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CREAT I NG I NT E R C U LT URA L CO MM U NI T IES CO NF E R E N CE 08 RE P ORT 2 1 Octobe r 2008 G rand H otel M alahide


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© AONTAS - The National Adult Learning Organisation March 2009 Second Floor, 83 - 87 Main Street, Ranelagh, Dublin 6 Phone: 01 4068220 Fax: 01 4068227 E-mail: mail@aontas.com Website: www.aontas.com ISBN: 978-0-906826-29-4


3.3 Media Awareness and Intercultural Learning_ ________ 26 3.4 Network Intercultural Learning in Adult Education ____ in Europe – the NILE Project_________________________ 28 3.5 Intercultural Learning for Adult Educators and _ ______ Facilitators (Bronze Grundtvig Award Winner )___________ 29 3.6 Engaging Isolated Men and the Role of Adult and _____ Community Education______________________________ 30 3.7 Ireland’s Indigenous Minority and the Role of ________ Adult Learning for Intercultural Dialogue_______________ 31 3.8 Women’s Groups putting Intercultural Dialogue ______ into Action_______________________________________ 32 3.9 Understanding Diversity for Effective _______________ Intercultural Dialogue______________________________ 33

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3.2 Cultural Competency Training and the Irish Health ____ Service (HSE)____________________________________ 25

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3.1 A Town of many Nations: a Collaborative Assessment __ of a Town’s Needs_________________________________ 24

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3 The Workshops________________________ 24

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2.3 Keynote Address – Interculturalism Needs Dialogue, _ _ Not a Monologue, “Creating Intercultural Communities ____ the Role of Adult Education: a Minority Perspective”_ _____ 14 2.3.1Interculturalism in Europe_____________________ 14 2.3.2Mindset has to Alter_ ________________________ 16 2.3.3Intercultural Learning________________________ 17 2.3.4Task of Educators_ __________________________ 19 2.3.5Common Front and Common Efforts_____________ 21

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2.2 Creating Intercultural Communities – _ _____________ the National Policy Context__________________________ 12

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2.1 Sean Haughey, Minister for Lifelong Learning_________ 9

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2 Conference Speeches___________________ 9

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1.1 Setting the Scene______________________________ 6

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1 Introduction__________________________ 6

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Table of Contents


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3.11 Policy Recommendations - Developing Adult and ____ _ Community Education’s Potential to Realise _ ___________ _ Interculturalism__________________________________ _35

4 Findings from the Conference_____________ _38 4.1 How is Intercultural Dialogue Understood in the Irish Context?_ _____________________________ _38 4.2 How does Adult and Community Education Facilitate Intercultural Dialogue_ _____________________ _39 4.2.1 Respectfully Working with Identity and Experience_ _39 4.2.2 Facilitating Equality of Access and Participation____ _40 4.2.3 Flexible, Needs-Based Learning________________ _40

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3.10Senior Learners and Intercultural Exchange_ ______ _34

4.3 Challenges to Promoting Intercultural Dialogue in Adult and Community Education____________ _40 4.3.1 Facilitating a Critical Analysis__________________ _40 4.3.2 Sustaining Adult/Community Education as a Space for Intercultural Dialogue ____________________ _41

5 Conclusion – Continuing the Journey_______ _43 6 Appendix A – Conference Programme_ _____ _45 7 Appendix B – Conference Speakers_ _______ _46 8 Appendix C – Workshop Facilitators

and Animators_ ____________ _49

9 Appendix D – Conference Participants______ _50


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1

Introduction

In October 2008, AONTAS hosted its annual conference entitled Creating Intercultural Communities. This conference sought to provide a forum for Irish and EU stakeholders to explore how adult and community education contributes to positive, respectful interaction and understanding between minority and majority cultures, and equality of opportunity in a culturally diverse Ireland. In other words, the conference explored the role of adult and community education in the creation of interculturalism so that every person in Ireland, and the EU, can have the status, feeling and practice of citizenship without sacrificing cultural identity. The objectives of the conference were to: • Explore the concept of intercultural dialogue in the context of a rapidly changing Europe. • Provide a forum for discussion on the meaning of intercultural dialogue in an Irish context. • Showcase the role of adult and community education in promoting intercultural dialogue through examples of practice. • Explore ways in which adult and community education can be developed to realise the core principle of interculturalism in the White Paper. This conference took place against the backdrop of both the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue and a focus on education by the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (NCCRI) in Ireland. It also took place in the context of impending global recession and massive Irish Government budget cuts which saw the close of the NCCRI and disproportionate cutbacks to the Equality Authority, two key agencies promoting interculturalism in Ireland. All of these actions underline the importance of a conference which emphasises intercultural dialogue and its role in creating equality for minority cultures. AONTAS has always emphasised and explored the role that adult and community education can play in promoting citizenship.This conference offered the opportunity for a deeper understanding of the links between cultural diversity and citizenship. Over 100 individuals from a diverse range of both state and civil society organisations came together to hear the conference speeches, explore best practice in workshops, create policy recommendations and participate in the panel discussion. This report contains the content and findings from that day.

1.1 Setting the Scene The conference content dealt with a number of concepts which might be useful for the reader to consider before continuing with the report. The definitions of these concepts are contested amongst practitioners so any ideas offered are done so without assertion that they are the only explanations available. In preparation for the European Year for Intercultural Dialogue, the European Commission commissioned a study into national approaches to intercultural dialogue (ICD) in Europe. There are differing national understandings of ICD. On

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This conference sought to explore these concepts and resulting educational interventions within an Irish context.

1 European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research. (2008). Sharing Diversity: National Approaches to Intercultural Dialogue in Europe. ERICarts: Germany. 2. 2 3

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A reduction of intercultural competence to either just language learning or the adjustment of newcomers to a country is rejected. The review named above recommended that it is just as important to foster the intercultural competence of the majority population, “The goal of the former is to open minds and to change the perceptions/ stereotypes of the majority not only towards “others” but also to discover “otherness” in themselves.”4

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• Awareness of yourself as a cultural being and the impact of your own culture on your thoughts and actions; • Critically exploring the assumptions that inform our behaviour; • A positive orientation to new experiences and different ways of thinking about the world; • Creating combined mutually beneficial action3, and • Learning languages, either the mother tongue or of cultural minorities in order to support intercultural dialogue.

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The ability to participate in intercultural dialogue requires what are known as intercultural competences. These are skills and attitudes that ensure we can operate effectively in situations that involve negotiating cultural difference and use it as a resource. The following are elements of intercultural competence:

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ICD is seen as one tool for governance of cultural diversity in Europe. Education is positioned as: “the means to provide the basis for understanding and respecting diversity.”2

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Intercultural dialogue is a process that comprises an open and respectful exchange or interaction between individuals, groups and organisations with different cultural backgrounds or worldviews. Among its aims are: to develop a deeper understanding of diverse perspectives and practices; to increase participation and freedom and the ability to make choices; to foster equality; and to enhance creative processes.1

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foot of exploring these understandings the researchers in this study proposed this definition:

Ibid.

Antal, A.B. and V. Friedman. (2003). Negotiating Reality as an Approach to Intercultural Competence. Wissenchaftszentrum Berlin for Sozialforschung. Berlin.

4 European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research. (2008). Sharing Diversity: National Approaches to Intercultural Dialogue in Europe. ERICarts: Germany. 12.

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The increasing importance of interculturalism has been recognised by my Department, which held an international conference on Intercultural Education at the beginning of this month in partnership with the Office of the Minister for Integration and the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (NCCRI). The aim of that conference was to advance the debate on the development of an intercultural education strategy. At the conference, my colleague, Minister Lenihan, emphasised that, and I quote, “this intercultural education debate is not confined to primary and post-primary but incorporates all sectors/ programmes in education”.  I know that, as this process continues, the adult education sector will take an active role in helping to shape an intercultural education strategy which fully acknowledges that we are living in an era of lifelong learning in a richly diverse Ireland.

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“Creating Intercultural Communities” is a very appropriate theme for today’s conference as it deals with an area that is relatively new for many of our communities thoughout Ireland. Even though it is a new issue it has now become a regular feature of everyday life for all our citizens. Indeed, the most recent Census in 2006 shows that one in ten of Ireland’s current population is not Irish by birth.

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I would particularly like to welcome to our capital city all those who attended the General Assembly of the European Association for the Education of Adults, which took place here yesterday. I hope you enjoy your stay in Dublin.

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I am delighted to be here in Malahide to officially open this conference entitled “Creating Intercultural Communities”. My thanks to Berni Brady, Director of AONTAS for her invitation to take part in this very important event.

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2.1 Address by Sean Haughey, Minister for Lifelong Learning

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Conference Speeches

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2

Another development was “Migration Nation”, a statement on integration strategy and diversity management, launched by the Minister for Integration in May of this year. It focuses on the role of local communities, authorities, sporting bodies, faith based groups and political parties in building integrated communities.   It also looks at the way in which integration is of necessity a two-way process with responsibilities and rights for both newcomers and the current population.  The document lists eight integration indicators drawn up by Bishop DiMarzio, a member of the UN panel on migration chaired by Peter Sutherland. Two of the indicators are directly relevant to Education: Language acquisition and

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Education continuance. These indicators have been addressed more intensively here in Ireland in recent years through the development of lifelong learning. As Minister for Lifelong Learning, I intend to continue to place a high priority on the needs of the adult education sector.

“I am especially grateful to the adult and community education sector for the key role it plays in meeting the needs of our new communities”

Interculturalism remains a challenge for everyone, not just here in Ireland but right throughout Europe. Between 2002 and 2006 the number of migrants to Ireland increased from 224,000 to 420,000. While the fastest growing groups are EU nationals, particularly from Eastern Europe and the Baltic states, there is also an increase in immigration from Asia and Africa.

