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ABILIS Manual 2

Planning for Success: Participatory Project Planning

Yutta Fricke

Development Aid for People with Disabilities


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

NOTE!

ABILIS FOUNDATION recommends that you prepare your project proposal using the outline and explanations offered in ABILIS Manual 1: Project Proposal Writing.

ABILIS Manual 2. Planning for Success: Participatory Project Planning ISBN 952-5526-01-1 ABILIS FOUNDATION Aleksanterinkatu 48 A, 00100 Helsinki, Finland fax +358 9 6124 0333, email: abilis@abilis.fi www.abilis.fi Text: Yutta Fricke Illustrations & cover design: Katti Ka-Batembo Inner pages lay-out: Tuula Heima-Tirkkonen Print: Uusimaa Oy, Porvoo, Finland 2003. This publication is produced with the financial support of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 2


TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ... 4 1.

Introduction ... 6

2.

Organizing Comes First ... 7

3.

One Person’s Idea Becomes Everybody’s Plan ... 8

4.

Planning for Success ... 10

5.

The Planning Workshop ... 19

6.

Choosing the Right Project with Group Activities ... 21

7.

Activity 1, Introduction to Each Other and to the Workshop ... 22

8.

Activity 2, From Countless Problems to Top Priorities ... 24

9.

Activity 3, Brainstorming Solutions ... 26

10.

Activity 4, Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats ... 28 Word List ... 32 Resource List ... 33

NOTE!

All words that are underlined are explained in the Word List found at the end of the manual. 3


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This is the second manual in a series of training materials being planned by Abilis to assist its overseas project partners to improve the situation of persons with disabilities. The manual was designed to accompany ABILIS Manual 1, Project Proposal Writing. This publication is a product of the vast network of colleagues who make up ABILIS Foundation. In Finland, this network includes the financial and moral support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, as well as the dedicated volunteer board members and small staff of ABILIS Headquarters. The latter includes ABILIS Foundation Coordinator Taija Heinonen, as well as Tuula Heima-Tirkkonen, who provided her expertise in publication lay-out. As always, ABILIS founder, Kalle Könkköla, was key in identifying the need for this publication, and then locating the financial and human resources to respond. Having worked with Kalle closely at Disabled Peoples’ International (DPI), I (Yutta Fricke) was particularly pleased to be offered the opportunity to join the Abilis team in cyberspace, from Canada, as the manual’s author. Like the first manual, this document was enhanced by the input of Abilis field staff and collaborators in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The content was discussed in part at an international workshop at DPI’s Sixth World Assembly held in Sapporo, Japan, in October 2002, and then again at local workshops and meetings in Zambia, Uganda, Bangladesh and India. Special thanks go to to Kasim Sajjabi of National Union of the Disabled Persons of Uganda, NUDIPU, Chandrasekar Mahesh of Mobility India, Finnish Service Centre for Development Cooperation, KEPA, Zambia partners and staff: Esa Salminen, Jack Kalipenta, Elijah Ngwale, Catherine Kaseketi, Mr. Kamfua, Lango Sinkamba, Mr. Nyirongo and Alice Kaunda. Thanks are also due to Kepa Helsinki staff and Tuija Halmari of Finnish Disabled People’s Internatiol Development Association, FIDIDA, for their comments. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland also provided their valuable input during the writing process. The cartoons that illustrate the Manual were made by Katti KaBatembo, a Tanzanian cartoonist. 4


This is truly your manual. You are therefore welcome to photocopy and distribute it as you wish. However, we ask that you please acknowledge Abilis when you do so, and please send us a note to let us know how it is being used, and any observations you or the participants may have on how this or future manuals could be improved. And so the development process continues ‌

Abilis can be contacted at: ABILIS FOUNDATION Aleksanterinkatu 48 A 00100 Helsinki Finland Fax: 358 9 6124 0333 Email: abilis@abilis.fi More information is available at our website: www.abilis.fi

Development Aid for People with Disabilities 5


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

1. Introduction

The purpose of the manual is to assist Abilis Foundation partners in the Global South to successfully carry out their projects. This manual offers processes and practical activities that maximize the input and ownership of your project, long before you raise the first dollar. One goal is to help you be sure that your plans best suit current needs and available resources. Another goal is that the process you use to develop your project also strengthens your organization, thereby ensuring a strong and successful future. Ultimately, Abilis Foundation hopes successful project collaboration will lead to future funding opportunities and integration of people with disabilities in the social and economic life of your community and country.

