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o PROLOGUE

One year ago, Community Research and Development announced

the acquisition of more than 14,000 acres of land in Eastern

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Howard County. The purchase of this land was the first step in a hroadly conceived plan to build a complete new town which would accommodate a major share of the County's coming growth. lJI Following years of thoughtful study and analysis of the problems of growth as they typically exist throllghout the

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United States -

the problems of spiralling taxes, wasted and

abused land, monotonous suburbs, inconvenience, unsightly de-

velopment -

the conclmion was reached that through a compre-

hensive long range approach to all the needs of coming growth, a balanced and effective set of solutions could be achieved in the form of a complete, new town. lJI By commencing early enough, and hy setting and maintaining the highest possible standards in every phase of development, it was also considered

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not only possi bIe, but highly desirable to bring into being a com-

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environment for its residents and a clear asset to lts neighbors.

munity that in every sense of the word would be a better

lJI This plan for Columbia would not have been possible without the interested and helpful cooperation of officials, agencies and citizens throughout Howard County.

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( ( ~mIA A NEW OPPORTUNITY TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH

COLu1\

Existing regional and local trends, comhined with long range

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projections make it clearly apparent that Howard COWlty'S growth

The United States is on the threshold of the greatest wave of

is only heginning. The mounting pressure of rapidly increasing th~

population growth in its history. Between 1960 and 2000, the

population in adjacent areas, the growing scarcity of land in

total number of Americans will almost double. This growth will

neighhoring counties, the contrasting availability of it in Howa-,d,

occur almost entirely in the areas which today make up the thinly

and the completion of planned major highway improvements will

populated fringes of our major cities.

comhine in the years ahead to accelerate further the coming of new growth to the County.

Because of its location, Howa,rd County is destined for major

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growth. The Eastern half of the County lies directly in the path of expansion of not one but of two of the largest cities in the coun路 try. Nowhere else in the United States are two cities of such size

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and of such dynamic growth potential so close together. From center to center Baltimore and Washington are only 36 miles apart.

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The modern beltways ringing both cities are only 20 miles apart. Washington is today the fastest growing large metropolitan area

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in the United States. No longer just the Federal Capital, Wash路 ington is adding new private husiness and industry at an astonish路

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ing rate. Among the top 30 cities in rate of growth, Baltimore ranks ninth. The entire Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area

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will double its population in the next 35 years, adding more than four million people to those already living in the region.

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Howard County is already experiencing the leading edge of

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waves of growth from both directions. Neighboring Montgomery and Prince George's counties which together had a 1950 popula-

POPULA'l'ION

tion of less than 360,000, have added more than half a million people in the past twelve years.

MARYLAND COUNTIES: BALTIMORE路WASHINGTON

Anne Arundel County has already more than douhled its 1950

AREA"

population of 117,000. In the past 14 years, Howard County's

METROPOLITAN METROPOLITAN BALTIMORE WASHINGTON

population has also doubled, and its rate of growth has continued

1950

769,367

],405,399

1,507,900

to increase. Betweeu 1950 and 1960, the County added 13,000,

1960

1,433,000

1,727,023

2,314,310

In just the four years since the census, it has already added

1980

2,805,000

2,400,000

3,638,000

* Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Howard, iJfontgomery. Prince Georges

nearly 11,000.

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THE PROBLEMS OF GROWTH

tries and stores, are typically resisted until rising taxes and public demand make them necessary. But many of these uses are difficult

A study of Howard's neighboring counties over the past fifteen years

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to attract without complete services; the dilemma mounts_

demonstrates many of the problems of growth, as well as solutions Other problems of growth -

that have and have not worked. Rapidly rising taxes are char路

crowded schools, obsolete facili-

ties, inadequate fire protection, rural roads that are suddenly

acteristic of fast growing areas, because of the way in which

crowded with commuter traffic -

development comes. First, single family residences are built on

are common to many rapidly

large lots. Mosi of the families who live in these homes have

urbanizing regions. In addition to the readily apparent ills are the

several children who must be educated. Large lots and scattered

inconveniences -

the long drive to the doctor or to good shopping,

developments increase the cost of providing many services.

the lack of parks or recreation, the constant need for the second

Garbage trucks must drive greater distances, police must cover a

car. As the new families continue to arrive, something of the real

wider area, sewer and water pipes must be extended over more

beauty of ti,e country slips away and is lost forever. In place of

miles and school bussing becomes a major factor in the educa-

hills and forests, green meadows and stream valleys, monotonous

tion budget.

subdivisions appear to stretch in endless rows of similar dwellings,

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none singly or together able to enbance the landscape, all seeming

Those steps of development which have a favorable effect on taxes -

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apartments which contain fewer children, offices, indus-

somebow to be taking away.

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COLUMBIA: THE BEST OF TOWN & COUNTRY

The idea that a whole new town might

It is along these two fronts that planning has progressed. Last

provide better and more complete an路 swers to many of the problems of

Fall, CRD's staff of designers, architects and engineers began a careful, thorough and sensitive study of the land, systematically

growth stems largely from a study of

noting every detail. Forest and stream valleys, views, slopes and

the way in which people live. In addi-

vistas, meadows and roadways, existing structures and historic

tion to houses, people need employ-

landmarks were studied and recorded. The single purpose was to

ment, education and transportation. They need shops and stores

take advantage of every opportunity to preserve and enhance the

and goods and services of every kind. They need medical and

land as a beautiful and useful asset of the community.

dental care, churches, libraries and hospitals. They need restau-

At the same time, CRD began a parallel effort to explore sys-

rants, theatres and entertainment. And heyond necessities, people

tematically all the ways in which people live together in a com-

have a growing appetite for all the oppOltunities that are offered

munity and as individuals with another clear objective: to insure

in culture and recreation, for human fulfillment and satisfaction.

that no opportunity was overlooked for providing a better, .more

Safety and beauty, peace, quiet and protection -

the list of needs,

efficient, more convenient, safer and more attractive environment

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for the growth of people.

wishes and opportunities goes on.