Research has shown that many of the new arrivals, who have come to our country from all over the world, are not proficient in the English language. For those without English language skills, everyday tasks are a huge challenge. The problem is further compounded when nobody in the family speaks English. Problems arise in accessing essential services such as health, housing and education, not alone for themselves, but also for their families. In addition, their long-term future, employment prospects and integration into Irish society depends on their ability to use English. Educational services have been provided in recent years to meet the needs of the many and varied cultures now living in Ireland and to help with their integration into our society. English language tuition is provided free of charge through the English for Speakers of other Languages programme, better know as ESOL. Over 13,000 learners availed of English language tuition through this programme last year. The programme, funded by my Department, is provided nationwide to adults through the Vocational Education Committee sector. Other programmes provided by the VEC sector also provide English Language tuition. The suite of Further and Adult education programmes for which I am responsible, is open to all our cultures, depending on their personal circumstances. A review, with a report and recommendations on ESOL provision in Ireland, is currently being considered by my colleague, the Minister for Integration, Conor Lenihan. English language support is also provided to children in our primary and post primary schools. The total cost of this service in the last academic year was in the region of €120 million. Almost 2,000 language teachers have been employed in schools to provide English language tuition. It is estimated that in the region of 28,000 children have benefited from English language support in the 2007/2008 school year. The National Council on Curriculum and Assessment has developed Intercultural Guidelines for primary and for post-primary schools, to support them in developing a more inclusive learning environment and in providing students with the knowledge and skills they need to participate in a diverse society. My Department’s commitment to assisting the many cultures, now in Ireland, to integrate into their local communities is clear. It is important for the continued

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Go raith míle maith agaibh go léir

INTERCULTURAL

Finally, I am delighted to formally open this Conference on “Creating Intercultural Communities”.

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Ladies and gentlemen, I would like once again to thank AONTAS for the invitation to open this event. I look forward to getting feedback from your deliberations here today.

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Today’s conference will provide a rich mix of analysis, dialogue and practise, drawing on a diverse range of activities currently taking place within the adult and community education sector. It will provide participants with opportunities to learn from one another, to share experiences, and develop new ideas and thinking, which will feed into their future work.

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I am especially grateful to the adult and community education sector for the key role it plays in meeting the needs of our new communities, ranging from the provision of language learning to creating opportunities to share and understand new cultural experiences.

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development of our country, particularly in these challenging economic times, that all our people have the opportunity to participate fully in their communities.

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Philip Watt, Director – NCCRI The Director of the now redundant NCCRI opened the day’s explorations by reflecting on the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue and linking it to strategic work to promote interculturalism in Ireland. He then focused on the Department of Education and Science’s consultations on an intercultural education strategy.

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2.2 Creating Intercultural Communities – the National Policy Context5

He said, “the conference and the EU Year of Intercultural Dialogue and is an important opportunity to look at the challenges of living in a multicultural Ireland as well as a valuable opportunity to reinforce the National Action Plan against Racism6.” He described how, in Ireland, the year was focused on actions that were strategic, participative, real outcomes. In particular, the Government was to produce a set of strategies focused on the following key areas: • • • • • • •

Health Policing Youth services Sport Education Arts/ culture Local strategies

He stressed the importance of consultation with minority communities to formulate strategy in these areas and highlighted the need for dialogue to be established between minority communities and local representatives. “Minority ethnic communities new to Ireland have made a massive contribution to Irish society,” he said, pointing out that the voices of a variety of communities need to be heard and extra efforts would need to be made to connect with communities who might not be as well organised as others. He highlighted the Polish community as one which had a strong voice in Ireland. He also named the impacts of the economic downturn on the promotion of interculturalism as follows: • A multifaceted and changing context for intercultural work. • Less inward migration to Ireland. 5 6

This is a summary of Philip’s presentation.

Government of Ireland. (2005). National Action Plan against Racism. Government Stationary Office. Dublin.

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• not be purely focused on host language acquisition but should enable people to hold onto heritage language as well. • Name and plan appropriate educational supports for students. • Allow for curricula to be reviewed and changed in order to promote ICD. • Propose that fee structures be changed to allow people from minority ethnic communities to access third level. • Have wider linkages – examining the need for recognition of foreign qualifications, thinking about progression paths for minority ethnic individuals and the need for changes in immigration legislation.

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Therefore, the Intercultural Education Strategy was going to play a key role in fostering social cohesion and integration into the future. Philip presented some thoughts on what the strategy should be concerned with. Namely, at all levels of education that strategy should:

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“[I] hope that a key legacy of the EU year is that an intercultural approach will develop, we count on your (educators’) skills to achieve that.”

He stressed that diversity was here to stay and work had to focus on continuing the promotion of interculturalism. In fact, one particular reason that Ireland had attracted migrants was education and it was one reason people would want to stay in the country despite economic recession.

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• Some people returning to their countries of origin and third country migration. • Rising unemployment affecting migrants and a subsequent rise in their use of homeless services, particularly those from Eastern Europe employed in the construction industry. • Positive perceptions of diversity shifting to an attitude that in the face of the downturn migrants are going to ‘go home’ when Ireland is now their home.

Philip voiced concerns about intercultural education in the current economic climate and that it would be confronted with the challenges of high student ratios and inadequate language supports. He concluded his presentation by criticising the recent budget cutbacks to the Equality Authority of 43% and asked participants to support calls for the NCCRI to remain a functionning guardian of interculturalism in Ireland. Lastly, he emphasised the important role for adult education in creating intercultural communities and called for that role to be protected in the current climate, “Adult education is the cinderella of the education sector – it is the most vulnerable sector to cutbacks.” Finally, he said, “[I] hope that a key legacy of the EU year is that an intercultural approach will develop, we count on your (educators’) skills to achieve that.”

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Bashy Quraishy, Intercultural Living Consultant and Chair of the Advisory Council of ENAR (European Network Against Racism –Brussels) First of all, let me express my heartfelt thanks to the organisers of this important conference, for the invitation. I am truly touched by this gesture. The subject of intercultural communities is very close to my heart, whether it is in Europe or elsewhere.

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2.3 Keynote Address – Interculturalism Needs Dialogue, Not a Monologue, “Creating Intercultural Communities and the Role of Adult Education: a Minority Perspective”

Since there are many experts in this conference who can give better professional input concerning intercultural learning in Europe, my presentation would be about ethnic and religious minorities and how they look at the whole question. I call it interculturalism seen with brown eyes. And believe me from where I stand, the intercultural scene looks different but clearer. I am an NGO person. All my life, I have worked against all types of intolerance - racial bigotry, ethnic inequality, cultural arrogance and discrimination against religions. That is why, I measure all issues concerning majority and minorities interaction, from a moral and humanistic standpoint as well as judicial protection. And to have a meaningful dialogue and co-operation, it is vital that I am brutally honest in my assessment and do not beat around the bush.

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Interculturalism in Europe

When we discuss interculturalism, intercultural learning, intercultural interaction and even education of non-European ethnic and religious minorities, it is advisable that we first look at four mechanisms in European societies.: • • • •

What What What What

do we understand with the concept - Interculturalism? are the socio-economic conditions of minorities in Europe? are the effects of discrimination and lack of opportunities? role do the media and the politicians play in creating prejudices?

I sincerely believe and my experience also tells me that finding answers to these vital questions will enable us to be more objective and nuanced in our efforts to create a truly harmonious society. It would also clearly explain, why the socalled integration process has not succeeded up until now.

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But I and most people like me are still considered as outsiders, foreigners and funny enough just immigrants. This is the reality of Europe 2008. It is not what you contribute to the society but how you look, what culture you are born in and more and more if you are a Muslim. That is what makes one’s identity in today’s Europe.

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To put things in perspective, let me give you my own example. I have lived 40 years in Europe and USA. I speak 6 languages and have two university degrees. I have a Danish passport since 1976. I never received any social help, have paid “I understand the dilemmas lots of taxes and even managed to have 3 children minorities are facing in Europe because I am part of with 2 women without marrying or living together with them. I know that I have done more than them, work with them and most native Danes or Europeans can ever do for listen to their worries.” the society – socially, economically, politically and even intellectually.

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Seventy percent among these groups have a Muslim background and it is these people, Europeans refer to as foreigners, when the topics of integration and multiculturalism are discussed. I am aware that some persons among ethnic minorities in Europe like to consider themselves as European and they have absolute right to do so. But one thing is, what some of us wish to call ourselves and how some of the Europeans really perceive us. Self-identification and perceived identity is a necessary issue which in my opinion should be discussed sooner than we wish.

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According to Euro-barometer, there are 23 million persons living in Europe whose origins are from outside Europe; Middle East, Asia, Latin America, Africa and some from USA, Canada and Australia.

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But before I make an effort to present my views for your consideration and of course discussion, please let me give you a short history of those people, I refer to as non-European ethnic and religious minorities.

So the whole issue of interculturalism in Europe has become a question of Natives versus Guests, Integration versus Segregation, West versus Islam and Democracy versus Extremism. Mind you, I am not blaming any one group, religion or culture. I am just stating, what I see, read and experience. I do sincerely hope that you do not think that I am being apologetic for some rotten apples among largely peaceful Muslim communities. Not at all. I am not a believer of cultural absolutism and I fervently oppose parallel societies. But I understand the dilemmas minorities are facing in Europe because I am part of them, work with them and listen to their worries. Having said that I know that you, the participants of this conference are dedicated people. You are doing a wonderful job in your respective capacity. You are also worried about the situation, I am describing. I am critical of the present European policies because, I have seen the humane side of Europe. Today, I miss the genuine solidarity, true democratic values in

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practice, freedom of expression under responsibility, social justice for all, human rights in deed and not in name only and last but not least, useful protection under the law. It is because of my appreciation of European values and my conviction that there still exists decency that I am worried about the wrong direction Europe has taken in the last 10 years or so. Now let me share with you a recent example of European model of intercultural dialogue on the highest level. To kick start the Year of Intercultural Dialogue, the European Commission’s Culture and Youth DG held the opening conference in January 2008. Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini was at that time Commissioner of Justice and Vice President of EU Commission. Mr Frattini and I were main speakers. I was to speak at the start to present a minority perspective on interculturalism and the Commissioner Frattini was supposed to comment on my views. He came 15 minutes late, demanded to speak first and then left. In his speech, he talked about terrorism, extremism, how Muslims should behave and kept on calling minorities as foreigners. So this is the European official model of intercultural dialogue. Majority defines the discourse, dictates the terms and refuses to listen, let alone be advised. I wish that such action was an isolated incident, but it has been the norm for a long time. This is how most people among the majority understand intercultural dialogue.

