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1-1 Definitions and Abbreviations Accidental errors

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methods and work conditions. They are small, partially compensating errors that cannot be eliminated but can be reduced by choice of field methods (Ilerubin). (see systematic errors)

Azimuth an angle measured clock\ilise from a reference direction, usually from north. may measure up to 360 degrees. (see bearing)

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Backsisht (BS) a level sight reading taken to a leveling rod on a point of known elevation. It establishes the H.I. It is a plus sight taken back to a known point (Joukowsky). (see foresight) Bearine an angle east or west from north or south. (see azimuth)

It never

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Datum a permanent to semi-permanent (or sometimes temporary) reference point of known elevation and/or lmo*n location. It is used by archaeologists to aid in recording the provenience of features and artifacts. [vertical datum; grid, horizontal, or site datum] Declination the difference between compass or rnagnetic north and true north. It is east or west according to whe*rer the compass points east or west of true north Qlerubin).

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Bench Mark (BM) a permanent or semi-permanent point of known elevation that can be used to establish other elevations (Herubin).

Differential levelling

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the difference in elevation between two points (Herubin).

Doubling an angle (1) turn the angle from BS to FS in the normal way and read the A vernier; (2) plunge the scope; (3) clamp the upper plate and loosen the lower plate; (a) sight the BS and then turn the angle again; (5) read the doubled angle on the A vernier. (see repeating an angle) Foresieht (FS) a level sight reading taken on a leveling rod to establish the elevation of a new point. It is a minus sight taken in a forward direction (Joukowsky). (see baclsight) Departure in a coordinate system, the distance east or west of the origin (along the

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Height of Instrument (H.I.) the elevation of the instrument above some reference plane or datum (Fowler).

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1-3 ABBREVIATIONS ASL bd bgs BS bs ca

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above sea level below datum below ground surface backsight below surface circa (approximately) centimeters cosine foresight eround surface ileight of Instrument (an elevation) height of instrument (a distance) meters plow zone quadratic sme

tangent topographic

turning point United States Geological Survey

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F I 3-2 Sketch Map Exercise (taken from

L. Ferguson, 1981, ANTI{ 541)

PROBLEN{

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a sketch qap 9f an archaeological site to be used in erecting interpretive signs and park benches for the public.

DESCRIPTION OF TTIE PROJECT AREA South of Barnwell College and north of Green Street on the University of South Carolina campus tlere is--a park are4-qnss-crossed with brick sidewalks. Witiin the green areas between the walks are small burial mounds. The University plans to erect iiterpretive signs and install park benchel neq the signs. The area wa-s iriginally landscaped without consultation with archaeologislq, !o- the area also includEs shrubbery, t?ees, storm drains, light poles, and other-added features.

REQIIIRED INFORMATION

in ptangng thi

exhibits we want to locate as many of them as possible in well sunlighted areas. .Thps, we need information on the height aird foliage ar& of the trees. We cinnot gla.cg the interpretive signs.on the mounds t[emselves ndr can we place them over facilities such as storm drains or sprinkler heads.

We need accurate ;ket9h maps that show the relationship of trees, shrubbery, mounds, and- grounds facilities (waste cans, storm drains, etc.). iMe want io know where the highest point of each mound lies, and how far out frbm that point each mound extends along the cardinal directions.

All measurements

should be in the metric system.

You-must include-a key an{ a scale on your map. AIso include your name, class -Indicate number, and the date. north lanO wtrafkind of north). identify wirich green area you have mapped.

EQImMET{T You will need pencils, paper, clip board, protractor and a centimeter scale. A11 distances should be measuredby pac-ing, so you will need to use a metric tape to first determine the length of y.our pLCe if you doh't already know it. Bearings sirould be determined with either a Silva or Brunlon compass. Cbmpasses and tapel may be checked out through Gail.

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c4 4-2

"t Contour l\dapping

1.

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Field Techniques, cont.

I prefer is to visually select high spots, low spots, and critical changes in slopes.

The shots should also include physical or cultural points such as prolperry boundaries, road edge, building corners, stream bank edge, water edge, and so on. If this is a large area, you may do this with only a transit and rod -- no tape. Record all three horizontal hair readings, as well as azimuth, vertical angle, and a description of the point that was shot (and, of course, a sketch). It is best to do a traverse and close the loop. If this is a small area, use a tape for more accurate distance measurements. In all cases, level shots are preferable to angle shots.

2.

