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COMM2411- Assessment 3 Roza Prappas S3280582 Greta Pullen s3287001 Julia Henkel s3287070 Daniella Jong s198716 Zho-E Low s3286233

Melbourne City River Cruises Melbourne City River Cruisers is a public relations communication artefact; its message communicates one of romance, nostalgia, mobility and culture that one can experience in Melbourne. Easily accessible, it is located at Southbank adjacent to Flinders Street station. With the establishment of the city on the Yarra Banks, the purpose of the Ferry service was to commute passengers from ships anchored in Hobson's Bay to Williamstown (Jones, 1981). As Melbourne expanded along Southbank, and the popularity of the Ferries expanded to more than just a means of transportation, so did the notion of an imagined geography and community. When standing across from Southbank, it is clear to see that the Ferries attract tourists and locals alike. 'The culture of a city is becoming more and more the business of that city - the basis of their tourist attractions and their unique competitive edge' (Cited in Fung, 2007). Melbourne's

love affair with food and coffee in its laneway's, migrated across the Yarra to Southbank. The laneway's have often been described as 'funky', 'european', 'stylish', and 'mysterious'. Places of enchantment, quaint beauty, cosmopolitism and sophistication (Fung, 2007). The trendy promenade is filled with cafes, restaurants, shops and hotels (Amor, 2009). "The river has now become the focus for living and entertainment in the city, a place to see and been seen" (Amor, 2009). Families, couples and friends congregate on a lazy Sunday to stroll and stop for a bite or a cup of coffee as the River and its Ferries exude and a sense of European culture; leaving its captive audience with a feeling of belonging. On the opposite side of Southgate is Flinders Street; the soul of Melbourne's rail system. As transportation has been vital to the urbanisation and expansion of Melbourne, historically rail and the ferries played a vital part in keeping the city moving. The population's dependance on them for mobility was a necessity (Amor, 2009). With these two historically predominant forms of transportation being located opposite each other, the message that Melbourne is a place of power resonates strongly to its audience. Melbourne City River Cruisers works as a public relations communication artefact, because its message of romance, mobility, power liveability and cosmopolitism, reflects what the city of Melbourne and its community are about. Even though the ferries were established to purely commute passengers from one end of town to the the, today the ferries have become an iconic part of Melbourne. The ferries have become a tourist attraction for both international and local audiences allowing them to interact and experience Melbourne in an unique way. References 1. Amor, R. (2009). Explore the Yarra, Tomorrows Graphics: Melbourne.

2. Jones, C. (1981). Ferries on the Yarra, Greenhouse Publications: Melbourne. 3. Fung, P. (2007). The seduction of the laneways: making Melbourne as a "world city", viewed 15 March 2010, http://

Portable towed Billboard This Public Relations communications artefact shows the diverse manners of advertising that operate in Melbourne’s inner city, as well as the mobility of ad campaigns. In this day and age, we are receiving and processing information, especially advertisements everywhere and anywhere. The internet and further technologies have opened the population up to constant digital information. As the digital advertising market has expanded, the physical market has to keep up. This is where this artefact comes in; with its ability to be moved and placed in a different atmosphere; its ability to reach a different target audience every time. Billboards, especially mobile billboards are conscious reflections of advertising, marketing and public relation campaigns. Also billboards are important to help build brand recognition and

familiarity (Stoops D R & Wolverton M L 2006 p. 11). This poses the effectiveness of billboard advertising in Melbourne, with it’s increasing market noting that “In recent years, a broader range of product categories has been advertised on billboards, led by a variety of retail and service businesses.” (Taylor, Charles R.; Franke, George R.; Bang, Hae-Kyong 2006) Obviously such an artefact moves frequently, but this was taken on Elizabeth St. The nature of billboards and where they are placed is to position the information where it is needed. Society would not function without these tools to convey to the public vital information (Claus J R & Claus K E 1971 p. 35). Billboards, especially mobile billboards (as the one pictured above) are conscious reflections of advertising, marketing and public relation campaigns. Also billboards are important to help build brand recognition and familiarity (Stoops D R & Wolverton M L 2006 p. 11). This poses the effectiveness of billboard advertising in Melbourne, with it’s increasing market noting that “In recent years, a broader range of product categories has been advertised on billboards, led by a variety of retail and service businesses.” (Taylor, Charles R.; Franke, George R.; Bang, Hae-Kyong 2006) Some questions taken from Use and effectiveness of billboards: perspectives from selectiveperception theory and retail-gravity models: “1. What are the primary reasons that companies decide to continue using billboards? What is the relative importance of these reasons? 2. What strategic and executional factors do managers believe are critical to the success of a billboard campaign?