2.3.2

Mindset has to Alter

It is however thought provoking that most European politicians, institutions, media and public insist that a dialogue, co-operation and integration of non-European minorities should be based on the foundation of common values and democratic principles. No sane person would disagree or reject such lofty vision. But the problem with this approach is that these perceived common values are defined, drafted and “I am convinced that for thrust upon by the majority. Minorities have very a dynamic social process to succeed, we need an little say in this matter. They have no power to interaction of diverse cultures protest against these practices or have means to and an active involvement of challenge this mindset. To most minorities, these individuals” common values are no less than the dictatorship of the majority. As far as the process of integration is concerned, the situation is no different. The majority asks the minorities to integrate without making any effort to do the same. The present official integration policy in most European countries is again prescribed by the majority, which sets strict conditions, provides few opportunities and often ignores to consult the minorities. On top of this, the blame for the lack of successful integration is squarely put on the doorstep of minorities by claiming; they do not want to integrate. But I am convinced that for a dynamic social process to succeed, we need an

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Intercultural Learning

Now I come to the question of education and learning, both formal and informal. In Europe, when minorities are discussed, we often hear about their lack of qualification, missing professional education, bad linguistic skills and even their primitive cultures being responsible

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Monoculturalism is out of question in the present circumstances. Multiculturalism has not worked, not because minorities rejected it but because it was based on unreasonable demands from the majority and only had a tiny room for consultation with minorities. In my opinion, it is the intercultural model, which is our only hope for the future.

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• Monocultural – one dominant culture, religion, language, national identity and mindset has absolute say in the way, society is run. • Multicultural – mono-culture with a sprinkle of subcultures living on the periphery, commonly known as parallel societies. Power to decide still remains with the majority. • Intercultural – majority culture in constant interaction with minorities in a common negotiated space but with freedom to move freely, take part in decision making and share power.

INTERCULTURAL

To have a clearer picture of the situation, let us see at the models of present day societies in Europe:

PEACE

Here I would like to reaffirm that I am a great believer of a dialogue, but the time has come to move to a higher level. I call this inter-cultural co-operation between people – in order to learn, teach, share and benefit.

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• An undying belief in the creation of a harmonious, inter-ethnic, inter-cultural and inter-religious common space. • A common vision. • A sense of belonging and collective ownership. • An equal playing field and position on the same table. • An open mind, two ways conversation and polite way of arguing. • Equal opportunities to agree as well as disagree. • A common strategy and plan of action. • A continous effort to move forward.

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So what are the conditions for a dialogue in the society:

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interaction of diverse cultures and an active involvement of individuals. After going through a non-stop exchange and acquiring knowledge, any person would be able to interact freely and thus modify attitudes and change behaviour. In short, we need a cross fertilisation across all boundaries - between minorities and majority and between dominant and sub-cultures. Only then, we would create a true hybrid culture.

“In short, we need a cross fertilisation across all boundaries - between minorities and majority and between dominant and subcultures”

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for such situation. I come from the land of Grundtvig, the grand father of life long learning. His movement of mass education was for the peasants and ordinary people who were not at the same level of knowledge as the elite, priests and landowners. It was not cultural, religious or scientific education. It was something unique; education for life in subjects, people could relate to. Today Denmark and with it, all western countries are reaping the benefits of that pioneer work. Such a mass movement is again required in Europe to spread such knowledge among ethnic and religious minorities, preferably in their own mother tongues. It can be done through radio broadcasts, TV programmes, magazine and leaflets, neighbourhood classes and language classes. Many people among ethnic groups have very little information as to what changes are taking place in their neighbourhood, in the city, in the country and even much less on EU level. This adult education should not be geared towards labour market but towards creating a new society. A society where people with different backgrounds and from different cultures can be challenged, develop flexible attitudes, build bridges over troubled waters and live peacefully. It may sound like Hallelujah Syndrome but it is not. After all, this is what happened in Europe among nations who hated each other for centuries. Apart from Balkan tragedy, we have a peaceful and prosperous Europe since 2nd World War. Please keep in mind that the main aim of my criticism is not to put down anyone. I just want to remind the democratic Europe and its wonderful “To me diversity whether it is native citizens that we must hold on to the model cultural, ethnic or religious is that we celebrate and enjoy of a society which is inclusive, values diversity the differences as well as and rewards all individuals for their contributions similarities” to the society, they live in. It was the Europe of such high ideals, I fell in love with when I came to Europe as a student in 1966, and it is that humane Europe, I am again searching for. But cultural diversity does not mean eating Donar Kebab, learning Belly Dance or listening to Bob Marley’s music. To me diversity whether it is cultural, ethnic or religious is that we celebrate and enjoy the differences as well as similarities. We should practice it because we live in a globalised world. Internet, e-mail and fast travel has opened the borders, which cannot be closed any longer. Celebrating diversity does not mean that we force the other to accept the way we do things. It can be only achieved by good examples, co-operation and respect. You, the delegates of this conference and many more, I meet all over Europe is the proof that decent people have had enough. Now they want to act. My father was an educationalist. He often said to me; “Soldiers destroy societies but teachers built them again”. I still remember his words and that is why I believe that education in itself is a

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2.3.4

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• Promote a common vision of lifelong learning that creates bridges between individuals from all segments in society. • Improve and strengthen the social dimension of education and training in the context of the Lisbon goals and beyond. • Use mechanisms for co-ordination, financial support, mutual learning, and peer review in education in a more structured way to promote competence and best practice exchange among member states concerning race equality. • Mainstream the specific issues and needs of ethnic minorities into current and future Open Methods of Coordination. • A network of education professionals and policy makers could be developed, with a good representation of ethnic minority educators and education focused NGOs.

PEACE

As part of European Union, we should ask the EU to:

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Education is central in addressing the challenge of social cohesion and promoting solidarity and non-discrimination in a more diverse Europe. Education and training systems can instil values of respect, diversity and nonprejudice among minorities as well as majorities. Education systems must ensure access and participation to quality education for all that adequately address underachievement and educational disadvantage. Better partnerships must be promoted between formal education and training systems and civil society in developing core competencies and skills.

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Unfortunately, when we look at the present landscape of Europe, we can see that gains “Education is central in achieved in last 150 years, to educate addressing the challenge Europeans to cherish the values of diversity and of social cohesion and of interculturalism, are under severe strain. A promoting solidarity and non-discrimination in a more sizeable segment of media and many politicians diverse Europe.” are openly advocating mono-cultural identity of Europe based on Christian values, a common concept of history and the superiority of western culture. Since this unilateral mindset can only be rearranged by the educators, so let us see how Intercultural Education can be used.

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sacred value, which leads to the paramount value of respect, and acceptance among people. Education not only gives knowledge, wisdom and self-confidence but also forms our opinions, attitudes and behaviour towards the society and people, we do not know or have not met before. In short, education is a tonic, which sustains our spirit.

Task of Educators

In my work with non-European visible minorities, I often get this question; Why so many educated people in Europe have changed so drastically from humanism to racism in such a short time? I wish that I had a useful answer but I do not. All I know is that in such poisonous atmosphere, ethnic and religious minorities are looking towards you, for support,

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solidarity and for answers as to how to create an open society. Please do not take it as finger pointing. I am just delivering the message, seen from grassroots and minority perspectives. You have every right to disagree or even reject what I am going to say. Looking at the whole European education system and the place of ethnic and religious minorities in it, I would appeal to the educators to keep in mind few aspects: • Intercultural education, where the starting point is not to emphasise the dominant culture but the contributions of various cultures to the well being of Europe. • More inclusive curriculum where respect, acceptance and knowledge of each other is a basic factor of education. • Education as part of a larger societal transformation and not to serve to maintain the status quo foundations such as white supremacy, capitalism, global socio-economic situation and labour exploitation. • Equal opportunity to achieve full individual potential. • Be prepared to effectively facilitate learning. • Be active participants in ending discrimination of all types, first by ending it within your own ranks, then by producing socially and critically active and aware citizens. • Educators, activists, and others must take a more active role in re-examining all educational practices and how they affect the learning. • Your contribution to integrate both majority and minorities with each other is vital. In order to have a successful relationship between an educator and the minorities, an educator’s “In short, educators can own opinions, vision, professionalism, knowledge successfully enter where and an interest in the learner’s background politicians, media and public plays an important role. It is not a 9-5 job but have no access, namely the a life long commitment and a labour of love. A mind and soul of a minority non-Euro-centric attitude of the teacher helps individual.” the minorities to open up and be receptive to the changes, they normally consider as, foreign, unnecessary or even hostile. In short, educators can successfully enter where politicians, media and public have no access, namely the mind and soul of a minority individual. This is where the first step to mutual integration starts. Having said that, I am painfully aware that while the majority has the power to open or close the door, a great deal of responsibility also lies with minorities. The process of intercultural living can only succeed if minorities are pro-active, take a constructive attitude towards the wellbeing of the whole society and play their due part in the development process. In order to be respected and accepted by the larger society, I have always advised the minorities to do five practical things.

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It will also make it easier for the authorities to understand the problems faced by the ethnic minorities, like unavailability of financial resources, absence of networking and lack of opportunities. We need a strong movement of dedicated people all across Europe to join forces, involve minorities and discuss in earnest in formulating policies and taking practical steps.

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I propose that progressive people like you and ethnic minority organisations must join forces and talk directly to the people. This approach will create trust and understanding among the ethnic minorities and encourage them to take the full responsibility for their actions.

