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"EL PARQUE DE LAS CIENCIAS"
BY DANIEL M. MACt1ASTER
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica Canadá 308 - Teléfono 744537 - Casilla 297-y Santiago - Chile
REPORT OF DANIEL M. MACMASTER, President Emeritus
Chicago Nuseum of Science and Industry and Museum Consultant
PO: Comisi贸n Nacional de Investigaci贸n Cient铆fica y Tecnol贸gica (CONICYT) Departamento de Fomento
prepared irt Santiago, Chile November, 1978
CONTEN'!S ti *q*
Consultant's Proqram of Activities While in Chile
Summary of Cosultant's RecommefldatiOns
Notes Concerriing General p lans arid perspective
Drawings Attached 4.
Governance, Executive Control, Adrninistration and
St aff i ng S.
Site and Building Considerations
Time Schedule for Completion
Expression of Appreciation
AP? ENDICES 1. preliminary Documents a. Request to O.A.S. by CONICYT fac Technical A ssi st ence b. Response by Consultant c. Tentative Program Suggested by CONICYT ci. Response by Consultant and Suggested Agenda 2.
The Science Museum Comtnittee Cmittee by Cerisult$flt
3. Opening Statement to Science
4. Rsportse from Science Musewn
S. Btographical Material Concerning
6. suggested Plan and Perspectivo Drwings
RE W O R D
This report is respectfully submitted by science rnuseum consu].tant MacNaster whose services the Chilean Government requested through the Organization of American States to render advice on the organization and administration of a museun of science and technoloqy in Santiago, Chile.
1. Consultant's Program of Activities While in Chile During the period of my consulting mission, from October 18 to November 15, 1978, 1 visited a variety of educational, cultural, recreational, industrial and research activities where briefings were heid with their resective staffs as well as were meetings with representatives of governznental agencies and their components. Formal and informal meetings were heid with the president of CONICYT, the head of its Department of promotiort of Science and Technology, Vr. José Manuel Cousifo, Mr. Enrique Dellacasa and Miss Elena Acuña of his staff. Meetings also were held with the Members of the Technological Museum Committee consisting of: Mrs. Grete Mostny, Mr. Juan Infante, Mrs. María Elena Troncoso, Mr. José Manuel Drouilly as well as and Dellacasa, Mrs. Jeannette Charney and
1 was received with great cordiality and a spirit of cooperation by Santiago Mayor Patricio
Mr. Enrique Campos
Menéndez, National Director of Museums of Libraries, Ana María Prat, Director of CENID, Director General M. Wayne Sartdvig and Director General Adjunto William R. Corthorn of Fundación Chile, Mr. Jaime Fortessa at La Moneda, Mr. Guillermo A. Belt, Director of O.A.S. Offices in Chile, Mr. Oscar AgUero, Chief of the Department of International Affairs of CONICYT, and many others for briefings, discussions and the exchange of views of the subject of the proposed Museum of Science and Technology. Several detailed visits of irispection and study were made to the proposed site for the.Museum in the area on Avenida Alameda adjacent to the Universidad Técnica for conferences with
the architects, engineers and designers of the overall plan for the area as well as for exarninations with them arid other Universidad staff members of the detailed plans for the proposed Planetarium.
'?ith the collaboration of Architect Rubén Vieyra, to whom my great thanks are expressed, a plan and persective drawing were produced of my suggested proposal for the utilization of the site for both the Science Nuseum and the Planetariurn -the area to be called "El Parque do las Ciencias"- with a central reception building to which each would be connected operatig under a single Board and Staff. The drawings referred to abo y e are a part of this report and are described in detail elsewhere herein. To further orient and inform m y self, to the degree possihle in a brief period, on the nature of the city, and its people who will be the visitors to the Juseum, 1 traveled alone, and accompanied by others, throughout t--he city and surroundirig areas by foot, automobile, bus and the retro observing business and industrial
areas, resideritial areas of various income leveis, traffic patterns, the location of schools, institutions of higher education, public transportation facilities, places of worship, stores and shoppinç centers, theatres, restaurants, hoteis, San Cristóbal Hill and its funicular railway as well as its Enoteca arid Sheraton Hotel, Santa Lucía Hill and its special features, Forestal and O'Higgins Parks and its El Pueblito, La Moneda, under reconstruction, the Palacio Cousiño, the Teatro unicipa1 for a performance there, the Cathedral and more. 1 went on excursions to Laguna de Aculeo, Viña del Mar, Valparaíso and elsewhere, visited the FISA, and in all ways possible made a coriscientioris effort to put myself in the position of a
citizen of the community rather than that of an outsider isolated and insulated from the populatiori who will be the constant users of the proposed Science Iuseum. Through the courtesy of my new found friends 1 had the opportunity to visit several houses and apartments, to be present at social gatherings, dinners and receptions at houses and at Museums, to meet many persons from various walks of life in an informal manner and to learn their views of the proposed Museum of Science and Technology and the idea of cornbining it with the proposed planetarium in a unique addition to Santiago "El Parque de las Ciencias". 1 found tremendous support and enthusiasm for the project. At the first formal meeting of the Committee on the Technology Museum. 1 presented a previously prepared "openinq statement" as an introduction to the subject. It is appended herewith as an integral part of this report as is the response from the Cornrtittee to it and to a suggested agenda for discussion here which 1 prepared in advance and forwarded.
Summary of Recommendations As the result of study and observatiori and with the mutual agreement of the committee, it is my coriviction that a coriternporary Museum of Science and Technology, utilizing the proven techi q ues of effective cornmunications and dissemiation of knowledge through the utilization of visitor-involvement and audience-participatiori devices, should be established in Santiago with all deliberate haste. In fact, in view of the particular and special need for such en institution in Santiago, because of the country's unique geographical location and configuration, lying as it does between the mountains and the sea, it is my hope that the irnmediate development and compietion of such an institution might receive special priority. Such en institution,presenting as it will for all of the Chileari public arid for growing mumbers of foreigri tourists to see, the basic principies of conternporary science and their application to Chiie's life, culture and economy today, tomorrow, and for the years to come, would constitute a high profile demonstration of Chiie's growing positiori of importance in the world at large. Such an institution, it is my conviction, should reflect the unique and admirable nature of Chile, rather than be a replicatiori in whole or in part of a United States or European one. It should reflect proudly the cultural heritage of Chile and should be aimed at all of the comporients of the Chilean public, employing the techniques, which experience in Chile, not eisewhere, iridicates are successful, effective and, most importantly, welcomed by the people of Santiago and the nation as a whole.
my considered judgeinent that such an institution,
all of the individuals of the community, and with every effort
encourage its use by the entire populatiori, will prove to be the rnost heavily visited cultural facility in the country. 1 believe that individuals, students and farnilies will ernbrace such an institution not orLiy as a significant, non-formal educational institution, which
prove to be, but also as a much welcomed, highly regarded and thoroughly appreciated socially - contributing recreational facility for al].. One million visitors per year would not be an unreasonable expectation for such an institutiori. 1 believe that such an institution will be of truly significant value in a variety of ways to the schools and universities, to the qovernmental establishment at all levels
the population in general. 1 believe also that it will prove to be a rnost significant tourist attraction and that t-te revenue derived from theexpenditureS of tourists in Chile will substantially justify the cost of the projected iristitution. This henefit would be in addition to the irtstitution's contributiort as an educational and recreational and sociahly clesirable facihity to the people of all ages of Santiago and Chile. Foliowing independent study anddiscuSSion,afld wjth this consuitartt in attendarice as wehl, it was rnutually agreed that the basic functon of the institution would be to disserninate information Qn scierice and technology to all of the conponents of the pubhic; that while sorne historial rnaterials would be displayed, in order to give perspective, the primary function of the institution
in the future would be to ernphasize present day, contemporary, rnodern
technology and to look constantly to the future, that basic research in the physical and biological sciences or in technology would not be a function of the institution, that the institution would avoid an encyclopedic or broad and ah - ernhracinq approach to the subject matter but would confine itself to t ^i ose fields of science, industry and technoloqy directly related to Chile such as food, nutrition agriculture, marine resources, telecommunications, electronics,urban and rural network planning, computer programs, mining and rnetalhurgy, ecology and other Chilean - related fields of subject matter and the basic sciences of physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, as well as the technology and iridustry associated therewith. In the appendix of this report is the response from the Museum Committee which sums up that qroup's concensus. It is also my strong recommendation that the proposed Planetarium be located together on a single site and be administered as a single unit.
