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Colonial Times Alphabet 5-M

Needle

Abigail Adams

England

Rifle

Oxen

Quill

Cow

Ivory


Aa Revolutionary war

Abigail Adams

Apple butter


Aa

A Apple butter

Apple butter is a spread of bread. It has seasonings, spices, and you can add cider in the apple butter. When you cook the apple butter it should turn to a deep brown. Apple butter is a popular way of using apples in the colonial America. American revolution The revolutionary war started on April 9th, 1775. The war was between Britain and the 13 colonies in North America. The war lasted eight years. In 1774, each colony had established a provincial progress. The British responded by sending troops to direct rule. They severed ties with the British empire. On July 1776, when the congress made the declaration of independences. The war ended on September 3, 1783. Abigail Smith Adams Abigail Adams was born in Weymouth Massuchttes. Abigail Adams was married to John Adams. She had five children named Abigail, Thomas, John, Susanna, and Charles. Abigail’s middle name is Smith. Her family had their own private library. She became the best informed woman in her time.


Bb

Blacksmith Boston Tea Party

The Boston Massacre


Bb Boston Tea Party: The Boston Tea Party in 1773 changed History, The British sent supplies and kept the Colonies protected. In 1754, Great Britain and France went to war. In the end, Britain won, but had very little money left. The British government decided to collect money from the Colonists ( taxes.) They taxed sugar, glass, paper, and tea, and this made the Colonists angry because they thought it wasn’t fair. The Colonists they fought back they stopped buying British goods. In 1768. King George sent British troops to Boston. Where he kept the Colonists under control. But one day in 1770, an argument broke out. The soldiers fired, and 5 Colonists died. News of what happened spread. Many Colonists wanted the soldiers to leave. To keep the peace, the king got rid of all the taxes-except one. King George kept a small tax on tea. This is the reason they chopped open 342 boxes of tea and poured them into Boston Harbor. This is called the Boston Tea Party.

Blacksmith: A person who forges and repairs any metal object by hammering the object by hand on an anvil (Large and heavy piece of metal.) First, the metal is heated to a red/ orange glow in a forge, which is kept hot by hand-operated bellows. Then, the blacksmith, sometimes just called a smith, can shape and mold such objects as hinges, latches, andirons, and farm and household tools and utensils.

Boston Massacre: The massacre was one of the events that led to the Revolutionary War in America. Boston Massacre was not a massacre but the killing in a street clash of several colonists by a squad of British soldiers: The incident took place on March 5, 1770. A riot began when 50 to 60 people threatened a British soldier. Captain Thomas Preston, a British officer, brought several soldiers to his assistance. By that time, the crowd had grown to about 400 people and they were pressing close to the soldiers.


Cc Cow

A Cow wearing a poke

Butter Churn


Cc Cows Cattle are not native to America. The first person to bring a cow to northern and southern America was Christopher Columbus. The first real drive of cattle was brought over by Hernando Cortes. The cows he brought over were Texas Longhorns. Many people in colonial times were farmers, so many people had family cows for milk and meat to make a living.

Cow Poke To prevent farmers cattle from leaving the fenced area one farmer [name unknown ] invented the cow poke. The way a cow poke works is there is a piece of wood sticking off the front of a harness and make it so cows cannot ram a fence and run away.

Churn and Churning This ancient way of turning milk into butter probably started when milk soaked hides were carried a really long periods of time and distances. The early churn was simply a item similar to an oar and a simple wooden pot. Butter was a big way to turn food flavorful so almost all the families in colonial times had a butter churn. Sometimes if there was extra they would go and sell it to people who didn't have butter.


Dd

The declaration of In dependence

Malaria

Dentures


Dd Declaration of Independence: The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776. 56 men signed the Declaration. Five men that signed it were Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, and RR Livingston. The Declaration of Independence inspires everyone because everyone has an equal right to life. Dentures: Dentures replace missing teeth. They are made out of stone, wood, and animal teeth until the 19 century. To make Dentures, a dentist fills the jaw ridges and then fills the jaw ridges with plaster.. A lot of the colonial people at the time used dentures. Diseases: Scurvy was a disease to most colonist because they didn’t get enough vitamin c. Eating Oranges and grapefruit helped them cure the Scurvy. They also suffered from colds, Malaria, Yellow Fever, and typhoid. The life span in the 17th century was 70 years of age.


