The Skills 1-3 class has developed this scientific magazine that will awaken everyone’s interest and motivation to read the articles. It all began when the students started writing small paragraphs that little by little became their training to finish the articles found in here. This edition of “Magazcience” contains articles that will inform the audience about FOOD, PURE SCIENCES, EXPERIMENTS, and THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE. All of the topics were consciously chosen and developed by the Skills students, who worked hard to satisfy their audience.
If you have any questions or comments about this issue, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org
Thanks for reading it and remember: science happens around you, believe it or not!
Skills 1-3 Magazine Team
Is it magic? When people look at these experiments, they probably will ask this question. T he true is that it looks like magic, but it’s actually physics. Most of the people think that physics is boring or hard to understand, but I want to show you an interesting, funny and cool way to learn with this article. First, we need to know what is physics? Well, physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and they way they interact with each other. Also, it is an experimental science and it is used o understand how nature works. Likewise, physics can be seen as the most fundamental of the natural science, I mean. It is considered as the most perfect of its kind and is employed by everyone around the world. For example, when you walk. I use the physics when I do experiments with regular materials like: bottles, balloons or water. With these experiments, we learn applications for the laws of physics. When you learn, study and understand physics you can make physics look like magic.
Science is all around us, and the next two experiments are going to teach you what’s the reason why. My first experiment is “Balloon in a bottle”: First, slip the balloon inside the neck of the bottle and reach the mouth of the balloon over the bottle top. Punch a small hole with a nail and hammer on the base of the bottle. Then, put a finger over the hole in the base of the bottle and try to blow up the balloon inside the bottle. You can see that it doesn’t work, so try again but without covering the small hole. Hen, blow hard until the balloon fills most of the bottle and put your finger again over the small hole when you stop blowing. Now, you see that the balloon inside the bottle doesn’t have a knot. This physics reaction is because the bottle is filled with air and when you try to blow up the balloon there is not space for the balloon it increase. But, if you punch a hole in the bottle the air inside of the bottle has an exit and the balloon will have space inside.
My second experiment is “Needle through balloon”: First, blow hard until the balloon fills most of the bottle. Then tie a knot at the end of the balloon. Next, take the needle and press it close to the knot. Continue pushing the needle through the balloon until the opposite side of the knot where the material of the balloon is exactly equal. I mean the latex is thick. The secret of this physics reaction is to uncover the portion of the balloon where the latex molecules are under the least a mount of stress or strain; you’ve just uncovered the area of less stress to the ends of the balloon. Finally when you do this, it is easy to understand how physics works. Something that looks so hard until you try it.
About chemistry: Chemistry is the science of matter. It means that this science studies the properties, compositions, structures, reactions and a lot more about matter. Chemistry has things in common with Physics because it also studies the matter but the principal difference between Chemistry and Physics is that Physics studies matter in relationship with energy, time, space and force.
Chemistry can be fun if you want to, you can make a lot of experiments and try to study the reaction that it causes. For example, you can change the color of a plate of milk with colorings, but if you want to, you can turn it fun and different with soap. You just need cotton swab with a little bit of soap on the top and when you introduce it on the milk the colorings are going to move around the milk and they are going to generate new colors.
So the Physics term sometimes is used in Chemistry to create different reactions to matter. For example the Chemistry needs energy to create chemical processes but the objective of Chemistry will always be different to the objectives of Physics, so each science has its own kind of experiments to study the matter and in some cases these experiments are fun.
Another way to try a fun Chemistry experiment is to drink apple juice with dry ice. It is going to make a lot of smoke. Or you can see the colors density with liquids of different colors for example honey, water, soap, etcâ€Ś so make the Chemistry part of your life the idea is that you never stop looking and trying new experiments because there are a lot of ideas and a lot of things that you can do to make the Chemistry fun.
Tips to do easy experiments: Look around your home and find different things to make Chemistry experiments, so after you look for the things that you have, search on the web or in books how to do an experiment with those materials. Try to find how different things work out and the reactions that they cause if they are combined with other materials.
If you have children, try to teach them new things related with Chemistry. Only do save things at home. If you are not sure about some chemical reactions DON’T try it or you can blow out your house. First ask a professional.