Notes Concerning General p lans and perspective Drawings Attached The layout of buildings, public amenities and landscaping features shown on the attached drawings are not to be considered definitive or final. They represent rnerely a demonstration study of the fact that the proposed Science Museum and Planetarium can be accomodated in a highly efficient and desirable manrer in the triangular area proposed on Alameda adjacet to the capus of the Universidad TĂŠcnica. The two iristituttons are shown connected by an elliptical structure designed to serve as the puhlic reception center, the dining, check-room and souvenir sales facility as well as to house the heating, ventilating and air-conditioniflq installation for the entire cornplex, including the Science Museum and the Planetarium. The grourtd f loor of the structure would serve as the public reception area, with book and souvenir sales and check-room facilities. The floor below would house the restaurant and kitchen,
washrooms and mechanical facilites. Outdoor dinirig would be available on cortnected terraced areas on the lower level in two places, one toward Alameda, the other toward Ecuador, hoth of which could be seen by the rjublic frorn te outside and would attract visitor attention. The second level of the building would serve as an attractive galiery for special events, receptions and temporary exhibitioris. The entire central building would be connected, on the ground f loor
level arid on the second f loor level, to the Science
Museum on the one side and the planetarium on the other side by glass-walled corinecting aall.eries. The roof of the structure could serve eventually, if not irnmediately, as a solar energy receiver to provide spaee heatirig, hot water and air conditioniri q energy and for exhibition and demonstration purposes as a scierLce exhibit. The Science Museurn building shown on the drawings represents a structure of 200.000 square feet of floor space. The area beyond the building, toward Ecuador, is availahie for an additional building of similar or lesser size when required at a future time. Such an addition could also be cortfined to one story building of 100.000 square feet of floor space, or less. The driveway shown between the Science Museum and Ecuador is to provide truck access to the building for the delivery and removal of exhihits arid equipment. Wheri the building is expanded the driveway would be shortened to connect with the new addition. The area betweeri the two le q s of the U-shaped driveway could be used irnmediately as an experimental or demonstration botanical or agricultural garden or as a site for large, outdoor, science museum exhibits to attract the attention of passersby. -.he central reception building is served by a driveway from Ecuador to accommodate private automobiles, school-grOUp and tourist-buses. After discharging their passengers at the entrance of the reception building they would proceed to park in the parking area beyond which would be a part of the total complex and would be made attractive by plantings of trees and bushes. -.he entire triangular area would be a park with reflecting pools, fountains, flowers, trees, bushes, flags and bar-iners, special lighting fixtures, etc.
While the science Museum is showri in these drawinqs as a two - story building it could be built as a one - story building occupyiflg its presently Lndicated area and the proposed expansiOfl area as well. However unless orovisions were made in the design and constructiOn of such a building to add a second floor at a later time, the Museum would be for ever locked irtto and restricted to a total of 200.000 square feet of floor space. In these drawinqS no attempt was made to indicate the archjtectUraldesig n of the exterior or interior of the Science MuseUm. This, of course, is an entirely different projeCt and is not to be influenced by the design suggested on these drawings. The design for the planetarium, however, is a wellconceived, thoroughly considered architeCtUral, mechaniCal and educationallY effectiVe plan ready for execution. The existence of the superb, new library of the Universidad TĂŠcnica irnmediateiY adjacent and accesible to the new Science Museurn and planetarium makes this site additionally desirable. In total, the new complex would comprise a new and unique additon to Santiago, and to Chile, to be known as "El Parque de las Ciencias".
Governance, Executive Control, AdrrtinistratiOfl and Staffing It is recommended that a Board of Goverriarice (using whatever term is comnon and will be readily understoodifl Chile) be duly and officially constituted by proper authority and issued an official corporate charter consistirxg of: - Ministro de Educación - Alcalde de Santiago - presidente de CONCYT - Rector Universidad Técnica del Estado - Ministro Vicepresidente de la Corporación de Fomento (CORFO) - presidente de la Corporación del Cobre (CODELCO) - presidente de la Academia de Ciencias - Presidente del Colegio de Ingenieros - presidente del Colegio Médico - Director Nacional de Museos Archivos y Bibliotecas, Ministerio de Educación - Director Generl de la Fundación Chile - Directora del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural - presidente de la Cámara Chilena de la Construcción - presidente de la Sociedad de Fomento Fabril (SOFOFP) - presidente de la Confederación de la producción y el Comercio This board should be empowered to, elect its own Chairman, possibly for a three year terrn to be extended for additional three vear terms by Board action, elect other off1cers'of the Board, appoint committees of the Board, hoid regular and special meetings,
develop lts own By-Laws and in general assume all of the duties of being res p onsible for all matters related to the institution. It is recommended that durin q this interim period this Board appoint an Executive Director who would carry out the policies arid directives decided upon by the Board. It is recommended that the present Conmittee en the Technology Museurn be desiqnated by the Board as its DeveloPmeflt Comrnittee to pursue with great diligence rnatters related to the establishment of the Nuseurn under the advice, conserit and approval of the Board and that the Executive Director of the Board be designated as the Chairman of the Development Committee. When the oroject is assured and the time has come for construction and operation it is recommended that the ExecUtiVe Director he phased out and a perrnanent organization be instituted as foliows: T'-e per-nanent staff of the Museum, as it is developed, it is recomrnended, should be divided into the foliowing categories. The Executive Office, consisting of the Chief Executive, the Director and Assistant Director and the necessary stenoraphiC and support personnel. The function of the office, operatina through estabhished procedures, would be to provide over-ali direction, to execute the policies arid directives of the Board, te supervise the department beads,to raise funds, to prepare the budqet with the cohlaboration of the Board and the Business Manager and to be responsible for
12. adherence to it, and in general to exercise all of the duties, functions and responsibilities of the Chief Executive of the corporatiOn. It is suggested that the Chief Executive be designated president of the institution arid be a fu1ltirne employe of the corporatiOfl serving at the discrtion of the Board, reporting to the Chairman of the Board, that he be an ex-officio rneber of ah comrnittees of the Board and in the absence of the Chairman and ViceChairnan of the Board shall be empowered to preside at meetings of the Board. The Office of Business Manager Headed by the Business Manager, this office is to handie all matters related to personnel payrohl, purchasing, handling of invoices, the business management of all revenue-producing related services such as dining facilities, souvenir and book sales, etc, etc., in the standard manner of an accounting and financal control office. t. 4
xhihits is to handie all matters
related to the design supervisiOn of construction, instahlation, renewal maintenance and repair of perrnanent and temporary exhibits.tJnder the Director of Exhibits would be assitarits, desigriers, artists, a shop uperintendent arid his assistants and craftsmen, and any other personnel necessary to carry out the functions and responsibihities of a viable xhibits procjram. The Office of Engineering Services for the Building and Grounds is to handie rnatters related te heating, ventilating and air-conditioning, the internal and external maintenance of the structures and grounds, etc.
The OperationS Office is te bandie the opening and closing of the huildinc, hiring, training and supervising of guides and guards, information des's, the receDtion and handling of the general public school groups, etc. The Office of Education is 'o initiate or review all exhibit plaris and p rogramS for tecinicai accurcy and appropriateneSS, rnaintain contacts with scools and universities, produce printed rnaterials of an educational nature and in general serve as the scientific and technical authenticatirig deoartmerit of the institution. The Public Relations Office is to prepare and dissemmiriate press, radio and televisi6n information and in general keep the institutiofl'S various publics inforrned concerning its prograrns and activities. Substantial efficiency in governance,administratiOfl and staffing would result from unifying the planetarium project with the Museum of TechnolOgy project into one. ;Jhile each would occupy its own
building, they should be under one Board and a single
executive, adinistrative and staff organizatiori. The two would be seen by the pubhic as a single presentatiori. The Museuru of Technology and the Planetarium located side by side in El Parque de Ciencias under a single rnanagernent. Futher econornies would be achieved by having common and single inforrnation and reception areas, dining facilities, washrooms, puhlic locker rooms, book and souvenir sales areas, heating and air condition facilities, etc., to serve both buildings, thereby eliminating duplication. Such abo y e mentioned facilities could be housed in one or the other of the building or preferably, in a
connectiflg entranCe hall gallery located betweeri the two and attached to each. By locatinq the useum of TechnoloĂ§y adacer.t to the Universidad TĂŠcnica additicnal advantages.tO both irtstitutions can result by utilizing the wealth of scientific and techriical expertise represented on the various faculties of the universidad to suqgest, desÂĄ-.n and create plans for rnuseurn exhibitS and to do basic research therehy elemtnatin: that functiori from the rnuseum's program. The universidad'S studets could be employed to serve as guide-lecturerS in the Museurn. Frorn the Universidad's standpoint, clearing the area between the Universidad'S present campus and locating the planetarium and the MUSCUm there will serve es "a window to the world" for the universidad whjch is now essentially isolated frorn public view.
