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MAJOR PROJECT Tackling the digital divide INTERACTION DESIGN Colm Corcoran - National College of Art & Design 2017

‘is the internet open of a Saturday?’



Primary Research Intro



Focus groups



Secondary research






Final Model


ABOUT MY PROJECT For my major project in my MA in Interaction Design 2017 I set myself the goal of understanding the reasons behind the apparent poor uptake of digital skills and use of e-services for elderly people in Ireland and designing accordingly. Previous to this I had heard of ‘The Digital Divide’ and was interested in learning more. I had just worked on a project which focused on rural decline and those suffering from a decrease in populations. Being from a rural background this was something that hit home with me and was a contributing factor in the selection of this as my major topic. According to the Central Statistics Office (CSO) single adults (aged 60-74) are the least likely of any Irish householder group to use the internet, with just 60% of them online. From this it is estimated that one third of these dwellers have never used the internet. This surprising statistic gave me the spark to further investigate the problem and led me down the path of a human centred design process and solution. In the 1990s the digital divide was associated with a lack of access to the internet as a result of high costs. ‘Today the argument has moved on to skills, resources and literacy, as well as the training of people versus lifestyle’ (The digital divide, an equation needing a solution, 2007) Or, ‘the differing amount of information between those who have access to the Internet (especially broadband access) and those who do not have access. -


The digital divide To begin I needed to understand the reasons behind this poor uptake of modern technology. I came across an interesting quote by William Gibson (2003), ‘the future has arrived - it’s just not evenly distributed yet’. How might I attempt to share the wonders of the internet with these ‘non-liners’? I set myself the end goal of enabling these currently disconnected elderly people to reap the benefits of the internet. My process was a human centred one with an emphasis on understanding the pain-points, needs and wants of potential users. I spoke to a number of target users in the early stages and returned again to validate assumptions and test my concepts. Before long it was clear that there was a lack of knowledge about getting online, using online services and how learning might benefit these people. I heard stories of failed attempts and efforts to try to adapt to newer systems along with frustrations on how and where to learn. Many people felt intimidated by the introduction of modern systems with which they were not comfortable and were not keen to adapt. Examples being ushered to new self service machines in banks or receiving instruction from an in-store assistant to do a particular activity online as oppose to on-site in the conventional way. I drew inspiration from designers such as William Gaver and Don Norman both of whom practice and teach in relevant fields. My solution presents relevant information in a format that is understandable and intuitive for the user. It also allows users to connect to the world around them which in turn tackles the increasing problem that is isolation, another finding which became evident in the research stage.

‘The Future Has Arrived - It’s Just Not Evenly Distributed Yet’ 2


3 weeks -12th July - 2nd August


‘What is new in UX research is a focus on positive emotional outcomes such as joy, fun and pride’ - MARC HASSENZAHL 4

PRIMARY RESEARCH Getting Started I wanted to design for elderly people in both rural and urban locations. I tried to encompass as many research methods as possible. The methods I chose were for the most part attitudinal. They included interviews, focus groups and in the concept design stage, participatory design. These methods allowed me to gain insights, attitudes and motivations from which I could pick driving insights and opportunities for design. Data collected was qualitative and was gathered from directly observing users and participants.


I made a plan and began to start collecting information. Set Objectives - What did I want to learn / need to understand Form Hypotheses - Listing all things I assumed to be true Conduct research - Gather the research through outlined methods Synthesize findings - Find themes, insights and opportunities for design Objectives - These were ideas or questions which required a deeper level of understanding. They acted as a basis for interview questions and were a platform for the next step to take. I tried to be specific when setting objectives to make it easier for myself to obtain rich and meaningful data. • Are elderly people interested in learning? • What information is relevant to these people? • What are the current methods and practices? • Do these people have access to modern technology? • Are they aware of the benefits? • Have these people made previous attempts? • What are the barriers to getting online? • What are the opportunities for design?

‘I got it last Christmas and never really used it. 6

PRIMARY RESEARCH Assumptions I listed the things I assumed to be true • Elderly people wish to learn some ICT skills • There is little or no knowledge of the internet and it’s workings • Learning digital skills would benefit these people • The majority of my target audience do not own a “smart device” • These people currently rely on friends and relatives to complete digital tasks

Learnings Doing this gave me a basis for my primary research. By listing assumptions I could gain and communicate a common understanding which enabled me to get started. I built on and referred back to these as the research progressed. By validating my assumptions at this early stage I had confidence to move into the next stage knowing that my proposals were grounded in reality. All hypotheses proven to be true at this stage would help to form early prototypes to be tested with users in later stages.