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Common Front and Common Efforts

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2.3.5

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Here, I want to offer a word of caution to ethnic minorities. We must be aware that full participation will not be served on a silver plate. It has to be gained through political struggle, based on a clear analysis, doing away with wishful thinking and with a close co-operation of those who still believe in human rights, pluralistic development and most important of all in keeping their societies democratic.

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Over and above these 5 conditions, every person has all the rights to live life according to his/ her needs, wishes and desires. State, authorities and society should not dictate or force a minority person to assimilate, overtake the majority norms or be a bad copy of the majority. So in the end, it all boils down to mutual effort.

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Learn and master the language and educate yourself. Accept and respect the law and the constitution of the land. Create good relationships in the neighbourhoods. Adopt and enjoy the majority culture as best as you can. Practice your culture and religion peacefully and show respect to your fellow human being.

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• • • • •

I would also take this opportunity to praise the EU Commission for its vision and support for those who want to make a difference. I wish individual countries in Europe also wake up from sleep and see the beauty of intercultural “This society is yours as much as mine. My rights are yours living. and they need protection, care and a voice. We should all speak up before it is too late.”

Unfortunately, our experience tells us that if it is left to member states to formulate and implement good policies and practices, Europe will never achieve a peaceful, harmonious and intercultural status, like Canada, USA or even Australia. Media populism and political nationalism has become that two headed snake which is scary and guarding the vested interests. That is why, it is left to us – noble people among minorities and the majority to make an extra effort to be inclusive. This society is yours as much as mine. My rights

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are yours and they need protection, care and a voice. We should all speak up before it is too late. So where do we go from here! Ethnic minorities sincerely believe that there are people, movements and forces in Europe who are concerned about their beautiful country and continent, its great human values, its international reputation, its freedom“The great anthropologist loving spirit, and its humanism. The task ahead Margaret Mead once said;” Never doubt that a small group may be difficult, but it is not impossible. As the great anthropologist Margaret Mead once said;” of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, Indeed, it is the only thing that committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, ever has” it is the only thing that ever has”. We want a Europe of true peace and prosperity for all its inhabitants. Minorities certainly want to be respected as fellow human being. They want their colour, religion, accent, cultural and ethnic background not to be seen and experienced as a hindrance, but instead, as a positive and enhancing contribution to the society they live in. The ethnic minorities and the progressive forces must join hands, and this cooperation must be above political ideology and human pity. They must work to build a society free of prejudices, and bubbling with tolerance and heartfelt openness. This can happen if the western rational spirit mingles with the eastern philosophical soul, paving the way for a true understanding. The Great Lebanese philosopher and poet Khalil Gibran once said: “Love is not looking at each other, but looking in the same direction”. I would end by quoting what the late American writer, Susan Sontag once said: “Some people claim that Europe is dead. May be, it will be right to say that Europe is yet to be born. A Europe that takes care of its defenceless s minorities is badly needed. It is necessary that Europe is multi-cultural, otherwise it will cease to exist”. Only fools would disagree! Thank you very much for listening.

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3

The Workshops

A core element of the conference was to showcase examples of adult and community education that promoted intercultural dialogue in diverse settings. After the morning’s speeches participants were invited to move into a workshop of their choice. Entitled, Showcasing Practice this part of the conference involved an animator in each workshop presenting on an adult and community education project or approach that aimed to foster ICD. These projects were diverse ranging from a project where volunteers of the third age tutored individuals from minority ethnic communities in a local area to descriptions of trans-national adult education projects involving Irish organisations. After animators presented on their approaches or projects, facilitators in the workshops asked participants to reflect on the particular project. On foot of that discussion they were asked to name which unique attributes of adult and community education fostered intercultural communication. In the afternoon after lunch, participants returned to their workshops to continue their discussions and were asked to think back on the morning’s work and prioritise three policy recommendations for fostering intercultural dialogue in Ireland. This part of the conference was entitled World Café. This section offers a brief summation of the content of each workshop, the reflections of workshop participants on that content and the resulting policy recommendations.7

3.1 A Town of many Nations: a Collaborative Assessment of a Town’s Needs Loretta Needham and Ede Inaholo (Tuam Community Development Resource Centre) Intercultural assessment can inform community development work that aims to create a local intercultural community. This workshop illuminated the process of how the Tuam Community Development Resource Centre conducted just such a process in the community of Tuam in Galway. The animator described how the needs assessment was to form the foundation of integration for all communities represented in Tuam amongst which were representatives of a number of Eastern European, African, Asian and South American countries totalling 557 individuals. The animator then continued on to discuss the research process which included: • Training a multi-national team of fieldworkers to design and implement a survey questionnaire to members in their own communities in their mother tongue. 7

Abstracts of workshops are compiled from animator notes/ presentations and notes from sessions taken by the conference rapporteur.

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3.2 Cultural Competency Training and the Irish Health Service (HSE) Rosemary Orr (Health Service Executive) The Irish healthcare workforce has become very culturally diverse. This workshop explored one Irish hospital’s participation in a European initiative entitled Migrant Friendly Hospitals8 and the outcomes thereof. The workshop highlighted staff 8

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The participants in this workshop were particularly enthusiastic about the part of the research that entailed training members of minority ethnic groups to carry out the fieldwork. They felt that this should evolve into those groups also becoming involved in actual service planning and delivery. They voice how essential a process like the one described was to promoting ICD. They foresaw challenges to this work such as ensuring that service providers let the results of such assessments influence how they provide services and, making visible the diversity of target groups involved.

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The key message in this workshop was the importance of seeing integration as a two-way process. While newcomers may need support to adapt and integrate into Irish society, Irish society should also acknowledge and adapt to positive changes brought about by ethnic minority cultures who are new to Ireland.

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• The development of a strategic plan for integration, interculturalism and antiracism in County Galway. • The establishment of an Interagency Task Force on Interculturalism for the county, and • The establishment of an Interagency Task Force on Interculturalism for Tuam.

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The recommendations arising out of this piece of work included:

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• Newcomers to Tuam were generally between the ages of 20 to 35 and working, living in private rented accomodation and well-educated. • English language training was the top priority need identified, and • Most surveyed wished to stay in Tuam and make it their home.

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Through the survey, the research found that:

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• From the results of the survey, profiling the backgrounds and needs of the research participants. • Detailing recommendations for an intercultural community in Tuam.

See www.mfh-eu.net.

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cultural competency training as an example of intercultural learning contributing to the creation of an intercultural hospital community. The animator for this workshop described how Connolly Hospital in Blanchardstown has a diverse healthcare workforce, with approximately 22% of staff from countries other than Ireland, along with an increasingly diverse client group. In 2004, the hospital joined the Migrant Friendly Hospitals project that aimed to increase the health and health literacy of migrant patients. Essential to accomplishing this aim was the cultural competence of healthcare providers. According to the animator, this training happened in two phases and involved piloting training for managers and staff in different wards throughout the hospital. The content of the training at each level is indicated in the table below: Managers

Staff

• • • • • •

• Key concepts – identity, stereotyping, anti-racism • Exploration and influence of culture • Intercultural communication • Practice and organisational issues • Equality

Communication across culture Managing intercultural teams Whole organisation approach Equality legislation Case studies and resources Influencing change

Participants were offered the results of formative and summative evaluations of the training which showed that it was very successful. Certain factors helped to ensure success, including the support ot management, identifying champions to promote the work and having diverse training groups. The project resulted in the set-up of a Cultural Diversity Committee for the hospital. Some challenges beset the training and were presented as lessons for similar programmes. Namely, making the time for staff to attend could be a challenge as well as ensuring the training was prioritised with other training staff needed to complete. The participants felt that the training described was bolstered by the use of adult education methods such as scenarios and role plays and that the example was transferable to similar contexts. They described how this kind of training had the potential to breakdown barriers in this context and suggested that intercultural training in organisations should be a priority for Government.

3.3 Media Awareness and Intercultural Learning Gavin Titley (NUI Maynooth) Media literacy is an important skill that can be fostered in adult and community education and can contribute to the creation of intercultural dialogue. This workshop sought to facilitate participants’ exploration of the different processes involved in representing minority identities. It also offered an explanation of

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The participants in this workshop that adult and community education should involve developing learners’ capacity to be critical of the media and that it can do this by: • Allowing participants to grapple with learned assumptions about minority cultures. • Creating support systems for minority groups so that they have the strength and confidence to challenge assumptions. • Giving voice to the complexity of people’s lives. They also commented on how new community media in Ireland is a promising antidote to mainstream media’s representation of minority cultures in Ireland. The group felt that doing media literacy in adult and community education would be easy because it is extremely relevant to participants’ day-to-day lives. However, they acknowledged the difficulty in gaining access to the inner workings of media production and that this feature could block the realisation of 9 10

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• Analysing the visibility or invisibility of minority cultures in the media and public space. • Investigating the nature of that visibility or representation, ie are the images positive, negative, accurate and/ or fair. • Highlighting the complexity, or lack thereof, in the representation of people’s lives and experiences, and • Looking at who is involved in the production of the media and answering questions like: whose voices do we hear? Do minority cultures have equal access and participation in the production of media?

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The group were then introduced to the different features or steps to analysing the media. Media awareness involves10:

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• Being represented as culturally inferior to a dominant culture. • Going unrecognised within the imagery of the majority culture, and • Denial of respect by using imagery that perpetuates negative stereotypes.

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The facilitator of the workshop began by talking to the group about how the human dignity and integrity of ethnic minority groups can be eroded through the media. They were9:

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the different facets of the practice of media awareness that should be considered as we look to see how interculturalism is promoted or blocked by the media. Participants were asked to reflect on whether or not there was a role for adult and community education in encouraging critical analysis of the media.

Stevenson, N. (2003). Cultural Citizenship: Cosmopolitan Questions. From slides prepared for this workshop by Gavin Titley, PhD.

