Interactive pdf branding . brand identity . visual identity . brand strategy . emotional branding
service design . service innovation . strategy . process . innovation
1 Service Colin Omosebi . Industrial & Theoretical Context
Service design: an interdisciplinary approach 5-7 Brand+ service 8-11
Retail+ service 12-17
Customer first 19-23
Appendix 25-27 Bibliography 26-29
Topics covered: Customer service / experience 12-17 ,19-23 Service design 12-17 Branding 8-11, 19-23 User centred design 19-23 Brand strategy 8-11 Retail design 12-17 Brand Innovation 19-23
Colin Omosebi . Industrial & Theoretical Context
Today businesses are becoming ever more people centred with empathsis being heavily placed on meeting customer needs in building strong consumer bases, which in turn places value on such consumer bases. We have shifted from the
service providers telling people what they need to the service user being empowered to speak up for what they want, but how has this affected the way in which the retail sector functions.
This report will be investigating how brands and services work together?
Getting people to understand that brand and services should work dependently
of each other and neither should be neglected during planning or implementation stages.
The report will also outline the importance of customer service and experience in the retail sector and how companies go about providing and maintaining these services and their requisite values.
Sections of this report will look in to historical as well as contemporary practices involving service design methods and the influences they have had on retail,
Using case studies and interviews with design consultancies the report will look to serve as a guide to business owners on how to build sustainable businesses using service design concepts.
The concluding segment for this report will include extracts from interviews I have undertaken with design professionals to analyse what methods and practices are common among different types of retail businesses.
These interviews will seek to evaluate the current state of service based retail
environments and will aim to quantify the common trends that may be present between different divisions of retail businesses.
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Service design at present is still seen as an emerging field of design but the focus on customer service and consumer experience has long been part of the retail sector, this report will look at how brand and service work together and to what extent customer service is valued. Beginning with the emergence of the service driven approach, I will be look to present insights into the process of designing a service gained from practitioners from both the branding and service design industries and how their approaches highlight the power that the consumer possesses. The aim of this report is to help persuade professionals especially in the retail sector to consider placing equal amounts of time, effort and resources in to all aspects of their business particularly visual identity, brand values, service, customer experience and having a coherent implementation of these elements can benefit them in the long run. Within this report I will look to answer key questions about; how “good design” can help a business/service perform better? What effect does it have on the consumer experience? Should there be certain coherence between brand and service? Who are the major players in this area? Brand or service, is one more important than the other? Where is the “real value” in a business , Is good design/service design about building a legacy?
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Service design: an interdisciplinary approach
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Service design strives to improve the usability, efficiency, desirability and effectiveness of a service through creative thinking; it can transform environments, enhance communication or improve experiences. Service designers use people-centred approaches and co-design methods to create meaningful user experiences and deliver effective and sustainable solutions. Service design helps to identify problem areas and generate ideas for improvement, It functions to improve the customer experience by enabling them to make quicker, easier and less stressful decisions, which in turn persuades the customer to choose one service over another. Service design has a brief history as it has only fairly recently been recognized as a field of design in its own right, the origins of Service design can be traced back as early as 1991 when the first service design course was offered at Köln International School of Design. Another significant moment was the founding of Live|work, the first service design consultancy, which was founded in London in 2001. Another big development in Service design was the formation of the Service Design Network which functions as an international platform for service design academics and professionals.
“Brands need to create emotional relationships with consumers as
the economy thrives on personal relationship,... there will be greater value in designing consumer products and retail environments as sensory experiences”. Marc Gobe, 2001
There are many phrases that have been coined in order to define service design as a discipline but in reality service design is an interdisciplinary approach meaning it can be applied to many practices, even that of which are present outside of the field of design. Service design draws together concepts from different industries such as psychology and anthropology and uses them to innovate in a particular setting whether that may be in the public or private sector.
an interdisciplinary approach
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fig .0 a comprehensive overview of service design from Professor Birgit Mager Service designers can also stem from many differing fields of expertise, as many are social scientists, psychologists, architects and industrial designers or even have backgrounds in finance. Service design methods and concepts can be employed in many ways that allow a business to function beyond the manner in which it’s was intended, Psychologists can help you better understand your customers motivations, an interior architect can work with the psychologist to create an environment tailored to your customer base and a programmer can help create a digital platform that reflects your brand to add another dimension to your business. Service providers can utilizes service design methods to create strategies to aid in in the operating and planning of their businesses to maximize functionality and suitability for service users. A principle aim of service design is to go largely unnoticed when by the service user as effective service design is usually when a service functions as expected or intended well so in turn its effects go unnoticed by the consumer e.g. We expect to be able to withdraw money from a cash machine without incident but we all too easily forget or take for granted that someone has designed and programmed the machine to meet our needs efficiently and effectively.