Site and Building Considerations The geoqraphic s -i te for such an institution should be adequate for the irnmediate requirements of the building arid should provide sufficient area for future expansion (which in my opirtion will be essential as time goes on). It should also provide a park-like setting wjth atractive landscapinq, fountains and reflecting pools, and outdoor exhibits related to the nature of the Museum. It should be readily accesible via public and private transportation and by pedestriaris. It should provide space for parking, the loading and unloadirig of cars and group-tour buses and large delivery vehicles both for immediate rieeds and for the future when additional space for these purooses will inevitably be necessary. The site proposed adjacent to the Universidad TĂŠcnica and wjth froritage ori Avenida Alameda and with metro Statioris readily available would seem to fulfili all of these requirementS and to be are and ideal location for a variety of other reasons which mentioned in the section of this report on Governance, Executive Control, Adrninistratiofl and Staffing.
16. Building Considerations The building should be conceived primarily as a controlled environment and support system for the Museurn's exhibits and proqrams which it wjll house rather than as an end in itself. It should convey and conxnunicate to the visitor, even though he may not articulate or even cerehrate the fact that it does so, that the subject matter of the institution - science and technology - is of utmost significance and importance now and will continue to be increasingly so in the future. It should not be in appearance forhiddinq, as
public buildings are, but should be inviting and corivey psychologically a feelinq of the pleasure, enjoyrnent arid recreation which the exhibits withiri it will bring to visitors from all
of life - not only to
the learned or affluent or educated or those already familiar with the subject matter of science and technology. It sr-iould he as free of columns as possihle and should provide for maximum fiexibihity within, immediately and in the unpredictahle future. It shou1d be desigried to allow for expansion, a phenomenon wich every successful science museurn has experienced. The huildinq should be designed as a demonstration of the efficient use of materials
the conservation of energy. :n this
clirnate provisiori should be nade to utilize solar energy for space and hot water heating and air conditioning if not irnrnediately, certainly in the future. To the degree that it is feasible, the buildinq should be a science arid technology exhibit in itself demonstrating how a buil r1 ing works as far as load-hearinq consideratiorts, graphic statics, heatirq, ventilatinq, etc., tire concerriĂŠd. It shou'd he designed for ready access by the puhlic through the avoidance of stairs and for the convenience of the handicapped.
Few windows or large glass areas are recornrnended so that control of lighting within is possible. A large unloading dock is re q uired for receiving and dispaching large exhibit units with large freight elevator capacity for handling large and heavy units. Sufficient electric power capabilit y and convenient distribution of outlets throuqhout the buildinq are essential. -,he building should not be designed only to accomodate the original exhibit installations. Exhibits in a science rnuseurn shoUld be changed frequently to maintain public interest and to keeps abreast of new developments in science arid technology and exhibition design techniuues. Special features which the building should provide for are: A unique, attractive and unusual theatre of 300-400 capacity with equipment and facilities for the presentation of special dernonstrations, lectures, dramatic performances, concerts, etc. An area of sorne 20,000 square feet of floor space with a ceiling height of 30 feet to accornodate big arad soectacular exhibit units. A rnodest hut creatively designed library-audio-visuallearning-center for popular p rinted and audio-visual reference materials related to science and technoloqy. A temporary exhibits galiery of sorne 10,000 square feet of floor space for a constant strearn of changing exhibit presentations. A
food service facility with dining and kitchen accomo-
dations. A book and souvenir sales shop.
An impressive visitor reception area with Inforrnation Desk, check room facilities, telephones, etc. An area for receiving school groups with student orientation rooms, check room, school group lunch facilities, etc. Toilet and washrooms Maintenance and exhibit-onstruction shop facilities. Locker rooms for various groups of employees. An executive of f ice with adjacent reception and food service areas for receivincj distinguished visitors, receptions, Board meeting, etc. p ublic escalators and staff elevators where required. Staircases, corridors and connecting passageways out of sight of the visitor areas where required. Offices for adrninistrative staff and secretarial functions. A desiqn and drafting area Exhibit-storaqe areas Possibly a rnembers lounge wjth refreshrnent facilities. Mechanical support areas: fan room, janitors closets with water sink and draĂn facilities, etc. A fire protection system A Staff lounge area A First Aid room and related facilities Photographic dark rooms and laboratories A printlng and photocopying room A general file area A business-personnel office with appropriate accounting, payroli and related equipment.
Exhibit Prograrn The success of this rnuseum - or for that matter, any other institution - will depend upori its integrity, its well-defined objectives, the dedication and ability of its people, its administrative, executive and financial management skill, good fortune and probably a few other things. But in the case of a Museurn its success depends in large rneasure upon its exhibits and the degree to which they serve the needs and are accepted by its nublic. t'Iot any public. Its public. The role of a scierice museum is to provide revealation of what its viewers never knew or never even knew existed before, to broaderi their horizons, to inspire and stirnulate them to become a part of the thrust, the cutting edge of a more fulfilling human existence, to encourage initiative and resolve and deterrnination and mcidentally to learn sorne scientific and technical facts. It is my feeling that the
Museum we are
should not attempt to teil too much about too many things but should confine itself to the immediate environment. The science museum doesn't take the place of a formal school - that is essential. The science museum serves many other purposes and in addition augments the formal school and makes its task easier and its results more effective. People come to museums for educational recreation and the more recreational the presentation is, the more effective it is.
Tie museum experience rnust be enjoyable in order to be educational. Involvement is essential,is the sine qua non. What one enjoys he remembers. What is dull,uninteresting, painful, one puts from his mmd or forgets as soon as possible. Three-dimensional things in motion
appeal than static thins or pictures or qret blocks of material to be read. To many individuals reading isdifficult if not painful. Three-dimensional thinqs set into rnotion, operated by, controlled by the visitor are fascinating to him. Exhibits of ths kind dealing with suhjects close to home rather than foreiqn or abstract matters are particularly appealing. A series of exhibits of this kind dealinq proudly with Chile's technological present and future would insure the success of the Museum's exhibition program. Such an instttution is riot only for those in t'ie fields of science and technoloqy or for those who will eventually find their life-work in these fields. The science and technoloqy exhibit is designed to contribute to the cultural erilightenrnent of all to those who wihl become artists end poets and military officers and eritreprerteurs and pubhic servants and taxidrivrs just as the museurn of fine arts is not only for artistsor the historical, museurn for historians. The iristitution we are contemplatirig will rnake a unique and significant addition to the public cultural, educational and recreational resources of Santiago and the entire country.
A special, separate and most irnportant feature of this institution should be its "Traveling Exhibition Service". This would consist of a contiming series of science and technoloqy exhibits designed to be light and demountable, to be parked Into especially designed shipping containers and to he transported by rail or hihway to principal population ceiters througnout the country. There they would be set up in space availab.e in schools, libraries, tarkets, or public buildings for all to see. Ch1dren from surrounding rurdi areas could be brought by bus to uti.ie then. This procedure wculd serve as a hiqhly desirable out-reach prograrn of the institution in Santiago and might be combined into a total rnuseum out-reach program participated in by the art, history and natural hÂąstory museums.
The Budget It is proposed that the initial structure for the Museum be a twa story building consisting of approximately 200.000 square feet of floor space of whici roughly 125.000 square feet be devoted to exhibits with the rernainder devoted to supporting facilities outlined elsewhere in this report under Site and Building Considerations. 1 am not personaily familiar with the costs of building construction in Santiago but 1 am informed that such a building could be built for US$ 1,000,000. To thiá mist be added the cost of architectural and engineering services. To the extent that these services might be contributed by a State—upported University or by a Ministry such costs would not become a part of the budget for the Museun. Other possible sources for this technical assistance might be the Orgartization of ímerican States, or a contribution of services from private industry here or elsewhere. The cost of acquiring and clearing the land hetween the present confines of the campus of the Universidad Técnica and Avenida Alameda would, 1 assume, come from the govermment or the city or both. The costs of landscapinq and otherwise beautifying the site after the building is bui].t could, 1 assume, come from other city and national Ministries responsible for parks. The cost of furniture and fixturs would have to be estimated when preliminary plans for the building are cornpleted and might be in the order of magnitude of 15% of the building cost.