The Hungarian Physicist Nicholas Kurti (1908-1998) and the French Physicist and chemist Herve invented “Molecular and Physical Gastronomy”. Kurti was in one of the first television shows in 1969 entitled “The Physicist in the kitchen”, where he demonstrated techniques such as using a syringe to inject hot mince pies without affect the crust. 1992 was the year that the term Molecular Gastronomy was born. When Kurti was presented in the Royal Society of London he quoted “I think it is a sad reflection on our civilization that while we can do measure the temperature in the atmosphere of Venus we don’t know what goes on inside our souffles. He started collecting “culinary precisions” (old kitchen wives’ anecdote and cooking tricks) in the early 1980s and started testing these precisions to see which ones hold up. He wrote his thesis on molecular and physical gastronomy. This advice has published several books in French, English. Kurti died in 1998 and his recipes are still being used around the word.
Original Objectives of the Molecular Food The following are the main reasons why people are using molecular food: Investigating culinary and gastronomical proverbs: It means what our mothers taught us in the kitchen. Exploring existing recipes: This is about emphasize that the science of food is not new. Introducing new tools, ingredients and methods into kitchen: there is a difference between the science of ingredients and the science of culinary processes. Invent new dishes: we should create a new scientific discipline to investigate culinary transformation. The term Molecular Gastronomy sounds sophisticated. The first meeting just covered basic food chemistry involved in traditional preparations. About half of the attendees were scientist and the other half were cooks. At that point, most of the cooks were skeptical about the application of the scientist’ research findings in their kitchen.
Nowadays History of Food Since the "Old Ages", the food was prepared by hand under stones and fire. It was preserved in goat skins. Then, chefs appeared in Rome in the 2nd century before Christ, in the "Middle Ages" the techniques were improved by Italians and food was cooked in pots, olive oil and spices. On the other hand, the "Modern Ages" were characterized by main dishes, soups, creams and marinated dishes.
Molecular food has relation with physicochemical properties and technological processes. The food is modified with textures without altering the original flavors.
Nowadays, new tools have been created with technology such as ovens and microwaves. In addition, new recipes and There are two famous restaurants where you can explore with all your senses: “El Bulli” in Spain and “Heston Blumental” in London. Gastronomic experiences are worked by these successful restaurants. In Colombia, there are two restaurants that venture into this kind of food: “El Cielo” in G Zone and “Allan” in 93 park.
culinary kitchens have been developed by chefs for example pre-cooked, deep-frozen, canned, transgenic, nano, organic and molecular food.
Everyone loves to eat, and most people are interested in trying different kinds of food and different kinds of preparations. In each city, in each country, you can find regional food with flavors, textures and colors in your plate and you will always find something delicious and different. Food is not only the things you have on your plate, it’s more than that: it’s the art of gastronomy.
If you want to try something different and exciting, try to make Molecular Food. It’s easy if you have the ingredients and the new kit to make molecular food. Cuisine R-evolution Kit, includes all the things for your molecular creations. But what is molecular food? Molecular food is a way to cook with science and it was pioneered by Hervé This and the physics Nicholas Kurti, they worked on food science preparation, and they have revolutionized the way we cook.
It´s important to know what things are included in your kit for your molecular food creations, for example: -Agar-agar: this ingredient is useful if you want to do gelification shapes like pearls, spaghetti and prisms. -Soy Lecithin: Soy Lecithin is used for any liquid emultion or frozen foams. And it’s extracted from the soy beans. - Sodium alginate: this ingredient is extracted from algae-extracted gelling agent. It’s useful to do gelification. -Xanthan Gum: Xanthan gum has been sold since the early 1960s, because it’s a thickening natural agent used to thicken sauces, no-ice cream milkshakes. -Calcium Lactate: like Agar-agar, Calcium lactate is used for gelification, and it’s a salt derived from lactic acid.
Here is an easy molecular recipe for you: Rugula Spaguetti by Cuisine R-evolution What do you need? -1 Agar-agar packet (2gr) -2 Cups chopped rugula - 他 Cup water - Silicone tube - Syringe
Instructions: 1. First liquefy the rugula whit the water in a blender 2. In a frying pan, mix and bring to a boil the liquid rugula and the packet of agaragar. 3. Pour the preparation into a bowl and fill syringe. 4. Seal the silicone tube on the syringe and fill the tube with liquid arugula. 5. Put the filled tube in cold water for 3 minutes. 6. Seal the tube on the air filled syringe and press to extract the arugula spaguetti.
