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2. Learners should have the same access to resources and vocational training as other refugee groups 3. Teachers should have access to support or counselling networks to deal with the non-academic requirements of learners

Literacy Among the learners with literacy needs we taught, we have identified five distinct groups: 1. L1-Learners who have little or no spoken English and are illiterate in both English and their native language 2. L2-Learners who have little or no spoken English and are unfamiliar with Roman script, but literate in their own 3. L3-Learners who have a highly-developed spoken English ability, but no literacy skills in either their own language or in English 4. L4-Learners who have a highly-developed spoken English ability and who are literate in their own language,but not in English 5. L5-Learners who are have learning disabilities (such as dyslexia or dysphasia), which hinder their progress in literacy in their own language and in English 6. L6-In rare cases, learners who have learnt written English, but cannot attribute sound values to it and therefore cannot communicate orally We found that most of the learners in L1 and L2 had the same functional needs as those in the Survival English group, so the Functional Modules were adapted to include a Literacy component. It was also understood that each module would run over a longer period. For L3 and L4, the learning process was more similar to literacy training for native speakers, although material had to be developed which would focus on improving their oral structural and lexical English as well as their written skills. A module that focused on developing dictionary skills was added. Groups L5 and L6 were rare in number, and required individualised learning programmes. For all of these groups, we found that specially designed CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) programmes were an invaluable asset, in both boosting confidence and allowing learners to identify problem areas and determine a study programme to address these. It is essential that people with literacy difficulties should be identified at an early stage, so that they will not be demoralised by learning English in a literate class. Most of the students we received were originally from Survival English classes, and were very self-conscious and ashamed of their inability to read and write.Once they realised they were in an environment with similar learners, they were able to articulate their needs, gain confidence, peer teach ,i n teract in more public activities 57