The cost of designing the exhibits would be influenced trernendouslv b y whether or not outside designers would be used as would te cost of constructirg the exhibits. These design and construction costs could range from USs 25 per square foot to US 100 per square foot amouriting to from USS 2,500,000 to US$ 10,000,000. Sources for these funds might be Chilean business organizations and foreign industrial cooperations doinq business in Chile, including but not limited to: General rotors, Frigidaire, IBM, Smithâ€”Corona Marchant, Xerox, Ford, Vollkswagen, Toyota, Siemens, Corning Glass,
Fiat, Mercedes Benz, International Harvester, ITT, ESSO, Mobil, Olivetti, etc. Operating costs would include payroll,energy, telephone, office supplies, building maintenance supplies, exhibit maintenance supplies, printing, etc. ;hile it would be impossible at this time, not knowing the detaile0 program of the institutions or Chilean wage
costs, to properly estirnate these operatinq costs the total operating budget for an institution of this size hased en experience in the United States would he in the order of USS 1,500,000.
Revnues to support
such a budget might derived from five basic sources: 1.
T8X revenue from City and State
2. Revenue from visitors through general admission charqes, special admission charges te special events, exhibit openings, lectures, performances, temporary exhibits, food services, the sale of books and souvenirs, etc.
3. Revenue from industrial corporations (in addition to funds for e.hibit construction) for the maintenance of individual exihits. 4. A mernbrship proara w-4 t'.-i various clases of members: corporate, founer, benef a ctor, life,
Frrilv, individual, stud rmt, etc.
S. Grnts and jifts frori individuals and foundattons in this country and abroad.
Time Schedule Factors to he considered in developing a working schedule for the realization of this project are te acquisiton and clearina of the land, the architectural, engineerinq, and landscapinq design and constructon of the buildings, grounds arid related utilities, the desiqn, construction arid tnstallationof exhibits, the recruitirty and training of personnel and the final oreparations for previewinq and openiriq the institution to the public. 1 have no knowledge as to the length of time that will he required to acquire the land. Clearing it, once acquired could he accomplished in three months. The buildini plans could he developed and finalized in one year. The coristruction of the huildings and associated facilities could be completed in three years. The design, construction and installation of the exhibits could be accomplished concurreritly during the sanie three years that the building is under coristruction. urinQ tbis period at appropiate tims which can be scheduled, the staff can be assemhled, trained arid given pre-opening practice experience. If th' land can he acquired over the next two years, the entire project can be conpleted in a five year period And opened to the public prior to the end of 1983. This is not an unrealistic schedule but in fact is a generous aliotment of time which may well he improved uoon. The Jeterminq factor is the decision forthwith to go ahead and the purposeful and dedicated pursuit . of the work.
26. Expression of Appreciation In conclusion, 1 thank all of those with whom 1 have met jri connection with thjs rnission of corisultation for the warm, gracious, friendly and cooperative spirit with which they received rne.ty soecial tharLks and expression of admiration arid good will go to CONICYT President Manuel Pinochet, Santiago Mayor Patricio Mekis, National Director of Museums and Libraries Nr. Enrique Campos Menéndez, Rector Eugenio Reyes, Pro-Rector Carlos A. Forray artd Guillermo Clericus of the Universidad Técnica del Estado, Director General N. wayne Sandvg and Director General Adjunto William R. Corthorn of Fundación Chile, María Elena Troncoso and the many others who have been so helpful to me. To the distinguished and able Committee on the proposed Museum of Technology, histed elsewhere in this report, goes much of the credit. They are a group of great talent, knowledge and w i s dom. My immediate colleagues and collaborators were José Manuel Cousiño and his associates in C0NICYT, Enrique Dellacasa and Elena Acufia who mirtistered to my every need, contributed in great measure to my efforts and were cortstantly availabe to help and advise me. 1 rnust in all conscience extend an especial expression of gratitude to Elena Acuña for hcr professional contributions to my work here. Without her knowledqe and bi-hingual expertise this report would not nave heen possible. Finaily to María Elena Delgado, who served as my secretar" during my rnission in Chile and typed this report, 1 express my qreat gratitude and respect for her ability.
1 leave Santiaqo, and Chile, with most pleasant feelirics. 1 came here a stranรงjer and imnediately was rnade to feel at home by ah. T hope that on ny next visit here my wife will have the opportumity to accompany me. She wculd regard with deep affection, as do 1, this country and its most admirable people. 1 will welcome the opportunity to he of service in the furtherance of this project iri the future: reviewing plans for the development of the site, the buildincjs, the educational prograrn, the exhibits and any and ah aspects coricerning it. 1 loo forward toward our continuing productive collaboration.
santiago, Chile November, 1978
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PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE COOPERACION TECNICA CHILE - O.E.A. 1978 - 1979
COOPERACIO:j DE FUENTES EXTERNAS
País del cual se desea recibir la cooperación: U. S. A. I. Servicios de Asistencia Técnica de Expertos Gobierno de Chile Experto: Daniel Miller Mac Master, Presidente Entidades Ejecutoras: CONICYT, Universidad Técnica del Estado, Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos y Municipalidad de Santiago. Duración de la Misión: 1 mes A. Detalles de la Misión 1. Descripción de la actividad a. Objetivos específicos inmediatos y de largo alcance, incluyendo beneficios sociales. El establecimiento en Chile de un Museo Tecnológico. b. Lugar de la actividad e'
el mando del Plan Nacional
Científico-Tecnológico. La política de recursos
humanos contempla un item
dedicado a la promoción
y divulgar_¡- de la cer. -
cia y tecnología en que
contemplada la creación de museos. c.
Si la actividad es nueva o continuaci6n o modifica ción de una existente. No existen muscos tecnológicos en Chile.
Si es una actividad separada o relacionada a otra actividad más am p lia. En el último caso indicar quien está realizando dicha actividad. Forma parte de la labor de creación y administra ción de Museos que realiza la Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Muscos del MinistriO de Educa ción.
Núm'-ro y nivel profesional del personal local que
está trabajando o que se pondrá a trabajar en el proyecto. Existe un Comitó formado por expertos nacionales representantes de las instituciones interesadas eh el proyecto. f.
Cantidad de los fondos disponibles para la actividad. No hay
Fecha estimada para el inicio y la terminación del proyecto. IQ de noviembre de 1978 - I Q de diciembre de 1978
2. Descripción del trabajo a realizar por el experto Proporcionar una descripción detallada de las diversas tareas q ue desempcará ci experto con las prioridades respectivas. Redactar en conjunto con el comité de especialistas na cioriales un proy'cto acabado de creación de un Museo Tecnológico moderno. 3. p ersonal y facilidades de contraparte CONICYT proporcionaría oficina, personal de secretaria y servicio de copia y cálculo al experto. 4. Fecha de inicio de la misión 19 de noviembre de 1978 B.
Requisitos y experiencia que se exigen al experto Profesional de gran experiencia en la organización y administración de museos tecnológicos. Ojalá haya o esté de sempeñando altos cargos directivos. Proponemos al Sr. Daniel riller Mc Master, p resident and chief executive officor del Museo de Ciencia e Industria de Chicago.
Condiciones del Servicio 5. Lugar de la misión En le ciudad de Santiago, en la sede do CONICYT, calle Canadá # 308. 6. Alojamiento Podría usr la case de extranjeros de la universidad Técnica del Estado.