PRIMARY RESEARCH Interviews The most important part of my project. This was essential in collecting real data and understanding my user group. People were interviewed in a number of locations. These included on the streets, in active retirement groups, local halls, pubs, villages and in their homes. I chose a mix of both directed and non-directed questions. I asked questions such as ‘do you know of online services that are available to you?‘ These were useful in comparing answers with other people and to obtain answers to questions I needed to move forward. As the interviews went on I found engaging in topics of conversation loosely related to my project and progressing onwards from there to be the most effective approach. Asking to record or video conversations rang alarm bells for some people and immediately they were out of their comfort zone. In further sessions to avoid this I did not produce a camera or request to take a picture until conversation had ended. Many of the rich insights obtained were at the end of a session when participants were most relaxed and in some cases excited to share their real experiences and thoughts. Learnings • Technical jargon is confusing • A number of people were afraid of doing something wrong • There is a lack of confidence in using technology and asking for help • Classes are not a desirable for many people • Modern systems do not provide sufficient education required for uptake and are not intuitive for ‘non-liners’ • Some people are afraid to ask for help in case of seeming ‘silly’ • Laptops and tablets have a steep learning curve and elderly users require consistent guidance when learning how to use them • Those who had digital skills gained them from younger relatives • These people want to feel connected and in touch with friends and family 9

‘I have no use for one. I ring him if I need to Google something.’ 10

PRIMARY RESEARCH Focus Groups These took place in a communal hall and in local pubs. Participants were more comfortable in this group scenario and expressed their thoughts and emotions in a natural flow of conversation. Again desires to communicate with younger relations were strongly illustrated. Some participants felt that it would not be possible for them to learn how to use a laptop or device due to poor dexterity or deteriorating eyesight Learnings • Communal areas are the central hub for elderly people in a community, information is shared and gathered at these locations • Smart devices and laptops have been put to one side as a result of frustration and lack of proper education with them • Old systems such as news paper, telephone and radio prevail as the method of obtaining information • These communal areas are very important for elderly people living at home on their own and may be their only chance to see someone as part of their routine • There are a large number of elderly people who unfortunately cannot be a part of this network due to lack of transport or physical disabilities - possible opportunity for design?


‘No, there aren’t many wiz kids around here ‘ 12

PRIMARY RESEARCH Volunteering I signed up with AGE ACTION as a computer tutor. I got a first hand look at the pain points some elderly people were encountering in achieving their goals. More importantly I began to identify their desires for wanting to learn. Communication was the number one desire, in most cases with younger relatives via a smart device or tablet. I also observed a fear and lack of knowledge relating to social media and online payment systems. Again I heard stories of failed attempts and frustrations that came as a result of trying to adapt to new platforms such as Whatsapp and Sype. These people wanted

to learn but the devices to allow them to do so were not intuitive or suitable for their needs and learning capabilities.

Learnings • There is a strong desire for communication •G  estures on tablets and phones such as swipe across or double tap were not natural and caused confusion • Failure to sustain and use learnings after classes resulted in skills being lost • There is little knowledge around the •K  eyboards and touch screens were hard to use for a number of people and incorrect information was input numerous times leading to further confusion and frustration • All participants were extremely outgoing and ‘chatty’ people, face to face interaction being their main means of communication - could conversation could be an opportunity for design?

’I’m not thick, just a bit afraid to be honest’ 13


PRIMARY RESEARCH Observations Whenever possible I was on the look out for elements of daily life that could be picked up on . I observed a number of hacks or shortcuts that people had done to make their lives easier. Such as placing large stickers on buttons so as to easily identify a feature, for example the ‘FM’ function on a radio had A large amount of people were observed doing activities as part of a daily routine. Such as going to the shop to buy news paper and some milk or bread. This is also a largely social activity where information is exchanged and communication occurs between like minded individuals.