3. What is the relationship between the reasons for using billboards and the strategic and executional factors necessary for success?â&#x20AC;? Such points are important for insight of the success of the billboard and how not only the consumer, but the agent, advertiser, or company use this medium, because they are the people who communicate to Melbourne. This notion connects to the importance of business growth and recognition.The consumer is then free to interpret the message of such a campaign and be communicated to. Communication underpins advertising and public relations, expressing the importance of visual communication (billboards) to making Melbourne what it is. References Stoops, D R & Wolverton M L 2006, The Valuation of Billboards, The Appraisal Institute, Illinois. Claus J R & Claus K E 1971, Visual Environment, Collier-Macmillan Canada, Canada. Taylor, Charles R.; Franke, George R.; Bang, Hae-Kyong 2006, Use and effectiveness of billboards: perspectives from selective-perception theory and retail-gravity models, viewed 15 April 2010, <>

The Big Issue

“Get your Big Issue – support the homeless and long term unemployed”. This is something you’re likely to hear when wandering the streets of Melbourne. ‘The Big Issue’ magazine is sold around the Melbourne CBD and is aimed at helping the homeless or marginalised. Whilst not exclusive to Melbourne, ‘The Big Issue’ is a prominent magazine on the streets of the city with a distributor on most corners. Since its launch is 1996, vendors in Australia have sold more than 5 million copies, with almost $10 million going into the pockets of Australia’s homeless and unemployed. ‘The Big Issue’ is now one of Australia’s leading social enterprises, providing creative solutions to the issue of homelessness. Melbourne has not ignored its disadvantaged citizens, but rather embraced “The Big Issue’ as part of its cultural identity. “Coming Up from the Streets” aptly highlights just how effective media and journalism can be in aiding a community to tackle a social concern. Using media and journalism to create ‘The Big Issue’ means it is a resource that has been productively utilised for good rather than for exclusive profit making. A report from the Commonwealth Government of Australia gives current government responses to homelessness within ‘The Homelessness White Paper’. The White Paper aims to guide homelessness strategies in Australia to the year 2020, recognising “just maintaining the current effort on homelessness will see an increase in the number of Australians who are homeless due to the growth in populations at risk of homelessness” (Commonwealth of Australia, The Road Home: A National Approach to Reducing Homelessness, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2008,

p.viii). Homelessness is often viewed by the community as a removed entity, separate from the ‘norms’ of society. The higher echelon of authority has the task of dealing with the homeless in the community. It is not dissimilar to the notion of the authorities designing a city from ‘God’s view’, which is highlighted in Morley’s article on imagined cities. Whilst the Government are obliged to form a solution to homelessness, they are predominantly removed from the homeless experience, thus they are creating a solution to an imagined problem. Perhaps the predicament of homelessness cannot be solved by politicians but by the community as a whole. By Melbourne embracing “The Big Issue’, the community is a united front, attempting to close the gap between differentiating members of socio-economic backgrounds. Research from ‘The Big Issue’ website shows that vendors have improved living conditions, more money to spend on non-essential items and increased self-worth. ‘The Big Issue’ is a known business entity, which benefits the citizens of Melbourne whilst promoting a worthwhile business. Furthermore, the places where vendors are most common is in the central business district of Melbourne which draws contrast between the high and low end of business in Melbourne. ‘The Big Issue’ is uplifting for the community of Melbourne as it is engaging its disadvantaged citizens whilst aiding them financially and mentally to create a more harmonious society. Reference The Big Issue Australia Website

Commonwealth Government of Australia, March2009 “Home Truths: Mental Health, Housing and Homelessness in Australia.” Mental Health Council of Australia (MHCA), Commonwealth of Australia, 2008 The Road Home: A National Approach to Reducing Homelessness, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2008, pp.viii Tessa Swithinbank, 2001 “Coming Up from the Streets: The Story of The Big Issue” Earthscan Publications Ltd, London

L’Oreal Melbourne Fashion Festival “Pop Up” runway shows

One of the most highly anticipated events on Australia’s fashion and events calendar, the L’Oreal Melbourne Fashion Festival (LMFF) showcases the best in Australian fashion and beauty every year in March. This particular runway show was part of the free “Pop Up” runway events scattered throughout the city.

As we all may have realized, fashion weeks are major draw cards for many fashion industry experts from around the globe. Not only do designers and journalists participate, models, buyers from stores around the world, fashion stylists, celebrities as well as “less important figures, such as fashion students who exist on the margins of the field” (Entwistle and Rocamora 2006, p737) all come together for this one week to view what the upcoming trends for the next few seasons will be and how they will incorporate that into the public. Realising this, LMFF has broken down the traditional barrier between the fashion pack and the common public by showcasing highstreet fashion at more affordable prices by events such as the ‘Pop Up Runway Show’. An event such as LMFF brings together a set of fashion-oriented consumer industries, which “creates a place in which multiple interests are able to build from one another”, thus working together to strengthen the perceived value of fashionable products “in the eyes of consumer audiences” (Weller 2007). Not only that, LMFF will attract global attention, therefore not only benefiting the events and designers only, but also further reinforcing that the city it is held in, is one that is on par with other ‘world cities’ such as London, New York and Milan, with its cosmopolitan world-city standards. L’Oreal Melbourne Fashion Festival director Karen Webster Assaid “festival goers hoped to provide a more inclusive, celebratory event as a tribute to the public”. Behind this statement is a tactic that we can detract from. Webster not only hopes to “provide a more inclusive” event, but in doing so, she would also hope to drive up ticket sales to non-free events therefore, also boosting the sales of each designers items. A reason why this tactic and the ‘Pop Up’ strategy would be chosen is that it is not only easy for consumers to relate to the theme, but it is also easy for them to imagine themselves as part of belonging to that culture.