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In a large city, many of the listed opportunities are present. But for the convenience he enjoys, the city dweller often must sacrifice almost an equal list of advantages -

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the lack of open

space, peace, quiet, beauty and safety. On the other hand, these

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amenities are abundant in the country. As rings of suburbs move

out from the city, opportunities for good shopping, for recreation

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and culture, the coilVenience of nearby hospitals and other services are sacrificed. As people continue to move into the outlying areas,

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the heauty and serenity of the countryside gradually slip away, the city's advantages are remote, and opportunities for people be-

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come fewer. The great, sprawling metropolitan area becomes oppressively out of scale, and the suburbs become monotonous and dreary. Through the scope and scale of its plan, Columbia has the opportunity to provide and support many advantages and institutions normally available only in large cities, such as a full service hospital, major shopping, entertainment and cultural facilities. Through careful design, Columbia also has the opportunity to preserve and enhance the natural beauty of the landscape, providing the attractiveness, quiet and safety characteristic of stable,

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high quality residential areas.

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COLUMBIA GOALS Before commencing the design of Columbin, Community Research and Development set certain specific goals which the plan would be required to meet: Columbia would not create an additional tax burden on residents of the County. Columbia's plan would respect the land, providing major areas of permanent open space, lakes, parks, and scenery. Trees, stream valleys and other natural amenities would be preserved, enhanced and cultivated to the maximum extent possible. Columbia would be a complete and balanced community, providing a broad range of opportunities for housing and employment, and including major institutional, recreational and cultural facilities. Columbia would set the highest possible standards of beauty, safety and convenience, including strict control of signs, commercial areas, architecture and landscaping. Columbia would provide for its residents major utilities and services, including roads, sewers and water, at no

additional cost to the County Columbia would provide the best possible environment for the growth of people.


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COLUMBIA


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COLUMBIA:

Columbia will be a series of ten small

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towns, or villages, aroWld a central

A CLUSTER

core. Each village will contain widely

OF SMALL TOWNS

varying types of residential neighbor-

=========== hoods; scbools, parks, churcbes, sbops

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necessary for the convenience of the residents, and other appro路

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priate businesses and services.

Tbrougbout Columbia, spacing the villages from one another and from adjacent properties will be an extensive system of perma-

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nent open areas. In some instances, tbese will be Jakes, golf courses or playing fields; in others, landscaped stream valleys,

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woods or parks will separate elements of the town. Centers of employment, largely in the form of research and

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development laboratories, offices and light manufacturing plants, will be both clustered and isolated in suitable locations. All of the villages, and some of the employment centers, will be linked together and to the town center by a transit system of small busses operating on their own roadways_ The community will offer a full range of recreational, residential and business opportunities, in addition to primary employment. Columbia will be fully serviced with sewers, water, roads and other utilities.

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COLUMBIA: EIGHT BASIC USES OF THE LAND

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HIGH DENSITY RESIDEN路 LOW DENSITY RESIDEK. TJAL: Romes on lots averaging two acres. In some cases, these will consist uf eslaLc8 on ten acre tracts. Total acres: 1420.

TIAL: Townhouses, garden and elevator apartments at an average density of 15 units pel' acre. These will provid e housing opportunities for younger and older families and single persons. Total acres: 1220.

MEDIUM DENSITY RESI. DENTIAL: Homes on lots from one quarter to onc half acre. l\.'Iany of these will border lakes, parks and golf courses. Total acres: 4099.

EMPLOYMEKT CENTERS, Research and science oriented indwstrie:, distributiun een路

PERMANENT OPEN SPACES: Lakes, parks, Etream

ters, warehouses and offices will add to the tax base, as wdl as to the economic <:tahilil)' of the County_ Total acres: 1674.

trails, reereation aff~as, golf courses, and pathways. Total

BUS SYSTEM: A landscaped roadway system for small husses will join most 01 the villages to each other, to the t.own center, to centers of employment and to connecting: highway busses to RalLimore and Washington.

valleys, playing fields, riding acres: 3469.

CO)[MERCIAL

AREAS,

Well designed and appropri. ately located =tores, shops and business uffices, including most of the town center. Total acres: 346.

ROADS, STREETS, MISCEL路 LANEOUS: Land that will he devoted to public, community, utility or other uses, not in路 cluded in any of the above eutegories. Thi;; would include land lor median strips, safe interehanges, and similar uses. Total acres: 1780.

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clu~ter

development (below) the snme number of families can be accommodated

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th(J conventional !ubdivi!ion (above),

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DE~SITY

OF DEVj!}LOPMENT

Columhia will

open spaces. Columbia will include three golf courses and more

provide homcs for aLout 29,000 families, or approximately

than six hundred acres of lakes.

110,000 people, over the next fiftccn years. At completion, the

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Planning for ganleu apartments alld townhouses bas taken int.o

average overall density of the commuuity will be abollt two fam-

cOll.!:iideration not on ly the needs and demandR of

ilies per acre. Average income of Columbia's families, in terms

of CUlTent dollars, is projecled al about $9,200 a year. Howard

growing

a growing urban area, Eastern Howard COlluly wiJll1eed a variety

Counly's cunent per household income is aboul $8,800.

of hOllSillg types for the changing requirements of families already

Thronghout the planning of Columbia, extensive u'e has heen

in the County and for the altraetion of business and indu.,try. Long

made of the principle of clustering, or grouping hoth townhouses

and detached single family homes. By preserving a portion of

range planning and reali.tie allocation of the land wi11 assure the

the land from each lot that would, in normal development, be

stability of Columbia'. 1980 dcnsity of hm families per acre, and

sold along with the house, thc total acreage saved can be used

will guarantee the preservation of morc than one acre out of

for parks, lakes, golf courses, paths and riding trails and other

four as permanent open space.

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today~s

population, but also those of the region as it will be in 1980. As


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THE VILLAGES

Each of Columbia's ten villages will

Under or over the road pass pedestrian walkways. Private drive-

be of a different size, character and appearance. Each will contain

ways do not open onto this road to the village; homes are grouped

from 2500 to 3500 families. As individual communities of this

along quieter streets that serve only for parking and access. The

size, the villages permit a scale of life reminiscent of the small

visitor will be conscious of the continually attractive setting of the

towns which form such a rich heritage of America. In place of

village. Trees are abundant and cared for; streams flow clear and

monotonous, sprawling suburbs stretching in endless ranks across

fresh; evcn the sign which marks the road seems to complement

much of the County, the villages of Columbia will offer a vitality

the place.