“(Service design) is about working with businesses to understand how they can improve the service they provide for their customers whether that’s speculating on what an ideal customer service could be in the future or its understanding the complexity of a business and understanding how things are done so we can change things from the ground up” Ross Dudley (2013) (see appendix)
an interdisciplinary approach
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Brand + Service
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Brand + Service
The brand is seen as the identity or face of a business and in many ways is what helps us differentiate one company from another, in this aspect it is a crucial representation of the quality, sector and values of a company, so in this respect the visual communication of a brand needs to work coherently with the service it provides. “It is nearly impossible for any product or service to be available on the market without a graphically designed element. Way finding systems, user interfaces, pictograms, packaging, forms or manuals are all graphically designed. To be successful, these offerings have to be well designed and thought through in terms of their graphical impact and how the information they contain is structured.” JAKOB SCHNEIDER This is Service Design Thinking. Basics — Tools — Cases BIS Publishers 2011 ISBN 978-90-6369-256-8 Stickdom /Schneider This shows that both the graphical and service elements must have a strong relation and designed with the consumer in mind in order to avoid confusing the user and ensuring familiarity with the brand or service. Branding also take on other significant roles in the retail sector, it makes the user aware of the service, shows them how to operate and navigate the service as well as what is expected of them while they interact with the service environment, this is packaged in the form of advertising whether digital or print, way finding graphics and other signage as well as graphical and interior design that reflects the brands values. Brand and service elements are tightly associated and thus can be difficult to differentiate for example way finding graphics can be described as either graphical or service elements as they communicate visually with user direction as its primary function Service elements can include queuing systems, staff training/customer service and the customer journey as a whole. But both brand and service element ultimately should come together to provide effective service design and a progressive business, as people’s interests and motivations are constantly changing, equally the service design process is iterative in its approach needing to be invariably tweaked in order to stay relevant and efficient.
“(Corporate identity is)…strategy made visible” Wolf Olins (1978)
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Brand + Service
Converse + IDEO In 2009 the clothing brand Converse wanted to develop their first branded retail store, so they approached the design consultancy IDEO in order to realise this vision. IDEO was tasked with creating a brand strategy and service model for Converse’s flagship store that could later serve as a base model for any subsequent stores. IDEO’s aim was to visualize Converse’s image and values in a physical retail space in a way that articulates their brand effectively. IDEO’s main challenge was to create a strategy that would tie in with what people already loved about the brand. After researching what worked well in other stores and what it was that endeared Converse to their fans IDEO sought to base the brand strategy around Converse’s long association with self expression, building on the brand’s links to music, art, fashion, and sport, IDEO envisioned the retail space reflecting the brands creative spirit.
fig.3 The converse brand encapsulated in a retail space
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Brand + Service
The result was that the newly formed strategy and customer experience was deep enough to be implemented across many sites, yet adaptable enough to allow individual stores to reflect the identities of their specific locations. Each Converse shop had a unique atmosphere that was allowed to flourish along side the frame work for the new retail strategy which touch upon: • People - Converse uses unconventional recruiting, such as passing out flyers on the street, to find artists, musicians, and other creative types who’d make great retail staff. Employees are given non-traditional job titles (shopkeeper, product programmer, maestro, etc.) and wear their names on a piece of duct tape instead of a formal nametag. • Place - Converse gives stores “local flavour” by instilling a sense of place: everything from products sold to the site’s decoration bear the city’s name and imagery. This gives the environment an authentic, honest, and organic feel, with a bit of thrift store spirit. • Product - To underscore the passions of their independent-minded consumers, the stores include a selection of third-party goods, such as notebooks made from recycled vinyl. Some stores feature a transparent stock room/pick up window where folks who already know their size can help themselves. • Programming - Each store is a platform for local “event,” such as a “shoe cemetery” (where customers can hang up their old Chucks). Personalization. Custom shoe-making stations encourage shoppers to design their own one-of-a-kind pair of Chuck Taylors using Converse’s shoe-printing technology.
