communication &social relations
ADVERTISING assessMENT TASK No.3 Amy Matejka-Keech S3284437 Maddie Rossier S3284641 Stacey Karayannis S3166047
Artefact 1 Maddie Rossier
Free Media Advertisements
My artifact is the free media advertising of Melbourne’s art and culture, located along Swanston Street. It is one of the many forms of advertising that can be found along the streets of Melbourne and its job is to promote all sorts of arts and culture that Melbourne has to offer, including comedy, art, music, dance, etc. It is almost impossible to walk anywhere along the streets of Melbourne without encountering this free-form of media. Although this method of advertising is illegal, it is in no way a reflection of its frequent occurrence on Melbourne’s streets. It is, in fact, the government’s way of deterring this type of advertising occurring else where, by giving the posters a blank canvas of their own. Instead of messing up the streets with posters and so forth, these poles are a way of keeping the streets clean. Advertising methods in Melbourne promote the city as a place of exploration through its unique and varying streets and alleyways. “Culture is constructed by humans in order to communicate and create community” (Lewis, 2002) - similarly, advertising is one of the most effective ways of learning how a particular society lived in their time of day; what they valued and stood for. The importance of the promotion of these events is that “the way in which a society expresses itself is the ultimate expression of what a society stands for” (Lewis, 2002) So, from looking at Lewis’ quote from the point of view towards this artifact it shows Melbourne is a place of adventure. The fact that the majority of advertising along Melbourne’s CBD is for events shows its (Melbourne’s) love for experiences and exploration. Melbourne’s variety of events have to be sought to be found; this is a reflection of Melbourne and the idea that it’s a place of self exploration and experience. Visitors and residents of Melbourne often become people “who realise that the best things in life are often hard to find” (ThreeThousand, 2010). Things that typify Melbourne life such as its “bustling markets, eclectic cafes, specialist shops and corner pubs” (Egger, 2004) are what give Melbourne its “distinctive character”. The posters show that Melbourne holds all kinds of events - you just have to know where to find them. Not only is this free form of media a form of advertising, it is also seen by many as a form of art in itself as it is visually appealing. Melbourne is a city of creativity and expression, shown not only through the events themselves but the way in which they are advertised.
They contrast to the mass media advertisements, as they are more personal - “powerful institutions control the media, and it is in these institutions’ interest to promote certain types of social conformity” (Lewis, 2002). This provides a contrast to what the artifact stands for; the promotion of events from ‘everyday’ people, rather than mass media from ‘powerful institutions’. Communities that “embrace diversity, creative expression and cultural activity are richer, stronger and better ¬¬able to deal with social challenges.” (Hutchinson, 2009). These free forms of advertising splattered across Melbourne’s CBD give Melbourne a distinct unique personality; one rich in creativity and openly accepting of all forms of diversity. The posters offer an exciting vibe and make the consumer feel as though they are apart of something - a secret society open to anyone who has the desire to find it.
Artefact 2 2010 L'OREAL fashion week brochure
The 2010 L’Oreal Melbourne Fashion Festival booklet is designed to inform the public about the festival, the events and its sponsors. The artifact promotes the free teaser event called the “QV Fashion Doll House Show”. The aim of this event is to generate sales for businesses in the industry by making the outfits affordable for the females in the middle class society. Such shows featured include; Westco, Wayne Cooper, BOSS Orange, Mooks, Guess and Kam Otto. The occasion is unique and like no other with live mannequins in a life sized doll house showcase. Located at the Melbourne QV centre in the city, the show surrounds Melbourne’s iconic laneways, boutiques, cafes and restaurants helping to stimulate the local business industry. The Victorian State Government supports the event due to the creativity, innovation and benefits for the industry. Brands play an important role in the advertising field. (Shavitt S, Lowery T, and Han S.-P, 1992) conducted a study and found that consumers were much more aware of Levi Jeans than the no-name brand. (Wells et al 2008) defines the advertising term brand position as how consumers see a brand relative to a category, competitors and substitutes, in which the study uses. The researchers found that Levi was recognized as more expensive, had a better quality, and was more stylish compared to the no-name brand. Consumers want to be seen as hip, cool and up-to-date with fashion trends therefore purchase the well-known brands rather than the unknown brands. In addition the target audience will choose a brand that reflects their personality and characteristics. Status of brands symbolizes an identity that people want to believe they are, because of self fulfillment and credibility reasons (Whittick A, 1971). Interestingly, (Susan & Elliot 1998) found that females are usually the target audience for fashion because they are better at reading codes than men because they have different retrieval cues (Susan & Elliot 1998). Advertisers are interested in the new emerging target market of “tweenagers” in the fashion industry. That is the youth prior to the age of fourteen. In the future, Melbourne could see an increase in consuming products by ‘tweenagers’ who stimulate the economy because of their willingness to buy products. Advertisers need to tread carefully when addressing this group because they are at a time of their life when they are insecure, sensitive due to their youth therefore can be persuaded
easily. A study by (Isabel J & Stephen G) found that these young females were influenced by their mature sister who seemed ‘cool’ and that brand’s were important in their decision process. From a communications perspective, the meaning of fashion and garments imply that “social relations between people are constructed, experienced and understood” (Barnard M 1996). There are certain stereotypes we label people based on our interpretation through signs about their clothes. A business suit is universally known as symbolizing wealth, status and power or shades like black are associated with sophistication and formality. However understanding fashion codes can be complex and ambiguous as everyone is one to their own (Barnard M 1996). Although there are complexities, the main reasons why we wear clothes are to provide protection, to decorate and cause sexual desire, for vanity, modesty and feeling of shame and status (Whittick, A 1971). In relation to Melbourne’s role in fashion, it wants to position itself as diverse and unique. This can be strengthened by understanding the history of culture influencing particular designers. (Whitick A 1971). Melbourne thrives itself on its unique sense of fashion which stems from international inspirations, suggesting that it is a global city.
