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COMM2411  –  Communication  and  Social  Relations     Assessment  Task#3,  Semester  1,  2010     Map  of  Revisions     GROUP  NAMES  &  STUDENT  NUMBERS     1. Sharon  Yona  (S3253058)  


2. Herald  Chia  (S3261131)    

3. Melanie  Tang  (S3272583)  


Artefact  #1  


THE  SEXUAL  IMAGE     Group  members      Sharon  Yona  (S3253058),  Herald  Chia  (S3261131),  Melanie  Tang  (S3272583)      

                                                                      In  an  urban  city  like  Melbourne  we  see  sexual  advertisements  on  a  daily  basis.     This  vehicle  belongs  to  one  of  King’s  street  strip  clubs  called  'Centrefold  Lounge'.  The   sexual  female  images  shown  on  the  vehicle  are  of  a  western  culture  idealized  beauty.  All   the  women  featured  are  young,  white,  slim  and  blond.  This  image  represents  the   sexualisation  of  gender  as  a  socially  accepted  norm.         This  artefact  communicates  through  sexuality.  We  can  look  at  it  from  different  lenses  in   order  to  understand  its  meaning.  Interpolation  of  sexual  image  and  idolized  body  image   are  things  we  can  interpret  from  this  provocative  representation  of  the  female  body.      

Provocative  images  are  a  part  of  mainstream  advertising;  sexual  images  feature  an   idolized  beauty  rather  than  an  objective  image.  What  we  are  shown  is  a  fantasy  which   communicates  to  both  male  and  female.  Sexual  images  are  influential  and  powerful  in   their  social  context  (Reichert,  T.  2002).  The  power  of  sexual  images  leads  us  to  draw   comparisons  between  what  we  are  shown  in  these  images  and  what  our  real  image  is.   This  comparison  creates  a  distance  between  how  an  individual  sees  himself  in  a   subjective  eye  and  as  the  desired  other.  In  simple  words,  what  I  am  and  what  I  would   like  to  be.         The  social  development  of  women  dates  back  to  1920s,  with  the  liberation  of  social  and   legal  status  for  women  (E.Schroeder,  H.F  1976).  However,  these  changes  helped   establish  acceptance  for  the  sexual  female.  Sexual  images  that  featured  a  western   culture  idolized  beauty  were  widely  spread  do  to  the  western  culture  invasion.  With  the   emancipation  of  sex  over  the  years,  sexual  images  became  more  acceptable.  Advertising   began  selling  fantasy  images  of  gender  and  society  was  expected  to  be  convinced  that   these  images  present  the  perfect  gender  status.   Society  sustains  the  sexual  image  in  women  more  so  then  man  and  sexual  images  are   more  likely  to  feature  women  (Wolin  L.D  2003).  However,  we  can  see  images  that   represent  both  males  and  females  as  sexual  objects.  This  relationship  of  the  sexual   object  with  the  genders  contributes  to  the  interpolation  that  these  images  are  achieving.   Men  and  women  are  represented  in  unrealistic  body  images  that  society  interpolates  as   being  the  wanted  self  in  this  airbrushed  perfect  image  and  our  objective  world  as  the   imperfect  image.  Through  these  sexual  images  we  are  constantly  watching  ourselves  as   sexual  objects.                   In  conclusion,  gender  sexualisation  is  socially  acceptable.  These  images  comply  with   society's  interpolations  of  sexual  images.  These  sexual  images  generate  the  individual's   desire  to  become  what  the  image  represents;  'The  perfect  self'  and  by  that  creating  a   distance  between  the  subjective  and  objective  self.  In  terms,  individuals  create  society   and  we  see  this  notion  of  the  wanted  image  widely  used  in  advertising.           (451words)      

References:     Reichert,  T.,  2002.  Sex  in  Advertising  Research:  A  Review  of  Content,  Effects,  and   Functions  of  Sexual  information  in  Consumer  Advertising.  Annual  Review  of  Sex   Research,  13,  pp.241-­‐273.     Wolin,  L.D.,  2003.  Gender  Issues  in  Advertising-­‐An  Oversight  Synthesis  of  Research   1970-­‐2002.  Journal  of  Advertising  Research,43,pp.111-­‐129.       E.  Schroeder,  H.F.,  1976.  Feminine  Hygiene,  Fashion  and  the  Emancipation  of  American   Women.  American  Studies,  (0026-­‐3079),  pp.101-­‐110.                      