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3.4 Network Intercultural Learning in Adult Education in Europe – the NILE Project Vasiliki Tsekoura (DAFNI, The Vocational Training Center, Greece)

 This workshop shone a spotlight on the work of the Network on Intercultural Learning in Europe (NILE) Project (2002-2008), composed of adult education organisations from 20 European countries. This Network aims to look at “the potential of adult education in facing the challenges of cultural, ethnic and religious diversity in Europe,”11 within the context of discrimination against migrants and minorities and education’s role to teach diversity and fight ignorance as acknowledged by UNESCO.

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the media’s potential to truly promote interculturalism. They also commented on the importance of taking a social justice approach to critiquing the media, “[We] need to look at how oppressions link together” (workshop participant).

So far the outcomes of the NILE Project have included the development of four tools for mainstreaming intercultural learning in adult education on different levels (learning groups, media, institutions). The workshop explored the rationale for the project, introduced the tools developed and sought participants’ reflection on the project. The workshop commenced with the animator setting out how the project developed. Namely, the first set of activities involved: • Identifying within Network members the needs of migrants and ethnic minorities they worked with, requirements they had for structural and organisational change in order to realise intercultural learning, and a need for broadening channels for non-formal learning. • Defining a shared conceptual framework for the key terms involved in the work, such as culture, intercultural learning and intercultural competence. The second set of activities for the Project involved developing tools to assist adult education organisations to mainstream intercultural approaches at the level of learners, the organisation and the media. Those tools were as follows: • A methodological guide for implementing Intercultural Learning Activities (ILA) which set out definitions of key concepts, criteria for successful ILA, how to design, implement and evaluate ILA and examples of best practice. • Guidelines for organisations who want to promote and embody interculturalism, including guidance on the development of equality/ anti-discrimination 11

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See www.intercultural-learning.net


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• • • • •

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The animator in this workshop presented on the rationale, approach and outcomes of this project. The project partners’ convinced their funders that a course to foster intercultural competence for adult educators was required in light of adult education’s key role in assisting immigrants to integrate and educators’ role in developing social cohesion between different communities. In order to ensure these roles could be realised in a socially just and non-oppressive fashion by educators in their organisations the project partners devised a course using experiential, creative pedagogies such as:

INTERCULTURAL

Creating intercultural communities for adult learners is dependent on educators who have intercultural competences. This workshop focused on a Grundtvig project involving adult education organisations from five countries13 which aimed to create an educators’ training course that would do just that as well as promoting the teaching of lesser known languages at European level.

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Anne Walsh (Lifelink International)

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3.5 Intercultural Learning for Adult Educators and Facilitators (Bronze Grundtvig12 Award Winner - )

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The participants in this workshop concluded that the project was a workable model and provided the impetus and guidance for adult organisations that wanted to look at mainstreaming interculturalism into their work. They highlighted the challenge of monitoring and evaluating the impact of these tools on Network members and others who might adopt them in the future, “how do you stimulate it, support it and sustain it into the future” (workshop participants). Accordingly, they also voiced the need for adult education to be adequately valued as a ‘force’ for realising interculturalism.

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policies, diversity management and critical reflection on how ‘intercultural’ the organisation is. • A newzine called “Get Intercultural” featuring articles from adult educators, is a contribution by this sector to media diversity education.

Kolb’s experiential cycle – experiencing, reviewing, concluding, planning Morrin’s Theory – narrative and pardigmatic thinking Use of role plays, pair and group work Workshops/ games Drawing on participants’ life stories

Through these methods the course aimed to foster efficient intercultural communication through the development of:

12

An EU funding programme which focuses on the teaching and study needs of those in adult education and alternative education streams, as well as the institutions and organisations delivering these services. Supporting lifelong learning and mobility in this way also tackles Europe’s ageing population problem. See ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-programme/doc86_en.htm

13 the organisations involved were: The Business Club “Austrialia” Austria; CVO Duerne, Belgium; Vastra Nylands Folkhogskola, Finland; Lifelink Ireland, and CLCT Sibiu Romania.

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• • • • • •

Knowledge [of other cultures] Strong cultural identity Openness to new experience Respect for others’ opinions Capacity to negotiate values Externalisation/ self-expression

• • • • • •

Empathy Sense of humour Enthusiasm Interpersonal skills Patience Ethical behaviour

Participants were required to study a lesser known language and also put together a personal development plan that would assist them to put into action what they had learned in the course. The participants in this workshop agreed with the need for this training for educators and saw it as a valuable tool, but, as in the NILE workshop, debated the challenge of evaluating communication or dialogue. They also questionned the ‘reach’ of a training programme like that. In other words, they discussed how you would ultimately evaluate the impact of the training on adult learners given the diversity of contexts in which adult education takes place across Europe. The workshop group also focused in on the difficulties faced by educators when challenging racism in the learning setting.

3.6 Engaging Isolated Men and the Role of Adult and Community Education Joe Murdiff (MAIN) This workshop explored the intersection between gender and culture in the work of an organisation that aims to engage isolated men from diverse cultural backgrounds in adult and community education. Men Alone in No Man’s Land (MAIN) is a community education group for men in Dublin and sees itself as a response to an absence of social, psychological and solidarity networks for men in the city. The animator in this workshop took the participants through the interventions provided by the group and reflections on working with men from minority ethnic backgrounds. MAIN strives to break what it calls ‘Groundhog Day’ for men, or that monotonous routine of bed, work and/or pub. It does so by executing the following strategies: • Creating informal opportunities to meet like the ‘Big Breakfast’ and the Lunch Club. These offer men not yet involved in adult and community education the chance to meet those who are already doing so in a non-structured informal environment. • Providing an empathetic, threat free environment and sense of belonging. • Carrying out customised pre-development, capacity building projects to address the interests of intended target group. • Ensuring respectful interactions, and • Providing appropriate starting points for each participant. The animator reflected on how the men who engage with MAIN would be living not only with financial poverty but a lack of psychological and physical well-

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Participative adult learning can help to foster self-esteem and pride in culture while at the same time creating outcomes that can contribute to intercultural dialogue. This workshop explored one example of this type of learning where Traveller women engaged in a FAS training workshop to complete a DVD about the intersections between Traveller culture, identity and health.

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Aoife Cooke (St. Margaret’s Traveller Training Centre)

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3.7 Ireland’s Indigenous Minority and the Role of Adult Learning for Intercultural Dialogue

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Participants in this workshop felt that this example of practice was laudable because it was a model that was truly responsive to local needs. It was process and people-centred and while there were important outcomes as a result, the approach was not wholly about end goals. They did feel that such an approach would be confronted with the challenge of maintaining adequate resources when it was not providing certified training since this goal is a usually a condition of funding.

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being and that the negative affects of the latter would be more deleterious than a lack of money. Therefore, minority ethnic men who are newcomers to Ireland may be even more deprived of the currency of physical and psychological well-being. He also described how Irish men that MAIN works with are able to connect with that sense of ‘otherness’ felt by minority ethnic men through their stories of experiencing discrimination based on being Irish or being from the ‘wrong’ part of Dublin, like Sheriff Street.

Run by the St. Margaret’s Traveller’s Community Association, this project took six months to complete and involved a group of Traveller women, the wider Traveller community in Ballymun, Filmbase and the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. It involved the group of women producing and filming the DVD “The Minkers Boers” (The Traveller Woman) depicting the life of Traveller women in Ballymun. The film was intended to promote intercultural awareness about Traveller culture and challenge discrimination against them. At the same time the participants learned film-making skills and were able to record positive reflections of their life experiences on film. The project won an AONTAS Star Award and it has been shown to a number of other adult education groups in Ireland. This workshop clearly illustrated how minority cultures can only participate meaningfully in integration, or the two-way process of creating a more inclusive society, when they have the self-confidence to raise their voices and reflect

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positively on their culture. In this case, adult learning was the content and the form for doing so. The participants in this group were enthusiastic about this example of ICD and wanted to either obtain a copy for groups they work with or engage in a similar project themselves. They felt the DVD was important because it really gave Traveller women the chance to speak for themselves and used in a safe way would be an excellent tool for challenging assumptions. However, they worried that the DVD alone would not necessarily achieve this and said that it would need to be used in a situation where there was going to be critical analysis. Otherwise, it could potentially be used as a tool to support negative stereotypes about Traveller culture.

3.8 Women’s Groups putting Intercultural Dialogue into Action Pauline Ennis and Joan Maguire (Access 2000) This workshop also looked at the intersection between work to promote ICD and gender equality. In 2008, Access 2000, a women’s community education group in Wexford, partnered with Banulacht to provide an introductory course on gender and development for local women leaders from the Traveller and settled community. The animators explored how the programme fostered intercultural dialogue at a local and global level. The aim was to raise awareness of issues that affect women locally in relation to poverty, women’s human rights and exclusion and to then link those issues globally. Outcomes for learners were to be: • They would reach an understanding of issues common to women everywhere. • Develop awareness of women’s experiences in relation to those issues at home and abroad, and • Develop solidarity as a group and with the world community of women. The group focused their learning around human rights violations against women and violence against women. As a result of being involved in the programme the group of women founded a local community group called TARGET that aims to fundraised for a Tanzanian charity that combats violence against women there and to raise awareness in Wexford of the issues facing Tanzanian women. The group maintain close contact with the Tanzanian charity called Kivulini, thus engaging in intercultural dialogue with women in that country. The programme had the added benefit of creating intercultural dialogue between Traveller women and settled women locally. The Traveller women who attended report a huge impact in terms of their integration into the local community.

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In order to foster effective ICD, the animator proposed that it be underpinned by the development of a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of what is meant by the terms ‘intercultural’ and ‘diversity’. He also emphasised that is important to ensure that individuals become conscious of diversity as a personal, rather than an abstract concept.