The light reflects different colors depending on the space that is located for example the White light can be decomposed in all colors through a prism, this decomposition leads to the rainbow.
Some natural phenomena are: -Clouds -Rainbow -Dawn -Lightning can be seen in the sky during thunderstorms.
There are different kinds of light:
The sun is the brightest object in the sky. Life on Earth would not be possible without it: there is food thanks to the sunlight that comes on green plants.
The invisible light is the light that our eyes are sensitive to perceive, but however, it is possible to photograph in the dark if we use special sensitivity devices. In this way humans can see in the dark.
The sky is the result of diffuse radiation, interaction of sunlight with the atmosphere. On a sunny day the sky is blue. The color ranges from orange and red during sunrise and sunset and after dark the color becomes very dark blue, almost black. During the day the sun can be seen in the sky and at night the moon, stars and, sometimes, some neighboring planets are visible in the sky.
A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that occurs when the sun's rays pass through water droplets in the form of a multicolored arc with seven colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
Your body is an incredible and very complicated machine, made of millions and millions of atoms. During more than 4.000 years, the human being has tried to understand how the body works and even so humanity has a lot of mysteries to solve, as the way in which the brain works. But, we are certain from what we are made of: Simply water, carbon and some simple chemical elements, that they are everywhere.
form (H2O). Besides, we can find oxygen from the air every time that we breathe. 2. CARBON (18%): It´s everywhere. It forms the coal, the diamond and the pencil graphite. 3. HYDROGEN (10%): It´s the most common element from the universe. It´s very explosive. It´s in all liquids, tissues, bones and proteins. 4. NITROGEN (3%): A fertilizer bag for plants has the same quantity of Nitrogen than a human body. It´s one of the principal ingredient from the muscles.
Actually, from any garden, we can get all of atoms that are necessary to create a human being.
THE INGREDIENTS: Imagine that you want to build a human being from zero, using simple ingredients. You can do it with only 13 substances or “The Elements”. The Elements of the human body aren´t special: we are made of the same substances than other living things, from flies to whales.
1. OXYGEN (65%): Forms almost 2/3 parts of the organism, It´s above all in water
5. PHOSPHORUS (1%): The head of the math burns for this element. It forms the
cellular layer and helps transport energy. It´s in the urine and bones. 6. POTASSIUM (0.35%): The good soaps are made of potassium. It makes the corporal liquids to be balanced.
11. CALCIUM (1.6%): It forms the shells and the huge marble. It´s in lungs, kidney, liver, thyroid, brain, muscles, heart and bones. 12. IRON (0.008): Enzymes in the blood. 13. IODINE (0.00004%): We have a little iodine, but we died without this element. If a tadpole eats iodine it will be a frog, because it to promote the growth. As a conclusion, we are made perfect, we couldn´t live without all elements, we need to eat a lot of food, full of The Elements. We are simple, frails but at the same time we are complexes and strong. We are from this universe; we need to care our universe, it´s our future.
7. CHLORINE (0.15%): It´s a green mortal gas, used to make bleach. In the body, there is sodium and chlorine and they form the salt. 8. SODIUM (0.15%): It makes body liquids to be salty as the sea. 9. MAGNESIUM (0.05%): The white light from the artificial fires is from magnesium in combustion. It´s in lungs, kidney, liver, thyroid, brain, muscles and heart. 10. SULPHUR (0.25%): It´s a vital part of the proteins and it helps to clot the blood. It´s responsible of the B.O., the rotten eggs and the stagnant water.
It is not a secret that Maths has been regarded by most people as one of the most difficult topics through the ages. Logics, Arithmetic, Algebra, or any kind of exercise with numbers is feared by a lot of people regardless of age, from school to college and work. But, what would our life be without numbers? Think about it, it is different if you read a headline that says: "Soccer team scored very many goals!" or "The weather forecast is sunny morning but not too hot in the afternoon". Now, if the headline is "Soccer team scored twelve goals!" and "The weather forecast is sunny morning (max 21째C) but with light rain (total 9mm) in the afternoon", you get more helpful information.