Ee Porcelain Plate traded at the East India Trade Company, Dutch

Executive Branch

England Flag


Ee Executive Branch–Carries out Laws and conducts public and foreign affairs. John Marshall created the Supreme Court as an important branch of the federal government. The president of the U.S. leads the executive branch of the U.S. Government. There are two other branches. The legislative Branch (Congress), and the Judicial Branch (Court). In each state government (Executive Branch) is headed by a governor. In the Colonial times only men could vote.

East Indies- The name East Indies usually refers to Indonesia, but it sometimes applied to Southeast Asia and even India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the islands around Malay Archipelago, and then Philippines. There was also a system called the East India Trade Company. It was used by almost all the places listed above. There was The East India Company for Dutch , French, and British. In the Colonial times ships would come to trade goods and ship them back to their country. The ships used the East India Trade Route.

England- Is the largest of the four political divisions that makeup the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The England Capital is London. England is the trading center of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is both a democracy and a monarchy. England has had many wars like the French and Indian War and one of the well known Wars The Revolutionary War. The Revolutionary War took place in the Colonial times for Patriots also known as the Men of action.


Ff Fugitive Slave (William Still)

Flint Franklin (Benjamin)


\

Ff

Fugitive Slave: Laws that are provided for the return of the runaway slaves who escaped from one State to another. A clause in the Northeast Ordinance of 1787provided for the return of slaves who had escaped to the free in the Northwest territory. The constitution of the United States, which went to the effect in 1778, also provided the return of fugitive slavery.

Flintlock: Was a firing mechanism used in pistols, musket and other firearms from about 1620 to the mid 1800s. Flintlock weapons had a piece of flint clamped in a piece called a cock. When the trigger was pulled, the cock smacked forward and the flint struck.

Franklin (Benjamin) : (1706-1790), Was jack– of-all-trades and master of many. No other American, except possibly Thomas Jefferson, has done so many things so well. During his long and useful life, Franklin concerned himself with such different matters as statesmanship and soap making, He invented Electricity with a kite experiment.


Gg

Nathanael Greene

Thomas Gage

Great Lakes


Gg Nathanael Greene Nathanael Greene was one of the most superior Generals of the American Revolutionary war. Many historians rank him second only to George Washington. He fought in many battles including, Trenton, Brandywine, and Germantown. He also fought next to General Washington in Valley Forge. Greene is known for his honesty and braveness.

Great Lakes The Great lakes, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior were all Great lakes. They served a big part in the colonial times and the trade industry. They were waterways for ships that would drop off spices. But, then the French blocked off water ways and eventually led to the French-Indian war. Thomas Gage Thomas Gage was a British General who eventually gave orders that caused the first American Revolutionary war battle. He sent British troops to steal American supplies and food. They then destroyed the supplies and America attack the British in Concord and Lexington. The British were beaten down. But then General Gage ordered an attack for revenge on the American troops. But was too costly so that led to his recall of General.


Letter

H House

HAT John Hancock


H

Letter

John Hancock (January 23, 1737) – October 8, 1793) was a merchant, statesman, and a Patriot of the revolution . He served as president of the Second congress and was the first and third governor of Massachusetts . He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the Declaration of independence, so much so that the term "John Hancock" has become, in the United States, a synonym for sigingcure. Before the American Revolution, Hancock was one of the wealthiest men in the thirteen colonies , having inherited a profitable shipping business from his uncle. Hancock began his political career in Boston as a protégé of Samuel Dames, an influential local politician, though the two men later became estranged. As tensions between colonists and great briten increased in the 1760s, Hancock used his wealth to support the colonial cause. He became very popular in Massachusetts, especially after British officials seized his sloop liberty in 1768 and charged him with smuggling. Houses As soon as they could manage it, the settlers built themselves houses exactly like those they had lived in at home. Most of them were brick, or frame with brick ends, and their roofs were thatched at first. Later, the roofs had been covered with red tiles. These were Dutch houses, built in the towns and farms up in Hudson. They were built high and narrow.

Hatters The “hat act” limited each hatter to only two apprentices, each to serve a full seven years. In America so long a term would eliminate all apprentices, but the act made little actual cession, no one in the colonies paid any attention to its prohibititions. In the next year, 1732, both Boston and New York made ten thousand hats and the trade went on from there, By 1774, Philadelphia, leading all others had 43 master hatters. Beaver hats led in money value if not in numbers.