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Among the houses, he catches here and there the glimpse of a

and a scale of living too often sacrificed today. Coming upon a village, the visitor will first be aware of a sense

swimming pool, a playing field, a shaded bench. Along a lake,

of quiet orderly neighborhoods, of attractive homes on lots ranging

people fish or picnic. Sailboats and canoes dot the water. Ahead

up to several acres. Others are clustered along lakefronts or golf

is a cluster of buildings, designed to fit into the landscape. The

courses. The road is clean and safe, its borders landscaped and

broad playing fields of a high school, the spires of churches, the

planted.

peaceful stirring of activity, signal the arrival at the village center.

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'THE VILLAGE CENTERS

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denominations will face the square, beyond which will be located the junior high and senior high schools and playing fields.

the heart of its community, providing a choice of services and activities for the families in and near Il,e village. The design and

Convenient to the square will be landscaped parking lots which

atmosphere of the center will be in harmony with its surrounding,

during the wcek will serve shopping and office needs and on Sun-

and with its intent: to be a better place for people. Although each

day the requirements of the churches. Throughout Columbia,

village center will contain many of the same clemcnts, cach will

careIld design of parking for several uses or for peak hour

havc a different appearance and layout.

sharing of spaces will add to both the attractiveness and the con路 venience of the community.

The focal point will be the beautifully planted, parklike square

Each village square will be beautifully planted and maintained.

around wbich the principal buildings arc arranged. Along one

Benches for relaxing in sunlight or shade, flower-bordered path-

side are attractive stores and shops for the day.to-day needs of

ways, all will be inviting and attractive places for people. Here,

thc residents-a small supe;-market, drug store, bakery, gift shop

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within a few hundred feet of parking or of the bus stop, the resi-

and others, limited in size and number to balance the req uirements

dent will have the opportunity to shop for the family groceries, fill

of the village.

a prescription, keep a doctor's appointment, attend church, hear a

Along another side of the sqnare will be a medical office build-

lecture, select a book from the library or meet a child following a late afternoon at school.

ing, a library branch and the community hall. Churches of several

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Columbia's typical village

ings and security of established, high quality residential areas.

will consist of five or six neighborhoods of five to six hundred

Residents can be certain that parks will remain parks, and that

families each. Because the town will offer a wide variety of

the location of every necessity and convenience will be sure. The

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roads leading to and around the neighborhood will be designed

homes, some neighborhoods will cover much greater land areas

to the highest standards of safety, carefully planned and land路

than others. All of the neighborhoods will share a basic orientation

scaped throughout. to family life. Many of them will be close to existing developEach neighborhood will be built essentially around the elemen-

ments within the perimeter of Columbia's land, and in these cases,

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tary school. In most cases, small children will be within easy

special effort has been made to insure that neighborhoods of the

walking distance of the school. In Columbia's residential areas,

new community will be compatible with those already in the area.

major effort has been directed to permitting children to walk to

Apart from the similarity of Columbia's neighborhoods to many

elementary schools without crossing a single street.

residential areas in housing type and value, a number of advanFor the residents of the neighborhood and for people living

tages will be apparent. The principle of clustering, or grouping,

nearby, Columbia's standards of safety, convenience and beauty

single family homes, both detached and of the townhouse design,

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will be a welcome asset. The variety of design, the careful siting

will be applied. This will allow for the devotion of major areas of

of houses on the land to preserve and respect the natural amenities,

land to pathways and parks, to safer intersections and more mean路

and the shaded streels of the neighborhood will be in striking and

ingful spaces where children can play.

happy contrast to what might have occurred in the normal develop-

Throughout Columbia, neighborhoods will offer the surround-

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ment of the area.

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rrHE NEIGHBORHOOD CEWrER

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Throughout

A loaf of bread or a newspapcr, a milkshake or a sandwich will

Columbia, in keeping with the goals originally set, will be oppor-

be available aL the neighborhood store, a small shop aLlraclively

tuniLies for people to enjoy a number of nearby conveniences. At

desig'ied for convenience and compatibility with its surroundings.

an appropriate lor..:atiollwilhin each neighborhood, again within

The neighborhood store will operate every day of the week, and

easy walking distance of many home~, several acres have been set

every evening. III the mornings, mothers whose small children

aside for the neighborhood centcr. The neighborhood center will be designed for the whole family,

are at the nursery can meet for a cup of colIee. :'lexL La each store

bUl especially for the smaller children who also need opportunities

will bc a terrace where people will be able La siL and La1k. In the

for fun and for growing up in safety. The elementary school is the

afternoons, teenager:; will use the same healthy environment as a

focal point of the neighborhood cenLer. Included also will be a

place to meet and converse with friends.

nursery school and kindcrgartcn. For even the smallest children In season, the terrace will be opened to the neighborhood swim路

whose mOLhers must keep an appointment or attcnd to a family

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ming pool. On Snnday afternoons, the families of the neighbor.

errand, the neighborhood cenler will also provide a child care

hood will he able to swim in the pool, or play tennis or enjoy

center. For after school hours and summers, a child's playground

some other recreation at the neighborhood center. In the evenings,

ad jaeent to the school will be easy to reach for even the smallest

clubs and groups wi II have a good, easy-to-reaeh place La meet

residenL of the neighborhood.

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to carry on their activiLies. All of the opportunities that were once

Near the elementary school, a small shop, similar to the little country store

or many years ago,

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possible only in very small towns will he part of the rich fabric

answer the very basic needs

of the residents.

of life in Columbiu.

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THE TOWN CENTER

( Columbia's town center will

ing Columbia's villages with the town center will drive into the

capture all the vitality and excitement of urban life in a setting of

mall itself to pick up and discharge passengers. Around the entire

natural beauty. Clean, bright, well lighted office buildings sur-

perimeter, landscaped parking will permit the visitor to arrive at

rounded by gardens and fountains will accommodate much of

any of a dozen entrances.

