COMM2411 – Communication and Social Relations Assessment Task#3, Semester 1, 2010 Map of Revisions GROUP NAMES & STUDENT NUMBERS 1. Sharon Yona (S3253058)
2. Herald Chia (S3261131)
3. Melanie Tang (S3272583)
THE SEXUAL IMAGE Group members Sharon Yona (S3253058), Herald Chia (S3261131), Melanie Tang (S3272583)
In an urban city like Melbourne we see sexual advertisements on a daily basis. This vehicle belongs to one of King’s street strip clubs called 'Centrefold Lounge'. The sexual female images shown on the vehicle are of a western culture idealized beauty. All the women featured are young, white, slim and blond. This image represents the sexualisation of gender as a socially accepted norm. This artefact communicates through sexuality. We can look at it from different lenses in order to understand its meaning. Interpolation of sexual image and idolized body image are things we can interpret from this provocative representation of the female body.
Provocative images are a part of mainstream advertising; sexual images feature an idolized beauty rather than an objective image. What we are shown is a fantasy which communicates to both male and female. Sexual images are influential and powerful in their social context (Reichert, T. 2002). The power of sexual images leads us to draw comparisons between what we are shown in these images and what our real image is. This comparison creates a distance between how an individual sees himself in a subjective eye and as the desired other. In simple words, what I am and what I would like to be. The social development of women dates back to 1920s, with the liberation of social and legal status for women (E.Schroeder, H.F 1976). However, these changes helped establish acceptance for the sexual female. Sexual images that featured a western culture idolized beauty were widely spread do to the western culture invasion. With the emancipation of sex over the years, sexual images became more acceptable. Advertising began selling fantasy images of gender and society was expected to be convinced that these images present the perfect gender status. Society sustains the sexual image in women more so then man and sexual images are more likely to feature women (Wolin L.D 2003). However, we can see images that represent both males and females as sexual objects. This relationship of the sexual object with the genders contributes to the interpolation that these images are achieving. Men and women are represented in unrealistic body images that society interpolates as being the wanted self in this airbrushed perfect image and our objective world as the imperfect image. Through these sexual images we are constantly watching ourselves as sexual objects. In conclusion, gender sexualisation is socially acceptable. These images comply with society's interpolations of sexual images. These sexual images generate the individual's desire to become what the image represents; 'The perfect self' and by that creating a distance between the subjective and objective self. In terms, individuals create society and we see this notion of the wanted image widely used in advertising. (451words)
References: Reichert, T., 2002. Sex in Advertising Research: A Review of Content, Effects, and Functions of Sexual information in Consumer Advertising. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, pp.241-‐273. Wolin, L.D., 2003. Gender Issues in Advertising-‐An Oversight Synthesis of Research 1970-‐2002. Journal of Advertising Research,43,pp.111-‐129. E. Schroeder, H.F., 1976. Feminine Hygiene, Fashion and the Emancipation of American Women. American Studies, (0026-‐3079), pp.101-‐110.
Artefact #2 MOBILE REDBULL
Advertising is used as a tool to deliver an impression or a subtle message to the public. Through this communication artefact, we can identify its relation to youth culture and a globalized urban city life. This picture shows two trucks with a can of Red Bull mounted on its back, which are driven by attractive females. Youth are known for their vibrant, energetic, fun loving nature and their thirst for challenges. Hence, sport activities were introduced in schools and cultivated in all social groups among youth as a form of leisure time activities. (Anders G., 1982) With the interest of targeting youth as their main consumers, Red Bull marketed their products through extreme and adventure-‐related sports, such as motor sports, mountain biking and snowboarding. They also developed a unique marketing concept which relied on what is called ‘buzz marketing’ or word-‐of-‐mouth. Red Bull uses social relations among youth to spread the popularity of the drink rather than the traditional informative or persuasive communications. They also used and designed their pick-‐up trucks in a way that communicate to youth as slightly ‘off-‐the-‐wall’. (Biz/ed Website) The use of attractive young females interconnects with the notion of sexual image. This representation reinforces the use of sexual image to communicate to youth in this case as needing sexual energy. Female representation as a western culture beauty connects with the notion of urban city life as always needing to be energetic, attractive and sexualized as western society interpolates. In a globalized urban city, popular culture and nightlife have long played an important role in urban life (Hollands R, Chatterton P. 2003). Youth are heavily influenced by what they perceive in the media. The nightlife of an urban city that never sleeps suggests ways for youth to seek fun and entertainment as a kind of leisure activity to enjoy with a company of friends. As society shifts to the ‘new’ urban entertainment economy, concentration of corporate ownership increases the use of branding and theming. It attempts to segment its markets through the gentrification and sanitization of leisure activities (Hollands R, Chatterton P. 2003). Restaurants, bars and nightclubs became a part of an urban city life that draws tourism and global awareness.