You may overlay a square or equilateral triangle grid over the area, and take shots at the intersection of lines. I do not particularly recommend this unless the area is fairly flat.

3.

You may set the transit at a point and shoot at different distances along lines radiating out from the traniit. In this case, it is best to choose radiating angles that are easily reproducible with a prohactor (for example, 30, 45, 60,90 ... not 16, 21,33). This is a method that can be used by inexperienced mapmakers who are not yet able to pick out points as in Method #L.

I{ow to Draw Contour Intervals Materials needed: mechanical pencil with 0.5 mm hard lead, ruler with at least two scales, at least one large triangle (preferably two triangles). 1. Lightly draw a straight line between the two points of known elevation. For purposes of this outline, I'll call them A (lower elevation) and B (higher elevation).

2. From the point of lower elevation (A), hold a ruler off at an angle from your first line. Mark light hatchures (r) at the wanted contour intervals and at the elevation of the.secoqd point (B). fri'tfris outline, i'li catl this last hatchure X. You may draw this sequence of hatchures at any angle or scale. After some experience, you will find sbme angles and scales easier than others. 3. Use two triangles or a triangle and ruler to transfer your scale (from Step 2) to the light line you drew in Step 1 between the two points of known elevation. Never use the hypotenuse side

a. Holdone slde of the triangle (this is the moving triangle) so

it connects

Point X to

PointB.Pressdownfirmlytokeepttremovingtriang1efrommoving. b. Hold the other triangle (the steady triangle) or ruler to the base of the moving triangle. Now hold down the steady triangle so it will hold completely steady, and release pressure g! thq povrlg qiangle.- 9!ryt to make sure that the moving triangle still connects X and B. Continue to hold down the steady triangle. c. Now slide the moving triangle to a hatchure mark. Lightly mark where the edge of the moving triangle passes through your Step 1 line. Coniinue until all hatchure marks from Step 2 hav6 been transferrid to your Step 1 line. d. Release the triangles and set them aside.

a. Lightly erase your hatchures from Step 2 and the line (except for the new hatchures) from Step 1. Lightly labe1 your hatchures. Now you are ready for another set of points. Wtrerf att the poinis have been plotted iimilarly, you are ready to draw your contour intervais.

firmly connect.dots of the same elevation. It is best t9 ey9ba11 what-will happen 5. Lightly -A1!o,but start either at a high area or a low area and work outward or inward. If you are not first. good at free-handing curyes, use an artist's curve. !:

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UTM (T]NWERSAL TRANSYER.SE MER.CATOR) The Universal transverse Mercator (UTM) is based on the principles of transverse Mercator projec$gq, whereby a section of a globe can be represented on a flat map. The world has been divided into 60 zones 6' wide, beginning with Zone 1 in the Pacific and running eastward. Continent4 contiguous U.S. Lies in-7ane 10 (from 126" W longitude) througf, Tane 19 (66" W longitude). eU ihe measurimenfs in this system are in meters. The origin of latitude (in meters) is at the equator. This system creat6s a grid overlay of squares l-km on a side.

To locate a site on a topo map by UTM: 1 - Draw q line from the top of the topo map to the bottom, so that you connect the UTM tick marks located most cloielv tothe west of the site. These ticks will have the highest easting value less than the value of the point. 2 - Draw a line from the right to the left side of the map, so that you connect the UTM tick marks located just south of the site. These tick marks will have the highest northing value less than the value of the point. . The two lines you drew will intersect somewhere southwest of the site. 3 - Write down the zone number, as well as the northing and easting values of the ticks from which you drew your lines. 4 - Using a scale that matches the scale of your (for example, the scale on a 7.5 -scale map minute map will be different from the on a 15 minute map), measure the additional distances to bracket the site. - This is done easiest with a UTM Coordinate Grid, such as the clear overlay that can be bought from Forestry Supply 5 - The data are recorded in the following order: zone number, easting, northing. References should be given to the nearest 10 m. A period is plac6d between the Easting and the Northing values. For ex: 18. 50127.4592L2 The zone number can be found in the legend of each topo map. The full UTM coordinate values are wrilten next to the ticlcs in the northwest and southeast corners of the topo map.

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6-2 double check that the distance is still corect. The nail should not be pounded all the way flush without ---Th; first attaching a Senerous flagging tape label. d"ritio" rt"oria"UJt k n afiEr ine ioint is set, and perhapq after all points along this line of sight have been set, so that undue time will not be spent leveling. the tf,anslt scope. II #l .ouU-noi-..e th" grounO ina had the scope leve1 all alongl then elevations can be taken at any time. Once one point has been set, the line of sight.

