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How Secondary Strategies Support Primary Strategies Reprinted from The Ten Steps to Fundraising Success by Mal Warwick & Stephen Hitchcock (Jossey-Bass, 2001). Copyright Š 2001 by Mal Warwick & Stephen Hitchcock. All rights reserved. Primary Strategy GROWTH

Secondary Strategy Involvement Visibility Efficiency Stability

INVOLVEMENT Growth Visibility Efficiency Stability



Involvement Efficiency Stability

Relationship Opportunities for donor involvement increase the attractiveness of a solicitation for many donors. Higher public visibility boosts response to donor acquisition efforts. Efficient fundraising frees up funds to invest in growth and appeals to many discriminating prospects. A stable fundraising base permits the risk-taking inherent in donor acquisition efforts. A growing donor base makes donor involvement activities more cost-effective. Higher public visibility makes donor involvement more rewarding for participants. Greater efficiency frees up funds to invest in donor involvement activities. A stable and thus diverse fundraising program offers multiple opportunities for donor involvement and also makes investment in new involvement activities easier. A growing donor base can help promote visibility by multiplying opportunities for word-of-mouth promotion (the best advertising) and by increasing the amount of volunteer energy available. Donor involvement activities such as volunteer jobs promote far wider public awareness of a nonprofit’s work. An efficient fundraising program generates the funds needed to invest in visibility efforts. Stability enhances the capacity of a nonprofit to invest in visibility and makes the organization more credible in the eyes of the news media.



Growth makes increased efficiencies possible by expanding the donor base and thus lowering unit costs in the donor development program. Involvement Donor involvement activities boost efforts to solicit major gifts and planned gifts as well as other forms of donor upgrading. Visibility Higher public visibility raises response (and thus lowers costs) in donor acquisition and resolicitation programs alike. Stability A stable fundraising program allows a nonprofit to seek greater efficiencies by permitting the shift of resources from less efficient to more efficient fundraising programs. Growth Growth in the donor base is desirable when only a very minor portion of a nonprofit’s revenue comes from individual donors. Involvement Involvement can promote stability by enhancing chances for donors to accept new fundraising opportunities, such as major or planned gifts. Visibility Visibility typically supports all fundraising programs, lending added prestige and satisfaction to donors for their gifts. Efficiency Rising efficiency may increase the chances for an organization to diversify its fundraising activities by yielding the necessary capital.

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