May 19, 1978
Mr. Antonio Lulli A., Director Office of International Cooperatioti l7th Street and Constitution Ave., N. W. Washington, D.C. 20006 Dear Mr. Antonio Lulli A.: In response to your letter of May lZth, 1 am pleaced to .ccept tite Chilean Government'S request for my servicee to advise on tite organization and adminietratiOn of a tecbnologic&1 museum. 1 would appreciate it, however, If the tirrting of my visit titere could be changed a bit. Becau8e of cornmitmenta here and el g ewh.re, 1 could not be there the entire rnonth of November. 1 could be available for a four-week period leaving Chicago on Wedneiday, Cctober l8th. and returning to Chicagon Wedneed&y. Nov.mber l5th. 1 hopo theae dates are convenient to the others involved as 1 am very xnuch interested in carrying out this miseton. Stncerely yours,
D. M. MacMaster
COMISION NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA Y TECNCLOGICA (CCNICYT) DEPAR,TAMENTC DE FOMENTO JMC/EDP/med ' 21/8/78
ORD. NQ ANT. Nota de OA N Q CHI-402 de fecha 14/6/78 MAT. Asesoría Creación Museo Tecnoló gico, Programa Tentativo. SANTIAGO,
DE : SR. PRESIDENTE DE CONICYT A : PRESIDENT OF THE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY IN CHICAGC, D. DANIEL MILLER MACMASTER La organización de Estados Americanos, O.E.A., nos ha comunicado su aceptación para proporcionar asesoría, a nuestro Gobierno, en la organización de un Museo Tecnológico para Santia go de Chile, en el período comprendido entre el 18 de octubre y 15 de noviembre próximo. En relación a su visita, hemos preparado un programa tentativo que estaría sujeto a las modificaciones que fueran necesarias, atendiendo a las sugerencias que Ud. nos haga o a sus necesidades de información. El programa tentativo comprenderá lo siguiente: 1. Sesiones previas con nuestro Comité ad-hoc, para darle a conocer nuestra realidad y responder a las consultas previas que Ud. desee formular. 2. Dedicar las dos primeras semanas de su estadía en Santiago, a visitar y conversar con los respectivos ejecutivos de nuestros museos y departamentos universitarios que tengan alguna relación con el tema. 3. Una tercera semana sería dedicada a visitar algunos Institutos de Investigación e Industrias, así como la corporación de Fomento de la Produc cióri (CORFO), institución que ha sido promotora de grandes empresas industriales en Chile y que dirije aún grandes empresas.
4. Sesiones finales con nuestro Comité ad-hoc para evaluar y completar la información compilada por Ud., y discusión de las ideas que Lid, tenga acer ca de la formación de un Museo Tecnológico en nuestro país. Quisiéramos recibir cuanto antes sus sugerencias acerca de este programa tentativo y sobre el tipo de información que Lid. necesita para colaborar con más eficiencia a su trabajo en nuca tro país. Agradeciendo desde 1iyo, su aceptación a colaborar en esta misi6n en Chile, le saluda a'entamente,
PINQTSULVDA de. ¡visión (R) P)dente '\
September 6, 1978
Mr. Manuel Pinochet Sepulveda General de Division (R) Presidente Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica Y Tecnologica (CONICYT) Departamento de Fomento Dear Mr. Pinochet Sepulveda: This is in response to your communication of 22 August, 1978. The tentative program you have suggested for my forthcoming visit to Santiago appears to me to be an excellent one. My approach will be to bring to you the various options which are available so that you might be in a position to decide which would best accomplish your particular aims, purposes and objectives. There are many science museums throughout the world which differ quite markedly one from the other. 1 feel strongly that your institution should be unique to your situation rather than a replication of a Tinited States or European one in whole or in part. It should reflect your cultural heritage and should utilize methods of communication, visitor involvement and participation which your experience shows are successful and effective and welcomed by your particular audience. Early in our meetings we might discuss in a tentative and exploratory way the subject matter 1 have outlined on the enclosed sheet. Then after our meetings of several weeks we might again discuss these matters in a more definitive way and come to eventually agree upan conclusions which would set the basic philosophy and direction of the development of your institution.
As 1 will be in the Far East from September 27 until just one week before 1 leave for Santiago. 1 would be appreciative if 1 couid receive my airiine (1 believe there is a BranLff fiight from Miami non-stop leaving at 1:45 a.m. on October 18, arriving in Santiago at 10:00 a.m. on October 18. Braniff would book a connecting flight for me from Chicago to Miami on the eariy evening of October 17. Returning on November 15 there is a flight from Santiago leaving at 9:55 pm. arriving at New York at 10:05 a.m. on November 16. Braniff would also book a connecting flight to Chicago for me leaving New York about noon on November 16. U this meets with your wishes 1 would appreciate it if your office would make these reservations for me and mali me the tickets or have Braniff in Chicago make them availabie to me as soon as possible) tickets as soon as possible, as well as my address and telephone number while in Santiago and the name and address of my immediate contact. 1 need this informatiori to leave with my office here in the event that they wili need to contact me. Looking forward toward a most productive association. With best regards,
Daniel M. MacMaster
P.S. Enciosed herewith is a copy of a letter 1 received today, after writing the abo y e, from Alan Smith in charge of the Office of International Cooperation of the Organization of American States, as well as a copy of my reply to him.
TENTATIVE AGENDA SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSIDERATION OF SCIENCE MUSEUM IN SANTIAGO, CHILE
Airns, Purposes, Objectives Education, recreation, research, tourist attraction, preservation, other?
The Audience Children, pupils, coilege and university students, the under-educated, pre-schoolers, senior citizens, clubs and organizations, tourists, and?
Subject Content Physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology and medicine, geology, anthropology. natural history, science-related aspects of music, art, aquarium, etc? Or, "theme' exhibits on Energy, Agriculture, Nutrition, Ecology, Transportation, etc? Applicable social mores, taboos to be considered?
.Content Level Demographic information needed, distribution curve, age, sex, econornic, social, education needs of various components of the population.
Circulating or External Prograrns Basic decision--yes or no?
Geographic Site Locatjon, utilization of ground area, personal and public transportation, parking areas, availability of food services, etc.
The Building Physical requirements to accomplish aims and purposes, allocation of space, selection of architect, safety considerations, heating, ventilating facilities, energy-conservation considerations. Visitor flow, ceiling heights, floor loadings, efficient rnaintenance considerations, etc.
â€˘ 8. The Time Schedule Building d esign, exhibit design, construction, ms tallation, opening. 9.
The Budget Architectural services, building construction, exhibit construction, prelirninary staffing, perrnanent staffing and operational costs. The Management Organization Governance, executive managem-ent, administration, organization chart, job descriptions, staff positions, etc.
Merbers of the Comrnittee
NRS. GRETE MOSTNY, Director of the National riuseum of Natural History, represeritative of the Ministry of Education.
MR. JUAN INFANTE, iawyer, representative of the Mayor of Santiago.
MRS. MARIA ELENA TRONCOSO, corisidered as the promoter of the project of creating the Technoiogical Nuseum in Santiago.
MR. JOSE MANUEL
DROUILLY representative oí the Rector
of the Technical University (U.T.E). He ¡s an engineer, in charge of the Departrnent of Constructons. 5.
MANUEL COUSIÍO, representativ -of CONICYT. He
is a chernist and is in charge of the Dep-artment of Promotion of Scierice and rechnology, COMICYT. 6.
MR. ENRIQUE DELLACASA, lawyer, works in the sarne Departr!terzt.
MISS ELENA ACUfA, works in the saine Department.
Opening Staternent by Daniel Miller MacMaster, President Emeritus Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago Meeting on the establishment of the Science Museum in Santiago Chile October -Novernber, 1978 You know that you have many alternatives from which to choose, as you face the task of determinag the ultimate character of the new institution which we are here to consider. Without presuming to suggest specific conclusioris, 1 plan to indic ate to you what sorne of the alternatives are which he before you, to teli you how the various institutions with which 1 am associated have chosen among thern, to further familiarize you with a number of other institutions throughout the world, to speak about the three -dimensional exhibit as an effective mediurn in ttnonforrnalu public education, and to engage in discussions with you during this week on avariety of matters related to the establishment of a new museum. As thcse concerned with the establishment of a new institution, you find yourselves in quite a different situation from that of trustees or staff o existing institutions. It is perhaps a more difficult one, but at the same time, a potentially more rewarding one. You know that the bright hight of public scrutiny is being focused as never before upon our institutions of all kinds. Quality is being demanded in greater measure. It is no longer enough that an institution merely refrain from being undesirable as vas the case not too many years ago. To survive, our institutions must excel. But what is excellence? What is institutional success?