Ii Immunization

Intolerable

Ivory


Ii

Letter I

Intolerable acts: were a series of laws passed by the British to America, which they strongly denied. The main purpose of these laws was to retaliate the people of Massachusetts for the Boston tea party incident, and to increase British power in Massachusetts. These laws strengthened the rebellion of the 13 colonies against British which would later cause the Revolutionary war. Immunity: is when you have already gotten a disease and your body is able to resist to it and not get it again. Once the French came over to America, they carried some foreign diseases and got a lot of Native Americans sick. The French carried diseases like small pox, typhus, and measles. One third of all Native Americans died. When the Spanish came to Florida 24 out of every 25 died because they had no immunity. Disease killed Ivory: is a hard substances which is the same substance in most animals teeth. Ivory comes from teeth of animals such as African Elephants, walrus, and Narwhal. Ivory is a very famous sub-

stances used a lot in jewelry. Even in the colonial times Ivory was a very famous substance.


Jj Judicial scale

Thomas Jefferson

John Paul


Jj Thomas Jefferson

In 1770 his family home burned down. In 1772 he got married to Martha Wayles Skelton.Martha died 10 years after they got married. They had 6 children and only 2 survived to adulthood. They asked Thomas Jefferson to Wright the Declaration of Independence. He wanted to band savory but he had 100 slaves of his own. Judicial system Lawyers held prominent positions. When a fight broke out people looked to lawyers for help. Lawyers had to be tested and licensed.

John Paul: John Paul went to sea when he was 12. John Paul was asked to join the Russian navy John Paul was discharged from the navy In the French Revelation John Paul died


Kk

Henry Knox

Henry Knox saved Boston

y r e rtill

a s ’ x Kno et k s mu


Kk Henry Knox was born July 25, 1750. He was a chief of artillery for a Continental army. He learned about guns from books. He sold books before the American Revolution started. Once the war stared, he was a weapons officer. Knox helped save Boston, from being captured by the British when He brought in 55 weapons from Fort Ticonderoga. Knox used horses and oxen to carry weapons 300 miles during winter. Important battles he was in charge of include: Trenton, Monmouth and Yorktown. Knox died Oct. 25, 1806.


Mm

Musket

Map of original 13 Money


Mm Muskets- Muskets are the main weapons for the American Revolution. The Musket can be reloaded fast, has a cannon to fire bullets and a bayonet for stabbing people. They have the knife on the side of the gun so the horse man cannot ride through the patriot line. Minute Men Army- these were 20,000 rebel soldiers who could be ready at a moment’s notice. They were farmers, who fought for freedom. Paul Revere was one of their leaders. The Minute Men ambushed the British army and made the Britich retreat all the way back to Boston.

Maps-They show historic areas in cities and states. Maps also helped find the state boundaries for the 13 colonies. Oceans and rivers were on maps too. Maps were especially convenient for military officers to set up battles, and defend land.


Nn

News Paper

Noblemen

Needle


Nn Newspaper In the Colonial Times the Newspaper is only four pages long. It is typed by hand and takes about one hour to do. In the newspaper it usually includes, social events, visitors, and most importantly with great amount of detail it would list, births , weddings, and deaths. Sometimes if the news was to big to put in the newspaper the town crier would stand at the corner and cry the news. Towns use the newspaper weekly to look up sales at stores.

Needles The needle is a small, metal piece that is used to sew different materials together with a small piece of thread. The most important use of the needle was so the women could sew clothes and other materials together that the men would trade to get/earn money. There was only one type of needle which was metal. Since there was only one type of needle the needle was very popular. In the Colonial Times the needle was worth about 65 cents.

Noblemen There were many Noblemen in the colonial times. Some of them included Lord Darnley, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Carnarvon, Saint Francis De Sales and, Earl of Both Well. Most of the noblemen were English but there were also a few French, British, Scottish and, Swedish Noblemen. In the Colonial Times. If you were Noble it meant you had a big role in a important job. The most famous noblemen was Baron.


Oo James Otis

Onondagas Tribe

Oxen


Oo The Onondagas Tribe The Onondagas Tribe was one of the 6 nations in the colonial time. They lived in permanent settlements of log or frame houses. The tribe grew corn, squash, tobacco, beans, and sunflowers. In 1754- 1763 they helped the French fight the British. The Onondagas Tribe remained on 5 reservations in New York State.

James Otis James Otis Was born February 5, 1725. He was a political leader in Massachusetts. He was also an American lawyer and a Massachusetts legislator. Otis worked at a court that dealt with shipping and sea issues. By getting accused of criticism, he was attacked by the British. By getting struck by lightning, Otis was killed by the powerful storm.

Oxen In the Colonial Times, farmers had to yoke the oxen so they could grow crops. For identification reason, they branded the oxen by burning the side of the ox with a hot iron. The oxen were used as draft animals to the farmers. When the oxen died, they used the bones as tools.