Converse is a good example of a company needing to have a strong, well thought out and established brand image before deciding to engage their customers in such a personal way. How many brands/companies are able to represent their whole brand image and ethos simply in a single space?
“…The best branding work is a diagram for the service it provides” Patrick Fry 2013
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Retail + Service
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Retail + Service
Retail environments particularly need good service design as they are primarily about customer experience, in the way the customer journey is mapped out with the service user entering the retail space at a certain point, the customer explores the space in the manner in which the curator of the space has intended or allows, as they navigate the space the customer is constantly making decisions about what to buy, whether or not to buy, if they want to continue to browse or continue the experience. These design features are made intentionally with the aim of providing the ideal retail space in which the user can explore and be encouraged to invest in some way, this way of approaching design decisions is known as ‘design with intent’. Dan Lockton describes design with intent as strategic design that is intended to influence or result in certain user behaviour. Lockton goes on to state that”From the layout of shopping malls to digital rights management, our everyday lives are full of examples of products, systems and environments which have been designed to shape, guide or control – influence – our behaviour, using a wide range of techniques: technological, physical or psychological. Intended commercial benefit is a major reason behind this; intended social benefit can be too (though it’s often fraught with politics). Sometimes the behaviour shaping is helpful to the user; sometimes it’s serving someone else against the user’s best interests. Sometimes it’s trying to get the user to do something; sometimes it’s trying to stop the user doing something. The first section of Lockton’s Design with intent study is titled ‘architectural lens‘, this section looks at how design can be used as a tool to shape peoples behavior within a built environment, but many of the ideas can also be applied to interaction and product design: Mazes Can you get people to follow the path you want them to, on the way to reaching something they want? Converging and diverging Can you channel people so they come together (or split up)? Simplicity How simply can you structure things, to make it easier for users to do what you’d like them to do?
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Retail + Service
The first section of Lockton’s Design with intent study is titled ‘architectural lens‘, this section looks at how design can be used as a tool to shape peoples behavior within a built environment, but many of the ideas can also be applied to interaction and product design: Mazes Can you get people to follow the path you want them to, on the way to reaching something they want? Converging and diverging Can you channel people so they come together (or split up)? Simplicity How simply can you structure things, to make it easier for users to do what you’d like them to do?
Consumer experience is key a bad experience is often memorable on the other hand a normal
emotion return Consumer experience trust complain
value fig.4 why good service design is important in a retail environment
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Retail + Service
Max bank was a Danish bank established in 1901 known originally as Håndværkerbanken, who’s ethos had always been to do its best in the interest of customers, shareholders and staff, in between 2001 and 2004 the bank sought to become an alternative to Denmark’s established banks and went about formulating ways in which the bank could innovate amongst growing competition. Max bank wanted to become a service-orientated bank and decided upon applying a café setting to the bank’s interior to attempt to move away from the conventions of a bank.
fig.5 showing the cafe immersed within the bank environment
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Retail + Service
This design approach is geared towards leaving a long lasting legacy of customers that are adequately catered to.
Banking which is considered as a dull yet necessary experience was transformed by this concept as by looking at so called enjoyable services such as cafes and
coffee shops Max bank was able to borrow the positive aspects from these experiences to enhance the banking environment for the customer.
The normal conventions of a bank would entail the customer entering the bank
and often queuing in a busy branch and feeling ever more frustrated as they are
forced to stand and wait and as they reach the front they are greeted by someone behind a glass window, is this what the users first impression of a service should to be?
The approach undertaken by Max bank allows the customer to feel more relaxed within the bank environment as well as creating a more informal and comfortable
experience while they meet with their bank manager, the customer is given a feel-
ing of honesty and transparency in the way the bank is set up as with the traditional counters being replaced with sofas and tables a friendly atmosphere is created
which in turn could lead to enhanced trust, the Max bank model unlike most banks is geared towards the customer having an extended visit as there is opportunity
for the customer to remain at the bank after there business is conducted they may
also invite friends to enjoy the cafĂŠ which my in turn lead to the growth of the bank in terms of potential customers.