Columbia's business population_ Ample parking throughout, and

Between the mall and the lakefront, other offices and commercial

the convenience of the bus system add to town cenler's advantage

buildings will surround the town center square. On an early spring

as a business location.

day, the square will be alive with strollers and shoppers, with

In the heart of town center, a beautiful enclosed shopping mall

people who have husiness or an appointment or who have come

will house more than a hundred shops and stores along a com-

to town center for the fun of being there. In the evenings, the lights

pletely air conditioned street. On a rain or snow splashed winter

and sounds of the restaurants and cheerful cafes along the lake-

evening, the shopper can enjoy a stroll along the warm and shel-

front will welcome people out for an evening. A concert and musi c

tered mall, surveying the cheerful displays of stores without fronts.

hall, theatres and other amusements will cluster along the water's

A theatre and severall-estaurants open off the mall, and benches in

edge, offering a profusion of opporttmities for enjoyment.

groves of tropical plants are plentiful.

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Along the lakefront will be docks for small sailboats and other

On a hot summer day, sunlight floods into the mall, but the tem-

craft. FaTther along the shore, townhouses and apartments will ac-

perature remains a comfortable 70 degrees. The busses connect-

commodate residents l\路ho desire the conveniences of in-town living.

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Across the approach road from the collcge, land has been set

hotel and inn will afford visitors to Columbia an unparalleled loca-

aside for the development of a major hospital and related medical

tion~within

offices. Town center will thus become important to the health of

walking distance of offices, shopping, churches, enter-

tainment and transportation.

its residents and of the County as well as to a wide range of other

Beyond the inn, headquarters or

branches of company offices will occupy prime locations between

requirements. Many activities of town center and all of the oppor-

the lakeshore and the town. To the landward side will be the

tunities for small and large businesses will add to the vitality and

town center park. Today a magnificent stand of trees, this forty

richness of life in Columbia. Provisions are included in the plan

acre woods will be permanently preserved and cultivated as a

for second hand bookshops and silver smiths, fOT music teaching

quiet, convenient and strikingly 'beautiful asset of the town.

and travel agents, for a quiet sandwich or a symphony concert.

To one side of the park, the college will occupy a spacious and attractive campus ,,,-ithin

e~sy

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Through all of the town center, the visitor will be struck by the beauty, the cleanliness, the convenience and the design of

reach of the town center's main

library and uther cultural and entertainment attractions. The col-

places. Landscapiug, trees, gardens and fountains complement

lege will include a stadium and other facilities, together with

the streets, parks and squares seem to be in scale--it is a place

classroom buildings, laboratories, lecture halls and dormitories.

for people.

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

To achieve economic

plant, office and warehouse location. The plan for Columbia has

halance and a strong tax hase, Columhia will need employment

included a careful and thorough study of the requirements which

and industry. Good locations for research and development cen-

must be met to satisfy the demands of desired business and

ters, warehouses, light manufacturing plants, office buildings and

industry. In addition to the physical aspects of plant location, industry

other types of husiness have been planned at appropriate locations

today is attaching increased imporlance to the total environment-

througboutthe commnnity.

to the advantages which it and its employees will enjoy in the Because of the desirability of nuisance-free industry, the com-

community. A good educational system, a wide selection of hous-

petition for such employers is aggressive. Cities, counties, states

ing, the availability of recreation and entertainment, community

and other bodies throughout the country are waging strong cam-

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activities, cultural opportunities, quality shopping and conven-

paigns to bring industry to their areas. The criteria sought by

ient transportation all weigh Lo some degree in the location

the most wanted employers are high. Excellent highway access,

decision.

complete on-site utilities, a strong, well-trained labor pool, nearhy

Howard County today rates high in twenty-eight of the forty-

markets, good local government and proximity to related industry

five most important criteria for industrial location. \'(Tithin foul'

are only a few of the advantages which modern industry seeks in

years of its beginning, Columbia will have an outstanding rating

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in forty.one of the forty-five, making it one of the top areas in

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tunities and outstanding environment is expected to become a

the country. The total plan of Columhia, with its broad oppor-

strong magnet for industry in the years to come. CRD has planned a major nationwide effort, to be launched

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with the commencement of construction of Colnmbia, to seek out, contact, inform and sell business and industrial prospects on the advantages of Columbia. The team and the budget earmarked for this program will be large;路 and better equipped than that being used today by many states. As companies and industFies consider sites in Columbia, CRD will aSSUFe that rigid standards of plant construction, landscaping, screening and setback from adjoining property lines are observed as a supplement to existing county zoning regulations. Because

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the program of business development wi II be directed largely at research and developm~nt and science oriented companies, it is expected that such firms, with a high percentage of skilled, professional employees will make up the bulk of new industry in the community. Columbia will also launch a business development program

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designed not only to bring new establishments to the County, but also to make available opportwlities to local merchants and firms. It is hoped that many businesses already in the County will extend their operations to Columbia. In the building of Columbia, a wide range of construction and other services, including those of small

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and large borne and commercial builders will be required. Those firms already in the County will be encouraged to share in the opportunities of the new town. In addition to Columbia's proposed coast路to路coast business and industrial development program, Community Research and Development expects to construct and lease commercial centers and multipurpose buildings which also will add to the employment and tax base of the County.

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RECRENfION AND OPEN SPACB aside

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Of the

miles of woods and stream valleys.

