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STOY 2009-2011. RESEARCH GROUP ON SUSTAINABLE TOY DESIGN. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MADRID (UPM) DIRECTION & COORDINATION Atxu Amann DESIGN Ana Arriero & Javier Argota EDITION ©Atxu Amann & ©Hypermedia ISBN 978-XX-XXXXX-XX-X LEGAL DEPOSIT M-XXXXX-XXXX PRINTED IN DAYTON S.A. - Madrid (Spain)


ABOUT STOY. We live as we play, we play as we live. Anyway, living and playing are two actions linked between them and to the existence of each one of us, although sometimes, we are not aware of one of them, or even of any of them. // Living is something inherent in human beings – it sounds stupid but let´s think about- and playing is an action existing in some animals. Playing, after all, means to alter the natural state and the logical sequence of things to get into a different space-time. And without doubt, jumping to the other side has been always tempting but dangerous, above all for that control system of parents, educators, politicians and society in general. // In opposition to playing “like animals”, there is playing inducted by objects called toys which involves a determinate protocol of rules and roles to be assumed in a process whose essential aim should be simply spending time, enjoying it. Beyond this point, the associations among to play and to educate, to behave, to think, to know, to believe and to live are evident and their consequences could be wonderful or regrettable. // Indeed, by playing, all those values apparently invisible but highly toxic can be transmited hiddenly. Those ways of thinking which reproduce models to perpetuate asymmetric distributions of power and naturally assumed differences among genres, races, economic classes and different human groups. >>

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<< // Precisely, the project “STOY: sustainable toy” started in 2009 - thanks to the award obtained in the UPM ideas competition for students competition - as an initiative developed by a “players” group belonging somehow to University community who tried to call for attention, once again, about invisible process of our daily life with very important repercussions in the future of our society. // Toys industry is one of the most wickedly and most silenced assumed economies by all of us. One way or another, everybody has a grade of responsibility.. The difficulty of positioning oneself against the system in the toys market produces the abandonment by exhaustion of designers, parents and educators and even players who accept despondently the reality faced with the inability of seeing satisfied requirements of non-war, non-sexist, non-racist, non-pollutant… and we recognize the power of an abusive global visual offer which gets into houses, schools, cities and on the net inevitably. // Without any specific formation except our own experience as players, amateurs and hooked on creative processes, this group born in the ETSAM but open to diverse members, are willing to make a hole on the university educative system in order to something unexpected can happen. We would like to communicate our will and disposition to think about this topic on playing while trying to break the course of events and to promote another kind of surprising consequences because of their possible implications in the future of our reality, physical or virtual. // Last year, due to the natural disasters happened in Haiti, we decided to lead our energy to the emergency toy. We organized several intensive workshops introducing other universities that finished in a successful competition as you can see on our web site, www.sustaimabletoy.com . Since then, we felt confident and eager to increase our presence by combining actions, competitions, reports, teaching and so on and we asked to UPM to be recognized as Educative Innovation Project. Fortunately, they accepted and gave us some money. // Then, we thought a new subject to follow in 2010. JURBANING was our buzzword this time. We needed to learn from toys industry and its marketing strategy “.jurbaning” is an spanglish mixed word formed by jugar (play in Spanish), urban (in the city), and ing (always in action).In summer, we threw to participate in competitions – we won one of them, Gran Via and we failed another, Vulvanízate -, we carried out the performance “cúbreme latina” in the Plaza de la Cebada in the Latina neighborhood, transforming an empty urban space “Espacio Isla” by knitting a large textile roof to hide from the sun. All the stoyers, students, friends and people living in the area brought their sheets and sewed the large sheet. As usual, we failed as regards the result (mistakes on the calculation of distance, weight, shape…) but the action was really enjoyable! Our space-time changed and we built a strange friendly weaver. // Later, when autumn was about to, we made an effort to create a new elective course to investigate, design and play with more people. It was our first course organized as an exquisite corpse through e-learning. we tried to do our best and it worked . With that emotional feeling that collective actions provoke, we offered a similar intensive oneweek presential course for European students in Athens program and it happened happily. // In winter we started to think about what we had done and prepare some reports for publications and congresses as it is required. // In spring we hold the second competition and we have to say it wasn´t very crowded. Although we have tried to get away from our own discipline, probably we are already alienated and we are not experts in organizing and selling events and……Spanish crisis and bla, bla, bla….. well, now we are again in summer and we would like to have an object that could show everything about STOY in this two years. // We don’t have much money so we have to reduce the size, the number of pages….everything except our energy to get the best. // We want to thank to the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid that sometimes finances those ideas that are not very productive but ideologically necessary. Thanks to everybody that has collaborated sewing, learning, teaching,sobre registering ,…..playing, a world where humans(ATXU) can play freely because they have already eaten. texto explicativo STOY: qué, designing cómo, dónde, quién.

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ATHENS Course Fall 2011. Playing in the city. G1 Ju-Hsuan Hsu, Louis Prady, Alexander von Angerer | G2 Clément Lignicres, Caterina Pilar Palumbo, Lucie Posledni, Manju Catherine Pothen | G3 Lei Dong, Julie Dürrová, Guillaume Houot | G4 Dalibor Dzurilla, Harumi Kita, Aurélie Sabatier | G5 Karolina Kotnourová, Aurora de Liefde, Silvia H. Llerasecheverri, Thomas Perarnau.

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WHATâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S ATHENS? It stands for Advanced Technology Higher Education Network/SOCRATES. It is a network composed of 15 European technological institutions whose main goal is to promote the exchange of students, professors and researchers and to participate together under European programms. The most important action organised is the fall and spring one week intensive courses. We have participated during the last 3 years, and for the Novemberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;10 session we thought about the idea of playing in the city as topic for the foreign students.

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task 01 Seedy reused “in-between” outdoors object Ok, it´s not clear and we´ll try to explain this title. WHAT? We must create an object. WHERE? It will be used outdoors in the city: it will be an urban city. WHEN? It will be used in the “in-between” times, existing between twoactions. HOW? It will be made by using existing objects or materials from the city, including artificial ones (lampposts, bins, streets, buildings....) or natural ones (trees cut, branches...). 008


task 02 Your daily inter-playing-relationship: WHAT? REGISTER A CONTINOUS RELATIONSHIP between you and citizens you meet in your day way. WHERE? In different URBAN SCENARIOS (ETSAM, Gran VĂ­a street and night amusement center). WHEN? From afternoon to midnight. HOW? This action will be provoked by mean of an object we will give you in class. 009


task 03 Cubism-pop action: You must choose one visual action (single or combined one, real or virtual one) that somebody will develop in the Gran VĂ­a street and surroundings. Only one image will be made created from different amount of static images having been happened in one minute movements. 010


task 03 // Cubism-pop action “Exquisite corpse”: The technique gets its name from results obtained in initial playing “Le cadavre / exquis / boira / le vin / nouveau” (The exquisite corpse will drink the young wine in French). As a city is built as a patchwork from fragments of different realities, time and people, the final image of the cubism-pop action is built from the cropped and pasted fragment of the different works. 011


task 04 Freaky STOY Jurbaning advertisement: Madrid has fought for the Olympic candidature twice without, obviously, any result. Probably we should start playing in the street…… and in that way, everybody will be Olympic somehow. So, we have thought about a new challenge for our city: “Madrid, jurbaning capital”. Yes, we know, it sounds quite freak. It is because as you know, it´s important to develop a strategy beginning with familiar words that will sound in our speakers all the time. º 012


You have to create a 20 seconds audiovisual freak advertisement to persuade people to live in this new way and show Madrid as the best place to do it. The images, statics and video will be taken from those generated by all of you in these days. You may introduce music, words or others things as you wish

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VULVANÍZATE. This gender project belongs to a type of actions which fight against inequality through visualizing unnoticed situations, while forcing to take a personal and collective stance. In some cases, the invisibilization is managed by a particular ideology belonging to the called ‘hidden curriculum’, it means all those available strategies whose aim is perpetuating an unequal distribution of power and roles, a capitalist model with sexist, racist and classist consequences. In the same way we can find as

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complement the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;void curriculumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, formed by all those circumstances explicitly invisibilized to make natural an unfair and degrading state. Sometimes, invisibility is produced by creative tiredness which prevents most of people to have other points of view. Hypermedia and STOY members participated in the gender competition promoted by the Provincial Council of CĂĄdiz, with a more demanding, ironic and provocative than real proposal based on a proliferation of vulvas adapted to different daily needs.

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2010 UPM SUSTAINABLE TOY COMPETITION: The challenge chosen in this first edition as aim of the competition was to create / to design a toy prototype destined to emergency situations as the Haiti earthquake. The player profile would be a child (3-7 years old) whose familiar and domestic environment has been probably cut. The required documentation consisted of one physical prototype, one DIN A1 board and one explanatory video.

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1st prize “STOYIN”: Due to its strategy and content. By mean of its natural manner and simplicity, it deals with the opportunities of an emergency situation; due to its way of making better use and reusing a basic support which belongs to the first phase in any emergency operation activated when a disaster arrives in any part of the world: water and toys arrive at the same time –items which activate a playing situation-. Author: Noa González Cabrera.

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2nd prize “CAPILOCA”: Because of its geometrical and spatial complexity, which prepares it for the multipurpose; and due to its capacity of stimulating playing situations as from the personal isolation and absorption as from the interaction among players. Author: Carolina Gómez Muñoz

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3rd prize “SUPERMANU”: Because of its perfectible and open character. Authors: Ana Cabellos García, Susana Cabellos García & Gonzalo Pardo Díaz

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VIDEOS: STOYIN | CAPILOCA | SUPERMANU | MAI TOI | ISI JUGAMOS | *(MULTIPLY) SHADOWS | DIA-EDRO // ZIGGURAT | FLUFFY, LA PELUSA ECOLÓGICA | ARTE-SANO | VELCWORLD | FLAP KITE | HITO // BOPI, EL PELÍCANO QUE TE HARÁ VOLAR | STOOLTOY | TOP GREEN | TECLAS Y LETRAS | TITI ET TOI | SIN MANUAL DE INSTRUCCIONES | CON LA COMIDA NO SE JUEGA

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BEST PROMOTIONAL VIDEO “PELLOTAS” [...] then, the Jury starts a new deliberation on promotional videos among all the proposals accepted in the competition. From this deliberation finally “Pellotas“ is the video choosen as winner because of its humor, TV known format and the interesting way of explaining the proposal from the fabrication process. The Jury One year ago

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Runner up “MAI TOI”: Author: Carmen García Hermida.

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Runner up “ISI JUGAMOS”: Authors: Isabel Celadilla Santamaría, Beatriz Plata Martínez & José María Redondo Guerra.


“*(MULTIPLY) SHADOWS” Maite García Sanchís & Marta González Ruíz | “DIA-EDRO” Javier Argota Sánchez-Vaquerizo | “ZIGGURAT” Jon Moreno Iriarte | “FLUFFY, LA PELUSA ECOLÓGICA” Daniel Pariente Lorenzo & Rubén Rodríguez Ramos | “ARTE-SANO” Carlota Casanova Calvo & Rubén Rodríguez Ramos | “VELCWORLD” Esther López Ocaña, Ana Bustos Fernández & Sara Elizagarate Nogales.