-2Aside from other definitions which may be applicable, isn't success measured by the extent to which objectives are achieved? Unless objectives are isolated and defined, doesn't success rexnain immeasurable and irnpossible of achievement? Certainly any institution to be successful must have well defined aims, purposes, and objectives - -an institutional phiiosophy of life, if you will--and these objectives, whatever they may be, must be pursued with conscientious, perservering, undeviating, and relentless vigor. You, and those who wili comprise the professional staff which you are now responsibie for assembling, are the individuals who will moid this new institution. Individualiy and coliectiveiy you will determine what kind of an institution it wil be. In what directions will you go? Over the years it has been generaily accepted that the basic purposes oí the traditi.ona], cias sical museum were three in number: to engage in basic research, to serve as a repository, and to contribute to the education oí the public (not necessarily in that order, but possibly so). To engage in basic research resulting in significant new contributions to human knowledge in whatever fieid is, indeed, a noble pursuit. To bri.ng to bear a level oí scholarship, singieness of purpose, unbiased judgernent, to uncover the necessary evidence, and to irnpartially judge it without reference to preconceived ideas, is the essence oí basic research. The significance oí much basic research done by museurns is undeniable. Sorne museums do it and sorne don't. Wil this one? To find and acquire. the artifacts of our heritage and to select from them those sufficientiy significant to warrant preservatior; to properly preserve them against the ravages oí time, nature, and man; to protect, save and keep them for
-3thc repository £nction of posterity no rnatter what the obstacle, is the essence oí Wi11 this ano? the museurn. Sorne museurns do this and sorne don't. U musoums over the years and over the world have one thing in common, it is their dissimilarity. This is particularly true of science museumS, and 1 don't see anything wrong with this. be even In ancther field, that oí higher educatiOn, with which you may more familiar than you are with museurns, we are fortunate indeed, 1 feel, because of the variety of institutionS which we have. Wc have colieges1 and we have universitieS, and sorne of the colleges are bigger than sorne of the universitis. We have privately supported institutiOiS and publicly supported or.es. V.e have ali-inale, ali-fernale, and coeducational ones. We have church related intitutions which run the gainut from total dependence to theoretical relationship at best. Wc have institutions, it would seern atleast, for all leveis of cadernic ability and all levels of econornic abihity. We have practica experierceoriented institutioflS and academicahly-Orieflted institutlOflS. We have technical institutions and quite dissimilar liberal arts schools. The hist could go on and en. Generaily speaking, institutionS oí higher education are character ized by their differences, one from another. In fact, throughout our country, it is easier to poir.t out the differences than it is to identify the sirnilarities in connection with institutions of hiher education. 1 am among those who feel that this is desirable, that an importarit part oí the strength of hi g her education lies in its diversity, and that it would be unfortunate irideed if it were cast into one rnonolithic pattern. 1 feel thc same way about museurns. Even within the field of scierce museurns, we ha y o those which are history-of-sciCflCC oriented and those which
s.4are basic_princiPieS-OfSCienCe oriented. Ve have those which are rcpositoriC for historical objects, and those which couldn't care lcss about historical objects. Wc have science museums which have curators in charge oí collections, and
have others which have neither curators nor collections. \Ve have sciencc rnuseums which devote a substantial portion of their resources to basic research, and others which do no basic research at ah. We
have sciencc museums which emphasize cornmunications with the general pubhic, and others interested prirnarily in comrnuning with scholars. Wc have science rnuseums with no industrial exhibits, and those with corporately identified industrial exhibits. Again, this hist cculd go on and on, and again, it is my feeling, that there is nothing wrong with this. There is no right or wrong in this situation. It is a question of agreeing upon a plan, a Lorinat, a phil-. osophy, and pursuing it with conviction, intelhigence, and enthusiasrn. It is inevitable that at this time your institution has no well defined institutional philosophy. It couldn't be otherwise. It is a function oí the trustees
to establish the aims and purposes and objectives oí the institution for which they are responsible. Tbe advantages and disadvantages oí foliowing any oí the alternatives available to you must be weighed. What kind of an institution do you want this to be , in the years to come? Pure Science? Science and Tec'nology? Science and corporately identified industry? A repository Lor collections oí things? An instjtutiOfl for communicating ideas? An educational institution? A research institution? A center for formal classes? A cornmunity cultural center? It can't be all things to all people. To be distinguished, it must have a character oí its
own, and that
character rnust be determined before intelligent decisions can be made. It is difficult enoiagh to hit the target when one know what he is shooting at. Largely as thc result of the answers to these basic que stions will be determined such matters as sources of revenue, costs of operation, sources of exhibits, the rature of the staff procuremerat program, and SO Ofl. Sorne oí the institutions around the world which fail into this general category are the Deustches Museurn in Munich, the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, the Science Museum in South Kensington, London. In the United States, they are tobe found in Boston, Philadeiphia, Washington, Charlotte, Dearborn, Chicago, Los Angeles, Berkley, and elsewhere. This is by no means an exhaustive list. New ones are being organized constantly. They are of all shapes and sizes and oí all philosophical dispositions. No two are alike. Let me tehi you about the ono 1 know best - t',-,e Museurn oí Science and lndustry in Chicago. Physicahly, it is substantial in size, encompassing as it does sorne 608, 000 square feet of floor space - 14 acres - 60,000 square meters. As far as audience is concerned, it is also substantial in size. While it is located in Chicago, it is not a local institution. Each year, sorne 4,000,000 individuals visit it from ah Over the United States and rnost other parts of the world and stay an average of three hours and thirty minutes each - representing more than 14-mihlion rnan-hours of visitor time. During a six-day survey rnade in August, not less than 44 oí our 50 states \vere
entd by visitors on each individual day. During the course of the six
our visitOrc days, not irLcluding Sunday which is thc day of our 1a-gest attendance, carne £rom a, 787 towns and cities in ah of the 50 states and a few over 1,000 of the 50 thousand sarnpled carne £rom 23 places in 57 foreign countries. Only 26%
oí our visitors were from the Chicago area. How has this institution chosen among the alternatives which institutions oí thi-s general nature around the world have available to therri? We don't do research. We feel that in viev of the quantity of research in the physical and biological sciences being supported by our Federal Qovernmeflt, by the universities, and by industry, we would be ili-advised to dissipate any portion oí our relatively limited resources by supporting work in this field. We Lcd that we can maxirnizé our contribution to the public good by serving as an effectiv mediuxn oí public education rather than as a research institutiOfl. Wc are principles .-of-scienCe oriented rather than historicallY oriented as rnost oí the European, and sorne oí the American, institutiOflS in this general field are. We do not serve as a repository for historical objects. Only ten or fifteen percent oí all oí our floor space is devoted to histQrical rnaterials. Wc want eriough significant historical material to indicate progess and devclopment, but we dont engage in the practice of making definitive collections for professiofla' or scholarly purposes. As a consequence, we don t t have curatorS. Our ernphasis is on today and. tpmorrow. We change about ten percent of ah of our exhibits every year. In addition to our basic science .exhibits, we welcorne and seck out outstanding industrial exhibits sponsored and identified with individual industrial corporations or groups oí corporations. About halL of our space is devoted to exhibits of this kind. \Ve feel that they are among the most outstanding and significant cxhibits which we have. Industrial corporations bear the cost oí des igning,
'. 7 installing, and maintaining these exhibits. If we could obtain an equivalent amount
oí money in sorne other way, we would still prefer to have corporaUons sponsor Cese industrial exhibits. Ve are a Museum of Science and Industry, and we feel
at much oí our strength andeffectiveness cornee frorn our constant and intirnate ase ociation with contemporary industry.