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permanent open space~ preserving forever valuable nat-

and park areas.

ural resources and attractions. This land will be bound by appro-

Yluch of the open spacc planned follows an earlier proposal of

priate lcgal covenants, to be drawn to the satisfaction of !be

the Howard County Park Advisory Board for tbe conservation of

COWlty Commissioners, to assure its continuing preservation and

the important stream valleys in the area. These valleys serve as

maintenance as true open space.

a basic drainage system for the County as a whole and as a

But the legal retirement of this land from development does not

sanctuary for wildlife in the many balances of nature. Columbia

of itself make !be land reall)' useful to the people of thc County

has dctermined to respect the land, not just because the land is

aud !be communit),. In the plan for Columbia, mllch of the land

beautiful, but because it is fundamental to a good environment.

has been designated for recreation. Five lakes, totaling over six

As part of the land acquisition for Columbia, CRD pm-chased

hundred acres of sUTface, will hc developed as natural attrac-

the Allvicw golf course. The plan for Columbia calls for the

tions and as resources for many kinds of sports and rccreation.

rebuilding and upgrading of Allview -

The lakes will be stocked with fish, picnic grounds will bc cultivated

tion, two other golf courses are planned in the community. Each

as a golf course. In addi-

along the shore, and sailboating and canoeing will be open to all.

village and neighborhood of the town will be close to many recrea-

Throughout Columbia, an extensive system of riding trails and

tional opportunities made possible !brough the cultivation and

pathways will offer scenic walks or borseback riding through many

preservation of meaningful open space.

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Each neighborhood will

include swimming pools and tennis courts, as well as playgrounds

14,000 acres planned for Columbia, almost 3500 acres will be set


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TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICA'llIONS

People in Columbia will move about by

means of tbree primary transportation systems. The design of

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each has been concentrated on the separation of modes of travel to assure tbe maximum of safety and freedom of movement.

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The proposed bus system will provide all of the people of the to""" with opportunities to participate in many activities which

would otherwise be inaccessible. Younger and older people who do not or cannot drive will be able to move from place to place without burdening relatives or friends. For many families, the bus system will virtually eliminate tbe need for a second car. Interwoven through the town will be the second, or pathway system for walking, bicycle and horseback riding. In Columbia, it will be possible for people to enjoy these activities in quiet and safety, removed almost entirely from automobile traffic.

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Columbia's roads and highways will be safer and more efficient for private automobiles because of the separation of bus and pedestrian traffic and the design of the roads themselves. Throughout the town, paths and streets will be landscaped and carefully maintained.

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UTILITIES AND SERVICES

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As a complete,

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modern community, Columbia \\-"ill be serviced with water, sewerage, gas and electricity. Throughout planning and construction,

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CDR will work closely with the Metropolitan Commission and' Counly engineers to assure that Columbia's systems are coordi-

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nated with those of the County and that all works are of high standards. ~any existing hamel::: and developments in the area

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will have the opportunity to annex to or otherwise take advantage of utilities installed by Columbia.

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Columbia will also provide many up-ta-date services throughout

the community without imposing the costs on the balance of the (

County. Working with Volunteer Fire Companies already in

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operation in the area, Columbia will develop modern firc protec-

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tion systems for the entire community. This increased protection 路will benefit many developed areas in or near the perimeter of

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Columbia.

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COLUMBIA: IMPROVEMENTS

bility for any normal County service, such as police, health and

Columbia will re-

welfare, the building and operation of schools, and so forth.

quire many new services, including public water supply, central sewage disposal, well lighted streets, well equipped libraries, a

Precedents for this proposal already exist in the County. Vary-

full spectrum of recreational opportunities, convenient shopping

ing taxes are levied on each of the several election districts for

and a wide range of other facilities and services. In order to pro-

the benefit of Volunteer Fire Companies. In addition, the Metro-

vide these services, without imposing the costs on the County,

politan Commission creates subdistricts for the provision of water

Columbia proposes to create a Community Improvement District,

and sewerage and sets a separate tax rate and schedule of benefit

to be financed through a combination of ad valorem taxes and user

assessments in each subdistrict so that each will be self路supporting.

charges from property owners and residents only witbin the bound-

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The levying of taxes within the District would in no way affect

aries of the proposed district.

County taxation except that it would tend to make it unnecessary

The District would be entirely limited to land now owned by the

to raise County taxes to provide extra services to the people living

developers of Columbia. The establishment of the District must

in the new community.

be approved by the State Legislature. Simply stated, the Improvement District will provide a means for the people of Columbia to

The bill creating the Improvement District would contain ade-

pay for many desired services and improvements, relieving the

quate provision and protection for those property owners entirely

rest of the County from the responsibility of paying for them.

surrounded by Columbia's lands and would establish a procedure

The District would in no case duplicate or assume any responsi-

for their joining the district if they so choose.

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WHY A NEW FORM OF

ZONING~

land uses -

Typical

private and public; 2) Creation of comprehensive

use districts limiting the number of dwelling units and amount of

zoning has been used to protect one man's property from incom路 patible use of land by his neighbor. Zoning bas seldom been used

land to be devoted to each use; 3) Planning Commission review

by a public agency to guide the proper growth of an area accord路

and approval of detailed site plans showing the location of every building, open space, public facility, lot line, street pattern and

ing to a predetermined plan. Columbia offers Howard County the rare opportunity to control

many other details. Each detailed plan must conform to the previ路

the detailed development of over 25 square miles by the adoption

ously approved General Plan and the limits established in the

of a general plan for the property and utilization of two three-stage

second stage approved by the County Commissioners. Both the

process for the review and approval of more detailed plans. Under

first and second stages would require public hearings by the

standard zoning, once property is zoned for a specific use, public

Commissioners. The detailed site plans submitted to the Planning

control practically ceases. Without a general plan that is followed,

Commission would bc made available to the public well before any

incompatible land uses are a constant threat to residential areas.

action by the Commission.

Under the form of zoning proposed for Columbia, three differ路

This three.stage process will permit better community planning,

ent stages of review and approval are envisioned: ]) Approval

better arrangement of buildings on the land, greater pnblic control

of the General Plan for the entire new town showing all future

of development and greater regard for the existing landscape.

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COLUMBIA AND TAXES: AN OPPORrrLJNITY FOR ECONOMIC STABILITY As every

County exceed $200 per capita, compared with Howard's $118.

