention some of the more important aspects of study in parapsychology, which is the general name for the field ( "para" means beyond). This will be useful (1) as information about a subject on which mentalists are expected to be informed, and (2) as background for patter and presentation of mentalism. There are three types of extrasensory perception which have been tested with ESP cards. The effects of mentalists are almost all included in these three categories, and I will explain them in terms of mental effects. Clairvoyance. This is the perception of an object without the use of the "senses"- and no one else must know what it is, either, so that telepathy will not be possible. For example, a spectator takes a card from the deck and places it in an envelope without looking at it. You go into a trance and name the card. This would be clairvoyance. But pure clairvoyance, as an effect, is rare in mental acts, because usually the spectator looks at the object, which means you could be reading his mind, not just "receiving" the object. However, a living and dead test can be considered clairvoyance, a blindfold seeing-with-the-fingertips effect is also clairvoyance. A two person mental act in which one person identifies objects is supposedly clairvoyance, tho telepathy also could be claimed. Telepathy. Most of the mentalist's effects are apparent telepathy. The spectator thinks of a card, word, or diagram. After appropriate spasms, the mentalist announces the thought. The scientist might comment that clairvoyance could be claimed here, but the mentalist finds that the assertion of telepathy is more spectacular . Precognition. This is the technical name for predicting the future. The prediction of newspaper headlines, a card or word later selected, or the winner of the Derby are all precognition effects. Modern research in this field of parapsychology began in 1934 at Duke University, under the direction of D r . J . B . Rhine, who founded the Parapsychology Laboratory there. From Duke, inter2
est has spread to persons in many other universities and institutions, including New York University, University of Pittsburgh, University of London, several private foundations, and even Westinghouse Electric, At first, scientists and psychologists were sceptical of these experiments - they considered them " spiritualism" and "mystical". In 1938, a survey was taken of the Fellows of the American Psychological Association, Only nine percent of them thought ESP to be a fact or likely possibility. However, as more experimenters became interested and the studies became more precise, more persons began to accept the findings. In 1952, another survey of the Fellows of the APA revealed that 17 percent accepted ESP as a fact or likely possibility, and 89 percent agreed that the area should be studied. At present, interest in the field is still increasing , tho many still do not accept ESP as established. What is the difference between the mentalist and the scientist in demonstrating ESP? The mentalist may demonstrate his powers by letting a spectator think of one word from a 50,000 word dictionary, and then telling the spectator what word he has chosen. Theoretically, the scientist could try the same thing to test ESP. But this would not be sufficiently precise; there are too many uncontrolled factors. He must be able to completely control all the conditions; and he must be able to establish that his results are due to ESP rather than coincidence - he must eliminate all sensory perception and coincidence , in other words, and prove that only extrasensory perception is left. The proof can be done mathematically. The most familiar experiment with the ESP cards uses the usual deck of 25 cards. If you went thru the deck and guessed the symbols, you would get a chance average of 5 correct for each run of 25. When the hits number 7,8, or 9 over several runs, some extra-chance factor is operating - and it may be ESP. Let me describe a typical experiment to test for ESP. The sender is in one room, the receiver is in an adjoining room. The sender has a deck of ESP cards. These are shuffled mechanically. The test begins and the sender looks at the first card, recording it on the score sheet. The receiver records his impression on his score sheet, and signals by means of a buzzer that he is ready for the next card. The sender picks up the second card and the process is repeated,, This continues. At least one hundred cards are guessed each time, and in the usual experiment, several hundred are tried. The records on each end are kept separately,usually under the observation of an experimenter, and compared after the series are over. If the receiver has hit about 5 cards per 25, then he is scoring at the chance level. However, if he scores higher than this over the several hundred guesses, some other factor is operating. 3