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“FLAP KITE” Paulina Stephens Farías | “HITO” Roberto Soto Robledo, Borja Ramos Nieto & Daniel Sal Aparicio | “BOPI, EL PELÍCANO QUE TE HARÁ VOLAR” Antía Paz Fernández & Álvaro Pradana Tapia | “STOOLTOY” Jorge Sanz Fernández & Raúl Rey López | “TOP GREEN” Boufinas Konstantinos & Anthi Kosma.

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“TECLAS Y LETRAS” Rodrigo Delso Gutiérrez | “TITI ET TOI” Mercedes León Sobrino | “SIN MANUAL DE INSTRUCCIONES” Víctor Encinas Quinzano | “CON LA COMIDA NO SE JUEGA” Ioannes Busca Izquierdo | “PELLOTAS” Guzmán García González.

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PLAYED TOYS: “I make my own toys” Maria said when she found Arte-sano // Use Bopi as cuddly toy, take out its rope or hang it to play // In Stoyin precision is not important, nobody cares if you score, but the important is to make friends and share time. // “The most urgent need we find in any emergency situation is to rescue the injured people and to feed the affected population”. Doctors Without Borders. // Every child wants to be faster, taller, more elastic and stronger than others; like a superhero. // Don’t spend 15$ when you can recycle tons of

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computer waste. // â&#x20AC;&#x153;Children can do anything.â&#x20AC;? Goethe. // Yellow, simple, smiling, standing up, and a secret hiding place. // Multiply possibilities by lighting, cropping and overlaying. // Oldest people say that when they were children they could do ball from pig skins, as today children have no pigs but plastic bags, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s do plastic balls. // For once, children tell themselves the story. // A cloth made monkey + yo-yo + 3 crayons + moringa seeds. // The miniature makes to dream. // This is indeed a toy, sustainable and coherent with our current values.

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). Once the jury had chosen the toys that had to get the awards, stoy group decided to set up an exhibition to show them and celebrate a ceremony with all the participants.

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Although we didn´t have a lot of money we thought it could be interesting to hire an special space as the first floor room in the Teatro Circo in Madrid.

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As usual, we planned the exhibition as a project and finally we decided to build enormous letters that would form the word STOY with boxes in order to chande the space by making holes, corridors and platforms to put the toys and walk around them.

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). Installing the boxes structure. We spent one of the most enjoyable weekend in our lives!!!

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). Installing the boxes structure. According to the design conceived by Beatriz Amann, Ana Arriero and Mauro Bravo.

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). View of the finished installation. The structure was about to fall down some times but finally it stood like stone for two weeks.

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). View of the finished installation.

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). Awards ceremony. Mr. Javier Seguí and Noa González | Mr. Juan Carlos García and Carolina Gómez | Mrs. Nuria Candela and Gonzalo Pardo | Mrs. Nuria Candela, Susana Cabellos and Ana Cabellos | Mr. Andrés Cánovas, José María Redondo, Beatriz Plata and Isabel Celadilla | Mr. Javier Seguí and Carmen García | Mr. Juan Carlos García and Guzmán García | Mrs. Nuria Candela and Guzmán García

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STOY EXHIBITION 2010 AT THE CIRCO PRICE (MADRID). Taking down process. Then, we folded the boxes and everything dissapeared without residual sign.

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Jurbaning / Syllabus

Introduction_presentation / Atxu Amann Learning to think_to play / Atxu Amann The city hand-to-hand / Gonzalo García-Rosales Toyless playing / Ana Arriero Toy, gender and avant-garde / Beatriz Amann Huge playboard / Mauro Bravo Skating urban diagrams / Muriel de Gracia City as stage / Uriel Seguí Folding city, unfolded toy / Miguel San Millán Playing on advertising / Gonzalo Pardo Augmented city / Eduardo Roig Play spaces in the city. A kind of genealogy / Angelique Trachana Jurbaning. Según la Real Academia Española de la Lengua, RAE, es “hacer algo con alegría y con el solo fin de entretenerse o divertirse”, también “entretenerse, divertirse tomando parte en uno de los juegos sometidos a reglas, medie o no en él interés”, y por último “usar los miembros corporales, dándoles el movimiento que les es natural”.Cuerpo. Según la RAE, “aquello que tiene extensión limitada, perceptible por los sentidos”, también“conjunto de los sistemas orgánicos que constituyen un ser vivo”.

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introduction

PRESENTATION

W1 City works as a large real scenario where those who are living there have the chance -or not- of connecting. It is in the city where we

pass eâ&#x20AC;&#x153;There are another worlds but all of them are in this oneâ&#x20AC;?: how right Paul Eluard was! the historic utopias are located on the web 2.0*, a phenomenon which should be described as one of the great landmarks in the History of Humanity, with consequences which have just started. It is not just a technological advance, what has started mostly this revolution is change of mentality. -Atxu Amann

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Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll introduce ourselves through our avatar

In a world characterized â&#x20AC;&#x201C;according to some sourcesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; by the ultra-individualism, web 2.0 works out as a revulsive and incentive at the same time, by promoting an overblown space for personal expression an as a social driving force; a democratic meeting point for all those with internet connection and a terminal able to transmit information. 041


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All of us are potential emitters; all of us have the chance to interact by creating a social network which is criticized as superficial by many people, but more complex and with important consequences never thought by their detractors. Once again, they warn us about the risk of confusing the virtual one and the real one, but I agree with Deleuze when he stated that the virtual one is not material, but it is real. Furthermore, I dare to doubt about the existence of some reality if it is not virtual too, as the slogan says, “if you aren’t in Google, you don’t exist”. 042


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And it is just in this point where THE VIRTUAL ONE ANCHORS TO THE PHYSICAL ONE where we are, waiting for welcoming the web 3.0 -Myspace, facebook, youtube, tuenti, Twitter, blogs, wikis............- can transform our personal, social and environmental reality. Again, the web 3.0 is going to be mostly a social change than a technological one, where we can create hybrid spaces between reality and virtuality by using tools within our grasp, dissolving borders of the space-time parameters to make possible the unimaginable one. 043


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W2- Learning to think / to play. The most uncomfortable question: do we have any chance to change our current present to a present of justice and freedom?Architecture and engineering have to do with the construction of world and of out closest environment. Paradoxically, we are within the same environment that we try to generate and to order. Though this condition of surgeon and patient, agent and user does not seem to get closer both academic world and real world. -Atxu Amann 044


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Teaching at university should be able to question the world where it exists. The construction of environments for the individual means to build looks to catch up and to assume an idea about the world, which allows to question and realize everything is around us, facing the ecological crisis, globalisation, inmigration, poverty... and feminine genital mutilation. The Bologna Declaration doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t look to pay attention enough to citizen condition: too much education on competences and not enough education on human values. 045


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we should be more political, more anthropological, more transverse....... and to play soccer more. To play with the others, to put oneself in othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; place; being aware there are game rules; wishing to win but knowing we can lose too.Projectual intelligence means a creative use of the projectual practice as enterprising relationship in a double sense. On one hand, recognizing in ourselves a specific way of ability, an unique skill and projective characteristic of our discipline; and on the other hand, it means we need to be open to the chatter out of our domain. 046


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Access to information is not important anymore as everything is available, what is worth is the ability to process, organize and visualize the key information.But if reality moves always much faster than our ability to understand it or to control. Then, how to train somebody to do what hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been done yet? 047


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Academic space is the place to research, to analyze phenomenons which are ignored. Teaching involves to assume the ignorance as inherent to the problem. We usually teach what we know about the world, but never the possibilities. We are beings who don´t know what is in othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; minds.We learn by contact, by contagion. All of us are in the same ship: the project leads our look and our movements, but it does not mean that schools of architecture need to form a fan club on the stuff -a readers club-. 048


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When processes are much more interesting than ideas, linked to existent codes which operate critically or aligned with preexistent ideas systems, they are like micro-stories on a project generation. Research processes produce knowledge as they produce the project itself, taking advantage of the nearly endless ability people have to produce -as far as they are motivated to-. 049


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An intelligent look which take the most from the knowledges it has got and it focuses its activity by projecting: projects which appear from action. Is it possible the development of creativity as a social goal of the public university?In the battlefield, in the playground, there are not anymore irreconcilable lines between who does and who judges the value of what is done. The professor, the researcher, the innovator, is not a tamer; (s)he is a fellow (wo)man who questions himself/herself with the same questions and speaks the same language. 050


Which one was your first toy? Which is the toy from your childhood you have kept? Which is the toy you wanted but you did not dare to ask? Do you like to play?Do you usually play? Do you like to win? When did you start to play in the street? Which games did you play ? Did you play with the other sex when you were a child? Did you feel that your sex determined your games? How many balls have you got? How many girl dolls have you got? How many boy dolls have you got? Do you like comics? Did you paint your face? And your nails? How many consoles and/or computers do you have? do you usually play videogames alone or with others? What would you give to your son in his first gift ? Did you feel your games determined your sexual option? Will you separate your children bedrooms depending on sex? Do you play with your partner? (not sex which is obvious) Do you have sexual toys? In general, do you consider yourself as a good player? Did you play in the darkness? Did you play with unknown people? Did you play at home? Did you choose your toys or somebody did it for you? Did you sleep with any toy? Which one? Did you play with any imaginary friend? Did you invent your own games? Did you like to be alone? Did you play alone? Did you play with more people? How many? Have you got an intĂ­mate friend? When did you play? During the week? On weekends? Do you have siblings? Older? Younger? In general, do you like yourself? Would you like to play more nowadays? Did you like to dress you up? As what? Do you like to change game rules? Do you like to change scenarios? Do you share your bedroom with anybody? Which one was your favorite hideout at home? And in the street? How many times have you lied in this questionnaire?

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The student, who does not learn if (s)he does nor want to, accepts freely a non authoritarian ethical-pedagogical agreement to live universitily. It is complicated to life this way if there is a professor who gives and a student who receives: dialog, even in the distance, is the noblest way of learning.And by forcing and recognizing the experimental -trial character of processes, we should value failure as part of them, forgetting the systematic determination of obtaining measurable and showable results . 051


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THE CONNECT-THE-DOTS TATTOO by D. C. WALLIN on COLLEEN AF VENABLE’S LEG. Original in red

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W3 - The city hand-to-hand. City works as a large real scenario where those who are living there have the chance -or

not- of connecting. It is in the city where we pass each other, we push each other in some situations, where we exchange glances, where we look at others shiftily or unashamedly. -Gonzalo García-Rosales

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(To) play. According to the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), it means to do something happily with the only aim of enjoying and having fun It may mean as well enjoying by taking part in one of the games regulated by rules whether interested is presented or not, and finally to use one’s limbs by producing their natural movements.

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Body. According to the RAE, mass with limited extension, perceptible by senses, as well as, set of organic 03 systems which forms a living being.

At the beginning of the 19th century Friedrich Schiller drew up sort of “Theory of entertainment”, in which he states that the main element of playing is the pleasure and the feeling of freedom that it creates. Still, in the 19th century, Herbert Spencer puts forwards his “surplus energy” theory to state that playing is the mean to liberate the useless remaining energy by moving. Already in the 20th century, Johan Huizinga lays down what is the first and essential characteristic of playing according to him: playing is a free activity, playing is freedom. Karl Groos exposes in his theory of functional development that playing has mainly an essential and functional substrate since playing for children is a training for future activities as adults. In the Edouard Claparède’s fiction theory, this author states that the key of playing is its fiction component and the way that the relation between the subject and the reality is built under the game context. Finally, both Piaget and Vygotski, playing is the place to satisfy immediate wises. On game theory we find different definitions and positions -some of them contradictory among them-; which allow us to do approximations to what playing is and what it is used for.