We don't rent space. Sorne institutions do. We provide space for industrial exhibits without a opace rental charge, although corporate exhibitors pay us for the mainter.ance of their exhibits. It is a situation quite unlike that oí a trade fair or a World's Fair where little control is exercised by the fair management
over the handling of the subject matter by the exhibitor. We must approve every detail in connection with our industrial exhibits. Our great cmphasis is on the third basic purpose oí the traditional museum, that of contributing to the education of the public. This involves communication, and comrnunication implies two accomplishrnents - not one. To cornmunicate to use the terminology oí electronics, means to send, to be sure, but at thc same time it irnplies that what is serit is received. Otherwise, no communication has been accomplished. We Leel that for a museum to be effective as a cornmunications n-iediurn Lor public education, it must show, display, exhibit its material
in such a manner as to be understandable by its audience. We feel that it is no longer enough that muse urns me rcly be "open to the public". The public rnust actually use thern, use them in large nurnbers and use thern effectively, or e]se the museurn, not the public, has failed. To be successful as a contributor to
public education, the rr.x-tseum is no longer in a pass¡-.-e-.ole. It can no longer take the positicn that "WC have made these treasures available, arid if the public doesn take advatage of this opportunity, it's not our fault". Today's rnuseum (mdc
-8itself undeniably cornmitted to the propostion that if the student hasn't
teacher hasn't taught. The general public is the museums student body. '1'herefore, when ve think oí the funtion oíthe museurn with respect to ¿he public, two factors are involved: visitors and educational effectiveness. If a irniseum does not succeed in attracting 'isitors - and not
few but in large
numbers, because we must rexnember that museums, aside from anything else they may be, are public institutioflS and the public is a large group, not a sinail one - then it has failed. Cornmunicatiflg educationally with the public in an efíectivernanner necessitate$ the use of techniques quite different from those which are cífective in commurÁicating with scholars in the sanie field oí subject matter and quite . different from those which are successful in the formal school. To the extent that museum administrators and
rnernbers fail to
recognize this basic point, they will fail to achieve success in connection with the rnuseurn's function oí coritributing to the education of the general public even
though they may be erninently successful in the íields of basic research and preservation. lii the rriuseum, the audience is not a captive one. It is, in fact, a most elusive one. Since no one is required to visit a museurn, we feel that every effort must be made to win the audience through an attractiv- and effective presentation, and to hoid the audience once it is won - if mass educational effectiveness is the aim. Holding the audience is more difficult than attracting it. It requires eternal vgilance. Unlike the'situation v.'hich obtains in the formal school, the museuxn audience is complctcly hctcrgencous. Visitors are oí all ages and intcrests
-9they are of all social and econornic backgrounds, and of all degrees of prcvious
preparation. None oí the motivating influences which s'crve the schools so wehl are present. There are no compulsory attendance laws br museum
don't have to come, and they can leave at any time. No grades are given. There are no diplomas or degrees awarded. There are no parental pressures, no social pressures. If visiting a rnuseurn costs the visitor significance as
anything at all,the cost is of no
educationahly motivating iníluence. There is little opportunity
Lor a coordinated course of study, for a spiral curriculum, for hornework, for repetition, or for disciplinary action. As the result of our visitor surveys, we know that our substantial audience is haif male, halí female. The ages and occupations of our visitors are in direct correlation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics figures for the country as a whole. This, then, is a cross section of the public. It is not a connoisseur group; it is nct a specially rnotivated group. These visitors can look at, utihize, learn from, and be iníluenced by the exhibits which appeal to them, and they can ignore those which don't. 1 r-nention ah of this sirnply to indicate that in addition to its primary purposes, the Museum of Science and Industry is a rather good living laboratory Lor making observations with respect tothe educatior il effectiveness oí exhibits in connection with the mass, general pubhic. Housed in the Museum is a vast
instahlation of exhibits in the basic fieldr
of physics, cherriistry, rnathematics, and the medical sciences, as wehl as an unique collection of exhibition arcas devoted to the appiications oí the basic physical sciences by industry. The individual arcas occupiedby each oí these exhibits range in size up to 17, 000 square fect of floor space.
-loThis is a mass
education jstititiOfl based on the premise that acquiring
jnformatiofl, knowledge, ndcrstandiflg should be a pleasant experienCe. It is our observation thát it is not necessary to be duil to be educational that in facto it effective education results we find, from an interestiflg, helps not to be. More appealing, attractiVe, ernotiOflally stimulating pre s entation. human Our basic approach is to accept people as they are - emotioflal "You ought to beings. We dont take the attitude that, "Thís is good Lor you," or do it". Wc feel that color, light, architectural design are of great irnportaflCe -not as ends in thernselves, but as means toward accomplishing an educatiOnal end. We have found that ideas and quality are more importaflt than anythirig else. We feel that util the visitors 1
attenti.on and interest are caught and heid, nothir.g has
been accomplished. We believe that iL there is no audience, there has been no accomplishmC We don't believe that endless rOWS of glass cases, even of perfect specimefls1 provide an irresistable, rnotivatiflg influence giving rise to educatiOn
3 l effective-
ne & 5. Wc have Lound that relative cost is by no means a reliable measure of exhibit educational effectivefless. Wehave seen thoroughly efíective inexpensive exhibits, and ineífectiveOfles which cost rnuch more'. Girnilarly, relative size is not a reliable measure of exhibit effectivefleSs. We have seen srnall exhibits whicl. drew, held, and delivered educational effectivenesS, and large ones which didn't. Our audience at the Museum of Scienc and lndustry is riot a captive one. The Museurri is located sorne six miles from the center of the city in a somewhat re-mote and sornewhat difficult place to reach. It stands alone. It doesn't benefit from other attractic,ns in the sarne area; there arcnt any. Practically none of o
visitors stop in becausc it is
to do so. This rneans that to draw and
ho]d this very large attendance, we must strive constantly to utilize the rnost
effectivc cxhibit techniques available. Today's exhibit designer must function as an educational psychologist. His job is to select from the rnany techniques
exist those which best serve
his purpose in reaching and influencing visitors, not rnerely to make the exhibit look "pretty". No one technique is superior in all cases. Each should be used, alone, or in combination with others, when its particular characteristic wihl contribute to the solution of the problem at hand. What is it that characterizes exhibits as a medium of communicatiOn as distinguished from the other media. â€˘What do exhibits have that the others don't have? What is the heart rnediurn? If
soul, the ultirnate reality, the very essence of this
we have learned one thing abo y e all others in connection with exhibit.
it is that the great advantage which the exhibit has is the opportunity which it pro-
vides to involve the visitor personaily - physicahly and rnentahly. The exhibit which
is des igned to take advantage of this opportunity - to cause the visitor to
participate, to become personaily - physicahly and mer.tahly - involved, is an ĂŠffective exhibit. The exhibit vhich is not designed to take advantage of this opportunity - which ahiows the visitor to rernain a non-participaflt - a mere spectator - is almost always an ineĂfective one. One rnight rneasure exhibit effectiveness by rneasuring the degree to which the visitor becornes personahly involve d.
De signing and pr oducing educ ationafly effective vis itor-par ticipation exhibits aimed at the general public is quite as technical and creative and professional a field of activity as any. Educational ex.hibits have come of age. When properly done, they need take second place to no other medium of communication. That is one institution's philosophy of life. lnevitably yours will be different. In your collective wisdorn, which in thi5 group is great indeed, you wil seek it out. You will weigh the alternati.ves and come Lo your own convictions. 1 am here for no other reason than Lo be helpful to you.
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UN UEO DE CI
ASADS EN l C CS J?CION
DL DR. D.JID ACS'TR.
son la educaci6n,la recreacin,la atraccin turísLtica a eraves de la exhihic!n y actividades de extensin; la eonservacin de sus colecc4ones. De las tareas clás 4_ _aT de les museos se excue, por lo menos al principio, la investigacin,porque el Museo de Ciencia y Ttcnclogía nstará vinculado de manera directa a la Univer-fdad Tcnica del Fstado,jue discne de investigadores y medios le investigaciri en los campos de cienci ' tecnclega,y con la D±recc!6n de O ihliotecas,Archivos y useos,cue realiza investigacones científicas en ciencias naturales y humanas a traves de sus museps. l;Luseo de Ciencia y Tecnología servir en consecuencia primariamente como medio de comunicación masivo con su pibUco. 2.
l Publico estudiantes de los niveles bsco:,sedics y universitarios; pre-escolares,miemhros de clubs y sociedades de diferente !ndole, "juventu'les cientfieas ' tecnolgicas",turistas y público en ge:-ral,no fil
ninguna cr'anizacn o institucin.
Considerando gue el Museo de Ciencia y Tecnología estar ubicado en una parte de la ciudad con un fuerte porcentaje de ohlctn sub-educada,
erÇ tomarse en cuenta nuy especialmente
este sector nurricamente muy importartte,tn t o en el nivel de las exhiiciories corno en su constituci6n física.