Artefact  #2                     MOBILE  REDBULL    

  Advertising  is  used  as  a  tool  to  deliver  an  impression  or  a  subtle  message  to  the  public.   Through  this  communication  artefact,  we  can  identify  its  relation  to  youth  culture  and  a   globalized  urban  city  life.     This  picture  shows  two  trucks  with  a  can  of  Red  Bull  mounted  on  its  back,  which  are   driven  by  attractive  females.  Youth  are  known  for  their  vibrant,  energetic,  fun  loving   nature  and  their  thirst  for  challenges.  Hence,  sport  activities  were  introduced  in  schools   and  cultivated  in  all  social  groups  among  youth  as  a  form  of  leisure  time  activities.   (Anders  G.,  1982)       With  the  interest  of  targeting  youth  as  their  main  consumers,  Red  Bull  marketed  their   products  through  extreme  and  adventure-­‐related  sports,  such  as  motor  sports,   mountain  biking  and  snowboarding.  They  also  developed  a  unique  marketing  concept   which  relied  on  what  is  called  ‘buzz  marketing’  or  word-­‐of-­‐mouth.  Red  Bull  uses  social   relations  among  youth  to  spread  the  popularity  of  the  drink  rather  than  the  traditional   informative  or  persuasive  communications.  They  also  used  and  designed  their  pick-­‐up   trucks  in  a  way  that  communicate  to  youth  as  slightly  ‘off-­‐the-­‐wall’.  (Biz/ed  Website)       The  use  of  attractive  young  females  interconnects  with  the  notion  of  sexual  image.  This   representation  reinforces  the  use  of  sexual  image  to  communicate  to  youth  in  this  case   as  needing  sexual  energy.  Female  representation  as  a  western  culture  beauty  connects   with  the  notion  of  urban  city  life  as  always  needing  to  be  energetic,  attractive  and   sexualized  as  western  society  interpolates.     In  a  globalized  urban  city,  popular  culture  and  nightlife  have  long  played  an  important   role  in  urban  life  (Hollands  R,  Chatterton  P.  2003).  Youth  are  heavily  influenced  by  what   they  perceive  in  the  media.  The  nightlife  of  an  urban  city  that  never  sleeps  suggests   ways  for  youth  to  seek  fun  and  entertainment  as  a  kind  of  leisure  activity  to  enjoy  with  a   company  of  friends.  As  society  shifts  to  the  ‘new’  urban  entertainment  economy,   concentration  of  corporate  ownership  increases  the  use  of  branding  and  theming.  It   attempts  to  segment  its  markets  through  the  gentrification  and  sanitization  of  leisure   activities  (Hollands  R,  Chatterton  P.  2003).  Restaurants,  bars  and  nightclubs  became  a   part  of  an  urban  city  life  that  draws  tourism  and  global  awareness.      

Being  a  part  of  the  global  market  for  energy  drinks,  Red  Bull  recognizes  the  importance   of  youth  in  the  ‘new’  urban  culture.  This  notion  of  the  ‘new’  urban  culture  is  of  a  city  that   is  constantly  active  in  work  and  entertainment.       In  conclusion,  this  image  of  Red  Bull  can  be  interpreted  to  communicate  through  youth   culture  and  urban  city  life.  The  constant  desire  of  youth  to  be  energetic,  complies  with   the  constant  activities  in  a  24  hours  city  like  Melbourne.  This  empowers  youth  in  society   as  evolving  consumers.     (453  words)       References     Anders  G.,  ‘International  Review  for  the  Sociology  of  Sports’,  1982,  Sport  and  Youth   Culture,  SAGE  journals  online  website,  viewed  may  21  2010   <>     Alford  C.,  Cox  H.,  Wescott  R.,  ‘Amino  Acids’,  2001,  The  effects  of  Red  Bull  Energy  Drink   on  human  performance  and  mood,  Springer  Link  Journal  Article  website,  viewed  may  21   2010  <>     Hollands  R.  and  Chatterton  P.,  ‘International  Journal  of  Urban  and  Regional  Research’,   2003,  Producing  Nightlife  in  the  New  Urban  Entertainment  Economy:  Corporatization,   Branding  and  Market  Segmentation,  Website  Article,  viewed  may  31  2010   <­‐content/uploads/2009/05/chatterton-­‐and-­‐ hollands-­‐producing-­‐nightlife.pdf>     N/A,  ‘A  look  at  key  features  of  Red  Bull’s  business’,  Biz/ed  website,  viewed  may  21  2010   <>     Malinauskas  B.,  Aeby  V.,  Overton  R.,  Aeby  T.,  Barber-­‐Heidal  K.,  Nutrition  Journal,  2007,  A   survey  of  energy  drink  consumption  patterns  among  college  students,  Bio-­‐Med  Central   Website,  viewed  may  21  2010  <­‐ 2891-­‐6-­‐35.pdf>     N/A,  ‘Red  Bull  History’,  Electrick  Publications  website,  viewed  may  21  2010   <  