Learnings • Focusing on elements of routine and daily life may uncover opportunities for design • Comfort observed with analogue devices such as radios, lights and appliances • Set routines are a major part of daily life, these people meet other people on similar routines while out and about • If I was to make a physical object it would need careful consideration to cater for the needs of these people - poor eyesight, poor dexterity and hard of hearing were all observed


‘I have it marked there with a piece of paper you see’ 16

SECONDARY RESEARCH This research was conducted in the design studio to verify my primary findings. Doing this reassured me that I was on the right track. Main findings • Main Reasons for not having accessed the internet was lack of skills followed by lack of interest • Main reason for wanting to access the internet was communication • Further barriers to getting online included equipment costs too high and access costs too high.



SYNTHESIZING DATA 3 weeks -12th July - 2nd August

I turned my user research into something usable by synthesizing it, being careful not to lose any key statements or pieces of info. I began by transcribing voice recordings, ngs mary researchlistening back to videos and transferring note books to sticky notes. Common patterns and themes began to emerge. Next I grouped relevant insights and began to see some opportunities.


It doesn’t matter how much research you do if the people who have acquired the most knowledge write a report and move on - Erika Hall. 20

FINDINGS Barriers Listed below are the barriers that arose from my primary research. These were validated by secondary research. FEAR • Taking the first step / Asking for help • Doing something wrong • Having personal info or money stolen LACK OF EDUCATION • Services that are available • Advantages of modern tech • How modern systems work • Learning supports available COST • Initial cost of “smart” device • Data connection fee • Time ACCESS / CONNECTIVITY • Broadband not available in area


Findings • These people want to feel connected and in touch with friends and family • Those who had digital skills gained them from younger relatives • Old systems such as news paper, telephone and radio prevail as the method of obtaining information • A large number of people who cannot be a part of local networks (communal hall) due to lack of transport or physical disabilities are missing out on social interaction • These people wanted to learn but the devices to allow them to do so are not intuitive or suitable for their needs and learning capabilities • Elements of routine and daily life may uncover opportunities for design • Keyboards and touch screens are hard to use for a number of people and incorrect information is being input which leads to further confusion and frustration • A physical object would need careful consideration to cater for the needs of these people - poor eyesight,poor dexterity and poor hearing were all observed • Most participants were outgoing and ‘chatty’ people - a conversational aspect of design could be considered


Marion Age 70

I developed personas to get a representation of user groups with similar behaviours and attitudes. They were used as a design tool to refer back right to and question, ‘Would this design be suitable for my persona’ or ‘would they actually use it’? Two personas emerged from my research. Those who had taken

steps to learn or wanted to learn and those who felt it was too late or seemed to have no interest in learning.

I would love to be able to send picture messages. ‘I have no use for one. I ring him if I need to Google something’. 23

I have a laptop, tablet, kindle and nokia. I use the nokia.

“ 24

I like paper records, it’s the system I’m used to.

Martin Age 75

“ “

It’s only for calls. I have trouble seeing the screen.

I ring him if I want to Google something or find a part.


How can I be sure nobody is going to get my account?

Somebody was saying they got ‘Sky’ up on the laptop.

‘Personas provide us with a precise way of

thinking and communicating about how users behave, how they think, what they wish to accomplish, and why.’ - Alan Cooper 26

PRIMARY RESEARCH Empathy Maps To better understand my users I found it useful to create empathy maps. These accompanied my personas and were a great visual tool for quickly reflecting on my user group. These were particularly useful for further understanding routines and habits. My concept would need to have careful consideration for its placement in the daily lives of these people. The language, form and context of use would all have to be carefully considered. I began to look at older products such as clocks, phones, radios and televisions.

Learnings • Isolation is an increasing problem for elderly people • Interactions between elderly people and current devices may need to be reconsidered - maybe they are not appropriate? • A low tech solution could serve a function in daily routine • These people need to feel empowered, confident and in control



CONCEPT GENERATION My research was broad and uncovered a number of opportunities for design, I sketched, made and considered a variety of concepts which were then narrowed down to 3 final concept directions. I have an interest in the work of William Gaver which led me to think about some abstract and conceptual ideas as well as some grounded ones for my final output.