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Thus, with the coming of normal growth, the County faces an

almost inevitable increase as pressure for improved services mounts.

citizen of Howard County knows; property taxes have risen steadily

The planning of Columbia has directed the attention of a dozen

over the past decade. Ten years ago, taxes on a home valued at $20,000 were $152. Today, the owner of the same home pays

professional~ in

$242. In the same period of time, Howard County has increased

thc problem inherent in rising taxes as a typical result of growth.

in population by almost 20,000.

economics, industrial development and finance at

Continuing with the above example, without consideration of

Howard County today has a population of 48,000. Columbia

what might occur in the rest of the County, the 1980 population

plans to absorb 110,000 people over tbe next fifteen years, result-

of Columhia combined with Howard County's 1964 total will

ing in a total of 158,000 by ] 980. Even before the announcement

equal 158,000. Services to this population, at today's level of

of Columbia, State and local planners had estimated that the

$118 per person would again require $18,800,000. Because of the careful balance incorporated in the plan, revenues from the

County's population would reach 158,000 by the late 1980's. Howard County's present assessable base of real property per

present County population plus those from Columbia will total

capita amounts to $3052. Assuming a growth of the assessable

$24,994,000, based on conservative estimates of Co!tlmbia's addi-

base at the same mixture and balance as that found in the County

tion to the assessable base. With the same' population growth, then,

today, total revenues at today's tax rates, including those received

and without increasing the cost of services, the result would be a

from the state would amount to $18,800,000 from a population of

surplus of $6,194,000, or more than the total 1965 County budget.

158,000, regardless of the year in which that total is reached. At

Columbia then would have the theoretical effect of a 40% reduc-

the same time, the cost of services for that population, at today's

tion in present taxes.

level of $118 per person, would tutal the same $18,800,000.

In all probability, however, the demand for and the cost of

That taxes would remain constant against growth is highly

services throughout the County will increase. In that case, the

unlikely. For example, the cost of services in parts of Montgomery

surplus produced by Columbia would allow for an increase of

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33'lr) in the cost of scrvices, or an outlay by 1980 of $157 per

have absorbed many of the advantages of growth along with its

person as opposed to today's $118 without an increase in taxes.

numbers.

If thc same increased cost of services were applied to growth at

Second, the value of Columbia as a completely scrviccd, modern

today':; average al:isesoable base~ the result would amount to more

community will be a strong, attractive magnet to business and

than a 50% increase in property taxes. The IotaI erred of Colum-

industry, as well as to responsible people seeking homes. Without

bia on taxes \'vill be

the combination of all of the facilities, services and institutions that

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hold them down while absorbing growth. J

How is this remarkable difference possible and why would it

Columbia will offer, growth would come largely through people

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not he likely without Columbia? The first answer is halance. By

seeking only homes. Industry would be more difficult to altract

providing for the growth of industry, business and apartments as

and much of the husiness and commercial development that CnD

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well as for single family housing, Columbia when complete will

itself plans to introduce would he highly unlikely to occur.

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HOWARD COUNTY 1964 POPULATLON 48.000

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POPULATION

20,000 more people now

INCREASE

than 10 years ago

TAX

On a $20,000 home, taxes

LNCREASE

are $232, up $90 in 10 years

REVENUES

From all sources the

COLUMBIA 1980 POPULATION 110.000 20 MilLIONS

Total Revenues (Present Tax Rates) $19,312,000 15

10

County receives $5.682,000 COST OF

Cost of services provided by the

SERVICES

County average $118 per person

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COLUMBIA AND HOvVARD COUNTY: SUMMARY Combined with the outstanding tax advantages that Columbia oDers, its meaning to Howard County can be summarized as follows: Columbia will preserve more than 3600 acres of permanent open spaces - much of it as lakes, golf courses, parks, pathways and playgrounds for the use of everyone in the County. Columbia will set aside school sites at the most appropriate locations, of sizes that will allow for later development of complete, well equipped school plants. In cooperation with the Howard County School Board, Columbia will seek to establish means of fixing land costs and arranging for the timely development of all schools within the community.

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Columbia will undertake a full路 scale, nation路wide business and employment development program designed to bring the most attractive types of business and industry to the County. Through its Community Improvement District, Columbia will provide two means of financing the cost of many services which will be required by coming growth. Payment for these services will be borne entirely by the new residents and not by present residents of the County. Columbia will undertake a program leading to the development of a full-service hospital. In cooperation with the Howard County Metropolitan Commission, Columbia will assure that major utilities installations provide modern services not only through much of Columbia, but to neighboring developments and homes as well.

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Columbia will develop a major shopping center -

Columbia will provide a broad base of business and job opportunities for people and firms in the County. Columbia will propose a new three stage zoning process that will place better controls in the hands of the County government. In cooperation with an advisory board that has already been established, and coordinated with the County's library program, Columbia wj]] provide for a complete, modern library system throughout the community. Columbia will establish a well rounded recreation program, many activities of which will be available to all people in the County. Columbia will undertake major road improvements to many existing County roads, including landscaping and upgrading of safety standards. Columbia will entirely restrict unsightly commercial development within the community, barring roadside signs and unattractive lighting of any kind. Columbia will seek to place all power and utility lines underground, eliminating to the maximum extent possible the need for poles along roads and highways. Columbia will initiate its own internal system of mass transit, available to the general public at minimal fares.

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complete with full line department stores.


c ( ( ( Columbia will begin the work necessary with local citizens to bring into being a college within the community. Columbia will convene an architectural review board to approve all design and buildings within the community. Columbia will establish high standards of landscaping throughout the community. Street and road trees, parks, squares and other areas will be carefully planted and permanently maintained at no expense to the County. 20,000 trees and 300 acres of sod have already been planted in a nursery that will supply more than 252,000 trees over the development period. Columbia's land will be developed in an entirely compatible fashion with neighboring communities; where dissimilar uses are planned, rigid standards of separation and landscaped screening will be applied to supplement standard zoning.

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This, in summary form, is the plan for Columbia. It is the plan for a beautiful town in Howard County in 1980. For the County it is an opportunity to achieve tax stability and to preserve forever valuable open space - an opportunity that will not likely occur again. It is an opportunity to attract businesses and institutions that will greatly enhance the economic and cultural life of the County. It is an opportunity for people, for all of the people who now and in the years to come will be residents of Howard County.

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Today, Colnmbia is a plan on paper. Its soundness and its feasibility have been checked and tested for more than a year. Columbia is possible. TOlllorrow, it can becollle the fmest community in America.