"And why is it useful for me?", it has been said so many times, because Math is experimented by many people as something completely alien to their daily life, but although you like it or not, it is important to realize that Math is about more than just numbers. In fact, it is used in our routine life often without even realizing we are doing it. For example, if you have to rearrange your room because you want to introduce a new piece of furniture in it? The different options to place the furniture in different places it is not only a decorative process; but also Geometry exercise, because you have to work with the shapes of furniture and measure the space in the rom. So, Math is
not hard to apply but it is better if your abilities are improved by yourself occasionally, solving fun exercises with games, tricks or any activity that allows you to streamline your mind and gradually make any
Logics exercise easier for you (or for your children). At the end, Math is not the monster that you think. On the contrast, it can be your friend and it can help you make good decisions for you in business, games, decoration and stuff. It can help you even to select your couple if you want your children in a certain way (Genetic), to avoid a long way between two or more places (Geometry and Logics), to avoid being robbed (Arithmetic) and more things in your daily life.
The Nintendo concept Something that is more interesting than the Xbox, is the Nintendo Concept. It has appeared in T3 Magazine and it is a new concept developed by Nintendo that will revolutionize the games, with a device, to just play with the mind. I'm sure it will revolutionize the next generation of Wii. The cars of the future with areas of 3D control A new vision for automotive, MINI crossover concept will revolutionize the future, The central sphere 3D "Touch screen", that uses laser technology and
where it can do almost anything, it is totally multifunctional we can start the car, have GPS navigation, watch TV, listen to music, watch all types of videos, and everything that our mind can imagine. Absolutely impressive. Green kitchen of the future: project Fagor Aion Within 10 years, it is probable that kitchens will use green like this Aion. Special plants have been developed by the aviation industry, and they have filtering and cleaning properties. They provide a renewable supply of water and vegetable soap. When cooked, the plants meet the filtering function of a bell when it starts cleaning dishes, simply put the dirty dishes in the sink, the kitchen is closed and the all cycle starts. This idea is really amazing and it is totally futuristic and ecological. It will be a reality
Communications have always been a factor in the evolution of humans, and they are on constant evolution, as it can be noticed in the recent decades. Just imagine that the first cell phone, the DynaTAC 8000X was invented in 1983 by Motorola, almost three decades ago, and it didnâ€™t have even 1% of the capacity of today's phones. Today we have different operating systems which seem to come from the future. AppleÂŽ technology seems to come from another totally different world. The new 3G technology, which a few years ago was only for computers with camera and an excellent internet service, now is at your fingertips. At this moment we're experiencing a stage of the technological revolution that appears to be almost unstoppable.
In a few years, important changes will happen in telecommunications. For example, the Internet as we know it today, will disappear, it will be a new interface that will allow everybody to enter to an unknown world, with more security and the possibilities to make a deep connection with the userâ€™s mind. TV and home phone of the future will have surreal systems with a greater sensory connection; and the investigations of new material will allow a better capacity of storage with a better definition of quality for the images. Right now, many companies are studying the different possibilities of necessities or products that can be sold in the future. The future is not so far as it seems only a matter of time to for us see it.
Technologic has gotten around a lot easier and faster over the past century. It´s kind of hard to imagine today´s world cars helping us get to where we need to go. Imagine if you had to take a horse, every day! So, what kind of vehicles will we be using in 100 years from now? What about in 500? People aren´t cruising around in flaying cars, but the models of transportation are speeding up our daily travels today. It begins with the automobiles. Science fiction has always painted amazing pictures of future travel. John Clute, the author of the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, points out that science fiction “Has always loved the idea of travel with flaying cars”. He says. “Vaccum tubes down which rocketshaped projectiles would be attractive. We´d find tunnels under the sea, we would find gigantic airplanes with thousands of propellers.” But while the imaginers of science fiction were creating a fantastic future, most real engineers were pinning our hopes on the automobile. Science fiction has always known the answers, “Take to the skies”. In other words. Put wings on a car and let in take to the skies.