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___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6


2. Organizing Comes First People look for and find one another for many reasons

O O O

Similar experiences Shared interests Common goals

For people with disabilities, who are sometimes shut away in their homes, lack of contact is one of the biggest problems or handicaps. Some think they are the only ones with their disability. They, and their parents, believe it is their own fault. Feeling hopeless, they have no plans to improve their situation. Girls and women with disabilities face even greater difficulties. Organizing is key to breaking the myths surrounding disability. As soon as even two or three people with disabilities come together and see their life mirrored in that of their friends, the questions begin.

´ ´ ´

If education is for “all”, why am I unable to enter the school? I want my own family. Why should I not have one? I need a job. What do I need to do to get one? 7


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

And with questions come the answers, as well as a new sense of hope. While one person may feel she or he cannot argue with the leaders of the community, three or four will gather strength. Soon dreams take shape and more people are attracted to the new way of thinking. As the voice of the group becomes louder, so does its power. In many places around the world, including within aid agencies, this voice has become too loud to ignore! Because Abilis believes that organizing is key to empowering people with disabilities (and other groups that are left out of decision-making), an expectation of all projects is that they strengthen the group in charge. That’s why participation is key right from project planning through to the evaluation of the results.

NOTE!

For more about organization building, see the resource list at the end of this manual.

3. One Person’s Idea Becomes Everybody’s Plan You may already have a good idea of what your group needs. Perhaps,

O O O

a training event public education or a money-making business

Many project plans are started by a small group of people, even one or two. While most projects require the know-how of a few key individuals, ideally these talents will be used to create a shared vision – one that builds group ownership, commitment and skills. Even if you already have a project in mind, we suggest you still undertake some of the activities suggested by this manual. The overall process is designed to help you choose the right project at the right time, as you …

´ ´ ´ 8

Involve your whole group and more in deciding on project priorities, Check the level of commitment and skills of future project participants, Solve problems or deal with risks before these affect your success.


By being thorough in your planning process, not only will you be preparing a stronger proposal, you will already be achieving an important development goal – organizational strengthening.

NOTE!

If your group is not yet a registered organization, it is important that you become officially established. This is often necessary in order to receive project funds locally and internationally.

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

4. Planning for Success Not just good projects require planning, so does good planning! Begin by creating a planning team. This group of 2-4 persons might all be members of your group, or you may wish to invite someone new whose skills would be useful. Perhaps you want someone who is good with budgets or who has written other project proposals. Like the actual project proposal, this small planning team will have to answer the six big questions:

Who? … should Why?

be involved in planning

… do you need a project

What? …

do you hope to achieve

Where? … will

you have your planning meetings

When? … will

planning activities take place and when are the dead-lines

How?

… will you carry out the project planning.

NOTE!

If you are a cross-disability organization, make sure your planning process includes representation from the various disability groups. Women should be involved not only in equal numbers, but with equal opportunity for participation – right from the start!

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Who? … should be involved in planning This is a very important question for two reasons: 1. The more people who are involved in setting up the project, the more people will want to see it succeed. 2. By including not only your group members, but other interested persons, you will learn how your project can be supported and can support broader community development. Answering the question Who? is sometimes called a “stakeholder analysis.” Stakeholders include all the groups and organizations who have an interest in the project, even if they have reason to be concerned about or dislike your project. The list might include other community organizations, government or city officials, business persons, or media. Pretend you are a representative of each stakeholder group, and then ask yourself:

O

What is in it for me?

Examine your project ideas from the various perspectives to see how each stakeholder could benefit, while they also help you! Then, consider how the various stakeholders should participate in project planning. Some of the stakeholders you may want to include only at a later stage of the project, or simply keep informed. But think carefully. If you can convince the people in your community to see your project as an opportunity, instead of a threat, you may avoid problems in future.

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

Use the following chart to help you decide who to include and how to include them (role): Stakeholder Group 1. People with disabilities a. Example, Association of the Blind b. Continue … 2. Advisors a. Example, Aid Agency b. Continue

Interest What’s In It For Me?

Role in Planning

Example, More jobs for members

Example, Planning Example, Include meeting participants President

Example, Meet “Poverty Reduction” goal

Example, Assist in contacting funders

Example, Include Project Officer

Example, Information to its clients

Example, Inform chairperson

3. Service Providers Example, Concern for a. Example, decrease in funding Rehabilitation of its workshops Institute b. Continue 4. Continue ….