I suggest that the design research community should be wary of impulses towards convergence and standardisation, and instead take pride in its aptitude for exploring and speculating, particularising and diversifying, and - especially - its ability to manifest the results in the form of new, conceptually rich artefacts. - William Gaver 2012 30

CONCEPT ONE A ‘smart book’ that replicates familiar gestures such as turning pages or bookmarking to navigate and access digital content on a conceptual physical object.

Research finding Fear of technology is a major player in the digital divide. Elderly people are slow to adapt in fear of doing something wrong or losing personal belongings . They are not comfortable using seemingly ‘smart’ devices or laptops and as a result opt out. Failing to reap the benefits of online services.


Tangible Interaction

I like having the paper records. It’s the system I’m used to.

Insight Modern systems have not accounted for this user group. These people have different learning capabilities and require a different class of device.

Concept A tangible interaction between the known systems (analogue) and the unknowns of modern systems (digital world). A product that combines these worlds and presents information in an intuitive way This concept strongly contributed to my final outcome.


CONCEPT TWO A fresh look at the way digital skills are being thought and presented. Focusing on learning by doing and building communal spirit in doing so.

Research finding A number of individuals interviewed said they would like to learn how to use the internet but not in a class. They were not comfortable in this setting.


Communal Learning

I wouldn’t buy one because I wouldn’t have the use for it

Insight Digital classes don’t appeal to everyone. Some people feel they cannot learn as there is no other option available to them.


Concept A new digital skills learning platform at a grassroots level. Leveraging off the existing rich human interaction present in communal areas. Possibly including younger generations in the learning process.

CONCEPT THREE A system which matches digital migrants with digital natives to guide and assist them with problems they encounter and to encourage them to do more.

Research finding ICT Classes run for short intervals. A number of participants spoken to did not put learnings into practice afterwards and as a result they were shortly forgotten.



It ended then and I never kept it up. I should have really.

Insight Any skills learned need to be practiced, sustained and supported.

Concept Encouraging people to use new skills by assigning tasks, buddies and roles.


CONCEPT DIRECTION As my research covered a broad range of possibilities I needed to narrow it down in order to move on. I had gained positive feedback on two of my concepts in particular. These were the two concepts I was most excited about.

A concept direction which combined tangible physical / digital interaction with rich local content and features was chosen. I had some initial ideas and was keen to test them. I brought some devices and a wireless hotspot to communal areas to see what interests there were and to lay foundations for user testing to come in the near future. Around this time I began to think about conversational interfaces and chat-bots and how they may be incorporated in my design. It was apparent to me that a number of my target

users were uncomfortable with screens for a variety of reasons. As conversation is a natural form of communication it made sense to consider it. This is an area of work which appeals to me and one where I expect to see massive development in the near future.


How might I enable elderly people to use technology for their needs with confidence in their daily lives? 38

Prototype A As mentioned previously I wanted to consider a ‘conversational interface’. Initial testing was performed with a pre-recorded soundboard inside a simple form, this allowed me to mock up some ideas and get some quick feedback. Drawing from Norman’s book ‘The Psychology of Everyday Things (1998) I tried to recognize the needs and interests of the user. I wanted to focus on the usability of the design and how it would be perceived by the user. I tried out Siri and Google Now’s features with participants for the first time which produced a variety of responses, mostly positive. Learnings Elements of daily life were mentioned as possible ‘desirable features’

-Weather, News, Local events -Little interest was shown in how the technology would work -Personality increased engagement -Short pieces of information with the option to access more was preferred over larger initial output of info Desired Features A light/display to indicate state

A power switch - simple on/off Press and hold mic to speak rather than always listening for an input.


*At this stage there was no screen. This would be a problem in terms of feedback of information and the ability to evaluate the state of the system in future testing. A screen was left out on purpose at this stage as I felt there was a large opportunity for a concept which was analogue in its nature.

User testing works best if you don’t direct participants too much -JAKOB NIELSEN 2016


Prototype B I tried to keep asking myself ‘What problem can I solve’ and ‘what do I want to be able to do’.