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MARCEL MARCEAU

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Sham games or imitation games: they are those games where

situations and characters are simulated as they were present. Pretending -whether alone or with others- allows us to interact in a different and new way with reality. Ultimately, we are talking about and evasive activity as we escape from this world by creating another one. playing with dolls / playing house, playing cowboys and Indians / personification of heroes (Superman, Tarzan, etc.) / role-playing games / mime /

Games of physical skill: this category includes actions related to bodly knowledge and physical skills (skills with hands and legs), motion games (running fast, skill on climbing) and sensory games (identifying a sound, moving in the darkness). acrobatics / pool / marbles / sack race / speed races / playing caps / playing darts and other target games / hide-and-sike / blind manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s buff / puppet show / hula hoop / rubber band games / drop the handerkerchief / game of the toad / magic / skating / spinning top / hopscotch / jumping robe / scalextric / skateboarding / hand shadows / yo-yo / Categorizing different kinds of games is a personal, mutable, complex and always partial act. Among all the possible taxonomies (learning or mental games, competition games, games of luck, etc.) in this exercise those four ones will be used.

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otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s- is indispensable as mean for the game development without any kind of competition required. In this type of games hiding partially or completely the body is relatively common (masks, caps, hats, costumes in general), as well as using body painting and colors. disguising oneself / painting your face / using clothes of another size / tattooing / masks / burying oneself /

Physical contact games: in this kind of games the physical

PLASTIC BOOBS AND PIG SNOUT .UNKNOWN

Physical games: those games where the body -the own one or an

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contact with the opponent or opponents is essential, although it does not involve necessarily competition or strength use. In this category all the games which entail touching, pushing, hugging, climbing up others, exploring oneself or other people, biting, kissing/playing doctor / fighting / green light, red light /

On game theory we find different definitions and positions -some of them contradictory among them-; which allow us to do approximations to what playing is and what it is used for.

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EQUILIBRIUM TATTOO. UNKNOWN

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The body acts as a complete communication system which talks about and by us. When we hardly exchange words, our body is an useful mean to communicate, a vehicle which allows us -anonymously- to engage games with others

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ZHANG HUAN

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GESTURE AS LANGUAJE. We should analyze the self-satisfaction aspects our body is able to offer to ourselves -or, at the same time, is able to offer to others- in a public space (in the street, in a park, in the subway). Ourselves in connection with others: how do we behave when we feel observed by others? Do we increase our signals when others send us their own ones? Others in connection with ourselves: how do others react by our stimuli? Do they send signals back or do they just cut off?-. 057


UNKNOWN

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GESTURE AS SUPPORT.

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SENSE OF SPACE - READING by GAO BROTHERS

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BODY LANGUAGE. We propose the body â&#x20AC;&#x201C;our own body- as a play yard, like an experimental space. Our body is a sensible surface that feels, that provokes, that gets encouraged, that sends signals, that uses its own codes related to itself or to other bodies. 059


S R

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T U

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THE OUTSIDERS by F. F. COPPOLA, 1983.

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W4 - Toyless playing. Without doubt, adolescence is particularly complex, full of biological, physiological and social

changes, a turning point between childhood and adulthood where you have to learn to play without toys. The teenagers from a big city are psychologically marginal in a situation that doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow them to adapt, because they are too big to play the role of a child and still too young to be considered an adult. -Ana Arriero

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1. Psychosexual evolution

The physical changes at puberty are responsible for theappearance of the sexual instinct. At this stage, to get satisfaction iscomplicated, because of many social taboos and lack of adequate knowledge aboutsexuality. Both reasons directly influence the way the game is understood. An example is seen in the “mode” of playing hide and seeks. The “form” remains the same, but the pursuit of touch and body contact is what motivates the entire game.

2. Psychological development and becoming independent of parents

The most notable effect of this need of autonomy and intellectual and emotional independence is that the young does not longer belong to his/her parents but to the others, especially friends. Psychological changes and this search of independence make the game at this stage something clandestine. The transparency of children’s game develops into a game of occultism, secret, the game of not to be seen.

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3. Insertion into new social groups

In adolescence, young people expand their circle of social interaction and begin to develop friendly relations almost completely replacing family relationships. This is a privileged stage to develop friendships. The teenager lives many experiences and needs to share them with “equals”. Without them, they can feel marginalized and alone, even despised. Through their friendship, the adolescent can release their emotions, resolve conflicts and express their feelings. The teenager will combine moments in solitude necessary for self-knowledge and the search of oneself with moments in groups, going out with friends, conversations, discussions on issues that until now had not importance, etc.. Occupation of public spaces by numerous groups, bands, are the new games of teens. Here, the game is understood as everything that is done for pleasure without any other purpose therefore producing immediate or long term satisfaction. For Freud, adolescence is a sexual and emotional revolution, for Piaget is an intellectual revolution. During adolescence all childlike conflicts are reactivated: 1. the ones related to psychosexual development, / 2. the struggle of becoming independent from parents / 3. the vicissitudes of integration into new social and broader groups. 061


DIEGO GLEIZER

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Adolescence is a psycho-social process. It includes the transition from the end of dormancy and early adulthood. Only in complex societies where the transition from childhood to adulthood is lengthy and ambiguous, there is conflict. In tribal cultures where this transition is crossed naturally by an initiation ritual, there is no such crisis or difficulty. The end of adolescence in modern cities is determined by factors such as adulthood, economic independence, access to work and sentimental relationships. 062


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Recommended flimography DEPRISA, DEPRISA. C.Saura. 1981// AMERICAN HISTORY X. T.Kaye. 1998//A CLOCKWORK ORANGE. STANLEY Kubrick. 1971//KIDS. L.Clark. 1995//SWEET SIXTEEN. K.Loach. 2002//RUMBLE FISH. F.F.Coppola. 1983//FUCKING AMAL. L.Moodysson. 1998//THE VIRGINS SUICIDES. S.Coppola. 1999//C.R.A.Z.Y. Jean-Marc Vallée. 2005//JUNO. J.Reitman. 2007. 063


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TENTETIESOS by JUAN MUÑOZ. Retrospective at MNCARS, 2009.

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What are they playing to? A new game known as “star” or “sun” became popular among young Poles. Apparently, “the girls lie down on the floor in a circle with their heads together and eyes closed and the boys have sex with them in turn. The winner is the child who finishes last,” as explained by a teenager. 064


Game’s ultimated goals go from the pleasure and sense of freedom the “game” produces, to the idea of play as a means to satisfy immediate desires.

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(Is Playing poker to play?) We also read the article by Victor Pavia in which he reflected on the variables "form" and "how" and how "co-founded has helped to further blur the already vague many definitions of play"

(Is Playing poker for money to play?)

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Academic definitions vary depending on the language. In English, (TO) PLAY reflects everything related to music, theater or media. It is not surprising since both the play as drama or music, are mere fictions where the players or the actors behave as if the situation was real.

(Is Playing theater or playing the guitar to play?) Another concept that can help us to understand the concept of playing is gambling: (Et: From the Latin ludus, game and Greek phateia, disease or condition) According to the RAE, “pathological addiction to electronic or chance games”.Is that only these kind of games generate addiction, or are they the only addictions that concern society? If you consider reading a kind of playing, reading addiction can be considered compulsive gambling? As a child, Roberto Bolaño, a writer of great works of contemporary literature, was forbidden to read because his doctor noticed a pathological addiction.

A recently published study of a major toy company stated the parents’ view of the concept of the game by age. In early childhood parents agreed on the educational value of the game, from four years old to seven years old, they understood it in terms of fun and entertainment. From seven to fourteen years old, game is a means of approach to understanding the world and mankind. However, when adolescence begins around age fourteen, is when parents fail to understand the sense of play to consider it a waste of time 065


W videogames: coach-potatoes VS social people 04

She prefers games on her Wii system that test her fitness and agility- the ones her guy friends tease are her â&#x20AC;&#x153;sissy games.â&#x20AC;? Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a common scenario, according to a national survey from the Pew Internet & American Life Project that illustrates just how ingrained games have become in youth. The survey found that nearly all of them -girls included - play video games of one kind or another. Nearly two-thirds play video games to socialize face-to-face with friends and family, while just over a quarter said they play with Internet friends 066


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MURDER SEEK. The traditional game of hide and seek gets a scary twist when the person seeking is a masked murderer. Have everyone hide except the designated killer and shut off all the lights. The killer dons a mask and lurks about with a flashlight, trying to find those who are hiding for their lives. When someone is found, they must scream and then lie down in a room that has been designated as the morgue. The last person living wins. 067


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BALL TOYS, circa 1924.

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“What is play? Play is work -work that is liked to be done- is play.” KIND-MÄRCHEN-SPIEL-SPIELZEUG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1925. English version translated by S. Menschig & A. Boyaki, 2010.

W5 - Toy, gender and avant-garde. Alma Buscher Siedhoff (1899-1944) was a woman of her time. Her life and her designs were influenced by the different philosophical paradigms of that time - Neu Frau*, Kindergarten- and, for that reason, we afford the evolution of the toy -didactic also, from Fröbel**- during the avant-garde through her experience. Underlining that it was a time in which the toy basically was developed by women...-Beatriz Amann 068


W CHILDREN’S PLAY CABINET by A. BUSCHER SIEDHOF & E. BRENDEL, circa 1923.

“Children should have a room in which the can be that which they want to be. Each thing in it belongs to them, -their fantasy creates it- no outside limitation bothers them -everything supports them, the form is cut to their size, the practical use doesn’t hinder their possibility of play. -Light, colorful hews enhance the happy, bright atmosphere.”

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KINDERMÖBEL UND KINDERKLEIDUNG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1926. Translated by Dr. M. McClain.

She was, after the death of her older brother in World War I, the sole daughter of a couple of upper middle-class. Her condition of sole daughter gave her the opportunity to have an education beyond common for a woman of her time and context.

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“Our toys (Bauhaus): The form-simple -unconfusingly clear and direct-, variety and enticement are created by the child itself through builg and arranging.”

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detail of blocks inside box and box lid. 27.5 mm L x 6.5 mm

KIND-MÄRCHEN-SPIEL-SPIELZEUG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1925. English version translated by S. Menschig & A. Boyaki, 2010.

Buscher began her studies of art in Berlin - she studied in the Reinmann Art School (1917 -1920) in the State Arts and Crafts School (1920 -1922)-, and she prolonged them in the Bauhaus (1921-1928). She was one of the few women who could study outside the weaving workshop at this school. Instead of it, Buscher designed children’s toys and furniture in the woodcarving, furniture and cabinet making workshops, where she was the sole female (Siebenbrodt, 2004; Will, 1997). 070


W CHILDREN’S ROOM EXHIBIT. JENA, 1924

“I create a room, the wall are made of wood up to child’s height -colorfully paintedwashable. Colored chalk allows the creation of art works. In the same height a cabiner which can house all loose games and allows for the most possible order, -doubles as a puppet theater- there are large and small blocks to sit on and for building -and a trunk, a bench, whose wheels turn into an auto for the smallest. [...]”

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KINDERMÖBEL UND KINDERKLEIDUNG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1926. Translated by Dr. M. McClain.

During her stay at the Bauhaus, Buscher developed numerous designs, as much of children’s furniture as of toys; designs that she tried to commercialize through the channels of the school. In this sense, she sent sketches for the children’s room of the house Haus am Horn. This was a building that the Bauhaus built to display its production in an exposition during 1923. 071


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LADDER CHAIR, circa 1923.