12

Who to include Who to inform


Why? … do you need a project And What? … do you hope to achieve These questions are related to one another. The first asks what the problem is and the second how you are going to solve it. At this time you are still asking these questions in a very general way, in terms of undertaking a project at all. Later, the same questions will have to be asked about your specific project. There are at least 4 different ways in which you can get your answers: 1..

Organize an open community discussion group, with invitations to key stakeholders.

´

Begin by checking that participants know about your group or organization: who it includes; why it was established; what services it provides. Let everyone have a chance to tell you what kinds of problems people with disabilities are facing. Have participants offer suggestions about what your organization could do to address these problems. Ask if anyone knows of useful future contacts or possible participants. Keep the discussion fairly general, with plenty of opportunity for the participants to voice their thoughts. Important: A separate project planning meeting will take place based on the outcomes of these discussions.

´ ´ ´ ´

NOTE!

For information on how to plan a gathering, please see Chapter 5, The Planning Workshop. 13


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

2.

´

Organize a “focus group” of persons who share similar interests in the project (as shown in the first column of the stakeholder chart).

The gathering can follow the same agenda as the one described above. Because the participants have certain characteristics in common (like their disability, their profession or perhaps the town in which they live), the discussion should give your planning team more knowledge about the specific needs and wishes of this particular group.

3.

Carry out background studies.

´

´

You may need certain information before you start planning your project. For instance, if you know you will be working in the area of training, you may want to research what other training opportunities are available to people with disabilities. You may also wish to research who in government might be helpful to you in your project, and then be sure to involve that person. Whatever information you gather, share it in your planning meeting.

4.

Undertake a survey.

´

Especially if it is unlikely that certain people will attend a public gathering, you may wish to take your questions directly to them. By asking the same questions over and over again, in the form of a survey or questionnaire, you will develop a picture of the interests or needs of the respondents.

´

Survey Tips ´ ´ ´ ´ ´

14

Ask no more than 10 questions. Avoid questions that will give you only a “yes” or “no” answer. Develop more than one survey if different questions need to be asked of different groups of people (or stakeholders), for example future participants, family members, or government officials. Locate respondents. For example, contact youth with disabilities through organizations, schools, or rehabilitation centres. You may want the survey to be anonymous (that is with no contact information), especially if people would then be more honest with their answers.


SAMPLE SURVEY

EXAMPLE: Survey Aimed at Determining Interests of Youth with Disabilities

General Information 1. Name: __________________________________________________________ 2. How you can be contacted:__________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. Age: _________ Gender:____________ Disability: ______________________ 4. Are you currently involved in programs for youth with disabilities? Which? __________________________________________________________________ 5. How do you spend your day? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6. Our organization is considering offering a youth program. What activities would interest you? ________________________________________________________ Some examples: __ sports (wheelchair basketball, swimming) __ self-care __ technical skill development (vocational training) __ social gatherings __ women’s issues __ crafts __ writing __ leadership training 7. What might keep you from joining the group activities? (If person needs help answering, examples are family, schedule, transportation, shyness) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. Which of the following locations would be most convenient for your participation (examples): __ Holy Church __ Freedom House __ Central YMCA Thank you for participating in our survey! Would you like to be contacted about future programming? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ If so, what is your contact information? ___________________________________________________________________ 15


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

Where? When? How? ‌ will you carry out the planning These final questions can be answered at one time be creating a work plan. The planning team work plan will set out all the activities in the planning phase, including the various community discussion groups, surveys and the planning meeting described in the next section. It also defines the roles and responsibilities for everyone involved. A budget will ensure all costs are considered. As you discuss the steps needed to develop your planning process, use a chart, on paper or on the wall, to track all the decisions. Be sure to put someone in charge of each activity.

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WORK PLAN Activity

Where

When

Who Comments is responsible

1. Background documentation

City Hall

Oct 18 deadline

Sarah

Oct 1-3 Oct 15 deadline Oct 18 planning team mtg

Sue & Sarah Sue

Rehab Centre

2. Stakeholder Survey Survey Development Carry out survey Summarize results

3. Planning Meeting Finding meeting space Setting agenda Background information - survey Tracking costs Getting sponsors for meeting Transport Arranging equipment Papers to distribute Informing officials Contacting invitees Preparing and posting Announcement of Meeting Disability requirements - Large print - Interpreter Refreshments (if any)

Sue’s home RLI Household

Find out what by-laws will effect the project. What activities exist and what is the interest.