The problem of isolation and desire for communication that was so apparent in the primary research needed to be a key component of my design. I began to define what it would do with a priority on granting these people access to modern communication methods The desire for local content expressed in testing would also be a feature. The term ‘radio on demand’ arose and resonated with me I came across a text to speech (TTS) engine named ‘Caitlin’. This engine had an Irish accent. I proposed both accents during testing and asked for a preference. ‘Caitlin’ was well received and became the default TTS. This prototype consisted of a ‘Mic’ like instrument for the input of data or instructions in a conversational style. It also included a dial as a main interface for the selection of tailored features which were suggested in the research stage. In illustrating a set amount of features on the prototype the concept instantly became more intuitive. If illustrated clearly my target users could begin to guess what a certain feature may do and possibly instill some curiosity in them. It was at this stage I also realised I had been too ambitious in hoping that people would act on their own initiative and discover features themselves through conversation(prototype A). In setting features I was inviting them to take the important first leap.



This prototype was iterated a number of times and was brought with me to each co creation session. Participants were heavily involved in the selection and placement of features

‘Wizard of Oz

The Wizard of Oz technique enables unimplemented technology to be evaluated by using a human to simulate the response of a system - 42

PARTICIPATORY DESIGN I gained feedback on my prototypes by organising a number of sessions where input into the design of the prototype was strongly encouraged. At this time testing was done in group scenarios with the idea that my concept would be for a communal area. Further testing and consideration led me to rethink this. These testing conditions were not typical and if I was to design for elderly people in both urban and rural areas it would be a better option to focus on the home scenario where a number of identified barriers would not be present.


Some problems were identified with the feedback of audio output from the prototype in this communal setting and caused confusion where participants were hard of hearing. Adding further confusion was not an option. In later sessions participants expressed how they imagined the concept might work for them. In these cases I acted as the facilitator by guiding them to express their creativity. This led to the addition of physical interface mentioned previously (Prototype B) with a number of defined features or ‘stations’ as they were called.

Co Creation

‘helps us to communicate with people and discover what they know and feel. This helps us gain the ability to empathize with them, seeing the world from their perspective’ - Liz Sanders Leading, guiding, and providing scaffolds as well as clean slates to encourage people at all levels of creativity- Liz Sanders 2008 44


Blue foam and cardboard were used to quickly explore multiple simple forms. Doing this led me to think about some users dexterity issues and how the concept would operated and interpreted. Quick tests confirmed that information displayed on a flat interface at the front was the best choice. I investigated a number of radio and telephone like objects from the mid 90’s to get a feel for the aesthetic and design language used at this time. I was really impressed with the work of Dieter Rams and drew inspiration from his products.


‘Make it easy to determine what actions are possible at any moment’ Donald Norman 1988 46

REFINEMENT When I was satisfied I had a good feel for my prototype I began to iterate it. Some quick paper prototyping and mockups hinted that the form should be approximately two thirds physical interface and one third digital screen. These proportions seemed about right as the screen was not to be the main feature and ti act only as a method of feedback and guidance in the latter stages.


Usability testing by itself, even when multiple designs are presented, is not an effective vehicle for soliciting constructive suggestions about how to improve the design from end users. It is a means to identify problems, not provide solutions. - William Buxton 2008 48


After some debate I decided that I would use my phones screen as the display for the prototype. I had thought that I would purchase a touch screen LCD and connect it to an arduino board. I decided against this as I wanted to focus more on a high fidelity model with a video prototype which would communicate the interactions. This was an area of interaction design that I felt more comfortable with. 49


Large Image and Text

Tailored Content

Conversational input


Touch Screen Display

Tangible Physical Navigation


A tailored introduction to the internet and online services that some elderly people need.


Interacting with Jackie A use case : Selecting a local


Central knob is used to select a desired function on the main display




Use Mic button to ‘enter’ selections which present further information on a relevant field or function 53


Physical wheel can be used to cycle through digital options. Similarly, the touch screen can be used to navigate


Input data via the Mic to engage with the concept in a tangible manner 54


These are the tailored options which are present on the concepts main interface.


‘It’d be great if I could video call my grandchildren in London’

Keeping in contact with friends and relatives

A means of communication with younger generations was the most sought after desire uncovered in the research. The call feature empowers users to keep in contact through a simple interface and tangible interactions when selecting and confirming a contact.



‘And then I could just ask it whatever I want?’

An input method which overcomes the barriers of poor dexterity and deteriorating eyesight

Users can interact with the concept in a conversational manner. The mic handset is a familiar form to these people that suggests that voice is the means of interaction. After gaining confidence with the concept it is intended that this feature will be explored further to unleash Jackie’s real potential.