Pp

Flintlock pistol

pipes

Philadelphia


Pp Flintlock pistols – Flintlock pistols were the best pistols at the time. Flintlock pistols were used as a backup weapon to the musket. Many men in the militia only had flintlock pistols. Flintlock pistols were used mostly by cavalry. Pipes – Many farmers love to smoke pipes because pipe weed grows on their land and it was popular at the time. Pipes were mostly made of clay and oak wood. The farmers used short pipes while they worked and super long pipes in social settings. The long pipes meant they smoke longer and ingest less smoke, so they thought it was better for them Philadelphia – Philadelphia was where the Declaration Of Independents was signed. Philadelphia was a huge city for the colonial times because all the other towns were very small. Philadelphia was also known as the promise land. It was also the temporary national capital from 1790 to 1800.


Qq Quebec Act document

Quaker Meeting

Quill


Qq Quill: A writing utensil used in the colonial times which had a feather at the top and you would dip the point in bottles of ink. They would have different feathers at the top of the quill. You could get one with a Hawk’s feather or an Eagle’s feather, but the goose feather was the most popular of the feathers. The feather’s size may also vary. It was often used to sign important documents. Quills only lasted about a week. You could make one yourself by catching a bird and taking its feathers. Thomas Jefferson acutely bred a specific type of geese so he could have his own supply of quills.

Quebec Act: A law passed in Britain in 1774 to calm tensions in Quebec. Quebec was a British colony but had French and Roman Catholic people. The act, gave formally granted political rights and religious freedom to Catholic French Canadians in that colony. This law helped calm the tensions in Quebec. Some French stayed in Quebec after the seven year war that went on between Britain and France that ended in a British victory. The Quebec act also angered some of the British. Some British merchants even felt persecuted by the act. This law was labeled an intolerable act.

Quakers: Religious societies of friends that often come from England. These people reject war and stress. They try very hard to spread peace amongst others. These people often help others in need. Quakerism was founded in England in the 1600’s. Quakers have been pioneers in removing racial barriers of equality. George Fox founded Quakerism. George Fox’s spiritual back round lead him to witness “Inner Light” of Christ that dwells in the hearts of simple people. Later George Fox was called a “Quaker” by a judge. This gave his followers a name that would be used throughout times in history. Today there are large Quaker populations in England, the United States of America and Kenya.


Rr Rifles

Benjamin

Rhode Island


Rifles Rifles were important, for hunting and defense in several ways. People in Germany (gunsmiths) made Kentucky long rifles that were decorated with carving and metal work. To shoot it they would put it on the shoulder and fire. They had spiral grooves in its barrel that spins the bullet as it is shot. The rifles were a good gun to have because it was easy to load and fire.

Rr

Rhode Island Rhode Island is the smallest state out of the 50 states; it was also one of the thirteen original colonies. Tourists come to go fishing, boating and other water activities. Rhode Island has eight cities Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Newport, and Central Falls. A lot of the people in Rhode Island were born in the United States and the others came from Portugal. Three fifths of Rhode Island are forests. The breeze coming off Narragansett Bay helps keep the temperature mild. Benjamin Rush Benjamin Rush Is the most famous doctor in colonial times in America. Rush was born in 1715 and died in 1813. He helped create the United States. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1769 Rush became a professor at the first medical School. Rush came up with many cures that were new to save the sick.


Ss

Schooner

Spain

Salem


Ss Salem MA Is 16 Miles northeast of Boston. It’s one of New England’s most historic cities. Salem is an important port for privateers. These were ships owned by private people and were hired by congressional congress to attack and take over British ships. After the war Salem ships traveled to Asia and West Indies. They brought cotton and cloth to trade for molasses, silk, spices and tropical fruit.

Spain: Spain is a country in Western Europe famous for its colorful bullfights, flamenco music, sunny climate, and beautiful castles! Spain was once a great empire with colonies throughout the world. Spanish language and culture took root and became a part of the culture of many nations. Today, Spain is a prosperous nation with a well-developed economy based on service industries, such as tourism, and on manufacturing. Spain is one of the largest countries in Europe. Portugal occupies the rest of the peninsula. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Madrid, Spain's capital and largest city stands in the center of the country. On Spain's northeastern border, the mighty Pyrenees Mountains separate Spain from France. These mountains once formed a barrier to overland travel between the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of Europe.