Sue

Example: Oct 10, 7 pm Emzie Rehab Centre

Contact Mr. Simons

Check costs Check costs Check costs

Check costs Check costs

Check costs

Other …

NOTE!

Use the Who column to compare responsibility levels of each of your planning team members. Don’t let one person do all the work. At your next meeting, check off what was already done. Transfer the When column information to a calendar to keep you on track. 17


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

BUDGET By developing a detailed work plan, you will also be able to note any costs you may have. Avoid spending a lot of money. By contacting organizations in your community, you may be able to get donations, also called “in kind” contributions. For instance, try to get the meeting space or certain services for free. Even with no money transfer, these items still appear in your budget. Create a table to help you organize your budget. Expense

Amount

Source

Comments

Paper & printing for background info and survey

15 Euro

Organization’s bank account

Bus fare for research

5 Euro

Organization’s bank account

Meeting space

In kind

Rehab Centre

Equipment – Microphone

In kind

St. Mary’s Church

Transport

50 Euro

Find Donation

Accessible Bus

Papers/Poster

In kind

Sam’s Print Shop

Contact Sam

Interpreter

In kind

Liz Kiwanuka

Wants charitable receipt

Refreshments Other ….

In kind 1)

Al’s Grocery Store

Total Cost

70 Euro

1) See also ABILIS Manual 1: Project Proposal Writing, section 10., pages 22-23.

NOTE!

If your group does not yet have a bank account, now is a good time to open one. Avoid using the personal account of a planning team member. For more information on financial management, see Abilis Manual 1, chapters 10, 11, 12.

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5. The Planning Workshop The planning process could take place over a fairly long period of time, perhaps at the monthly meetings of your organization. However, in order to bring together as many people as possible, we suggest that at least one Planning Workshop be held. To ensure the workshop goes smoothly: 1. Prepare an agenda, or order of business, that allows people to introduce themselves and that lists all the topics to be discussed at the meeting. Include a final item on the agenda entitled “other business,� which includes new topics that have come up at the meeting. 2. Appoint a chairperson who will welcome participants, open and close the meeting, introduce the agenda items, and keep the meeting focussed on the agenda. 3. Appoint a secretary or note taker, who will write down all decisions and commitments for action. Even if the organization has a secretary, you may want an outsider to take notes to allow the elected person to participate more freely. 4. Set time-lines for each discussion. You may wish to appoint a time-keeper, whose job it is to remind the chairperson and speakers of the time limits. 19


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

NOTE! Create a Parking Lot to park all those good ideas and topics that should be discussed sometime, like at the end of the meeting, but are taking the focus and time away time from the agenda. “Parking” involves writing the subject on a large paper tacked onto the wall for all to see. It offers the chairperson a polite way to acknowledge a concern, but still move on ….

5.

Set break times for coffee / bathroom and lunch.

6.

Keep a list of follow-up actions, with names and deadlines attached.

7.

Offer a summary at the end of the meeting. Where do we go from here?

8.

Set rules of procedure to ensure that everyone participates and everyone understands. This way everyone agrees to start and finish on time how long each person can speak how often a person can speak about one agenda item to respect the “parking lot” principle to express differing opinions without becoming personal to ask lots of questions to be sure everyone understands.

´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´

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6. Choosing the Right Project with Group Activities In every group, there are people who are eager to share their views and others who are shy. This does not mean that one set of opinions is more valuable. By planning activities that allow discussion, also in smaller groups, there is more opportunity for everyone’s voice to be heard. It is also a way of giving more people the chance to develop skills in chairing small groups and in reporting back. Most important, group activities are a great way to get everyone involved in gathering the information that will later be used to write your project proposal. To carry out the activities, you need: 1.

Flip chart paper or black boards

2.

Masking tape (to post the paper on the wall) and

3.

Enough markers or chalk for all the working groups

You would also benefit from having: 1. A facilitator, whose job is similar to that of a chairperson. He or she leads the discussion and keeps it on track. It should be someone who feels comfortable speaking in front of a group and will be respected by the participants. The person should not express his or her own opinions, but focus only on getting the views of the participants according to the goals of the meeting. The person should be familiar with your organization, but need not be a member. You may wish to approach another community organization for help. 2. A secretary, who notes all plans and decisions agreed upon in the large group. Ideally, as participants share their ideas, the secretary lists key points either on a flip chart or blackboard for all to read. The small working groups will need to appoint their own secretary, as well as a reporter, that is someone to speak on behalf of the group.