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The rational for a diversity/intercultural approach The challenge of change An exploration of what exactly diversity means Cultural programming and its impact on individual and group interaction An exploration of the benefits of a systems or mainstreamed approach to the promotion interculturalism in education

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• • • • •

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This workshop reflected on how effective ICD in an educational context is underpinned by an in-depth understanding of diversity. The animator is a trainer who works with organisations to develop the competencies needed for ICD. His presentation explored:

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Open Minds
(David Walsh)

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Effective

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Diversity

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3.9 Understanding Dialogue

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As with the example of practice about men’s community education the participants in this group felt that the approach used in this project was hugely valuable. Again, they were concerned that the focus on process as opposed to certification would make it difficult to ensure sustainable resources for the work. Likewise, they also reflected that the lack of understanding about the principles and practice of community education from funders could be a barrier to ensuring that projects like this one continue to happen. They also commented on the structural barriers in rural areas that confront individual women as they work for personal and collective empowerment such as lack of childcare, inadequate transport and isolation.

The presentation posed the strategic importance of intercultural education for a society in which members were able to engage in ICD. In particular, he proposed that it is crucial for this type of education to start at primary school level. He also stressed that it is crucial to recognise the influence of power in relationships and that effective ICD cannot take place until this feature is named and addressed in specific interactions and at a strategic level. This workshop focused on unpacking the assumptions of the participants as much as it demonstrated an approach to fostering ICD. Participants concluded that the workshop had provided a valuable opportunity to learn

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from each other. They felt that in doing similar work in their own contexts they could find it challenging to recognize the depth of culture and cultural patterns as well as to find the necessary time and space to do in-depth explorations of power and the meaning of diversity.

3.10 Senior Learners and Intercultural Exchange Mary Nally
(Failte Isteach)
 This workshop focused on a project where older people were instrumental in delivering practical, learner-centred, English classes for migrants. The animator in this workshop told the story of the Failte Isteach project. In 2006, members of the Third Age Foundation in Summerhill, County Meath commenced the Failte Isteach project with six students from the new communities in order to meet a need for language support for newcomers to that community. This project rapidly grew to 70 participants and since its start 150 individuals from 19 different countries have received tutoring from senior citizen volunteers in the community. Sessions involved a group of learners and tutors meeting in one space, having a chance to talk as a group and then breaking off into small tutorial groups. An essential aspect of the learning was the chance to also share a coffee break and use new conversational skills to full effect. The project was so successful that the programme is going to be mainstreamed nationally by Failte Isteach and rolled out in towns and villages around the country. This service will help to meet a researched demand for such interventions. According to research carried out by Failtre Isteach language support for newcomers tends to targets refugees and asylum-seekers when those who have residency and are available for work are also in need of classes. The animator in this group described how the project had a positive impact on the local community fostering the confidence of both volunteers and learners. It also fostered community cohesion. The participants in this workshop were extremely positive about this approach and wanted a copy of the manual produced as a learning aid for the project. They felt the approach was supportive, nurturing and collaborative and met learners where they were at. They issued one concern which was that while the project was really valuable, the Government should not be let off the hook when it comes to providing what should be essential supports to migrants in Ireland.

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Funding must be ringfenced to facilitate intercultural communication, educators must be trained in approaches and materials developed to suppport that work. Minority ethnic groups must be supported to participate in adult/ community education.

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2. Facilitating intercultural communication in adult/ community education needs to be adequately resourced in terms of funding and materials.

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In other words, we need to recognise that this project will take time, change can be slow. A strategic approach means having joined up thinking between agencies and departments, taking a whole organisation approach to facilitating interculturalism, learning from our mistakes and having an evidence base for the approach we take.

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1. There is a need to ensure a strategic, sustainable approach to facilitating intercultural communication in adult/ community education.

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In each workshop, participants were asked to prioritise three policy recommendations for fostering ICD in Ireland. They were categorised under the overarching recommendations set out below.

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3.11 Policy Recommendations - Developing Adult and Community Education’s Potential to Realise Interculturalism

3. The unique attributes of adult/community education such as its inside/ out, bottom/ up , flexible and participative approach create a space for intercultural communication, instill pride and confidence in all learners and can facilitate equality amongst learners and between learners and facilitators. This space is threatened by the state emphasis on an instrumental purpose for adult/ community education.

An increasing emphasis by decision-makers on the importance of certification and labour market progression makes it difficult for adult/ community education to hold onto the attributes that facilitate intercultural communication. Certification should not be the priority condition for funding when trying to create shared

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spaces where ICD can take place. In particular, the potential of community education to provide these shared spaces should be strengthened.

4. Minority ethnic groups must be involved in the planning of services and adult/ community education and equality of access and participation in those services must be guaranteed. Interculturalism cannot be achieved unless this directive is implemented at all system levels.

5. There needs to be a deep engagement with the concept of interculturalism at all levels of the system that is not tokenistic and that involves us having a shared vision and understanding of what it means.

We cannot assume that everyone shares the same understanding of the concepts of interculturalism and diversity. This understanding must be founded out of critical reflection and the idea that moving towards interculturalism involves thinking about ‘us’ rather than ‘them.’ The ‘us’ includes the majority culture and minority groups.

6. Media literacy and awareness can promote interculturalism. Media literacy can have an important place in adult education and could be an effective tool to facilitate learners’ awareness of assumptions they have about minority ethnic groups and to promote interculturalism.

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C ONFE RE NC E F INDINGS


INTERCULTURAL LEARNING SOCIAL DIALOGUE LEARN SOCIALLEARNING

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4

Conference Findings

When the workshops were complete, participants assembled for a panel discussion where the outcomes and recommendations from the workshops were reflected on by a panel of speakers (see Appendix B for the names and biographies of the speakers). Key themes emerging from this discussion included: • The importance of intercultural education as a process for minorities and majorities and that integration is not about minority cultures being assimilated into a majority culture. • Sometimes, a focus on integration and interculturalism can obscure the enduring need to combat racism and the oppression of minority communities. • Citizenship should extend to everyone in Ireland regardless of status or background and we should take up those rights to protest inequality. • Encouragement to educators from the panel to continue their work as it was crucial to change, “the best way to do it is to carry on educating people the few people you help to see people in a different light can have a ripple effect, change happens slowly [but] adult education can facilitate that” (Bryan Mukandi- panel speaker). • Diversity is here to stay in Ireland. Migrants are not just going to “go home’ now that the economy is in a downturn. Ireland is their home now.

4.1 How is Intercultural Dialogue Understood in the Irish Context? The interventions described in the workshops share some elements that tell us something about how ICD is seen within the Irish context. It is clear from these examples that intercultural dialogue is about: • Involving the majority and the minority equally in developing intercultural competence. • Looking at the intersection between discrimination on the basis of ethnicity and other forms such as gender. • Creating spaces at all levels of society for intercultural dialogue, including the strategic level. • Unpacking the taken for granted assumptions about ourselves and others, and • Ensuring that the shared understandings of the concepts of intercultural competence, integration and interculturalism are generated as part of the work. The key theme emerging from the workshop groups and the day was that promoting ICD had the potential to ensure that minority and majority cultures learned from each other which served to increase understanding. The outcomes that result from this increased understanding included social cohesion, recognition and respect for diversity.

38


DIALOGUE

UNDERSTANDING

Adult education gives a voice but does not expect minorities to speak with one voice; can engage marginalization, but also the differences and complexities in people’s lives (conference participant).

4.2.2

ADULT

Because adult/community education can be based on experiential learning it offers both the majority and minorities the opportunity to talk about identity, learn about differences and find common ground. When underpinned by the principle of respect in a safe space, this attribute facilitates the expression of pride in culture, builds the confidence of learners, allows for pluralism and builds empathic relationships. It can help us to examine our assumptions critically.

Co-operate EDUCATION

Respectfully Working with Identity and Experience

LEARNING

4.2.1

INTERCULTURAL

The attributes most commonly identified throughout the workshops and the day are set out in this section. Throughout the workshop feedback it was evident that each of these attributes supports the others – they are parts of a model or system where one part does not work without the other.

PEACE

4.2 How does Adult and Community Education Facilitate Intercultural Dialogue

SOCIALLEARNING

Through the workshop discussions and panel discussion themes emerged as to how adult and community education facilitates intercultural dialogue as well the challenges that limit the potential for it to do so. The former and the latter are reflected on briefly below.

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

The best way to do it is to carry on educating people, the few people you help to see people in a different light can have a ripple effect, change happens slowly but adult education can facilitate that (workshop participant).

LEARN

Each culture has the same basic needs..drawing in an awareness and creating opportunities for people to mix adult learning is a good forum [for integration] (conference participant).

Facilitating Equality of Access and Participation

This attribute facilitates intercultural dialogue in two ways. First, it describes the way in which the provision of local, bottom-up provision can ensure the inclusion of minorities in adult/ community education. When this characteristic is evident through the provision of adult/ community education it is easy for minorities to join learning. In fact, they are involved in the planning and design of it. Once learners are in the room it is the symmetry of relationship in adult/ community education that facilitates equal participation in the learning and

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empowerment. This symmetry of relationship occurs between and amongst learners and between learners and educators. Equality in the learning setting fosters empowerment and ensures that participants feel equal. This situation is an antidote to a wider society where participants may experience discrimination and marginalization. Access and equality – this was emphasized as a key attribute, that students could access and engage on basis of equality (workshop facilitator).

4.2.3

Flexible, Needs-Based Learning

This characteristic of adult and community education facilitates intercultural dialogue by ensuring that it reaches out to a wide group of learners inviting in individuals from diverse cultures and backgrounds. It also facilitates participation because different learner styles are taken into account making sure that learners can participate as equals in the learning. This attribute helps adult/community education ‘meet people where they are at’ and can support the social, cultural and economic participation of minority ethnic communities in Ireland. The flexibility [in adult/community education means that it is] learner centred, learner needs are taken into account (workshop participant).