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It is an opportunity as well for a strong and solidly financed corporation to begin a business undertaking within the disciplines of good economics. If Columbia is completed as planned, it will make a profit. Thus, the incentive to success is a solid assurance that Colnmbia can and will be built as planned.

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Columbia is an opportunity for the growth of America to change course away from needless waste of the land, sprawl, disorder, congestion and mounting taxes to a direction of order, beauty, financial stability and sincere concern for the growth of people.

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( CONSUUfANTS AND ADVISORS

JOSEPH L. INTEJtMAGGIO - Library S,$lerlU

CHRISTOPHER S. JENCKS - Eduro/ion

DR. PAUL V. LEMKAU -He(llth Sy.llemJ

Profes.o;or, Department of Horticulture UniVCfl>ity of North (Mol ina Raleigh, Korth Carolinll

Professor, Department of Mental Hygiene School of H)"sicne and Public Health Johns Hopkins Unh'ersity Baltimore, Maryland

ANTONIA CHA YF.:S (MT'!!.) - Family Life

M~mbus

DR. THOMAS CANNON - Tree Farming

of

th~

Johns Hopkin.'! IllJtilutiOlIJ

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Dr. umkau's commitu~

Dr. NiciJolalS G. Aluiou - School Health frOtrufnJ Dr. HO.... lIHI Ennes- HMhh Educotion & Communilr Or~anilalion Dttelopnunl Dr. Ruth B. rreeman - Publi~ Ht!a1th Nursint Dr. Herbert Klarman - Medicol Care Dr. Veri Lewhl -Communit:,. Welfare &rvi~t! Dr. Burton R. Pollllc;k - Denud Heouh Dr. Theo. R. Shrop - Local HeaiJJI Orgtutizalion Ilr. john Whilridge, jr. - ·\faJernal & Child Heallh Progfa.'1lJ nr. Chade!! M. Wylie - Public Hetdth Adminislrnlicm

Washington, D. C. formerly Tochnical Secret an' to the Commillee on Education: Presiden", Commis.sion on the Status of Women

DAVID W. CRAIC- Land Use Regulations Bnkins, Sa~ & C.raig Pittsburgh, Penns)lvania

ROBERT W. CRAWFORD - Recreation SrJtQ11 Commissioner, Department of Recreation Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

JALVIES CROCKE'JYr ASSOCIATES -Railrootl EngineerUl[ Engineers Baltimore, Maryland

JOHN A. DONAHO - Public Administration john A. Donaho & Associates Baltimore,Marylanu of Urban Life

Chicago, Illinois FANTUS AREA RESEARCH, INC., alld THE ).'ANTUS COMPANYIndustrial Land & Program E",cJu.a:ion Consultants, Plant I..oe.1tion New York, ~ew York

Sociologat Manager of Consumer and Public Relations Research l)rogram General Electric Company

ROBERT PLAVKICK -

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Fed lf ral 11lsialialiORJ

PURDUM AND JESCHKE - SUrL'ering Engintenl EUicott City, Maryland

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DONALD C. SANDERS - ComlnlUlit'rltll.'eutory, Charlotu. N. C.

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WILBUR SMITH & ASSOCL\TES - Rt:!WMl Traffic Projectioru COmiulting T ran$jJOrtatioll £nginocrs ]"lew Haven, Connecticut

DR. HERBERT 1. CAl'S - CUmnl!Jnity Structure Associate Professor o( Soc;iology and Edocatinll Institute of Urban Studies Columbia Uni~·ef"$it)·, Ne.... York

GEO. \\'M. STEPHE~S, JR. & ASSOCIATES. INC. - Lakes and Roads Engineerm~

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Ene"ineers Towson, Mal yland

ALBERT B. eIPE & ASSOCIATES - Encr8Y SyJlerfU Consulting Engineers Baltimore, Maryland

\VA YNE K THO.,lPSON - Local Gen.'emment and Administration Cit~· Manager Oakland, CalifOl'llia

ROBERT M. GI,ADSTO:--ll:: -EconomiCJ and Huuling Market Economic Research and Markel Analysis

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Staff A!;!iOCiale. Uniteu Appeal Sen'ice Center. Cooperative Plannillg & Financing of Health, Welfare & R~re&tiona( 5en;ces Charlotte. North Carolina

DR.. J'\'Et..50N N. FOOTE - Community Structure

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DR. DONAtO N. MICHAEL - Program. CoordinGlor Social l's)'dlologist Resident Fellow. Institute for Policy Studies WashiIlBtoll,D.C. . Consultllnt, former Chief of Ferleral Projects National Cupitnl PlnrlllillS Commission Vh&1ingtoll,I).C.

JOHN M. DUCEY -Colnlnunity Inventory, Racine, lP'iscon..sin

Wa~hington, D.

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Fellow, In51itute for "ofic,' Studies Washington, D. C.

DR. HENRY M. BAIN, JR. - Public Admini&ef(llioll ConsuJlant in Public Administration and Go\'ernment Chevy Chase, Maryland

Pr~ident. In~titute

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Consultant, former A6SOCiate Director Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies Washington, D.C.

EDMUND B. AULT - Coif Cour.se Location o,.d Di!Jign Silver Spring, Macrlalld

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ALAN M. VOORHEES - Tru/Ju: and Transportation

C.

Transportation and Planning COIl~ultal1Ls

REV. STAKLEY J. HALLETT - Role oj the Church in Commun.ity £xecutive Secretary, Department of Church Planning The Church ,"'ederalioll o( Greakr Chicago Chicago, Illinois

W~shington, I).C.

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WAINWHIGHT & HAMSt-:Y, II"\C. -Municipal finance ConsulLanl:l 011 Municipal Finance I\~w York, Xcw York

CHARLES E. BOCC - Land Use RegulaJ.wnJ

IRVING WASSER.'dAI\ - Site Planning I..andscape Architect Philaddpbia, Penns}'l'l'ania

AUorney Ellicott Cily, Maryland

SIDNEY HOLl.ANDER ASSOCIATES - Opinion Surveys

GERAT.n WTJ.I.IAMS -forest,,· Westminster, Maryland

Marketing llnd Opinion Research Baltimore, Maryland

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c STErHE~ B. WITHEY CommlJnicalWII in tIle CommuNt)' Profes50l", Department of Psychology unh'crsity o( Michigan Ann Aroor, \ficlti,gart

RICHARD LEGHORN - Communication., !l1edia TclephOldc IJlvl:ntor, Perini Eleclronic Corporation Waltham,.\taSS<lchuselb

DR.