Artefact  #3       THE  BUSKER      

  Advertising  acts  as  an  effective  form  of  communication  throughout  the  city.  This  artefact   relates  to  urban  culture  and  portrays  the  use  of  space  for  advertising  through  a  street   entertainer.  In  this  picture  we  see  a  street  performer  going  about  his  daily  routine  of   busking  along  Bourke  Street.         A  street  performer  stands  out  from  any  other  person  that  can  be  seen  on  the  street.  They   are  defined  by  the  space  that  they  create  for  themselves  also  known  as  outside  the  circle   (Clyne,  J  2006).  Buskers  use  their  individuality  and  talent  as  a  selling  point  for   Melbourne  as  a  Cosmopolitan  environment.       A  busker  is  often  seen  as  an  alternative  way  to  make  a  living.  They  appear  small,   ineffectual  and  invasive  and  can  come  across  as  public  nuisance,  but  they  are  in  fact   integrated  into  society  and  economy  at  a  different  level.  Like  any  other  street  performer,   a  busker  represents  and  forms  the  local  urban  street  culture.  It  is  also  a  platform  for   tourist  attraction.  Besides  providing  an  atmosphere  and  entertainment  for  the  streets  of   Melbourne,  busking  is  also  recognized  as  part  of  Melbourne’s  street  culture.     Busking  transforms  a  common  tactic  of  the  urban  marginalized  occupation  and   performance  into  an  acceptable  art  form  for  the  public  to  appreciate.  The  transformative   potential  of  walking  and  performing  appears  weak,  powerless  and  foolish  to  some,  but   these  are  the  representations  of  the  performers  communicating  to  the  city.     Because  the  street  is  an  open  space,  there  is  no  room  for  privacy  for  the  performers   (Bridge,  G  2005).  These  buskers  make  use  of  the  tactic  of  not  having  a  business  or  store   as  an  opportunity  to  advertise  themselves.  This  serves  as  a  strategic  plan  for  the   government  to  create  a  new  image  for  the  city.       An  example  to  walking  and  performing  the  city  (Bridge,  GA  &  Watson,  S  2000)  would  be   the  ‘Urban  Dream  Capsule’,  an  event  which  was  used  to  prove  that  social  interaction  is   possible  between  a  street  performer  and  the  public.  The  event  is  a  few  actors  carried  on   in  their  daily  lives  for  2  weeks  behind  Myers’s  window  display.  Every  action  and  move   they  make  is  captured  by  the  public  and  for  all  to  see;  as  quoted  ‘Every  day  the  circles  of   communication  grew  larger’  (UDC  website).  This  event  demonstrates  and  emphasizes  

the  possibility  of  social  interaction  by  created  a  space  for  people  to  share  their  thoughts   and  interact  with  one  another.       Busking  contribute  to  the  arts  and  music  scene  in  the  street  art  form.  It  is  a  tactic  used  in   order  to  make  money  but  at  the  same  time  it  enhances  the  city's  image.  In  the  process  of   busking,  these  street  performers  add  colour  and  life  to  the  city  which  is  then  turned   around  by  the  government  and  used  as  a  selling  point.     In  conclusion,  society  is  slowly  evolving  and  changing  views  of  the  expression  of  arts   and  music.  As  the  city  evolves,  it  no  longer  conforms  to  what  man  made  it  out  to  be   (Anderson  1923:  xxiii).     (495  words)                                  References:   Clyne,  J  2006.  Inside  the  circle:  The  spatial  dynamics  of  contemporary  street  performances  in   Australia,  Griffith  University.   Bridge,  G  2005,  ‘Reason  in  the  city  of  difference:  Pragmatism,  Communicative  action  and   contemporary  urbanism,  Routledge,  270  Madison  Ave,  NY.   Bridge,  GA  &  Watson,  S  2000,  A  companion  to  the  city,  Blackwell  publishers  Ltd,     USA.UDC’s  website                                     

RMIT  UNIVERSITY           COMM2411  –  Communication   and  Social  Relations     Assessment  Task#3,  Semester   1,  2010       COLABORATIVE  GROUP   PUBLICATION       Group  members     Sharon  Yona  (3253058)   Herald  Chia  (3261131)   Melanie  Tang  (3272583)