NOTE!

Some people (disabled or not) have limited ability to sit and listen. Participation helps keeping peoples’ attention. So do breaks, food and drink. By providing childcare, mothers with small babies can also follow discussions. 21


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

7. Activity 1, Introduction to Each Other and the Workshop Use this activity as an “ice breaker,� that is a way to help people get to know one another. Ask everyone present to find someone in the room that they have never met, or do not know well. Or, hand out coloured paper as participants enter the room, only two of one colour. Ask participants to find their mate. In pairs then, gather information to introduce your partner to the group. Besides personal information, ask what the individual sees as the overall purpose of the project: What is it trying to achieve for whom? Each person has 5 minutes to present themselves to their partner. After 10 minutes, the introductions to the group can begin, this time limited to two minutes a person. The secretary notes on the board the comments made about the purpose of the project. Every time an element is repeated it is underlined, so that it becomes clear where the strongest agreement lies. The chairperson then reads, while the secretary writes, the official statement that describes the organization, perhaps from the Constitution of the organization. The facilitator notes the similarities and the differences between the organization’s purpose and the expectations of the project. The goal of the discussion is to make sure the participants have a shared understanding of how the project should strengthen the organization. If your group has no mission statement or official purpose, then as part B of this discussion, agree upon the points that are most important to the whole organization. Divide the discussion into three parts:

O O O

Who you represent Why you exist What you do

All three parts can then be combined to produce one summary statement. 22


EXAMPLE The Opportunityland Organization of People with Disabilities is the united voice of people with disabilities (= who), that promotes equal rights and full participation in society (= why), and leads to positive change through advocacy, public education, and self-help (= how).

NOTE!

Throughout ABILIS Manuals 1 and 2, you will find concrete examples from an imaginary place called Opportunityland. One project example is not related to the next.

Conflict You may find that there are differing views about why you have an organization or are planning a project. This is normal. It is better to be clear about the differences in opinion now, than when you have started work on your project. As much as possible, try to settle disagreements as they arise. If they are too disruptive, note the key differences, and come back to the problem at the end of the day or of the workshop. If other discussions have not brought the two sides together, think of a process (perhaps a current and a future project) that will respond to everyone’s interests. Perhaps two sub-committees are needed‌

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

8. Activity 2, From Countless Problems to Top Priorities People with disabilities are faced with many challenges. The community discussion groups, background research and surveys undertaken will highlight several of these, like

´ ´ ´

negative public attitudes lack of opportunities to develop skills access to housing, education, and medical services.

In order to ensure that the project you choose best responds to the most critical needs of your group, review these problems during this planning meeting. Report on your research to date, and then create an overview with those present. a. In the large group, begin by listing who in the community is affected directly by a disability. Consider the various sub-groups of people with disabilities, according to what disability they have, their age, gender, whether they live in an institution, are homeless etc. b. Then list those who are affected indirectly (stakeholders named earlier and maybe others like: families, community organization, international NGOs, municipal government). 24


c. In small groups, discuss the specific problems and their causes as they affect each of the groups listed above. Name the types of disabilities and other specific details that influence the impact or effect the disability has, like being a woman, or living in an institution. Determine the most critical problem(s) for the group. Have each group discuss at least one disability group and one group of “others� affected. Allow at least one hour for discussion, and another hour for reporting back. d. Either in the small working group, or as the reporting takes place in the larger group, have the secretary combine the results of the discussions using a wall chart and brief notes as follow on the next page. Underline or mark in some way the problems that are reported by more than one working group. List what issues were considered to be most critical among the small groups. Through discussion conclude what are the top priorities. Stakeholders

Problems

Causes of Problems

Directly affected: Mobility-impaired Blind Deaf Mental disabilities Women with disabilities People living in institutions Families Indirectly affected Families Community organizations (Church) Rehab organizations and institutions Schools/ Training Institutes Government: Local (municipal, village, tribe) Regional Other 25


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

9. Activity 3, Brainstorming the Solutions There are several steps you can now take to decide what your organization could do to respond to the most serious problems. One way to narrow down which project solution is most likely to meet your needs is to brainstorm (list freely, without criticism) possible solutions to two or three of most critical problems. Some of the solutions may be projects, others not.