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“The color: used only the primary colors yellow, red, blue, possibly green, most important white to intensify the color richness (happiness) and with that the happiness of the child.” KIND-MÄRCHEN-SPIEL-SPIELZEUG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1925. English version translated by S. Menschig & A. Boyaki, 2010.

* At the end of World War I, as women gained more rights, they became more visible in public and in the cities. They began to work - Neu Frau- and this produced as much reactions in men as in other women - Haus Frau. The image of the new woman makes reference to a young woman of middle-class, worker and economically independent. The group Haus Frau, however, promoted a carefully selected educative platform, that used the new technologies to help women to learn being more organized and efficient in the house. 072


PAPER SAILBOAT, circa 1925.

The proportions: set by feeling (how they felt if was right) yest as harmonic to each other as possible.”

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KIND-MÄRCHEN-SPIEL-SPIELZEUG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1925. English version translated by S. Menschig & A. Boyaki, 2010.

** Fröbel was student of Pestalozzi, and both have had a considerable influence in the German philosophies on the child development. He joins the benefit of the game and the structured activities in the childhood. The game is the base of his theory. For him, it is a form of personal expression, through which a child can learn and grow. 073


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CHANGING TABLE WITH STOOL, circa 1924.

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“No piede of furniture just stands around uselessly today, after fulfilling its function the light coat of paint is changed into a dark one, through removal of the bathing chair, and of a middle drawer, the dressing table becomes a desk.” KINDERMÖBEL UND KINDERKLEIDUNG by ALMA BUSCHER SIEDHOF, 1926. Translated by Dr. M. McClain.

Main reference: “Alma Buscher Siedhoff: An Examination of Children’s Design and Gender at the Bauhaus during the Weimar Period”, A. Boyaki (2010).

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students’ work 05

A reasoned and commented sketch of a design of toy or children’s furniture that updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present days. Students works (from left to right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez 075


J. FABRA

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W6 - Huge playboard. If we think about playing areas in the city center (places where we can see people play) we would W6-Alma Buscher Siedhoff (1899-1944) was a woman of her time. Her life and her designs were influenced by the different philoeasily identify three main types of areas and then maybe a secondary one: Playpens with swings, parks, some areas in squares and occasophical paradigms of that time - Neu Frau*, Kindergarten- and, for that reason, we afford the evolution of the toy -didactic also, from sionally the street. The funny thing is that if we asked the same question to our grandparents the answer would probably be very different. I Fröbel**- during the avant-garde through her experience. Underlining that it was a time in which the toy basically was developed by think they would say: the street (“mom! I am going to the street”) and then the rest... -Mauro Bravo women. 076


wenzday01

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If during the years functionality has taken over the social and game areas of the city without us noticing, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s do tabula rasa. Let us revert the situation setting out the city as if from now on it were a humongous game board. A board thought up with game as a premise, in which we introduce non-play counters that allow the daily functioning of the city center. In this city the dangers will be trapped in playpens, not the children. 077


MALIBOOH

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Let´s specific, whatSiedhoff do I mean(1899-1944) by gameboard? term metaphorically indicates be were a space to be played on,different or a support for W6be -Alma Buscher wasthis a woman of her time. Her life andwhat her would designs influenced by the philogames. I’llparadigms give an example: during the 70´s California experienced thethat worst drought decades; forcedofthe to notalso, be filled. sophical of that time - Neu Frau*, Kindergartenand, for reason, weinafford the this evolution thecity toypools -didactic from Those years werethe theavant-garde beginning ofthrough the vertical skateboarding also knownthat as it“Dogbowl”. these pools improvised Fröbel**during her experience. Underlining was a timeSkaters in whichborrowed the toy basically wasand developed by a gameboard. Private turned public for a while. Then came the “half-pipe” and skate as we know it today. women. 078


EDUARDO GARCĂ?A

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The question is: Could the public space of the city be a gameboard?, its streets, quarters, accessories. What´s preventing this from occurring? Where can we start off changing things?

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MARK VAN LAERE

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WHAT WE DON’T SEE. We move fast, we arewas in aahurry, many commitments. Notand stopping is whatwere matters, getting by fastthe to work, shopping, W6-Alma Buscher Siedhoff (1899-1944) woman of her time. Her life her designs influenced different philoto the doctor´s appointment, to dinner friends, etc… Thisand, is how works, if youwe areafford not fast someone get there before and sophical paradigms of that time - Neuwith Frau*, Kindergartenforitthat reason, theenough evolution of the will toy -didactic also, from take your place. we are intrinsically withUnderlining speed. Is thisthat a commitment speedthe or with ourselves? Fröbel**duringDefinitely, the avant-garde through herengaged experience. it was a timewith in which toy basically was developed by women. 080


The car

If you want autonomy the solution is clear: “the car” will solve all your problems. An individual and private vehicle. Or at least this is how life in the city is conceived. The city is thought up for cars. At least the present city. Why? Because it provides speed and individual protection. We only need to watch the effort done by the city councils in boosting mobility, everyone’s? no. Only for motor vehicles. Wandering the city by foot is an adventure. Sidewalks are narrow and filled with obstacles (rubbish bank, scaffoldings, street lamps, garbage cans and above all bollard posts, etc). Circulation is chaotic in secondary streets, jammed with contaminating cars waiting for the red lights to turn green. And above all, the occupation of the public spaces with cars parked all over, turning the public areas into private. Cars which spend most of their time parked because, what started off as a great idea: for everyone to have an individual mobility capacity, doesn´t make sense anymore when it spreads and collapses. It is no longer a “stable strategy for evolution” and is now a problem. Especially when we think about what it means, the cars taking up the city centers. When these centers were designed no one thought about the cars. City center streets are not designed for a constant circulation of motor vehicles, the width of the streets is not thought up for one or two lanes of permanent parked cars.

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Adults

Why does a citizen with car have more rights than a walking citizen or one that uses a bike; an elderly or a child? The answer to this question is simple. Because the present city is designed for the dominating social sector: “grown-up, man and worker”: the “strong elector“ archetype. City is designed for and by grown-ups. Competitive grown-ups, stressed and eager for speed, productive grown-ups. Now we are able to answer the first question I posed. What are we committed with? With the competition for survival, with the need to keep going no matter what. And what or who are we sacrificing to keep going no matter what? The weak: the children and the elderly. I don´t know, But we must be very engaged with something or else this stress we live in wouldn´t make any sense. The question then could be: Would I be in such a hurry if I lived, for example, in a town far away from big metropolis? Each one must find their own answer. I have no doubt; speed is linked to the current definition of “The city”. I say current because the city has not always been like this. The city, as living beings, is in constant evolution. Even if this is an obviousness we maybe haven´t stopped to think about it. 081


UNTERCIO

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WHAT WE SHOULD SEE. As we said at the beginning of the text, the city hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t always been this way. Our parents and grand-parents went to the street to play. There was a whole social network which took care of children. In the neighborhoods people knew each others, neighbors got together in the street because street belonged to everybody, not only to few ones. Children werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t anonymous but they were children of somebody. 082


Small details

Some time ago, we did in our architecture office (Estudio UNTERCIO) a research as a result of a urban competition which proposed reusing urban gaps in the city of Madrid. By analyzing our neighborhood (Pez and Luna streets area), we noticed that there was an item from the urban furnishing which generated much more urban gaps than any free abandoned parcel: it was the bollard. We realized it was just an “accepted inertia”. Even if bollards were used at the very beginning in the city center as the best bad solution to avoid the cars invasion on the sidetracks by unconcerned drivers. In fact, this barrier was far away from carrying out its original function, benefiting pedestrians, but just the opposite one, benefiting drivers. Bollards delimit in a very strong way the cars and pedestrians fields on the street, giving to the car the feeling of priority and displacing pedestrian on narrow sidetracks occupied by any kind of obstacles. On the other hand, the lineal layout of bollards in narrow streets generates urban lineal gaps which subtract huge quantities of public unused square meters from the public space in the city center. This project was named “Bollard City”.

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Because this reason it is important that daily evolution egoist trends won’t build our cities. We must walk around the city as a critic citizen. I propose to analyze it from the designer perspective. Somebody who understands designing as a tool for solving daily problems we find every day. To get this position, it is necessary to move around the city carefully, focusing on these details which for one or another reason don’t end up working well. Madrid downtown is still far away from being a place where children can go alone to school. 083


LONGBOARDMADRID by SK8CINEMA

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W7 - Skating urban diagrams. Few months ago I read in the street what summarizes possibly the idea of this text: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Modify your living space, enjoy your cityâ&#x20AC;?.And if there is an artistic and recreational action for some people, and sportive for others; an action which uses, modifies and enjoys urban space, it is skating (or skateboarding). -Muriel de Gracia 084


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Way, process, ACTION:

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movement as artistic experience in the urbanspace

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LONGBOARD GIRLS CREW by SK8CINEMA

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Skateboarding is an artistic expression contextualized directly within real space and real time. But only is is art while moving, amazing by itself, in any of its ways, for the observer (in life, in picture or in video) and for the person who do it more or less well. In addition, skater, the same way that the fl창neur is, the ability of wandering and walking around the city is a whole hodological experience. 086


Paraphrasing and adapting Francesco Careri’s text:

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“The skate designates a shifting limit, which is nothing other, in fact, than what’s called a frontier. The latter always goes hand in hand with fringes, intermediary spaces, with underterminable contours that can only really be made out when travelling through them. It’s skating too, which makes the internal frontiers of the city evident; which reveals the zone by identifying it. Hence a possible name: Skatescapes, that stresses the revelatory power of this dynamism mobilizing the entire body (the individual and the social) 07 in order to transform the spirit of those who should know how to look. At this point we would be at a political enterprise, considering art, urbanism and the social project at an equal distance in order to effectively illuminate these particular spaces we have such need of for a better living.”

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MARKING EUROPE HIGH SPEED v1.0 by LUST / ATELIERHSL

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At the end of the 20â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s were the Surrealists who most assiduously investigated the unconscious part of the city that eluded bourgeois transformation. Far from the tourist itineraries, the unknown places, a terrain full of extraordinary and surprising experiences. Since then, the idea of giving form to the perception of the space of the city in influential maps arised, which also took their place in the vision of the liquid city in the Situationist cartography. 088


MAPPING:CH by L. GEIGER

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MAPPING:CH by L. GEIGER

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The city is a toy to be used at oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pleasure, a space for collective living, for the experience of alternative behaviors, a place in which to waste useful time so as to transform it into playful-constructive time. But also to change the concept of circulation, to one of circulation as pleasure and adventure, to experience the city as a playful territory to be used for the circulation of people toward an authentic life. The construction of situations was the most direct way to realize new forms of behavior in the city. 090


LOUISTAN on Flickr

LINKS: http://rampplans.org/ www.rampplansonline.com http://www.newlineskateparks.com/ http://www.skatefilms.tv/index.html http://www.tbonephoto.com/enter.htm http://californiaskateparks.com/ http://jimgoodrich.net/skateboardtimeline.