Artefact 2 'lose yourself in Melbourne' advertisement This TV campaign “Loose yourself in Melbourne” was designed to enhance Melbourne’s reputation as a city of culture, romanticism and substance through its rich and vibrant laneways.
It illustrates a girl walking through the city leaving red string in her path so as to not lose her way. It aims to appeal to those who admire creativity and can explore and experiment in a stimulating environment. The advertisement markets the laneways as a place where as Dennis (2009) states, captivates you and allows you to keep discovering more and more each time in an experience that never gets old. The laneways are portrayed as exclusive, each sharing their own unique personality. Even the grungier more alternative laneways are the “hippest places to be seen”. (Dennis 2009) The advertisement markets the laneways to have international appeal and portrays them as a significant part of Melbourne’s urban identity. It strives to communicate a sense of international cosmopolitism by positioning Melbourne as a global city. As Dennis (2009), states the laneways provide Melbournian’s with a European lifestyle that can’t be mimicked anywhere else in Australia. This particular atmosphere is successful due to the construction and spatial layout of the streets. Historically, the laneways were merely added to act as access points to the main streets, (BrownMay, A. 1998). They housed the rejected and were areas filled with crime and unlawful behaviour. Yet over time this detachment from the larger grid structure of Melbourne’s CBD has allowed the laneways to have their own unique sense of mystery and hidden delight. The campaign strives to position Melbourne as a global city and aspires to make it a destination of choice for Australia’s elite by working on the idea of desirability and dreams aimed at a middle class society. As noted by author Rofe (2003) in I want to be global: theorizing the gentrifying class as emergent elite global community, residents who see themselves as being global, is because they feel they share similarities with residents in other international cities. Rofe’s study of Glebe and it’s inundation of gentrification is much the same as the sub-cultural meaning of Melbourne’s laneways and their ability to create a sense of desire and international cosmopolitanism for a middle class society.
Glebe’s reputation of being socially stigmatised as a slum was “due to congested living conditions, unemployment and escalating crimes rates” (Rofe, 2003). Much like what Melbourne’s laneways were historically known for. A method to eradicate crime and unlawful behaviour from the area, was gentrification; an implementation not only by its residents and their yearning to become a global city, but also by its governing bodies. As there is a correlation between low-income areas and high crime rates, by increasing the socio demographic of the area, it was suggested that there would also be a decrease in crime. Melbourne relies heavily on its advertising to establish methods of connection and self exploration for its residents and the thousands of visitors. The advertisement highlights Melbourne as a place to be experienced and explored in order to best capture the global city’s identity.
REFERENCE LIST ARTEFACT 1 Lewis, J, 2002, Cultural Studies: The Basics, Sage Publishing
ARTEFACT 3 Brown-May, A. 1998, Melbourne Street Life: The Itinerary of Our Days, Australian Scholarly Press, Melbourne.
Hutchinson, P, 2009 (presenter), Arts Victoria and the state government’s relationship with local government. Arts Victoria.
Dennis, Anthony, 2009, “In The Slow Lanes”, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 September, Travel section.
Three Thousand Magazine, www.threethousand.com.au, accessed 2010 Egger, S, 2004, Melbourne, 5th Edition, Lonely Planet Publishers ARTEFACT 2 Barnard, M 1996, Fashion as Communication, Routledge, London & New York: p. 186 Isabel J Grant, and Graeme R Stephen. 2006. Communicating culture: An examination of the buying behaviour of ‘tweenage’ girls and the key societal communicating factors influencing the buying process of fashion clothing. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing 14, no. 2, p. 101-114. Shavitt S, Lowery T, and Han S.-P, 1992, Attitude functions in advertising the interactive role of products and selfmonitoring, Journal Of Consumer Psychology, Vol 1, p337-364 Susan A, Elliot R 1998, Fashion involvement, selfmonitoring and the meaning of brand, Journal of product and brand management, Vol 7 No.2, pp. 109-123, MCB University Press Wells, Spence-Stone, Moriarty, Burnett, 2008, Advertising; Principles and Practice, Australasian Edition, Pearson Education Australia, NSW p.520 Whittick A, 1971, Symbols; signs and their meaning and uses in design, Leonard Hill
Rofe, M. 2003 “I want to be global”: theorizing the gentrifying class as emergent elite global community’, Urban Studies, vol. 40, no.12, p 2511 — 2526.