NOTE!

You may find that it is possible to develop a project that responds to more than one problem at once. On the other hand, try not to solve all the problems with one project. Instead have one successful project build on the next.

Depending on how large your group is you may wish to again divide up into smaller groups for this activity. Allow one hour for discussion and another hour to report back. Remember to seek out the ideas of persons who have not yet spoken.

Sample list: PROBLEM EXAMPLE 1: Organization

is weak.

Brainstorm Solutions: O Restructure O Offer members new activities O Plan a major training event / conference O Hold a national assembly (with elections) or a similar organizational building process (could be held with training event) O Join another organization with a similar mission

PROBLEM EXAMPLE 2: Members

need jobs.

Brainstorm of Solutions: O Develop a disabled persons’ skills bank and a job bank with local businesses. O Lobby government to promote employment of people with disabilities through reduced taxes for example. O Make vocational training centres accessible or offer a vocational training program. O Organize work placements for people with disabilities. Establish a revolving loan fund for disabled entrepreneurs. O Develop a business to sell products or services.

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NOTE!

None of the project ideas has to be ruled out. Another meeting could develop a two or three year Action Plan that includes many of the ideas. Begin with one project.

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

10.

Activity 4, Strengths-WeaknessesOpportunities-Threats

SWOT is an abbreviation for Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats. A SWOT analysis, or review, encourages your organization to be realistic about its strengths and weaknesses in undertaking a project. It also ensures organizers make use of current opportunities in their community and guard against the threats to a successful project. To use the SWOT analysis to make a project choice, decide on the top two or three best options for projects. You may wish to split into smaller groups, each of which discusses one project. Look internally first at the qualities of the organization that could influence project success. Consider also what effect the various strengths and weaknesses would have on the project and what strategies might minimize the weaknesses. 28


Strengths: The resources and capabilities of the organization and its members that would contribute to the project success. Weaknesses: The problems (including lack of expertise) of the organization and its members as related to the project. Then look externally, that is at the conditions outside the organization, that could affect the project. How beneficial are the various opportunities, and how serious is the threat in each of the three cases? Threats: Situation, events and/or people outside the organization which could negatively influence a project. Opportunities: Situation, events and/or people outside the organization, which the project organizers could draw from to carry out a successful project. Then compare the lists of strengths and weaknesses of the organization in relation to each project. Where are the internal strengths and external opportunities most encouraging? In which case are the internal weaknesses and external threats most serious? Use the information you have gathered to decide which project is best at this time.

EXAMPLE:

National Disability Leadership Training Event

Strengths: ´ The organization has experience in planning training events. ´ A training event offers many opportunities for members to become involved in the organization. New leadership will be developed. The renewed organizational energy can be used for future activities. ´ The event will define organizational priorities and so will give the organization future direction. ´ It will be an opportunity to create a women’s committee for the organization. ´ By bringing in experts in community development, new skills will be created within the organization. ´ Many members have experience in local fundraising and can use this as a way of educating businesses and the public. ´ The organization has contacts with international donors who may be interested. ´ The organization has contact with a university that will provide it with cheap accessible lodging and meeting space. 29


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

Weaknesses:

´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´

Staff resources are low and volunteers are not always reliable. There are costs, as well as time commitment, needed to prepare proposals and get local contributions. Some members do not want a training event; they want to focus on job creation. Members may put all their energy into organizing the event, and other work of the organization will be forgotten. Expectations may be created for which there are currently no resources. Women are discouraged from attending overnight events. Higher costs for travel to a single national event mean fewer people can attend than if three events were held in the regions.

Opportunities:

´ ´ ´ ´ ´

Contacts within government can be strengthened. The organization’s lobbying efforts for curb cuts can be pursued with requests for curb cuts around the city block of the meeting venue or ramps at the site. Regional or international organizations, like Disabled Peoples’ International, may be available for specific training components, like legislative training. Invitations to development agencies or banks may lead to future collaboration. Bringing representatives from different groups together will unify people with disabilities.

Threats:

´ ´ ´ ´

The event depends on at least one international donor proposal to be approved. There are more donors that support employment activities than there are training and particularly conferences. A possible election may take place that will affect political support and availability of government representatives and opening and closing ceremonies. Current attention to drought conditions will make it difficult to focus on poverty created by disability.