As we can see, LMFF not only showcases what we, as a city, have to offer to the fashion public and the world, it also shows us that a fashion festival isn’t just a fashion festival, it is an event on a global scale, cleverly manipulated with free and exclusive events to gain as much media coverage as possible across all sorts of communication channels in order to increase awareness of Melbourne city as well as drive tourism dollars up by luring in consumers with our sophisticated lifestyle and fashion.

References Entwistle, J and Rocamora, A 2006, ‘The Field of Fashion Materialized: A Study of London Fashion Week’, Sociology, Vol. 40, pp. 735-751 viewed 6 April 2010, SAGE Journals Online. Weller, S 2007, ‘Beyond “Global Production Networks”: Australian Fashion Week’s Transsectoral Synergies’, CSES Working Paper No. 33, viewed 7 April 2010, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies Victoria University. Holroyd, J 2010, ‘Get Happy: designers look towards brighter year at festival launch’, The Age, 10 February, viewed 7 April 2010, <>.

Chinatown Located along Little Bourke Street, Chinatown is one of Melbourne’s popular tourist

destinations, featuring its famous Golden arches, heritage streetscape such as hidden laneways and Asian groceries and restaurants. With more than 400 businesses ranging from Chinese herbalist centres, karaoke bars and fashion boutiques, Chinatown is a robust 24- hour precinct that appeals to all communities. Chinatown first started in the 1850s because of the Gold rush, which prompted many Chinese immigrants to migrate to Victoria in the search for their own fortune. Since then, Chinatown has been preserved and survived much of the history of Melbourne, such as the days of ‘Marvellous Melbourne’ in the 1880s and of the ‘White Australia Policy’ in the 1900s. It is now the longest continuous Chinese settlement in the Western World. Between Swanston and Spring St, Chinatown is frequented by locals and tourists, both keen to be part of Melbourne’s multicultural scene.

In major cities, Chinatowns are common, as a manifestation of the cities embracing multiculturalism. It generates ‘pride of place’, vital and strategic to the flourishing of urban life and creating a strong sense of identity and belonging for the citizens in the city, especially those of Chinese background (Jacbos, J. 1995). Spacially, it enables the Chinese community to creating a meaningful place in the city, giving them ‘a sense of empowerment and citizenship by giving people a chance to create new places’ (Jacobs, J. 1995).

Deeply rooted in Chinatown is the notion of cultural diversity is integral in a community and vital to its development. The notion of cultural diversity in society is important in establishing a universal set of values to enable the community to live in harmony. As a physical place belonging to the Chinese community, it breeds cultural diversity by attracting locals and tourists from all around the world. In a city, cultures are inherent in the places we visit, even entering a different scene, a different environment, one is exposed to diverse city Melbourne is.

Chinatown is also successful business precinct for Melbourne. The vast selection of cuisine and entertainment at Chinatown offers Melbournians and tourists a different facet to Melbourne. The multiple restaurants, karaoke bars and more create Chinatown the busy, popular place it is. Major cities are known for their fashion, food and culture. Food itself plays a major role in self-identity, especially in the act of dining out. Restaurants, they say, satisfy emotional needs and food is a collective association for cultural identity. (Kittler, P. & Sucher, K., 2007). Chinatown, known for its cuisine represents security, familiarity and good memories for the Chinese community in Melbourne. It is true that food is a way to not only a manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heart but to everyone. It holds a prominent role in religion and intercultural influences. Since food and culture are so intertwined, Chinatown incorporates culture and symbolizes multiculturalism in the city of Melbourne. References

Jacobs, J. 1995, ĂŹPride of PlaceĂŽ in Melbourne: Our City, Our Culture, Hyland House Publishing Pty Ltd, Victoria, pp. 52-55.

Kittler, P. & Sucher, K. 2007, Food and Culture, Cengage Learning, Belmont.

Parekh, B. 2002, ĂŹConceptualizing Human BeingsĂŽ in Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory, Harvard University Press, pp. 114-141.

Assessment Three- Public Relations/Advertising Artefacts  
Assessment Three- Public Relations/Advertising Artefacts  

by Greta Pullen, Zho-E Low, Daniella Jong, Julia Henkel, Roza Prappas