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W8 - City as stage. WE ARE A BODY AND THIS ONE PLAYS / BODY - TOY A/ BODY body and soul / body and mind / body and body B/ TO PLAY:1st we were homo erectus (erected bodies)/2nd we were homo sapiens (knowing bodies)/3rd we were homo fabers (making bodies)/4th we were homo ludens (playing bodies) -Uriel SeguĂ­ 092


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A reasoned and commented sketch a design of they toy orenjoy children’s furniture that updates the ideasplaying, and Buscher’s designs to present Playing in children is about doing an of activity which and not as frequently we understand it is, oriented to compete by days. for getting and win something by playing.“playing is a free action or occupation, which is developed within some fighting Students works (from leftand to right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo tu gusto” by in R. itself Alvarezand / it determined temporal spatial limits, according to rules freely accepted, action which ahas its end “Armario tetris”, byby L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by way” E. Sánchez is accompanied the conscience of “being other than in the common life” (Huizinga 2002) 093


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PLAYING SEQUENCE Any item which invites body to move, to imagine movement, it can be used to play and playing, then, is used to go in the place of playing. The sequence shows us as a easy aimless interaction becomes a game and some sticks which are arranged and rearranged in any way become toys. To play makes us to get into a different world than our one, where we switch our location, our time, our person, our body... 094


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...one of them is the Doctor Frankenstein, the other one his butler Igor and the third one is the monster. 08

A reasoned commented sketchPLAYING of a design toy or children’s furniture that updates the Changing ideas and dress, Buscher’s designs to present TO PLAY TOand ESCAPE ONESELF: THEofOTHER, COSTUMES: CLOTHING AS TOY clothes, make-up, covedays.costume or mask take us to other character, playing as other person is the experience we live by playing with a costume. ACTING AND ring, Students Aworks left toTOYS right,Toupside down): “Cuboplaying puzzletodesmontable” A. Quintana “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarezin/ their PLAYING ROLE:(from ADULTS’ do theatre is about feel oneself asbyother and it is /the most common game in adults “Armario tetris”,meeting by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez daily life while other people in their city, town or village, although everybody would prefer to play other one 095


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TO PLAY TO ENJOY To play to make to escape our own body, it produces us pleasure. To give and to receive pleasure is the most desired game. To understand body as a toy which we can enjoy with by feeling pleasure is the main conceptual aim of this exposition. 096


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A reasoned and commented a designskating, of toy orreading... children’s furniture updates and and Buscher’s present BODY ENJOYMENT, my bodysketch enjoysofpainting, Here we seethat bodies whichthe playideas painting playingdesigns to act bytodoing it. days.OF US PLAY WITH OUR BODY AND WE WANT TO PLAY WITH ANOTHER ONE ALL Studentswith works to right, down): “Cubo puzzle by itA.isQuintana / “Espejo tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / Playing other(from bodyleft is the game upside which gives more pleasure anddesmontable” enjoyment, and also the one whichamakes escape most intensively “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez from ourselves 097


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PLAYING WITH CONTEXT. The body is surrounded by situations and contexts, and it plays with them. To change the relation with the context, and to change the way of behaving by the context are games which produce pleasure to the bidy. A girl who plays to bury her body by making it to disappear on the beach by changing its mean, its wrapping and its situation with regards to this environment. 098


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A reasoned commented sketch of a design of toy or children’s furniture that updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present THE BODY’Sand TOYS. days. and their movements shape our brain, and because of playing with words we form what is around us, the world. The hands games Hands Students works (frombuild left toand right, upside down): puzzle desmontable” by Articulation A. Quintanaof/ “Espejo tu gusto” by R. and the words games shape the world we“Cubo know HANDS: TOYS TO PLAY: the handawhich is used to Alvarez become /a “Armario by L.Morenoplay / “construcción by us E. Sánchez small fourtetris”, legs animal.Hands to transformmodular”, and to make to become anything. WORDS PLAY WITH BODIES 099


b a a

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DIMAXION WORLD by B. FULLER. Polyhedral world without distorsion.

INCEPTION by C. NOLAN City designes by an Architecture student.

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W9 - Foldable city, unfolded toy. FOLDED WORLD: Physics make a model, like a toys designer. A plane and a tube which link two points A and B. If you travel in the folded model, from A to B your trip is shorter than in the first model. If you travel through a wormhole on the folded model you age slower than in unfolded model because you travel faster than light. A student of Architecture designs the city in Inception. She folds the entire city but only where conditions of the space can change. -Miguel San Millรกn 100


LIBESKIND’S SKETCH

FAT CAR by E. WURM

NÍJAR ART CENTER (SPAIN) by MGM Mr. POTATO HEAD© by G. LERNER for HASBRO

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SENTIMENTAL TOYS: Toys wants have a sentimental relation with us. Mr. Potato has a lot of gesture and expressions to transmit and communicate something. Erwin Wurn characterize a car, he folds a smile in the front. It is a happy car. Stunned and amazed buildings in Níjar Art Centre, Almeria or the Victoria and Albert museum Libeskind sketches are surprising us like a clown blow out of the box. 101


SIFTABLES © by D. MERRILL & J. KALANITHI currently SIFTEO. Created at the MIT Media Lab.

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SNAKE ® VIDEOGAME. Originally BLOCKADE ® by UPL and Sega-Gremlin, 1976.

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CONTINUITY: Continuity is a property of folding paper. A folded building is a contortionist skilled to connect all the parts with himself, like a heavy knot. Snake game shows us exactly this capacity, a continuous line avoids touching the obstacles. When you play Domino, you have to make continuity by numbers. As Siftables, it is an interactive computer with the size of a cookie. You can paint or make mathematics and linguistic operations only putting together, in continuity. Paper becomes a toy if you improve its skills by folds. In the image you can 102


PHILADELPHIA CITY HALL PROJECT by L. KAHN

AENA STAND by M. SAN MILLÁN’S OFFICE

Exhibition stands by F. SORIANO & D. PALACIOS

MONUMENT by A. ISOZAKI

ORIGAMI PIGEONS by M. DE UNAMUNO TOY STORY© by PIXAR & HELLO KITTY© by DISNEY J. SHIMIZU.

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A reasoned and commented of aMiguel designdeofUnamuno. toy or children’s that updates thechild ideas Buscher’s designs toand present see origami pigeons folded by sketch the writer Guess it,furniture an old game is used by to and predict futures romances other days. From Arata Isozaki monument, passing through Louis Kahn’s Town Hall, until Exposition designed by Federico Soriano & Dolores things. Studentsand works (from left to right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto”bybyfolding R. Alvarez / Palacios called Diagrams, all these images talking about the same. Hello KittybyorA. Toy Story toys are manufactured up papers. L.Moreno modular”, by E. Sánchez If“Armario you scaletetris”, up thisbyaction you can/ “construcción look at Music House by Oma, Little pavilions by MVRDV or our stand proposed to Aerial navigation agency. 103


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104 ARTS CENTER COMPETITION IN MADRID by F. SORIANO. Fluid system by folding. Developing spaces in continuity. BARAKALDO PARK by E. ARROYO A huge toy, a desert where dunes are used by skaters and rollers.

UNAZAKI MEDITATION PAVILION by E. MIRALLES. OBLIQUE SPACE THINKING by P. VIRILIO. Example of freeze trajectories. Inclined space is the maine principle.

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FOLDING LANSCAPES: Inclining a plane its means fold the landscape. Thus, you can use a simple plane like a toy. We can understand the landscape like trajectories too. Freeze movements, directions and lines. It fossilized forever. In this example balls walk the path without the possibility of walk out.


KEM ARMARIO by C. RAGOT

Ikea sales a foldable tube, stackable and brilliant colored. You can use like a cloth and disappear inside the cylindrical structure.

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A reasonedTOand commented design of toy or children’s furniture that updates the Armario ideas and designs to present FOLDING HIDE: Hide andsketch seek isofaavery simple game that produce sustainable toys. Kem by Buscher’s Christien Ragot, consists in a days. where the user it become invisible into a lined fold. Fold is built by the emergence forms of the user body. You use the armchair armchair Students works (frominto leftit.toIkea right,saleupside down): “Cubo puzzleand desmontable” by A.Architecture Quintana / “Espejo tu gusto” by R. like a cloth. You hide a foldable tube, stackable brilliant colored. as child aplays the Hide andAlvarez seek, in/ this “Armario tetris”, byBodegas L.Moreno modular”, case Setenil de las it is/ “construcción down a geological fold. by E. Sánchez 105


A scaled up dollhouse membrane is more specific space than a conventional room as it has the size of a child. Emilio Pérez Piñeiro’s dome

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BUILDING BLOCKS. If you join modular pieces you can built a bidirectional wood folded spaces.

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VERSATILITY: Versatility means having a variety of skills in any field. Versatility involves an instantaneous transformation through folding. To unfold fluidly and quickly to surprise, to change the use. Building blocks are a continuous and adaptable toy. When Emilio Pérez Piñero talked to Dalí about a new dome, he didn’t know that he planned the first prototype to cover a moon crater. Dali built the dome for his house and theatre, but NASA never built anything in the moon. Emilio was an action man. Could we think a new folded city? 106


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A reasoned a design of toytime or children’s that updates the those ideas images and Buscher’s present How to makeand any commented existing itemsketch foldingofand at the same to convertfurniture it into a toy? This is what show in designs different to examples: days. 1. a sunglasses sleeve which becames a basket for small balls by Rubén Domínguez Álvarez. Students works to right, upside down): “Cuboorpuzzle by A.Palacios Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / 2. a colorful paper(from madeleftflower for being used as anklet a pencildesmontable” holder by Andrés García. “Armario L.Moreno “construcción modular”, E. Sánchez 3. a typicaltetris”, pencilbyholder made/ of paper for being used asbychildren want... by Héctor González Díaz. 107


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PLAYMOBIL© Geobra Brandstätter©

In a subliminal way, and throught the metaphor of an ark, it is shown how a couple is supposed to be: white, occidental and straight.

Introduction

Balls or dolls?

10 W10 - Ho! Ha! This is playing on advertisement! A toy without advertising doesn´t exist. Living in a globalized world, means that all our desires, regardless of race, religion or sex condición drink from the same source: advertising. Thus, regardless of our economic level, if a toy is advertised, it is also likely to be desired (and infact, it will be). The binomy advertising/consumption are based on the concepts of need and desire. -Gonzalo Pardo 108


BARBIE© MATTEL©

Hidden curriculum

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Barbie Talks. The toy shows a pasive woman´s attitude that doesn´t stop talking, and her only mission is to be beautiful in order to like men

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A reasoned commented sketch designrealize of toy the or children’s furniturethat thatcould updates the ideas Buscher’s designs to present We are so getand used to advertising thatofwea hardly behavior patterns inculcate in us;and these messages go from survival days. to how we should be have to become socially accepted. In a small space and through a concept, advertisign has to sell a product. In issues, Students works (from left to right, “Cubotechniques puzzle desmontable” by color, A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu the gusto” by R. / order to persuade the consumer thereupside will bedown): use multiple to manage the the sound, the image, brevity of Alvarez the messages “Armario tetris”, by aL.Moreno modular”, by condition E. Sánchez and (for television) rapid rate/ “construcción in the change of plans that a machine-readable. The messages have a social force that almost becomes what children should do in the future.

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G.I. JOE© HASBRO©

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G.I.JOE. The masculine model is shown as an action person and in search of aventures

10 Hidden curriculum

Boys don’t cry

Children have not developed a critical ability to distinguish between reality and fantasy. Children need behavioral patterns to imitate (in order to orientate and reduce their insecurity to the outside world), finding these patterns in parents and, in second order, in extra-family agents such as the models established in publicity. Children see it differently to an adult what they see on television, while the adult is capable of distinguish the product from the advertised brand, the child associates “product-brand”. Thay do not ask for a doll, but Barbie 110


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PLAYMOBIL© Geobra Brandstätter©

BABY BORN© ZAPF CREATION©

Girls are announced dolls and portraying them as passive,homemakers, caretakers of children, calming the crying when they say ma-ma (not pa-pa)

Adverts: Messages and information

(S)he could be (S)he

10 boy’s toys are varied, promoting creativity and development of motor skills by presenting them as intuitive, creative and competitive interests.