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Repeat this exercise for each of the projects to compare them. It may be that your group does not have all the information needed. In that case, carry out further background studies:

´ ´ ´ ´

List the questions that still need to be answered. Decide from where the information can be obtained. (It may be a person or a document.) Decide who will obtain the information. Set another meeting to finalize your project decision.

Once you have decided on your project, the detailed planning begins. Please see ABILIS Manual 1, Project Proposal Writing for assistance.

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

Word List Activity: action taken in a project to move from plans and objectives to results Beneficiaries: those who will benefit from the project, directly (the trainees for example) or indirectly (the families or businesses that also benefit from new skills) Budget: detailed breakdown of expected costs Cross-disability: involving a variety of disabilities, for instance, blind people, deaf people and people with mobility impairments working together all in one group Empower: strengthen the sense of personal control and potential to determine one’s own future (power from within, not over others) Evaluation: a critical review of the project, including a measurement of the results. Evaluators consider what happened, why it happened that way, and what might be done differently next time. Focus group: gathering to get the opinions of a group of persons who share similar interests or experiences In-kind: budgetary term to describe items or services that have been donated yet still have a financial value for the project Integrate: include fully among others Monitoring: periodic checking of actual project progress versus expected progress Myths: common belief not based on truth Participatory project planning: a project planning process that involves persons affected, including in decision-making that will influence the design of the project Project: a planned activity designed to meet clearly defined objectives with described resource in a specific time period Resources: the personnel, materials, services, travel and other items needed for the project to take place Stakeholders: groups and organizations who have an interest in the project, even if they have reason to be concerned about or dislike it. The list might include other 32


community organizations, government or city officials, businesspersons, or media. Stakeholder analysis: a study of who and how various interest groups will be affected by the project. Survey: series of questions developed for repeat use among a targeted population, often used to determine shared characteristics of that population.

RESOURCE LIST on Disability The Programmer’s Tool Kit, published by Disabled Peoples’ International and Overseas Education Fund, 1987. Available from Disabled Peoples’ International Headquarters, 748 Broadway, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3G 0X3. Email: info@DPI.org, www.DPI. org. UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons Unesco World Programme of Action Disability Action and Awareness produces a series of booklets on self-help organizing, fund-raising, disability legislation, and advocacy. For a list of publications, please see their website at DAA_ORG@compuserve.com or contact DAA at 11 Belgrave Rd, Rm 109, London, SW1V 1RB, United Kingdom; Tel: 44-71-834 04 77; Fax 44-71- 821 95 39 Mobility International USA, 1992, Global Perspectives on Disability, USA. MIUSA focuses on the integration of disabled persons into international educational exchange and recreational travel. For more information, please see their website at www.miusa.org, or contact MIUSA at PO Box 3551, Eugene, OR 9740; Fax 503343-6812 OXFAM. Disability, Equality & Human Rights. A Trainers Manual for Development and Humanitarian organisations, Alison Harris with Sue Enfield, 2003. Available from Boumemart English Book Centre, P.O. Box 1496, Parkstone, Dorset B4 12340 UK, tel. +44 1202 712933, fax +44 1202 712930, Email: oxfam@bebc.co.uk. National Council on Disability, VANE, Finland, has created the Tool Box as a guide for creating local disability policies. Available from VANE, PL 33, 00023 Valtioneuvosto, Finland. Tel. +358 9 1607 4311, fax +358 9 1607 4312. Email: vanen.posti@stm.vn.fi, www.vane.to. 33


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

WWW sites:

http://www.iddc.org.uk http://www.who.int/ncd/disability/ www.asksource.info http://www.aifo.it/english/apdrj/Journal.htm (Asian Pacific Disability rehabilitation Journal) http://cbrresources.org/ (CBR) www.worldbank.org (search for theme �disability�) On Participation & Development Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, 2000, A Development Co-operation Manual for Non-Governmental Organisations, Finland. (Available free-of-charge from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department for Development Co-operation, PB 176, 00161 Helsinki, Finland. Email: keoinfo@formin.fi, www.global.finland.fi. WWW sites:

http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/particip/index.html http://www.cgdev.org/

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

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ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success


ABILIS Manual 2: Planning for Success

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ABILIS Manual 2 Yutta Fricke Development Aid for People with Disabilities ABILIS Manual 2. Planning for Success: Participatory Project Plann...

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