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you may not want to set nails every metg_r u.sing this method, but instead er/ery:o TTI T:F.j, a nalL by anO tfreri use just the tape to set ihe nails in between the points.set.by^transit. Set angles. right at off t unsit *trei"rer you ht6r want to set up the transit, perhaps to shoot Transit: To turn a right angle i is If vou are facins erid north and the A vernier reads 0/360, make sure the lower plate tran{t turn fingers, several tocked';e ;rj"di iiia ipp"ipiit..- No*, using only the tips. of |he untit yo, nearly read gddegrbes. I-ock the upper piate and then use thq upper.tangent, scr.-e]v-,t: nnotirni to exictly 90 degiees. Do not waste a Lot of time trying to do tlis blt hand,with. the (me lmes uDDer olate unloclied. Remember how to tell if the vernier is on a particular degree is on). line that the sldJ will be sfuhtly and evenly gffse! in toward o'n'"itfrE --- -16;fii a rinJexiliti itre oppositd direction: flip the scope. on many transits, the scope bubble level can be read upside down. Tape: To turn a right angle:

been set, measure alequat.lgngth il.either direction away ffialready . tip" to each of these offsef points, and,thel q1}l 1.1_?n::t from ifiJioi"t. froid or th.e linE that has already "tt".t ii-ii,iJi"fi"i itJ-r.*" rrioiri ilA;rh tape some.distance. aivay.flom hgh! is at f,-.g; r;t. The intiireption polni *itt lie along a line that Tgles from your original two tapei to about 45 of the angle the fur'a*ay as possibleiyet keep iine. try to set degrees from the original line.

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Triangulating in: Beginning with two points already set on onq line: want to find the other two corners of the unit. r"n ttre tratn and Measurementi section, see the table of hypotenuse lengths. Need three people and a fli:xible tape, or two-ieople and two tapes. In this p*pf" and two Example, we will set at 2 x2 m unit. dneperson siis ai on" rit pollt (A) and holds a tap9. Tfrey can eilhgr hold tt-re- "dumb end" (0) or they can troi6 Z m. e Aiferinl person sits at the othei set poi1t.(B) and holds ? ta.pe. Lither hold 0 or 2.83 m. 'fhe third person, with stake or nail in hand, pulls the two tap"l taut and marks the spot where 2 m and 2.83 m meet. Do not hold the tapes Fu!-tg|joo ioi,g: :ost long enough to iluickty-mark-the spot. Set the natl st-lgJrtty in the gr9u1$,,!nj llen c-teEr."G Oistincis f,n" at a^ timdfrom the ottier two points. If all-looks good, pound in further and then check the distances one last time. --- if iUne of units will be placed out along this direction, instead of triangulating .in each one inOiviOuAiy, iet itrJ one furthest away (uerl accurately), ind then just use a tape back to the main line to set thg rest. To se.t a Trionaula*rnq in

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,l 7-2 PROFILE Matedqls negdgd-l .4ay bottle,. string attached to 2 longish nails, 2 tape rneasures or measuring s.tick(l)99Y_.! (one muit tbck or itay ofen;, line tevel o"-a.ir*-rt i;g;[{d;A[;rph paper, pencil, ruler. clear the t9p of t4e prgfile so that loose dirt and vegetation will not fall in. l. First, "Og-". sectioriof the profile. Al*ais .1*n scrape q of h sm-all work from iop io bortom. Ti itd ?o. need to soak it with spray, several minutes, ana'ttren scrape. you ryait }[.il!lll {:},}]-y may do the entire upper profile *a, *g,rk fi;, il, ---' or lrst and thbn the lower sections, r -' "-*J -- iou from one side of the prohle to the other.

?. yith the pojlt- of the trgweJ, lightly mark the lines you will want to draw. If the dirr is dwilrg out quickly, you_ should scrape just a small s6tion and d;;; it.-*o then scraoe anomer sma[ sectlon and draw it. Chgpk any qrligr profile drawings thal abut this profrie, to make sure the lines will match. If they rion,t, frg'ire out why arid iili; mapping line for mapping the profile: stretch a srring with LIg^::^1""j:1ry,t1ry Lqlt"r$ rne level Irom me vertical datum and measure down to a convenient graph point-about Plgyqy- down the profile. For example, if datum is ig.zg m ASt ana thi Eire oi the oiom" rs z /.4o may wl{rt to set.your mapping line 49 cm bd, or at 27,g0 m esr. .* *sL, youmay set this mapping line a! wlltever point you please. However, you _^_,tllu$]{,.You may ]aler trnd transcribu]8 more convenient if it falls on a regu[ar giaph paper line, inil it certainly will make drawing the profile in the field easiei.

stllg+.tql.fitry|v into the pro{le. (near or beyond the edge) ar this poinr. Plrq Attach a line P-]Ilt strihg, and when it is level oriv6 ttri oir,ri-,ial ;i ;-b"rt;;a the opposite edge oflty.tl the profile yoY.