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Retail + Service fig.6
Alpha Airports + engine group In a more contemporary setting Alpha Airports, a mid-sized UK airport operator, wanted to define a new airport retail experience at their principal airport with a distinct brand identity. The concept store significantly expanded the existing retail space, providing the opportunity for Alpha to create distinct and impactful brand experiences. Engine explored the space, the retail staff and how they could work together to define the new customer experience. We delivered a strong service vision and accessible analogy to train and support staff to bring it to life. The strategy adapted to customersâ€™ needs as both travellers and shoppers, and produced clear staff guidelines and customer communications to bring this to life. Engine began to define the potential experience by using customer insights to produce a tailored customer segmentation model to help the business understand their customers through their core needs. These needs acknowledged the concerns of international travellers behaving as both passengers and shoppers and how staff could respond to this in appropriate ways. Working in collaboration with airport staff, Engine developed a service vision based on the needs of customers from those with limited time to those with extra time and other considerations. We developed propositions to meet all these needs, including a suite of self-service tools and customer communications. Engine used a powerful and accessible analogy of a theatre production to translate the vision, with the retail space as the stage and the behaviour of staff as the actors responding to their audience. Engine then tested the vision and the interrelationship between people and space through desktop prototyping with staff. This facilitated the discussion of roles, responsibilities and behaviours needed to deliver the service experience. The final result was a service vision that used the retail space to deliver distinct and branded customer experiences for all airport visitors. The vision was brought to life with clear staff guidelines, including definitions of roles and responsibilities to support the training and recruitment of staff. Engine service design This case study demonstrates how staff can play a significant role in delivering good customer service and experience as well as also being the face of the business as they are tasked with upholding the company values as they provide customers with a service.
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We are a world filled with consumers and have all felt the compulsion to buy in to various products and services, weather that maybe fashion, a car or even a particular banking service, but what makes us want to return to a brand or service once we have already been a customer? It is our experiences and memories of how that service made us feel and how we were dealt with on a human level. A good customer experience is invaluable to any business as customers are more likely to return to the service as well as recommend it to friends and family, this approach were the users thoughts, feeling and behaviours are central to a business can be described as a human centred approach.
â€œProducts and services have been human centred for decades just look at Human factors, ergonomics, anthropometricsâ€Ś. Everything has been human centred for ages it just that now more people are starting to practice it and the same goes for services.â€? Ross Dudley (2013) (see appendix) The brand can also be human centred in nature in the way it communicates and engages the user, the brand should not be looked at as an end point but should be regarded as a resource rather than just an identity that represents what the business sales, the brand should be a means to guide the user journey (inform), play with the users perceptions and senses (engage) as well as allowing the user to buy in to the brand ethos and identify with its associated values (relate).
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fig.8 the John Lewis style me augmented reality mirror
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fig.9- a typical user journey
Business’s utilize user centric methods to gain feedback from customers in order to improve the products and services they provide, User centric methods can include online and physical surveys of store visits, product reviews as well as using mystery shoppers to test out the effectiveness of their user journey. “The question the designer must consider is how do we take this one particular user and create an environment that allows them to experience this service in a Holistic manner with the brand right at the center so that the user can explore its entirety, of course will be a unique experience for every brand and it can be thought of in my different words depending on what kind of service is being provided.” Patrick fry 2013 A business’s true value is derived from how it creates valuable services, commodities and experiences for its users, in other words the user determines the value of a business by deciding to continue to use it. Customers often have strong relationships with businesses and brands including but not limited to: fashion labels, established banks, hygiene products and even coffee shops. Common reasons for this connect is often related to how much a customer thinks they can trust a brand, if said brand continues to produce high quality products, the trust factor among consumers is likely to increase and build the companies overall reputation, this leads into another phenomenon called “Emotional branding”.
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One of the biggest emotional brands and great example the concept in operation in a retail space is Nike town, Oxford street.