4.3 Challenges to Promoting Intercultural Dialogue in Adult and Community Education The two challenges most often noted in the feedback from the workshops and throughout the day were as follows:

4.3.1

Facilitating a Critical Analysis

This challenge was raised repeatedly. There is always a danger that intercultural dialogue may be seen as integrating the minority culture into the majority and subsuming it. Instead, many felt that ICD should be about critically unpacking both the majority and minority cultures. As one participant said, “There are two ‘I’s in diversity”. Without members of the majority culture critically unpacking their own assumptions we run the danger of “doing for ‘them’ as an act of charity,” which will only serve to reinforce monoculturalism and discrimination. Also critiqued was the notion of seeing intercultural dialogue only as the development of host country language skills in the minority ethnic learner. This critical engagement also needs to be informed by an analysis of other types of inequalities based on class, gender and so forth. This analysis should be used to found alliances between civil society organizations advocating for other disadvantaged groups with those working with and on behalf of cultural

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Co-operate EDUCATION

ADULT

DIALOGUE

UNDERSTANDING

A number of difficulties were voiced consistently throughout the conference that were seen to narrow the space created by adult/community education for ICD. These included, lack of adequate resources, finding time to share learning about effective practice, monitoring and sustaining approaches to intercultural dialogue in the long-term. These difficulties were described as being exacerbated by a state that only views the purpose of adult/community education as instrumental and not for creating active citizens or facilitate political struggle. Participants also described how difficult it was to maintain the attributes of adult/ community education that facilitate ICD in the face of the imperative to certify learning in order to maintain funding.

LEARNING

4.3.2 Sustaining Adult/Community Education as a Space for Intercultural Dialogue

INTERCULTURAL

This kind of critical engagement requires commitment and awareness at all levels of the system and could be facilitated by training for decision-makers, managers and educators in adult/community education.

PEACE

Before intercultural dialogue can happen people need to come to the tables as equals, but I don’t see Travellers as having that (workshop participant).

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

If the host culture understands that they are a constructed culture it makes it easier to accept new people’s cultures. There’s an awful lot of talk about integration [it should be about] realizing all cultures are constructed if we do that we can find a common area of operation, common values (conference participant).

SOCIALLEARNING

According to Ronit Lenten (panel speaker), “Adult education is the space to bring in the real issues.’ In particular, it is crucial to acknowledge that the need for ICD stems from the inequality and discrimination of minority ethnic groups and a focus purely on integration can mask the need to protest the violation of human rights of minority ethnic groups.

LEARN

minorities. Through these alliances, civil society groups can voice and critique how the intersection of inequalities prevents intercultural dialogue and the achievement of equality and social justice for minorities. It was also seen as important that adult/ community education fostered the enactment of citizenship for minorities.

One participant asked, “what’s the role of adult education in facilitating political struggle?” Another said, “so many things are undermining adult and community education right now – how are we protecting it and interculturalism?” The general consensus was that adult/community education can facilitate ICD, but that it cannot be an effective force to do that without being given equal status to other forms of learning. It needs a strategic accountable commitment from the very top down to ensure that there are adequate resources to facilitate ICD.

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C ONC L U S I O N


UNDERSTANDING

‘Develop links and promote intercultural dialogue with groups. Develop my own, learning and intercultural competency’ (conference participant).

DIALOGUE

• Using local media to discuss this theme.

ADULT

• Lobbying local authorities and organisations in recognition of the importance of intercultural dialogue, and

LEARNING

• Improving practice by incorporating methods that facilitate intercultural dialogue.

Co-operate EDUCATION

• Making links with other organisations to strengthen the intercultural work of adult and community education providers.

INTERCULTURAL

Generally, the main actions that participants said they would take were:

PEACE

As part of the evaluation of the conference proceedings participants were asked to reflect on what action they might take in order to develop the role of adult and community education in facilitating ICD. A broad spectrum of responses were given including a number who stated that intercultural work between settled people and Travellers will be pursued.

SOCIALLEARNING

The European Year of Intercultural Dialogue is now over, but the journey to promote it in Ireland and the EU continues. Since the conference AONTAS used the findings of this conference to inform its submission to the Department of Education and Science Intercultural Education Strategy.

LEARN

Conclusion Continuing the Journey

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

5

‘Try to encourage integration of awareness of cultural diversity over entire education programme in centre’ (conference participant). In May of 2008 the European Commission made a call to EU nations to continue to foster intercultural competence in lifelong education.14 AONTAS joins their voice to that call and will continue to explore how adult and community education in Ireland can play a strong, vital role in the creation of intercultural communities.

14 NOTICES FROM EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS AND BODIES COUNCIL. (2008). Council Conclusions of 22 May 2008 on Intercultural Competences. European Commission. Brussels.

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A P P EN D I CE S


Registration

09.30 – 09.45

Welcome and opening

Philip Watt, Director NCCRI

10.15 – 11.15

Plenary session Chair: Berni Brady, Director AONTAS

Keynote speaker: Bashy Quraishy, ENAR (European Network against Racism) Advisory Council, Brussels & Jewish Muslim Co-operation Platform, Brussels

Open forum

11.35 – 13.00

Discussion groups: Showcasing practice These discussion groups will explore different examples of adult learning and how they contribute to intercultural dialogue. The groups will be led by a facilitator with a brief input from an animator from an adult education group.

13.00 – 14.15

Lunch

14.15 – 14.45

World Café: Linking Practice to Policy

UNDERSTANDING

Tea/coffee break

LEARNING

11.15 – 11.35

Participants will return to their discussion groups and map emerging ideas and policy directions.

15.00 – 16.00

Plenary session Chair: Kensika Monshengwo, NCCRI Training & Resource Officer The Role of Adult Education in Promoting Intercultural Dialogue Panel contributors Salome Mbugua Henry, Director, AkiDwA, Board Member, The Equality Authority; Bryan Mukandi, Journalist and Social Commentator; Dr Ronit Lentin, Director of the MPhil in Ethnic and Racial Studies, Trinity College Dublin; Zbyszek Zalinski, RTE Journalist

16.00 – 16.15

EAEA President – Setting the European Context

16.15 – 16.30

Close of conference

DIALOGUE

Theme: Interculturalism Needs Dialogue, Not a Monologue

ADULT

10.00 – 10.15

INTERCULTURAL

Sean Haughey TD, Minister for Lifelong Learning

PEACE

09.45 – 10.00

SOCIALLEARNING

Marian Duffy, President, AONTAS

Co-operate EDUCATION

08.30 – 09.30

LEARN

Appendix A – Conference Agenda

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

6

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UNDERSTANDING

Bashy Quraishy


He is the Chief Editor of ‘MidiaWatch’, which is a quarterly magazine on media and minorities, Chair of the media monitoring organisation ‘Fair Play’ and member of the Advisory Council of Danish Human Rights Institute.

Co-operate EDUCATION

PEACE

DIALOGUE

Appendix B – Conference Speakers

ADULT

7

Bashy was born in India, but grew up in Pakistan. He is a member of a number of Commissions and Working Groups involved with Human Rights, Ethnic Equality issues and Anti-discrimination work, both in Denmark and abroad.

At international level, from 2001 - 2007, he was President of ENAR (European Network Against Racism) which is the largest EU network against racism with over 600 member organisations. In Nov 2007, he was appointed Chair of ENAR’s Advisory Council. He is also Chair of the European Platform for Jewish Muslim Co-operation, member of the ‘Board of Trustees’ of the Dutch Foundation ‘ More colour in the media’ and board member of the international foundation ‘Education for life’ based in Israel. He sat on the EU Commission’s High Level Committee on the Social and Labour Market integration of disadvantaged ethnic minorities from 2005-2007. Since 2006 he has been involved with the Jewish Information Centre in Brussels and the NILE Inter-cultural EU project based in Bonn, Germany as a consultant and contributor to develop a toolkit for inter-faith trainers and media in intercultural societies. 
He is a regular contributor to the Danish and European press with essays, chronicles and TV debates as well as lectures on various issues concerning Ethnic Minorities in the EU, Islam in the Western Media, interculturalism, globalisation, anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, Racism and Resistance in EU and the dilemma of integration in Europe. At present, he is working on a book dealing with the living conditions of Muslim Communities in Europe. 



Philip Watt

Philip Watt was Director of the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (NCCRI), an expert body funded by the Office for Integration and the European Union to both provide advice and to develop initiatives to address racism and to promote integration. The NCCRI is the national focal point in Ireland for data collection for the EU Fundamental Rights Agency in Vienna; the national focal point on hate crime for the OSCE and is the national coordinating body for EU Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008 in Ireland. Philip Watt is a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin (BA History)) and postgraduate of the University of Ulster (M.Sc Social Policy). He has been seconded twice to the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform- in 1997 to coordinate European Year against Racism and in 2003 to draft the Irish Government’s National Action Plan against Racism 2005-2008 ‘Planning for Diversity’. He was formerly a lecturer in a College of Further Education in Belfast and has recently

46


ADULT

DIALOGUE

UNDERSTANDING

Co-operate EDUCATION

Dr Ronit Lentin


LEARNING

Kensika Monshengwo is currently a board member of Calypso Theatre Company; he has been involved in various artistic projects in Ireland including features, shorts and plays.

INTERCULTURAL

Kensika has extensive experience in anti-racism awareness raising in Ireland and has undertaken training with various statutory and non-statutory bodies including the Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment, the Equality Authority, the Equality Tribunal, the Refugee Appeals Tribunal and a variety of health boards, hospitals and government departments.

PEACE

Kensika Monshengwo was born in the Democratic Republic of Congo and has lived in Belgium, Canada, France, Switzerland, the USA and now Ireland. Kensika holds a postgraduate degree in anthropology from the Sorbonne in Paris and presently works as Training and Resource Officer with the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism.

SOCIALLEARNING

Kensika Monshengwo


LEARN

Originally from North Belfast and living in Dublin since 1991, he is author/editor of a number of publications on racism and intercultural approaches integration, including ‘Responding to Racism in Ireland’, (2001) and ‘Racism in Northern Ireland’, (1991) and in 2007, a research project commissioned by the Centre for Cross Border Studies and the Office of the First and Deputy First Minister in Northern Ireland ‘Improving Government Services to Minority Ethnic Groups in Northern Ireland, Ireland and Scotland’. Further information available www. nccri.ie.