Schooner: Schooner is a sailing vessel with two or more masts (upright poles) and sails arranged in a layout called fore-and-aft rigging. In such a layout, the sails run along—rather than across—the line of the ship's hull (body). Mer-

chants, smugglers, and slave traders often sailed schooners during the 1700’s and 1800’s. The vessels required relatively few crew members to operate. The first American ship with such a design is thought to have been launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1713. It impressed spectators with the way it glided over the water. The ship’s maker came up with the name schooner after a spectator remarked, “How she scoons (skims).”Because of its ease of operation, the schooner became popular among New England’s traders and fishing crews during the 1700’s.


Tt Transportation

Telescope

Trading


Tt 0 Trading is one of the most early and important industry in

North America. The fur trade began in the 1500’s. It is the exchange between the American Indians and the Europeans. The American Indians traded for weapons and the Europeans traded for fur because fur was very scarce in Europe.

Transportation is a way of getting to place to place. Camels, elephants, horses, and oxen were used in the Colonial times for transportation. In the Colonial times carriages were very useful. Another important method was water transportation which includes ships.

Telescope David Ritenhouse was a astronomer and mathematician.. By being an astronomer. The first telescope was built by David Rittenhouse. Lenses of a telescope make far object seem closer. By using this David discovered Venus had an atmosphere. However telescopes were already used in Europe.


Uu (Above) You can see the differences between the militia and the British soldiers in their uniforms, (Below) British soldier’s uniform.

(Above) McCosh Hall, Princeton University


Uniforms: Uniforms are clothes that would help differ a person’s side, where they were from or their function. For instance, during the Revolutionary War, the British would usually have a red uniform, whereas the Patriots would have many different types of uniforms. But it wasn’t only in wars where they would have uniforms. The Native Americans had diverse uniforms from the Colonists, the wealthier people had different clothes or “uniforms,” from the not as prosperous people. People with different jobs would also have dissimilar uniforms.

Unarmed: Many Colonists had been defenseless compared to the British. A lot of the patriots had dilapidated clothes and weapons. The British, however, had sturdy guns, clean clothing and well abounding ammunition. Many people did not think the patriots could beat off the British because their lack of training and supplies.

University of Princeton: The college of New Jersey (that’s what it was called at the time) was a university was first founded in 1746 as a college for men. It was one of the first universities in the United States to admit students of all faiths. The first classes were held in 1747 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. The students had met in the home of Jonathan Dickinson, a Presbyterian minister who served as the universities’ first president. The college moved to Newark in 1748 and to Princeton in 1756. It was renamed as the University of Princeton in 1896. The first building on the campus was the Nassau Hall and was built in 1756. The building was occupied by both colonial and British forces during the American Revolution, until George Washington and his men captured the building on January 3, 1777 and ended the battle of Princeton. In 1783, Nassau Hall was the national capital for four months. In 1969, this college became coeducational.


Vv

VOTE

Wagon (vehicle)


Vv

Virginia: Jamestown, Virginia was the second colony established by the settlers, but was the first permanent colony. The winters in Jamestown were sometimes very brutal. Not only were the winters brutal,

the Native Americans were constantly attacking. The Jamestown colony almost failed before John Rolfe introduced tobacco cultivation. Tobacco production increased to seventy million pounds annually by third quarter.

Vehicles: A carriage is a horse drawn vehicle that sometimes pulls trams. The carriage was invented in Hungary to carry princes. The first self propelled vehicle was invented in 1769 and could reach a top speed of 2.25 miles an hour. The first cars ran on whale oil which was expensive back then.

Voting: In the colonial times only white people could vote and also girls couldn’t vote. You also had to be a male and have to own some land to vote. You only had three years in office instead of four and if you just got out of office you couldn’t run for another four years.


Ww

George Washing-

Wig

Wheat

George Washington


Ww Wheat Wheat is one of the most important crops. Wheat is also Flour. There was no farm machinery during the colonial times ( wheat had to be cut by hand) . The wheat was cut with a sickle or a scythe. After the wheat was handpicked it was left in bunWigs Wig were worn in public, but not as much at home. Both girls and boys wore wigs. There were lots of different styles for wigs. Wigs were made of real hair ( most expensive ) They were also made of horse hair cotton thread and more. All wigs had to be cleaned and curled every week. Wig were not just white they were brow, black and gray too. George Washington George Washington was the first president of the U.S.A. In history he is also known as “ father of the country � . George Washington was born in 1732 and died in 1799. George Washington was in the army at age 20. He started to train to be a solider at first his mom did not let him go to war so he tried to be a sailor. At age 26 he went home to live a more happy life away from war. He married Martha Dandridge on Jan 6 1756.


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5M Colonial Alphabet