Nike as a brand has a long history of appealing to the consumer especially those interested or involved in sports, Nike use a marketing tool that has been very integral
to their success, they use emotional branding in the form of the sports professionals
that many look up to and want to emulate, they use this to market and sell endorsed product ranges and even go as far as to name the range after the athlete. Nike are experts at playing on our ambitions to be like popular athletes and even make the same sports apparel they wear available to us to give the consumer a feeling of ownership over a small part of the athletes image.
Nikeâ€™s flagship store Nike town in Oxford Street also employs an effective user
journey, which begins with a map on the ground floor outlining what is available on each floor of the store and continues with the user being exposed to large scale
images of popular sports stars as they step off the escalators, as the user browses
they are quickly approached by a sale assistant who is best placed to give bespoke
advice on the appropriate purchase for an individual, the user journey ends with the likely purchase of a product but is likely to reoccur due to Nikeâ€™s effective marketing strategy.
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fig.10 â€œbe unstoppableâ€? basketball star skobe byrant (right) and Lebron james (left)
In retail some principles are the same throughout all tiers of business, for example
a market trader is a small business that sells to the public and a high street clothing
store is a large business that sells to the masses, but the key thing that links both is
that they are Humans selling to other Humans regardless of the scale of their operations, they may employ different methods but the Human aspect is were the real
value of the business is, the Brand and Service working together to serve the user .
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Brand and service are integral to each other in the design process and are valuable tools in communicating Brand messages to users; Human centred approaches can be seen as the best way to connect the visual identity, values and service to the user as well as being an effective way for a Business expand.
Brands need to learn to invest in well thought out design and consider all aspects of the design and user journey in order to preform efficiently, more Businesses need to realizes that their front line/shop floor staff are integral to delivering their brand values and reputation, as the case studies I have presented show that it pays off to invest appropriately in Design, Staff training and Business strategy in order to innovate.
The main aims of this report was to highlight what service design was and how its
associated methods could be applied to any business or brand, how The introduc-
tion of more human centred approaches can help improve the performance of inter-
nal stakeholders which would in turn have a positive effect on customer experience, I believe this report has highlighted how these key points are tools towards success and innovation in businessâ€™s for the future.
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Interviews Ross Dudley, Service designer (Engine service design) December 2013 How would you describe service design innovation? There are many people out there banding around their definitions, some people get to hung up on definitions, I would say the work I have been doing is about working with businesses to understand how they can improve the service they provide for their customers whether that’s speculating on what an ideal customer service could be in the future or its understanding the complexity of a business and understanding how things are done so we can change things from the ground up, I kind of put service design in a category of improving service organizations and the experiences they offer always with a customer focus and if we save some pennies in the process then that’s a bonus. In your opinion how can brand and service work together to form an effective business model? They defiantly go hand in hand in the same way that any retail store has a shop frontage and a brand which is essential to what the company want to become renowned for whether they like it or not and that can be part owned by service, if I use a cinema as an example, you can go in to Odeon and expect a certain amount of quality and if the front of house deliver a different level of quality your brand reputation changes to what you deliver and I think sometimes brands forget that they are making a promise with their customer. In the same way that product designers look for how their product works in manufacturing, how it’s assembled, how it’s recycled, I think Graphic designers, marketers and service designers can open their eyes to look at the whole user journey, for example if you have a brand like Mulberry, if a potential customer goes to the retail shop and the sales assistant spit shines the luxury bags on display, it doesn’t do justice to the hard work the rest of the business has achieved or the image that has been created, that goes all the way to the top as the Ceo’ must ensure that their branding is functional throughout the organization.
Currently how important is customer service in the retail sector? And how has this had an effect on brand strategy? Retail has always been about customer service and always been about that level of brand engagement, the guys on the front line know it and have experienced it, its just about the process of the guys in head office connecting with that. Services such as after care also important as it means that the customer will have a long standing relationship with the brand and will also be likely to return and less likely to go elsewhere.
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What are your thoughts on products and services becoming ever more human centered? Coming from an industrial design I believe that products and services have been human centred for decades just look at Human factors, ergonomics, anthropometrics. Everything has been human centred for ages it just that now more people are starting to practice it and the same goes for services, if your taking a flight to Germany, the flight attendant will be looking after you for a few hours while your in the area, that person may have a decades worth of experience but is the airline (business) human centred? So from time to time we get projects were the business is trying to become more customer centric, while on the other hand some businesses have been practicing this for 10-15 years, I guess the real question is how mature are businesses now in their human centred approaches.