A reasoned sketchtool of afordesign of toyany or relatively children’ssimple furniture that theofideas and And Buscher’s present Ads becomesand an commented effective teaching recording idea in updates the minds children. in thatdesigns world oftoideas are days. integrated attitudes and values. In this way, toy advertising exerts a powerful influence on the child’s description of his own sex and the Studentsone. works (from left messages to right, upside down): puzzle desmontable” by A.and Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / opposite Advertising determine what“Cubo children are going to play, how with whom, therefore, televisión limits the game “Armario “construcción modular”, E. Sánchez for a childtetris”, shouldbybe:L.Moreno a Earning/ médium of emocional andbyintelectual development. 111


Extract fromEL CORTE INGLÉS© Chistmas 2010 toys catalog

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10 Argument: FUN

Do girls really want to be princess meanwhile boys heroes?

The power, strength, risk and competition are the arguments used in messages directed to boys, not advertising directly to military toys, but toys to “play war” and “defeat the enemy”, as can be seen in advertisements for superheroes and their accessories,vehicles and adventure games where there is a high degree of violence.For girls, the fun is associated with “a princess”, and they can be seen imitating emotional behavior, home and personal care, such as cradling babies, emulate housework, play and deal with kitchenettes to be beautiful. 112


PLAYMOBIL© Geobra Brandstätter©

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Production: SCENARIOS

Boys with boys, girls with girls

One same scenary, two completly differernt games. Girls dream to take care of the house. Boys dreas with boalajes, aventures and successful

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A reasoned and commented of the a design toy or children’s furniture the ideas and Buscher’s designs present SCENARIOS To reinforce this sketch situation, child isofmainly Locatel in the closedthat andupdates limited stage: the house (where freedom of to movement days. is reduced). Although sometimes appearing on the street, it is usually anextension of the house, because its function is still emotional and worksand (from leftantoadventure. right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle A. Quintana /the “Espejo tu gusto” R. Alvarez / /Students OR domestic not as By contrast, the boys, are desmontable” locatel in openbyenvironments: street, apark or withbymodels of different “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción E. masculinity Sánchez as action,racing, adventure irrigation or professional. landscapes,manifesting behaviors traditionally modular”, associatedby with 113


W he always wanted to have a doll BARBIE© MATTEL©

Production: PLANNING. LANGUAGE

10 When the doll is not in the kitchen, appears as a sex object. With painted lips and eyes “as bold as you”,promise their buyers shine “on the track and at night.”

PLANNING If the product is for girls, the realization is less than planned, pastel colors (pink, blue and salmon), medium shots or closeups, so static, very calm.If it is for boys, the realization is planned with aggressive colors (red, blue and black) a lot camera angle, dynamic LANGUAGE: Ads for girls is eminently cheesy, with superabundance of diminutives (pastries, littlehouse, puppy ...); for males are the dominant features augmentative (non-stop action, the more risky positions ...) and the use of expressions related to competitiveness. 114


In advertising, the children take an instrumental role against the passivity of girls. The image of children who passed the toy advertisements is part of a traditionalline in terms of roles and behaviors to be developed by each sex. from an early age which has, no doubt, important social and psychological impact on children as adults: to foreshadow their interests, occupations or lyfestyles (the way they face the world) . Similarly, stereotypes that are in

by enhancing the sexual differentiation

Advertising acts

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Advertising limits children’s potential development. advertising on children can create an image of themselves and what the future is expected of them which is inconsistent with: 1. interests; 2. the sítuatíon in today’s society 3. future needs. Advertising as a mass media, should understand the new social reality and not spread the confusion that seems to occur among groups (sex/ gender), or what comes to be the same,the bidogical differences between men and women and cultural differences attributed to each of them. Toy advertising should take into account the following aspects: To provide equal participation of children and girls with toys, develop their imagination and creativity. Enable the children through the toy discover the real extemal world, enriching their intellectual, emotional and social education. Ads, due to be addressed to boys and girls (there are few who can be considered as neutral), should

2.

1.

3.

not to pose a number of qualities or characteristics that constitutes rigid stereotypes of consumers. 4. Not to promote different feelings and emotions in children, neither projecting different images of the outside world. This would help to

prevent minors from television advertising slogans obey with such fidelity that feel different to others and perhaps a little different if their

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preferences for toys and games do not follow the guidelines offered by the ads. A reasoned and commented sketch of a design of toy or children’s furniture that updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present OPEN CONCLUSION days. Students works (from left to right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez 115


11 W11 - Augmented city.

Mirage Head-Up Display (HUD)

Lenses prototype developed by prof. Babak Amir Parviz at the University of Washington, Seattle.

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LOOKING FOR THE INTEGRATION OF TWO REALITIES:THE BIONIC VISION. Knowledge transfer between homo ludens and homo militaris is once again an evidence in augmented reality. The shown Mirage Head-Up Display (HUD) has been designed to join digital data and real vision together for the aircraft flying. -Eduardo Roig 116


JURBANING: THE AUGMENTED CITY

The evolution of videogames motion has allowed us to go through the fourth wall -the screen-, connecting architecture from both realities: traditional + digital = augmented reality [AR]. Nowadays, the number of links between both realities -physical and alternative or virtual- is highly rising. Wii, navigators, apps for cellular, social networks... Reality won’t be back again within the exclusive context of Nature: traditional reality has being artificially augmented. How does this new dimension affect to the city? Data has been linked from alternative to traditional reality in a more and more precise way. The European Global Navigation Satellite System GALILEO -starting in 2014- will get a better precision degree than the GPS, allowing to apply it into the architecture realm. Alternative reality gives a new medium to the city enabling to change traditional habits of citizens. Will traditional signposts be replaced by visual data automatically provided by our cell phones? It is paradox that most of researches on AR have been done in the context of videogames. The term playability is referred to the accessibility and capacity of enjoying a videogame considering its graphics, motion quality or the interaction with characters. Briefly, it gathers all those elements which allow the player to enjoy. Does AR signify anything for urban playability? All the great inventions of the ICT’s have incorporated enjoyment scenarios for recreational users. Sudoku, Pocker or Mario Bross have been added to the repertoire of these displays. Internet and portable digital supports have reduced urban parameters - like distance or time or social interaction capacity- to cero. How urban space has been implementing this entertaining quality into its structure? How does urban space absorb the new possibilities of gaming and entertainment created by Information and Communication’s Technology? The city, as technological support, lacks such important leisure dimension for the inhabitants. Living together in the big metropolis is easier when the struggle for survival happens, from time to time, in a game board. How could we transform the city into a game

board? How is the ludic construct of the postdigital metropolis?

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A reasoned and commented sketch of a design of toy or children’swww.pacmanhattan.com; furniture that updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present www.augmentedreality.org; www.manovich.net; www.datenform.de/; www.pervasive-gaming.org; www.urbanfreedays. flow.com/; http://areacodeinc.com/; www.demor.nl/; www.acoustic-adventure.de; www.tinmith.net; http://craftwww.epfl.ch/research/catchStudents works (from left towww.ludic-society.net; right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / bob/; www.deaddrops.com; www.and-or.ch/gamescape/; http://www.gpsdrawing.com/; www.tacticalsoundgarden. “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez net/ 117


THE GAME ENVIRONMENT FROM AN AUDITIVE PERSPECTIVE by A. STOCKBURGUER, 2003

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DOMETI/CITY by K. MATSUDA

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THE DISLOCATION OF LIMITS. The city plan has provided the shape for urban society. You could be in a wealthy area or in a deprived area just by crossing a street. These physical boundaries are exploded in the Augmented City as shown in the Domesti/city the dislocated home in the augmented space. (www.keiichimatsuda.com). Another example is The game environment from an auditive perspective, www. stockburguer.co.uk/research/pdf/AUDIO-stochburguer.pdf. 118


FIG. 05

BLACK CITY. J. MEHRETU, 2005. Ink and acrylic on canvas (274.32 x 487.68 cm)

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A reasoned andINFORMATION. commented sketch of a design of toy ora children’s furniture that updates ideas and Buscher’s designs to present OVERLAYING Mehretu’s work conveys layering and compression of time,the space and place. days.05_ In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as ‘...anywhere between the extreme of the Virtuality Continuum’. FIG. Students works (from to right, upside reality down):and “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A.both Quintana / “Espejo a tuaugmented gusto” byreality. R. Alvarez Reality is composed byleft layers of traditional digital reality. The link between dimensions is the What/ kind “Armario tetris”, by L.Morenowill / “construcción E. Sánchez of data –images, sounds…be possible tomodular”, link in thebyurban scene? 119


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RAMPAGE MADRID. E. SÁNCHEZ DURÁN’s ‘Learning STOY’ assigment

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RAMPAGE MADRID. Urban topology is used to support the figurative structure of the game. The city is turning into an arcade videogame. The buildings shape and the city skyline plays another roll far away from the non-interactive icon. Besides being an advertising medium, the enclosures become information frameworks. When Kong -1933 RKO film- is exhibited on the New York stage, he breaks his chains, retakes Ann, and climbs to the top of the Empire State Building. 120


WALL FOOTBALL. H. GONZÁLEZ DÍAZ’s ‘Learning STOY’ assigment

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A reasoned and commented sketch of a design toy or feature children’s furniture that updates the ideas Buscher’s present WALL FOOTBALL. This proposal underlines the of portable of AR technology. All children in the and world have everdesigns played to football by days. a goal on a wall. This AR tool links a digital goal to a fix point and a moving interactive ball to a moving point referred to sensors painting Students works (fromCustomizing left to right, an upside Quintana “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / worn by the players. urbandown): scene “Cubo can be puzzle similar desmontable” to draw a line by withA.magic ink. /The possibilities of temporarily changing “Armario by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, the shape tetris”, of the city multiply the concept of digital leisureby orE. ‘inSánchez between’ time. 121


AR WIII SPORTS AT MADRID BICYCLE RING. C. DÍAZ FERNÁNDEZ’s ‘Learning STOY’ assigment

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11 AR WII SPORTS AT MADRID BICYCLE RING. The proposal incorporates a collection of AR Sports Games in Madrid bicycle ring. Focusing in the future city Olympics, it fosters a merging between sports and games by including some events like bowling, archery, jet skis…

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ISOBALL ACCESSIBLE. V. DEFAZ IZA’s ‘Learning STOY’ assigment

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11 A reasoned and commented sketch of acustomizes design of toy children’s furniture updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs present ISOBALL ACCESIBLE. The assignment the or structure of the existingthat Isoball videogame to propose a new AR game. to The intendays.of this game is integrating social consciousness for handicapped people. The proposal locates the scene in the city with AR technology tion Students worksthe (from upside down): “Cubo desmontable” by himself A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu underlining gusto” by R.non Alvarez / and transforms ballleft intotoaright, disabled wheelchair citizen.puzzle The player has to drive all around the city accessible “Armario tetris”,can by become L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, routes. A game a powerful urban design tool.by E. Sánchez 123


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THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL MEANING OF GAME

“Game is older tan culture” “The true culture appears with the look of a game and when man plays is only when he is creating true culture”.  “Man’s big tasks such as language, myths, worship, politics, war… are impregnated with game. Game is because of this reason, essential for man and his society”. “Game is an action or a voluntary activity which is developed without material interests within some particular fixed temporal and spatial limits, according to rules freely accepted but completely imperious, provided with an end in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension and happiness”. Huzinga (1972) Huizinga conceives “Homo Ludens”, “man who plays” (1938), not only in his biological, psychological, ethnographical or cultural aspects, but as an essential human function on thinking and working; this way, it shows the insufficiency of conventional images about homo sapiens and homo faber.