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

been involved in providing support for the Government’s forthcoming national intercultural education strategy.

Dr Lentin is a senior lecturer in Sociology, director of the MPhil in Ethnic and Racial Studies, and founder member of the Trinity Immigration Initiative, Trinity College Dublin. She has published numerous articles on racism in Ireland, gender, and Israel-Palestine. Her recent books include Racism and Anti-racism in Ireland (with Robbie McVeigh, 2002), Women and the Politics of Military Confrontation: Palestinian and Israeli Gendered Narratives of Dislocation (with Nahla Abdo 2002), Re-presenting the Shoah for the 21st Century (2004), After Optimism? Ireland, Globalisation and Racism (with Robbie McVeigh, 2006), Race and State (with Alana Lentin, 2006), Performing Global Networks (with Karen Fricker, 2007) and Thinking Palestine (2008).

Salome Mbugua Henry
 Salome is a native of Kenya and has been living in Ireland for the last 14 years. She has over 18 years experience of working with disadvantaged and marginalised groups especially women, children and the youth, in Kenya, Uganda and Ireland. Her background is in social worker and gender equality. Salome is the founder of AkiDwA and currently its national director. As a consultant she has developed and delivered a range of training programs

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48

targeted at both the migrant and indigenous communities in Ireland on topics such as personal and life skills, Equality and Diversity, anti racism and Interculturalism. Salome work is informed by a master’s degree in Equality studies and a certificate in women studies from UCD. She is newly appointed into the board of Equality Authority and also serves in the board of Crisis Pregnancy Agency, the Wheel and EAPN Ireland.

Bryan Mukandi


Bryan grew up in Harare, Zimbabwe. In 2005, he graduated from the University of Zimbabwe’s medical school and proceeded to do his internship at the United Bulawayo Hospitals. By the time that was done, he had decided that he would rather work towards the improvement of health and social policy than practice hospital medicine. He moved to Ireland towards the end of 2006 to join his wife who had completed her studies in Dublin. He worked in retail management for a short time. Almost by accident, he then began writing an occasional column for the Irish Times and then later blogging for the newspaper. He began his postgraduate studies at the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG) in early September. He hopes to receive a master’s degree in Public Advocacy in the second half of next year.

Zbyszek Zalinksi
 Zbyszek Zalinski was born in Lodz, Poland and is a presenter ofSpectrum on RTÉ Radio 1. The programme, which investigates Ireland’sresponse to its changing ethnic and cultural makeup, broadcasts onSaturdays from 6.00 to 7.00pm. Zbyszek graduated with an MA in International Relations from University of Lodz and in 2004 came to Ireland to pursue a PH.D. inthe Department of Political Science in Trinity College Dublin. He’s researching Irish media and political communication.


Gavin Titley

Cultural Competency Training and the Irish Health Service

Rosemary Orr

Valerie O’Carroll

Ireland’s Indigenous Communities

Aoife Cook

Emer Dolphin

Senior Learners and Intercultural Exchange

Mary Nally

Susan Dunne

Adult Educators and Intercultural Dialogue

Anne Walsh

Karl Quinn

Women putting Intercultural Dialogue into Action

Pauline Ennis and Joan Maguire

Ruth Smith

A town of many nations – collaborative intercultural assessment

Loretta Needham and Ede Inaholo

Benedicta Attoh

Engaging Isolated Men

Joe Murdiff

Liam Kilbride

An international Model of Intercultural Learning

Vassiliki Tsekoura

Jarlath Duffy

UNDERSTANDING

Gavin Titley

DIALOGUE

Media and Interculturalism

ADULT

David Walsh

LEARNING

David Walsh

INTERCULTURAL

Understanding Diversity for Effective Intercultural Dialogue

Co-operate EDUCATION

Facilitator

PEACE

Animator

SOCIALLEARNING

Workshop

LEARN

Appendix C – Workshop Facilitators and Animators

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

8

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50

Appendix D – Conference Participants Aine Lyne Alison Miller Amra Dukatar Ann Walsh Anna Morin Anna Tatarinceva Anne O’Mahony Anne Walsh Antra Carlsen Aoife Cooke Aoife McCormack Arevik Sarsgen Audrey Frith Bashy Quraishy Benedicta Attoh Bernadette Cogan Bernie McDonnell Bjorn Garefelt Brede Quirke Brid Connolly Brid Ni Chonaill Britta Lejon Carmel Hennessy Catherine Green Catherine Thue Ciaran Murray Craig Nicholson David Walsh Deborah Brock Denise Byrne Denise Shannon Dermot Sreenan Ede Enaholo Eeva-Inkeri Sirelius Eitan Israeli Eleanor Dalton Emer Dolphin Emily Kenny Erica Byrne Harmony Fiana Griffin Fiona Maloney Flemming Gjedde Gavin Titley Gerald Griffin Gillian Wild

City of Limerick VEC Collinstown Park Community College Research and Organisational Development Animator Folkbildningsfrbundet Transport and Telecommunications Department of Eduation & Science NYCI NVL Animator Kerry County Council Adult Education And Lifelong Learning EUCIS LLL Platform ENAR Facilitator Dublin City Public Libraries Pobal Folkbildningsfrbundet Loreto Centre NUI Maynooth IT Blanchardstown Folac Tallaght Partnership County Wicklow Guidance Service The Norwegian Association NEAR Media Co-op Office of Ethic Affairs Facilitator and Animator Tallaght Partnership Access 2000 (Wexford) LTD Leargas National Travellers MABS Animator VSY Israel Adult Education Association Waterford Women’s Centre Facilitator Spafield FRC CDP Athlone Window on Ireland Co Cavan VEC Danish Adult Education Association Facilitator and Animator Department of Education and Science WIT


DIALOGUE

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ADULT

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Co-operate EDUCATION

SOCIAL DIALOGUE

SOCIALLEARNING

UNDERSTANDING

LEARNING

EAEA HETAC Department of Education and Science VSY Foundation for Highschoolwork Danish Adult Ed Norwegian Association for Adult Learning NAAL Latvian Adult Education Association Hellenic Adult Education Prijateljice obrazovanja Amica EDUCA City of Galway Youthreach Facilitator Kerry Education Service AONTAS Executive Committee Member Animator Animator EAEA Co. Wexford VEC Universal Peace Federation City of Limerick VEC Department of Education and Science Facilitator Adult Education Society SFHL Gorey Active Retirement Association SHFL Facilitator Dutch Platform for Non-formal Animator Folkbildningsfrbundet City of Galway Youthreach St Catherine’s Community Service AONTAS Executive Kerry Adult Education Service Crosscare EAEA St. Margaret’s Traveller Community St. Margaret’s Traveller Community Dublin Adult Learning Centre Animator Business in the Community Ireland Castleknock Community College City of Cork VEC Folkbildnigsrdet Active Retirement Ireland City of Limerick VEC Research and Organisational Development Rapporteur ITB

LEARN

Gina Ebner Grinne Power Helen Keogh Helj Nurmela Henk Hijink Henrik Christensen Hilde Gronhoyd Hilde Gronnovd Ingrida Mikisko Ira Papageorgiou Ivona Erdeljac Janet Sutton Jarlath Duffy Jeremy Wrenn Jillian Harrison Joan Maguire Joe Murdiff Johanni Larjanko John Curry John Kennedy John Ryan Justina Corcoran Karl Quinn Katarina Popovic Kerstin Mustel Kevin Molloy Lennart Fast Liam Kilbride Lidwien Vos de Wael Loretta Needham Maicen Ekman Maire Cronin Margaret Wouters Maria Gorman Marianne Marshal Marie Keegan Marta Lottes Martina McCormack Martina McDonagh Mary Maher Mary Nally Mary Rose Byrne Mary Ryan Mary Scriven Mats Ehns Maureen Finlay Micheal Hourigan Nataa Prodanovic Natasha Bailey Nathalie Cazaux-Crowley

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Niamh Godley Niamh Lenehan Noel Colleran Noel Fitzgerald Olwen Dixon Paul Dillon Paul McLaughlin Paul Olver Pauline Ennis Pauline McDermott Pauline McGaley Per Paludan Hansen Pierre Wanlin R Verhoeff Rebekah Fozzard Riam Naji Ricarda Motschilnig Rosa Verhoeff Rose O’Keefe Rosemary Hearne-Todd Rosemary Orr Rosie Donnelly Ruth Smith Sean Tracey Selma Alicic Siobhran Hanrahan Stefania Minervino Stina Stundberg Sturla Bjerkaker Susan Dunne Susan Naughton Ted Fleming Teresa O’Sullivan Terz Kleisz Theo Van Malderen Thomas Farrell Tom Creedon Tony O’Grady Uwe Gartenschlaeger Valerie O’Carroll Vasiliki Tsekoura Wendy Delaney Winnie McDonagh St.

HEA NQAI North Tipperary VEC Draoicht L.B.F.R.C LIR Pobal Educational Centres Association Animator Co. Mayo VEC Warrenmount CED Centre Danish Adult Education Association Service Education Permanente Ministre BIVVU DunLaoghaire Rathdown County Council Dublin Adult Learning Centre EAEA Bond van Ned. Volksuniversiteita Edenderry CDP Waterford Institute of Technology Animator WIT Facilatator City of Limerick VEC Prijateljice obrazovanja Amica EDUCA Individual member Equality Authority RIO Norwegian Association for Adult Learners Facilitator Salesian Sisters NUI Maynooth BTEI Co-ordinator University of PCS, Faculty of Adult Ed. Socius St Catherine’s Community Services Centre TUI Partners Dvv international Facilitator Animator Clondalkin Women’s Network Margaret’s Traveller Community


C R E AT I NG I NT E R C U LTU R A L C O M M U NITIES 08

http://www.aontas.com/download/pdf/creating_intercultural_communities_final_report  

http://www.aontas.com/download/pdf/creating_intercultural_communities_final_report.pdf

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