Could you share a case study of a human centred project you have been involved with? We did some work for a telecoms company in improving their call centre, the problem was that their brand wasn’t quite distinguishable from their competitors, their customers didn’t instantly relies that they were communicating with them rather that their competitors. For example how could you tell the difference between communicating with EE, Orange, Vodaphone or 3 ‘s call centre? So we spent time listening to calls, working with the advisers, going and speaking to staff about their experiences, we then set about creating a framework were all the positive aspects of customer interactions were to be made scalable and more consistent as well as ensuring that all communications were on brand meaning that the brand values would be filter through each communication with their customers. We do believe in not think of the service in many touch points but to simplify the user journey so that we can focus on a single touch point and design and operate it effectively. What we like is to have all our stakeholders involved from the start of the project, so that if you are part of this call centre your in early on to this change process, so that if you don’t like something you can voice it early on so that there is no friction on the other end, ultimately more people that are delivering that service have a working knowledge of what is right and what is wrong.
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Patrick fry, Graphic designer November 2013 How does the Brand (visual identity) and the Service a business provides work together in your opinion? I truly believe that the best branding work is a diagram for the service it provides, You can read so much into the semiotics and all the connotations Within the visual identity of any brand these really should demonstrate actually what they do, you know you have failed were the service and visual identity are disparate.
2.What are your thoughts on products and services becoming ever more human centred? Increasingly people need to think about the entire user journey when it comes to a brand, as there are many more touch points than there used to be, people used to be able to control how people interact with a brand But now with online the tone of voice needs to be considered from how they come across on twitter to what exactly happens when their customers enter a store For example Starbucks have that engagement were they ask customers their names so that they can personalise their cups and give a more human aspect to their service, I feel there is a current trend in this type of customer interaction. The example you brought up where Starbucks customers decided to parody the popular scene from Spartacus (in which a crowd is asked who is Spartacus and one after another different individual proclaim to be Spartacus) by telling the barista that their name was Spartacus was a good example of how the brand journey becomes trademarked and users feel they can play with it. The question the designer must consider is how do we take this one particular user and how do they experience this brand in a â€˜spherical wayâ€™ with the brand right at the center so that the user can explore all around it, it is a unique experience for every brand which is the beautiful thing about it , it can be thought of in my different words depending on what kind of service it is.
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Electronic Design with Intent 101 patterns for influencing behavior through design Dan Lockton with David Harrison Neville A. Stanton date accessed: October 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5oP_RlU91g date accessed: July 2013 Print Abbing, E. R. 2010. Brand-driven innovation. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA Pub.
GobĂŠ, M. (2001) Emotional Branding: The New Paradigm Connecting Brands to People. Allworth Press
Lockwood, T. 2009. Design thinking. New York, NY: Allworth Press.
Meroni, A. and Sangiorgi, D. 2011. Design for services. Burlington, VT: Gower.
Stickdorn, M. and Schneider, J. (2010). This is Service Design Thinking. Amsterdam, BIS Publishers.
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Images fig 0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5oP_RlU91g fig.1 http://www.ideo.com/work/retail-brand-and-strategy-service-model/ fig.2 http://www.bundlebox.com/upload_images/4f2a76d903a77-converse-logo.png fig.3 http://exceleratelabs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/IDEO_square_logo.jpg fig.4 Omosebi.C. fig. 5 http://ylvalindberg.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/maxbank.jpg fig.6 http://www.designhouse.co.uk/images/main/alpha_logomark.jpg fig.7 http://www.designthenewbusiness.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/engine.jpg
fig 8 http://theteam.co.uk/work/cisco/style-me fig.9 Omosebi.C fig .10 http://www.thedailystreet.co.uk/wp-content/themes/thedailystreet/images/2010/11/Nike-Town-London-Redevelopment-02.jpg
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Industrial & Theoretical Context Topics covered: Customer service / experience Service design Branding User centred design Brand stra...