THE MEANING OF RECREATIONAL SPACES IN THE CITY

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The recreational spaces in the city are those ones where imagination and creativity are activated. They are motivators of evolution and daily things. Their meaning cannot be reduced to the drawing, design, architectural construction and ways of occupying and using considered in its project. Basically, those elements depend on interpretation and many times on a restarting and on a spontaneous use applied on those spaces. Those places are not under the control of factual powers because of the distances to the economical profitability considering its nature based on enjoying and not on productivity.

W12 - Spaces for playing in the city. A sort of genealogy. Spaces for playing-recreational spaces in the city, are those ones where daily conditions are altered and events and extraordinary rituals take place. Recreational space is essentially, the expression, confrontation and cultural production field. -Angelique Trachana


Large theatre (2nd century b.C.) & Gladiatorial Barracks Pompeii

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Game and physical activity in the classic Greece

Palaestras and gymnasiums were the places where the most characteristic thing of Classic Greek has been developed. It was the spirit of competition. Aristotle, emphasizes the importance of leisure facing activity and what is done because of knowledge facing what is done because of utility.

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A reasoned and commented sketch designmales of toyinoranchildren’s furniture that updates the ideas and Buscher’s to present The aim of Greek society was to bringofupayoung intelectual way to assume leadership positions in the statedesigns and society tasks. days. In Ancient Greece education in the social and individual life was considered a decisive value and it was used as principle for competition Students works (from to right, upside “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A.education Quintanatogether, / “Espejoformule a tu gusto” by R.in Alvarez and selection of the bestleftones. And the mostdown): important thing; physical and intelectual expressed “mens/sana “Armario tetris”, L.Moreno / “construcción E. Sánchez incorpore sano”, by needed to be integrated in lifemodular”, in a naturalbyway and to be pleasant. 125


Garden - labyrinth. Il Filarete.

Labyrinths

Lastanosa’s garden. Huesca (Spain). 17th century.

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12 “It is no possible to find something more complicated, may be just a brain such as the Daedalus’ one, who planning it or any common person’s heart...” Made in gardens, with tall busshes and with the only intention to make people to enjoy, they were in fashion during the end of Reinassance. Labyrinth is still symbol of human intelligence who never hesitates to concentrate in a complicated task just as challenge. There are two fields in science where there is still an interestfor labyrinths: psychology and computer design. 126


The Riojan Juanito Apiñani R., portrayed by Goya, pole vaulting over a bull in the old bullring of Madrid. From La Tauromaquia

Detail. Ramon Llull’s Funerary Detail. Auto-da-fé in the Plaza Mayor procession by M. BESTARD. 1618-21 of Madrid by F. DE RICCI. 1683. Prado Museum.

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The institucionalization of popular games as show during the Enlightenment

Goya brought out the chiaroscuros, tension, sinister on his engravings of the “Tauromaquia” contrasting with the typical nice ans bucolic image of bullfighting.

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A reasoned commented sketch of a design of toy orbullfighting, children’s furniture the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present There was justand three “shows” which competed in audience: auto-da-féthat andupdates Processions. All these, supported by the monarchy,are days. integrated in a genealogy of domination technics developed very efficiently by the confessional absolutism which controlled -virtually from Students (from left toway right, upside “Cubo desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / 1570, but works in a more intense since 1609,down): because of thepuzzle expulsion of the Moriscosthe Spanish Metropolis, folmerly mixed, arabized, “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción by E. Sánchez ungovernable, reducing its entropy , its disordermodular”, and homogenizing its mass with technics that have developed and improved. 127


The amusement parks of Coney Island, a Manhattan appendix, acted as the proving ground for a “new technology on the fantastic one”, where the strategies and mechanisms which shaped Manhattan come from. An urbanism which has its origin in Coney Island, the greatest amusement show, ends in the skyscrapers theory. The changing metropolitan univers and the singular architecture which it can produce, generates a new culture: the“congestion and mass culture”. It is no coincidence that as emerges the sky-line of lights and fantastic machines in Coney Island, also arise early skyscrapers in Manhattan.

Coney Island

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Amusement parks and the birth of the“congestion and mass culture”

12 Free space and free time in the modern city. Modern architecs have transformed the city matrix from continious solid to continious void; a space of freedom and enjoyment close to nature where border between the private one and public one would be abolished. The spatial continuity could precisely make easier demands on freedom, nature and spirit against the coarse matter. Implicitly in this argument the claim of free time was introduced by the modern society. 128


The situationist situationist movement movementororsituationism situationism proposed a new way of understanding and experiment urban life, “derive” as Debord named, within a larger proposal of psychogeography. In spite of being prisoners of a daily rutine, they proposed situationism, following feelings and looking at urban situations in a new and radical way.The creation of situations referred to situations built as a moment in life built in a concrete and deliberated way for the collective organisation of an unitary ambient and a game of events. For Guy Debord, the concrete construction of momentary ambients of life and their transformation into a superior passional quality. Debord thought in the possibility of an organized intervention on complexe and interacting factors of the material framwork of life; behaviours that it means and which mess it up. Their perspectives of action on this framework tend ultimately to the unitarian urbanism. An urbanism which would integrate all the arts and technics as means that get together in an integral composition of the environment. It was necessary to face up to this set as muchlarger than the former architecture domaine over the traditional arts, or even larger than the occasional application to anarchic urbanism of specialised technics or scientific researchs as ecology. Unitary urbanism needed to dominate in the same way soundscape and the distribution of different varieties of drinks and food. It needed to cover the creation of new forms and the revelsal of known forms of architecture and urbanism. The hypothesis about the structure of the situationist city would be based on the psycogreographic research, it means, the study of rules and precise environtment effects which act directly on the effective behaviour of individuals. And it would mostly depend on experimentation by particular urban interventions; actions on behaviour which could be assimilated to the creation of games of a new essence, when considering them in relation with the remaining desirable aspects of an habits revolution.

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A reasoned andiscommented of aenlargement design of toy or children’s furniture designstotothe present The general aim would needsketch to be the of the not mediocre part ofthat life,updates it means,theto ideas reduceand theBuscher’s useless moments minidays. It can be understood as a task of quantitative enlargement of human life, more serious than the biological processes currently studied. mum. (fromincrease left to right, upside down): “Cubo puzzle desmontable” by A. Quintana / “Espejo a tu gusto” by R. Alvarez / ItStudents means aworks qualitative of unpredictable development. “Armario tetris”, by L.Moreno / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez 129


Aldo van Eyck transformed those spaces by adding simples structures, simple items as precasted concrete blocks, tubular steel structures and sandboxes. By repeating and recombinating those elements it was possible to create a great diversity of situations; with a big capacity of adaptation to the different parcels. Very nice playgrounds came up fromthose interventions, effectiveness and simplicity which was even exported out ofAmsterdam, and it became part of the collective memory of several generation of Dutchs.

Urban playgrounds for childrens

Zeedijk, Central Amsterdam, 1955-56, Aldo van Eyck (Mural painted by Joost van Roojen, 1958)

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12 Aldo van Eyck, very influenced by the Situationism and the group CoBrA, transformed in a radical way an amount of empty urban parcels existing in Amsterdam into playgrounds for children. Due to the post-war babyboom and the first policies on traffic management in the Amsterdam city centre, against the lack of free spaces for children, the City Council decided to take advantage of empty parcels to undertake minimal interventions, light, to use those spaces temporarily as playgrounds for children. 130


W Duisburg-Nord Landschaftspark

Peter Latz, 1991-2001

Once charcoal, iron and steel industries stop their activities in the northern part of the Rurh region, in Germany old industrial facilities are used in a new and creative way.

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A reasoned andthe commented sketch of a design of toy or children’s updates the ideas and Buscher’s designs to present The park shows debate about new ideas on landscaping andnature.furniture Instead ofthat building objects for specific uses, fantasy and amusement days. possible that the existing abstract constructions workin a completely new way. The old blast furnace appears now as a menacing make Studentsand works right, upside down):while “Cubothe puzzle desmontable” A. Quintana / “Espejo a tuthe gusto” by R. Alvarez / the dragon, it is (from as welllefta to mountain for climbers, old silos become in by gardens; a diving club uses old Möller silos and “Armario tetris”, by / “construcción modular”, by E. Sánchez former gasholder to L.Moreno look for underwater adventures 131


MAPPING A FLUTE. GONZALO PARDO. 2003.

MAGIC WANDS by Manuel de Miguel and M. Paz Llorente. Short story based on the STOY workshops 2010 experience.

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Illustration for the Tentaciones Supplement of the newspaper El País, PATRICK THOMAS. 2000.

DESIGNING IS COMMUNICATING by Elo García Ramos. Text based on the STOY workshops 2010 experience.

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2011 UPM SUSTAINABLE TOY DESIGN COMPETITION: The aim of this edition of the competition was to propose / to design a toy, a game, an action or an urban intervention which allows to recover streets for playing. The proposals were settled down as an â&#x20AC;&#x153;advertisement campaignâ&#x20AC;? consisted of a slogan, a physical advertisement (poster) and a promotional video.

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1st prize “SIMON SAYS”: Due to its natural manner, its immediacy and direct use of urban existing resources. Because of promoting physical activity and because of its language simplicity not only considering the purpose meaning, but in the advertising level too. Nevertheless Mr. Cánovas Alcaraz considers this proposal quite conventional and disagrees with its adaptation and possible implantation in the urban space. Authors: Marta de la Heras Sánchez & Marta Martínez Riesgo-Carcabón.

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TXT resumen 2nd prize “TIPOLLUTION”: This proposal is valued because its extensive use of the urban space, incorporation multiple layers of reading and information in the urban support and even the introduction of notions related to augmented reality. Also, its strategy of communication works out really effective, direct and clear. Author: Marta López Rubio

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TXTprize resumen 3rd “BOX POPULI”: In this proposal the idea of recycling urban elements is effective and simple, with a very direct video communication campaign. It proposes by mean of reusing, a participated city where building could be something recreational. The solutions this proposal offers are diverse and appealing. Authors: Ignacio de Antonio Antón & Elena Fuertes González.

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VIDEOS: SIMON SAYS | TIPOLLUTION | BOX POPULI // PLAY REAL | TRUÑOS NEUMÁTICOS // ... ELIGE TU PROPIA AVENTURA | STREET INVADERS.

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BEST PROMOTIONAL VIDEO “STOY JUGANDO, STOY HACIENDO CIUDAD”: Due to its interesting use of animation on a not traditional support and because of its very open nature. Authors: Ara González Cabrera & Noa González Cabrera.

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“PLAY REAL” Ioannes Busca Izquierdo | “TRUÑOS NEUMÁTICOS” Roberto García Fernández & Alberto Cuartero Alzoza.

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“... ELIGE TU PROPIA AVENTURA” Efpraxia Giannopoulou, Anthi Kosma & Dolores Victoria Martínez Ramírez | “STREET INVADERS” Emma López Rubio.