3. Contenido se considera que es importante que,por le menos en el proyecto inicial,se jonja énfasis en aquellas ramas cientficas que no etn representadas en museos existentes,tales como ciencias naturales y humans y el arte; esto no implica la eliminacin total de estas diciplinas - porque se entiende que un museo lee presentar una exhibición integrada y contextual - sino que esos temas,apoyados por importantes colecciones e investigaciones en otros nuseos,sean tratados en el 1 .11useo de Ciencia y Tecnologa sólo como aspectos complementarios. Por ejemplo: al ex-
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plicar la teoría de las ondas como 5eri6meno fsico,podrn exhibirse y explicarse instrumentos musicales,que funcionan gracias a las ondas aciisticas. l cont-'ndo dl ::useo de ciencia y Tecncloga deber considerar la exhibicin y
de modelos y/o urd-
dades de sicas
del! Sn, y
en una sala o b) la
eritfice y tecr
logco dal m'.uda mod e rno. st parte dob'r or'erarse por temas.or ejemplo: las diferont's f:r:as de energia y su aplicacr.;1a indicacin de sude los recurcoo nturalac oe las aer.eran,etc.(eri otra sala o pabell6n);otro toma
ser lo arotcnica con to-
das sus implicancias:plantas cultivables,anirnales domésticos, nutricn,consid'raciones ecol6tcas,socioles,etc.relac 4 onados con el terna podrían constituir otra sala o Pabellón; la mincría,la
squera,la nave;acir.,la salud y muchos otrcs
aspectos de la
en ora--ton nora exhibiciones anlogao.
Tn ambos puntos ( a y
conviene :-xsid'rar dos
hechos bsicoo: 1. que - aunque no
desea un museo de la
historia de la ciencia y do la tecnola - deberá esbozarse un corto desarrollo histrco en esos canpos,porpie el presente y el futuro se entienden sola.-:ente a travs del pasado.Tl hombre es un ser hist6rice e historizonte.2. e deber dedicar especial
fasis en 105 jotencialidades
cient!ficao y tecnolicas acualeo y futuras de hile, da manera que el museo servir en lo posible como :rganiro orientador a lo juventud en cuanto o sus posibilidades profesionales f'turas. 4. Nivel del contenido '
i-le es un país jven,de modo que la nayora
de los usuarios del r.uso tendrn menos de 30 años.(v.informacin demogrf co). Txiste un amplio sector de lo poblacn adulta con niveles educacion:les uy haa y/o inccm-'letes,oue tenen oo posibilidad de elevar el nivel de sus conocimientos 'nediante una educación forrnal;ounque existen escuelas para adultos,la.mayor!a
3 *VliO N&aoxAL D$ *ISTOA N*TU*&L - aaTZO (LI)
e la poblacin t
'el ha2 o
'"ano carece de
Po y mot±vaci6n pare asistir n ellas;el rus-'o deber g suplir y corplementar en prte estos cnocimiontes en forma de recreacin ticipacin (t ler"s 'ar • b'los y
—enes. l y na exh1.tcin oar
, in nivel nt ectul de 12 a 14 años parecera el nas adecuado.
15. ro'ramas ti rrites o extanurales
n antes 'ue el museo inicie su funcionamient en un edificio propio,conveidr diseñar unidades de exhibicn y kits,que erniecon a circular tto en la capital corno en provincias.Si se !org A esto,se crar Jrar: expectacn en tor'a la pobi n ciún s-'r r le"ente una vnn r r: 1' trcsar a circulos pu r ±entes (industr!s,fundacienez,eto.) 'ara 'ue hagan aportes econmicos y/o materiales para el futuro museo.
6. Sitio geoorfico uno de los terrenos considerados para la ubicación el futuro Museo de ienc sidad
Tpcnolc- es de prcpiedad de la Univ e r-
tAo.ste terrenc es d fcil acceso mediante
('-use-, los medios de movilizaci5r. colectiva netro),es bastante amplio para permitir lo. expaxisi6n -el rusec,proveer espacios dc estacionamiento adecuados y se encuentra cerca de otros centros
culturales,como la m isma 'Jniversida Tcnica del stado,el Planetazio y a poca
rce :o1 'useo N acior.l de i lístor4a Natural.
1 o csien-10 edificio para el futuro useo de 'iencia y Tecnoloa,ste podr diseñarse según las pautas y experiencias de la ; useolo:a odrna.Si no será posible traer un experto en esa especalidad,se podr solicitar información y bibliorafa del Centrc de ocumentaci6n useogrfica U:O/ICCr. ¿er g prudente pensar en una corLstruccin concebida de tal manera que sea factible su eventual expansin,especialmente si no se dispone desde un -ncipic de un preop'sesto que -arantice la ejecurin e una o b ra de dimenriones adecuadas (70.000 m.
8.-10. Tiempo de estas consideraciones 1ependern es. grar. 'ei-a de la o las orarieiones de 'as cuales
aso ziAcIONAL as
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depender g el museo,puesto que su ejecuc 4-6n,su planta de personal, su administracl6n '1eb2rn arl pcuarse i las leyes y normas vigentes para el organismo rector. Es importante elaborar y dsefar planes y esquemas detallados a la brevedad posible para poder juzgar estimativamente los costos involucrcs.
St1390,26 Je Octubre de 1978
;ree ostny (- /J-ervtdcr
BIOGRAPHY DANIEL víILLER MacMASTE} Duiil Miller MacMaster s residcnt Emeritus of the Museum of Scicnce and lndustry in Chicago and an honorary life meinher oí its Board oí Trustees. He was named Director of Lhe Museum in 1951, elected President in i 968 and President Emerjtus in 1978. He ser-,ed the Museurn in a variety oí capacities, including those oí Curator and Director oí Exhibits, since joining it3 staff in 933 while sti].l a student at the University oí Chicago, prior to the Museum's opening to the public. During 1948 and 1949 he was General Manager of the CMcago Railroad Fair in addition to his Museurn post. He served as •a rnember and Presidcnt of the Board oí Education in Eornewo. Illinois (194S-49) and as Secretary oí the State of Illincis Commission on Higher EdiLcation (1955-59). He is an Honorary Director and former President oí tie Chicago Chamber Orchestra Associ ation, a rnember of the Board of Governors oí the Chicago Heart Association, a Trustee oí the Adier Planetarium, the Museurn oí the International. College of Surgeons and an Ho-iorary Trustee oí the University of Chicago Cancer Research Foundaticn. He is a Directcr ErnerituE of Monmouth College, a Director oí the Hyde Park Bank and Trust Cornpany and is a member of the Citizens Board oí the University oí Chicago and the Citizens Committee of the Universit of Illinois, Kappa Sigma, the Tavern Club, the Quadrangle Club oí the University oí Chicago, the Cornrnercjal Club oí Chicago and a number oí technical boards and soc.ieties. Ile is a former Director oí the Sears-Roebuck Foundation and the Lincoln Academy oí Illinois and a former member oí the National. 4-H Servjce Committee. Mr. MacMaster has been a consultant to museums and expositions in a number oí cities in th
United States and abroad and has written rnany articles for encyclopedias, newspapers and technical journais.
He has recaived outstanding civilian service awards f:om the U.S. Arrny and U.S. Navy, and has been decorated with .he Golden Cross of the Roya Order oí Phoenix by King Paul oí Greece (1963), the Officers Cross of Polonia Restituta oí fhe Governrnent oí Poland (1967), the Grarid Badge oí Honor by the President oí the Republic oí Austria (1970), the Golden Bade of Honor of the City of Vienna (1970), the Grand Badge of Honor oí Burgenland, Austria (1971 1. 1 the Oskar von IIiller Gold Medal oí the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany (1 1174), the Order oí Cultural Merit oí Poland (1975), and the Officer's Cross Order oí Cultural Merit of Luxernbourg (1976). He received the Doctor oí Hurnanities degree fron-i LincoL- College Li 1970, the Doctor oí Humane Letters degree from DePaul University in 1978 and was elected the First Fellow oí the Association oí Science-Technology Centers in 1974. Iii 1960 Mr. MacMaster 'vas Director oí the First Floating Seminar to Greece abo2rd the S.S. Queen Frederjka. In 19U he served as guest consultant on museums in various cities in the Federal Republic oí Gerraany at the invitation oí its g ' vernment and in 1973 was a consultant on the establishment of a science museum in Iran at the invitation oí its governrnert. In 196 3 he served a tour oí duty as a U.S. State Departrnent Specialist in Dublin, Essen, Eerlin and Stockholm. Born February 11, 1913 in Chicago, he is married to the forrner Sylvia Jane Hill. The MacMasters Uve at 910 Bruce Avenue in Flossmoor, Illinois 60422. They are the parnts of Daniel Miller MacMaster, Jr., and Jane Irene M. Lightell (Mrs. Robert W. Lightdll) and the grandparents oí Malcolrn MacMaster Lightefl and Julia Jane Ligliteil. February 1978
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