Being a part of the global market for energy drinks, Red Bull recognizes the importance of youth in the ‘new’ urban culture. This notion of the ‘new’ urban culture is of a city that is constantly active in work and entertainment. In conclusion, this image of Red Bull can be interpreted to communicate through youth culture and urban city life. The constant desire of youth to be energetic, complies with the constant activities in a 24 hours city like Melbourne. This empowers youth in society as evolving consumers. (453 words) References Anders G., ‘International Review for the Sociology of Sports’, 1982, Sport and Youth Culture, SAGE journals online website, viewed may 21 2010 <http://irs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/1/49> Alford C., Cox H., Wescott R., ‘Amino Acids’, 2001, The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink on human performance and mood, Springer Link Journal Article website, viewed may 21 2010 <http://www.springerlink.com/content/xxdbgvjy9ke72wbl/> Hollands R. and Chatterton P., ‘International Journal of Urban and Regional Research’, 2003, Producing Nightlife in the New Urban Entertainment Economy: Corporatization, Branding and Market Segmentation, Website Article, viewed may 31 2010 <http://www.paulchatterton.com/wp-‐content/uploads/2009/05/chatterton-‐and-‐ hollands-‐producing-‐nightlife.pdf> N/A, ‘A look at key features of Red Bull’s business’, Biz/ed website, viewed may 21 2010 <http://www.bized.co.uk/compfact/redbull/redbull7.htm> Malinauskas B., Aeby V., Overton R., Aeby T., Barber-‐Heidal K., Nutrition Journal, 2007, A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students, Bio-‐Med Central Website, viewed may 21 2010 <http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1475-‐ 2891-‐6-‐35.pdf> N/A, ‘Red Bull History’, Electrick Publications website, viewed may 21 2010 <http://www.speedace.info/red_bull.htm
Artefact #3 THE BUSKER
Advertising acts as an effective form of communication throughout the city. This artefact relates to urban culture and portrays the use of space for advertising through a street entertainer. In this picture we see a street performer going about his daily routine of busking along Bourke Street. A street performer stands out from any other person that can be seen on the street. They are defined by the space that they create for themselves also known as outside the circle (Clyne, J 2006). Buskers use their individuality and talent as a selling point for Melbourne as a Cosmopolitan environment. A busker is often seen as an alternative way to make a living. They appear small, ineffectual and invasive and can come across as public nuisance, but they are in fact integrated into society and economy at a different level. Like any other street performer, a busker represents and forms the local urban street culture. It is also a platform for tourist attraction. Besides providing an atmosphere and entertainment for the streets of Melbourne, busking is also recognized as part of Melbourne’s street culture. Busking transforms a common tactic of the urban marginalized occupation and performance into an acceptable art form for the public to appreciate. The transformative potential of walking and performing appears weak, powerless and foolish to some, but these are the representations of the performers communicating to the city. Because the street is an open space, there is no room for privacy for the performers (Bridge, G 2005). These buskers make use of the tactic of not having a business or store as an opportunity to advertise themselves. This serves as a strategic plan for the government to create a new image for the city. An example to walking and performing the city (Bridge, GA & Watson, S 2000) would be the ‘Urban Dream Capsule’, an event which was used to prove that social interaction is possible between a street performer and the public. The event is a few actors carried on in their daily lives for 2 weeks behind Myers’s window display. Every action and move they make is captured by the public and for all to see; as quoted ‘Every day the circles of communication grew larger’ (UDC website). This event demonstrates and emphasizes
the possibility of social interaction by created a space for people to share their thoughts and interact with one another. Busking contribute to the arts and music scene in the street art form. It is a tactic used in order to make money but at the same time it enhances the city's image. In the process of busking, these street performers add colour and life to the city which is then turned around by the government and used as a selling point. In conclusion, society is slowly evolving and changing views of the expression of arts and music. As the city evolves, it no longer conforms to what man made it out to be (Anderson 1923: xxiii). (495 words) References: Clyne, J 2006. Inside the circle: The spatial dynamics of contemporary street performances in Australia, Griffith University. http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/52906/clyne.pdf Bridge, G 2005, ‘Reason in the city of difference: Pragmatism, Communicative action and contemporary urbanism, Routledge, 270 Madison Ave, NY. Bridge, GA & Watson, S 2000, A companion to the city, Blackwell publishers Ltd, USA.UDC’s website http://www.urbandreamcapsule.com/archive/galway/info.htm
RMIT UNIVERSITY COMM2411 – Communication and Social Relations Assessment Task#3, Semester 1, 2010 COLABORATIVE GROUP PUBLICATION Group members Sharon Yona (3253058) Herald Chia (3261131) Melanie Tang (3272583)