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CINAIC 2011. 1st INTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;L CONGRESS ON LEARNING, INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS: Anthropologically culture is associated to some kind of game and human being who plays it, to a culture creator. Language, myths, policy, war and the great subjects are somehow ways of playing, if we assimilate that playing with any voluntary human activity with no material interest that is developed in a space-time with free-arranged rules that accompany a special feeling of tension. // The conventional

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images of those homo sapiens and homo faber are not enough anymore and they are even out of place: to rescue the men and women ludens means thinking again in the possibility to learn by playing. // Our challenge is to develop an heuristic and creative work, to increase the perception capacity over our context, to push the critical sense and to intensify the relational and empathy skills with the others. We have experienced some pedagogical situations in which playing has led to think about architectonics, the World and ourselves.

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STOY WORKSHOPS NOTEBOOK by MERCEDES LEÓN SOBRINO.

STOY WORKSHOPS 2010: In order to get more participation in our competition we decided to organize some stoy workshops to introduce the “stoy design” from a point of view quite different from that learnt in industrial design school and link it to human rights, sustainability and ideology. // We also faced the workshops as a chance to develop experimental and innovative pedagogies for intensive learning: twelve hours to carry out a project. In one hand twenty students that didn´t know

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DRAWINGS from the ETSAM STOY WORKSHOP.

each other, that belonged to different Universities and levels and that only shared their interest in this particular subject. In the other hand, the group of teachers also came from different Universities of Architecture and Beaux Arts and it was the first time that worked together in such a project. It was really amazing; of course we got exhausted but we achieved some results and above all,an experience that overpassed whatever expected. // A success, without doubt.

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GRAN VÍA POSIBLE COMPETITION. 1st prize “365 GRAN VÍAS POSIBLES”: In coincidence with the first centenary of the building of the Gran Vía in Madrid, the City Council decided to create an ideas competition on the possibles Gran Vias, it means, no real construction plan planned. Actually, who cares? In this context our winner proposal appears: 365 possible Gran Vías every day all the year long. Now, the Gran Vía (Spanish for Great Way) is recognizable because of being so: a Gran Vía

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does not need any kind of surgery. That’s why we thought there could be a possible Gran Vía every day. The Gran Vía is my girl, she is able to get adapted, to transform and to take the assence of each of us. She knows how to be experienced by all of us. She is pure spatial empaty. She can accept 365 possibilities as she is tolerant, varied and chamaleonlike. And as second board a risky Gran Vía, a Saramago’s one where blindness is a must. Authors: Atxu Amann, Gonzalo Pardo, Rodrigo Delso, Javier Argota.

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“HETEROTOVÍA”: A white smokeless and noiseless break. A Gran Vía which includes two incompatible worlds until now: pedestrians and vehicles, based on a giant conveyor belt which make compatible and unify their different speeds. It can be completely real if we get into the 21st century. Welcome to the time of simultaneity and juxtaposition. A two-way conveyor belt which runs from Plaza España to calle Alcalá carrying at 4 km/h people and carsW. Authors: Atxu Amann, Gonzalo Pardo.

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“AIV NARG”: Madrid is growing as any other living being, not only outwards but as well inwards. The Gran Vía has been always a border between two very different realities while it has longitudinal layout linking Plaza España and calle Alcalá. Façades look at each other from each sidewalk, reflecting shop windows and light sign, trying uselessly touching each other. What if another possible Gran Vía would be built just from different looks which form all together an oniric landscape.

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ESPECULACCIONES@SOL: Building and projecting is an action. An action has its own logic, thei exclusive processes of wild thinking equivalent to the scientific thinking of other disciplines. An action is another autonomous discipline. It cannot be understood through studying. Immersion is required. Action, because of this inaccessibility, creates a present and social space previously nonexistent. At Sol in this action we decide to recuperate the public space as playground, before the 15-M occupation.

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*Asociación de Pedagogías Arquitectónicas Innovadoras: Borja Gómez, Rodrigo Delso, Javier Argota, Ioannes Busca & María Luisa de Miguel.

100x10 is an architectural technification centre organized by the Asociación de Pedagogías Arquitectónicas Innovadoras*, where during 240 hours a diverse collective of mental diogenes fosters 100 basic abilities to project from the individual natural talents and quirks, by mean of defamiliarization strategies developed in a natural environment 120 km north of Madrid, without Internet connection. Osmotic learning from the best. No teachers and no pupils. Exchange of knowledge, tools and attitudes.

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GUIDE ON THE CREATIVE USE OF THE HANDS. This project comes from the research on learning process in the context of teaching Architecture and it can be extended to any of the fields of creation through drawing and other resources managed with the hands. At the same time that the trainee discovers his creative potential, he discovers himself as a person, forming body handsâ&#x20AC;ŚHe expects to abolish barriers and to create a world without obstacles where anybody could take part in the creative process regardless of his condition.

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Hands have been treated with awe and respect by any observer of the human â&#x20AC;&#x153;being in the world.â&#x20AC;?They have been considered as a peculiar organ,significant in the transformation of the environment, in posturaland expressive balance, in communication processes and in craft abilities. Hands work as guides and as a language in certain disabilities playing the main role in art, in early childhood education,in occupational therapies,as well as interfaces between machines and matter.

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EN ACCIÓN 1.08 “ENGAFADOS URBANOS” (URBAN GLASSESED PEOPLE). Urban performance in Madrid. 2008 DAI 2 ETSAM spring term course. The city feeds on what is denied to it, on what is around it while going all over it like a worm. Wandering is the artistic way of doing if there is passion. The city is vocation for stopping together. Acting is reacting changing the environment. In the movement, if one is influenced by the impulse of traveling, he finds the vertigo of freedom, of diversion, of transgression, of nothing.

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Only resting or in the caused movement still, nothing dissolves in fate. Nothing is the doing passion companion. Space is one, time is multiple. Where I go, the universe will be. It goes with me. The world is a place to be crossed. Living is basically, surviving. In other words: when two or more elements get together in a synergic way, they create a result which maximize and take the most of the qualities of those elements.

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EN ACCIÓN 2.08 “VARIACIONES 8X8” (VARIATIONS 8X8). Variations on a Javier Seguí’s drawing. 2008 DAI 1 ETSAM fall term course summary. Only still things are dead. Every painting is the death, the decomposed (geometrized) outline of an end which leaves rotting remains. Drawing, filling up cheerfully with lines a support surface, expressing freely the mood with movements which leave tracks, stating a situation with gestures which become visible. Accepting that drawing is an spontaneous action means to

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want to understand it as pure sign of vitality, as direct expression of a free assertion. The pleasure provided by art is in its production, not in its perception. The pedagogy of doing is based on the pleasure of executing without considering the result. To live means experimenting through doing, feeling and thinking. Action as spontaneous ability of living organisms, basis of human beingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; freedom. Movement is a still images succession. First doing, then thinking.

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EN ACCIÓN 1.10 “JUGANDO EN LA CIUDAD” (PLAYING IN THE CITY). Dancing around the city. 2010-11 DAI 1 & 2 ETSAM course summary. Drawing is a dance which, sometimes, catches appearances. The city is the background and the structural referent of the modern narrative. We play as we live. Art is what never works out absolutely well and it is necessary to repeat. The world around me starts to be this way, passable, unimportant, insignificant, and only sustainable because it is experiencible as place for

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spontaneous operative mobility. Game. Play. Wandering. All of them, they are good theoretical approaches to frame drawing and learning to project.

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NUIT BLANCHE 2010 CALL FOR IDEAS. MATADERO MADRID: The aim of this open call organized by the collective Basurama as the Nuit Blanche 2010 commission, was the participation of creators to complement the main topic of this edition: game understood as recreational collective action expressed by the slogan: “¡Hagan juego!” (Spanish for “place your bets!”). One of the strategic factors valued in this call was working with existing materials and conditions in any of the five public spaces choosen.

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“JUEGOS DE PELOTA ACCIDENTADOS” (EVENTFUL BALL GAMES) AT PLAZA DOS DE MAYO: Balls are the universal toy in any sense. Even we can be classified according to the type of ball that we prefer. As it was usual in the schoolyards, being able of playing respecting the other urban uses but demanding the right of playing without being shut in.We propose to use the public squares as spontaneous field of play rugged by the existing urban conditions and elements in the area and by the simultaneity of different types of ball games.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;GOMADAâ&#x20AC;? (ELASTIC-LIKE THING) AT PLAZA DE LAS COMENDADORAS: In other times playing elastics was a game reserved to girls even if its choreography was really appealing for everybody. So, we proposed a massive elastic game: to set around 230 elastic bands around the Plaza de las Comendadoras, organized according to the layout of the existing urban element on the square. By the way, the elastic bands would have been fluorescent, it means, no light from old streetlamps but just the vibrating fluorescent lines of the elastic bands.

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“VAMOS, A DORMIR” (LET’S GO TO SLEEP) AT PLAZA DE LAVAPIÉS: The game of not playing is wonderful, above all if you are under the Madrid sky with the people you like. Sleeping in the street, when you can choose it, could be great, above all in the context of a so endless, hyper-active and participatory Nuit Blanche. A surface covered by carpets and other fabrics obtained or gave from the sales or leftovers. Just a condition, to be lied down in the square with all the streetlamps off and just some solar lamps on.

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“PECERA” (FISHTANK) AT PLAZA LUNA: It is told that Madrid has no beach, but it does not need it at all. Summer wasn’t completely over and you could cool down virtually in a big night blue scenography at Plaza Luna (Moon Square). A huge structure made of blue plastic -everybody imagines a fishtank this way- which demarcates an interior and an exterior. An interior which is exterior, magical, blue, where everybody who gets in becomes a fish, moves like a fish, behaves like a fish.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;NOCHE EN BESOâ&#x20AC;? (NIGH IN KISS) AT PLAZA TIRSO DE MOLINA: Even if the fact of kissing is well known, the point of occupying a whole urban space with people who needs to be kissing everybody around her/him because the aim would be to kiss the higher number of different people. For sure, all the process would habe been controlled. At the end, the winner would have won a prize of being able to kiss/ have a date with a celebrity or getting an amount of money to be donated to a NGO for a purpose related to play.

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“Cúbreme Latina” is a public experimental and collective action designed by some members of STOY group and carried out with the collaboration of Hypermedia innovation group and people belonging to the courses “especulacciones” , and “DAI” from the School of Architecture of Madrid . The name “cúbreme latina”, that can be translated as “Cover me Latina”, works as a lexical game as Latina is the name of the square where everything took place but it also means “Latin female”, and in this case

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it is obvious the meaning of the title. The action encouraged to cover and empty urban space where time ago a very known swimming pool building was stood and now it was known like “ island space” due to the intervention that EXYZT collective had built there. In the square known as “la plaza de la Cebada” in one of the oldest district in Madrid, neighborhood occupied one space and manipulated it to get an enjoining place around an artificial water pond. People played, talked, drunk, read and spent their

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time at the open air. But the sun was shining and it was very hot. In just one day, STOY made a public call â&#x20AC;&#x153;go to Latina this afternoon. Bring an old but clean sheet and a needle.â&#x20AC;? About three hundred people met there to knit the largest sheet ever dreamt. At ten, we finished and we started to put up the textile roof. It was impossible: It was too big and it weighted too much. We put it as we could. Structurally was wrong but spatially and socially it was amazing. Look!!

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STOY [SUSTAINABLE TOY]  

STOY 2009-2011 Research Group Publication

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