4. Set up your paper. Be sure to minimallya include: -

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your name, date, site number g{d-labg} gf ong or both sides of the profile L!"1 grid direction of both ends of ttre profile unit and profile wall label datum line and its label liglt line showing the mapping line scale

A,l|o lay 1 tapg or measuring stick ?tong the top.edge of the profile, so that 0 begins ----- at --- the side you have been mapping from (in riy exarnple,ihesouth'or tiie'wisi sioey. e

5. Profile {rawing goes fastest.with two: one who measures, and one who draws. The two ahead of time on the order of the measurements, and-ttren the measurer 9-f IgY l.Sf .t" .?glee should stick to that order. The measurer.must keep their eye directly i"ioisii";;;h p;fii; which means they witl be contorting to look at th^e lowerfirost poin"t :- --You can do top _9d bottom measurements first, to give baselines, or do al1 measurements at on_ce.,-Igu may do all lines first and thdn artiFacts, or you may Oo al ai once. Here is an example: says: A! 3, surface isplus.41. At 7, base is minus 33" This gives the top ^.., ,_Y$urer and bottom corners of the profile on this side. plus.15, plus 7, minus 3, niinus 13, minus 23, minus 34. *,^_^t1-19: 4y. 42, plus-34, 'I'hese are all measurements above or below the temporary heasuring iine. The "it 10" refers to how far along lhg t"pe laid' out along the suiface "th" **.#";Lnt.-*" taken. The -tranges measurements should be taken at all corners of the pro!]e, wherever they occur; at in..tJory at ground surface and the bottom of the rin"-jui,.iions or areas or irofrlej ui artttacts; and also at regular intervals, such as ever,.20 cm. "ri aa LL

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one lines up: the line on either side

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+*

line of sight

B.S.

0.8 m

2.0 m (to a known elevation)

(to an unknown elevation) : 1..2 m

BM1 Known elevation 500 m ASL

a 7 ADD

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SI]BTRACT F.S.

fnstructions: Complete the following addition and subtraction problem, then perform similar computations to answer questions 1: 3. Elevation of

BM

Show your math for Questions

1

plus B.S.

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= Elevation of Pt. Q

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2.0 rn ASL

1. What is the elevation of Point R?

2. What is the elevation of Point T if the F.S. reads 1.0 m? 3. What is the elevation of Point W if the F.S. reads 2.6 m2

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10- 1 BRUNTON COMPASS The Brunton compass has a mirrored, hinged lid; a front sight; a back sigh! a bubble for leveling; and a clin6meter for measuring vertical angles. The movement of the compass arrow is stopped when the lid is closed. Bruntons?ie either damped or undamped. A damped compass has a copper saucer beneath the needle, to slow the oscillation of the needle. The calibrated circle may be graduated from 0 - 3fl", or it m_ay in four quadrants of 0 - 90" each. A reading froh this latter would be read as "south forty-six point-z91o.degree.s west", for example, ani recorded as S46.0W. You should read to t[e nearest half degree if you aie hand-holding the compass, and to the nearest quafier degree if you use a mount. The calibrated cirile mav bi roiated via the declination screw to compensate for magnetic declination. In general, you should not mess yith ttrls (you will throw off the calibration of the compass), ai'd insteal correct for declination during-data reduction.

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How can you tell which end of the needle Poi4tsggth?

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south end has wire wrapped-ar-ound the shank to act as a countenreighf. The counteiweight slides in or out as needed at different latitudes.

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How to take an azimuth reading

d your eye mlst be directly above the point. As you look down and watch that the iubble stays ceniered, you rotate the compass until you can see the target and the frontsight tined up oir the mirror iine. Holding steady, read the angle. Figure 10.1 (taken from Daunt-Mergens 1981:82)

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Archaeology Surveying and Mapping  

Archaeology Surveying and Mapping. Assembled by Gail E. Wagner, University of SC, 1992.

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