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Jt~ROME B.

THO-'tAS McDADE-Nt:wCommunily nevdoprTl.(!/U

WOLIT - S<;w,." Waler. and l)liluieJ fn.gineeriil!

Expert in l'\e.... Community Development Hou!ing and Home Finance Agem::y Wuhinglon, D. C.

C"Il~ulting Engineer

To.. :wn,Maryland

LESTER W. NELSON - Education

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AdvisoT.f

Educalor, lormerly with Ford Foundation Ba]tinwre, Marylalld

RISON ASSOCIATES-Communicatum Political-economic research group Bolllon,l\Ill6S8chuscus

RICHARD

Pl"Ofc~~or, The l. rban Studies Center RutpcrsUnhersity ::\"ewBrulU\Oick, i'\c" jcr~c)"

ROBEKT POLLACK - TranJit System Lt'aiuation Manllgcr of Opemtiol\~, Clenlland Tramit Sy5tcm Clc"eland,Ohio

WILSON CAHALL - Cnmmunicnlinrtj Medil. Admini5tratillc A~si5tant to Superintendent of'SdlOol~ WH~ingHm Count)" Board oj Education Hagersto"'ll, \faryl"nd

DR. CHESTER RAPKIN -IJousing Profes!IOr, Wha.rton School and IIll;titute for Crban Studies Univer8ity of PenJisylvania Philadelphia, Penn~ylvauia

EDWIN CASTAGNA - Li"-·(/ric.~ Dir!lClor. Enoch Pratt Free Lihrarr Baltimore, )1aryland

JA.~fES M. RICE ASSOCIATES-lndlUtria} fA,ml J)er;e1op~nt IndUlilrial Devp.lopers and Consultants :\faywood, Nel'l' Jersey

ABRA."I CllAYES -1.0«11 COleTnlllenL olld Finonce Attorncr; former legal ad... i*.r 10 th" State Department

PAUL S. SARBANES - Local COl:unrlletll (lnel Fmunce Charler Re...-i~ioll CommiMion of Baltimore Cily Baltirm,rt, Mar)·I;'II~1

W~hington,D.C.

eUIDO CROCE'lTI- H"alth SyJlemJ A~5istant Prort:>\~or, Department of ~1cntal Hygiene School of Hygiene and Public Health Johns Hopkins Uni"ersity Baltimore, Muyland

JR. -

PAULB. SEARS - fcology I-'To{t!SOr, Department pi Botany YnleUllh-ersit)· Nell' Ha,'en, Connecticut

/A,nd l:M! Re!ulatwru und LGCtll

ROBERT C. SNJDER - CommunietJtions MeJia

GOllunment Professor, Department of Citr and R~ional Planning Han.ard Unhc:nity Cambridge, M8!S$Ichu~""ts

A~5j~lant Executi"e ~crctary', Nation,l Education A.esociation Washington, D. C.

DR. H":HBERT F. STRlNER - Employmcru OpportllnitUls Director of Planlling, Upjohn Ifllliitutc for Emplo)'ment Research WHsbington,U.C.

Dt{. L~~ONARD J. DUHL· (;'~IIr~ral Community Well· being N"tin",,1 Institutcs of Health. Public Health Servh.:e U. S. Dp.pllrtmcnt of Health, Education, and WeJfarp. Bethe;da,MarylanJ

WYNDHAM THOMAS, ESQ_ - New Town Det'dopment Director, Town and COuDtrr Planning As.."OCLation wndon, England

LEWIS ELSTO!\ - /A,nd lhtl Re~ulu1ion.,

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Senior Planner, MaryhmJ-l\'ational Capital Park and Planning Cummislion Si[nr Spring. MnTl'l.and

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DR. CLIFfORD C. HAM - Charch Planning Assistant Profl!ll8Or of Crhan A£fa~ University orpclllIs}"lva"i-. Pittshurgh, Penll:,;y[vania

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DR. ABEL WQU\lA,l\" Utility SrJlem..s Plannf.n& Profeuor EmeritU! of Sllnitary Eng-meedn! <lnd Water Reaour~ Johns lIopkin~ tinh'eT$ity Baltimore. Maryland

DR. M.

GQRUON WOLMA.."'{ - Stream VaU~)' PUlIIning Chairman, Depllrtment "f ~ogru!Jlty JolmsHopkins Univcr5ity Baltimore, Maryland

CHARLES M. IIAAR - Lnefll Gor;crnmcnt uml Fin/mee Professor. Harvard Law School Harvard Unh'ersit}'

c...nbri~, Musachusell~ DR. H. CO:\'RAD HOYER - Churck Pionnillg t\ssociate Executive Secretllf"". Ui,'i~ion of Home \fiMions National Council of the Chu;ches of Cbrist New York, Xew York

BERNARD KREH -

Le~o.lCoullsel

JOlIN \tARTIN JOI'\ES, jR. CHARLES C. G. EVANS DAVlD E. BELCHER atl of Piper & MarbUT)'

Neat-aticNI

Recreation Sped,di5t Frederick, _\Iaryland

Baltimore, Mar)'land

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- Local Ga"~rnrM!nt und fj1UJTU:£

T.

WJIl.lA.\f A. DOEBElE,

C

~TIZER

Graduate School or Public Adminidration Ne.... York l'ni~·eJ'$ity, New York

DR. HARRY C. BREDEM£IER - Social SUllclure.


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W.~ST

SARATOGA STREET •

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21201

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Profile for Columbia Archives

Columbia: A New Town for Howard County  

On November 11, 1964, James Rouse made a formal presentation to officials of Howard County. This comprehensive 51-page booklet set forth the...

Columbia: A New Town for Howard County  

On November 11, 1964, James Rouse made a formal presentation to officials of Howard County. This comprehensive 51-page booklet set forth the...

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