‘We are forever talking about the weather’

The weather is a well known conversational topic that is ever-changing. Growing up, these people always spoke of the weather and often planned their days according to it. This feature holds on to this aspect of their lives and allows them to feel informed. A talking point and element of daily life that can is beneficial if predicted



‘Ah yeah, it’s usually on there in the background.’

A familiar feature which already exists in daily routine

The radio has a form and function that each person spoken to was comfortable and familiar with. For this reason my concept is shaped and consists of an interface similar to a radio. The radio feature is intended to draw users in and to encourage users to explore the other functions.



‘Little things like the lotto numbers. I didn’t buy the paper last week so I didn’t get a chance to check them ’

Local content keeps people informed and ‘in the know’

Small elements of daily life and routine such as times and locations of events were a large part of the conversation of my research candidates. Almost all information gathered and shared by these people was verbal. If a person was to become immobile they would not have access to this important information. This feature shares local content, keeping users connected and involved.



‘And I can just knock it off there until I need it?’

A familiar feature which already exists in daily routine

If ever in doubt, users can easily turn off Jackie and begin again. This method of restarting is one I observed a number of times in my research stages (television / radio). The ability to turn it off and see clearly there is error or alert is a comforting one for these people. The process can begin again when the user feels comfortable in doing so.


Tailored Content Caters for the needs of the user

Large Text & Images To aid in the recognition of features

Ergonomic Physical Interface Features presented in a familiar format

Conversational Input

A natural means of interaction



Minimal UI

Presents only relevant information

Physical / Digital Relationship


Intuitive navigation of on-screen content

Identifiable Form


Echoes of an analogue era, one which target users grew up in and are familiar with 62




FINAL WORD I wanted to understand my target audience and to design a solution to fit their needs. I feel that by allowing them to communicate and access information in a comfortable way then I have achieved this. Positive feedback on my design proposals and outputs along the way from real users in real world situations strengthened my confidence in the validity of the concept. My design is important because it acts as the gateway for these people to vast amounts of information that is readily available to them online. In introducing an apparent low tech analoguelike product into the comfort of their own homes I am tackling a number of problems that were uncovered in the research stage and I am confident that it can be of benefit to them in their daily lives. Jackie’s form can be compared to a number of products manufactured in a largely analogue era. It’s interface is simplistic yet effective, removing fears of doing something wrong or wondering how to get out of a problematic situation. I found testing out my ideas and concepts regardless of how minimal they were in the early stages to be extremely valuable and worthwhile. In a way, the people that I spoke to designed this concept. Where possible I tried to act merely as the facilitator for these people to shape the idea that best fit their needs and their lives.


MY DESIGN Jackie enhances the daily lives of elderly people in their homes. It supplies them with information that is relevant to them, such as local events or the daily forecast at a time that suits them. It’s cellular capabilities allow it to pull local content from sources that are of interest to the user. Each feature is tailored specifically to suit the needs of these people. In providing a set amount of features users feel in control. My target group were on the lesser side of the digital divide, because of this they were simply not familiar with many modern day products or systems. These people required something different, Jackie has affordances for these people. It’s merging of the physical and digital worlds is intended to make the experience of using the internet a pleasurable and useful one. Given more time on the project I would love to develop Jackie further to uncover it’s real capabilities. I had predicted I would have a fully functional working prototype for the submission date, unfortunately not. I feel that I lost time in the latter end when making the final model. Interactions were communicated through the medium of video. Looking into the future I think it is advantageous to design a holistic solution for a user group rather than assuming that they will adapt to a current one. My research clearly showed that these elderly person could not do what they wanted despite having a desire to do so. I think that there is opportunity to push a concept like Jackie further. Such a platform could be the gateway to a large amount of e-government services that are currently being proposed and rolled out nationally and internationally. Jackie is the introduction to technology and the internet that some elderly people need.


Bibliography Fitch, S. (2007). Digital divide: An Equation Needing a Solution. [Morrisville, N.C.]: Gaver, W. (2012). What should we expect from research through design?. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ‘12. Gibson, W. (2003). The Economist. Hall, E., Zeldmaneditor, J. and Fox, R. (2013). Just enough research. (2017). Internet World Stats - Usage and Population Statistics. [online] Available at: http://internetworldstats. com [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017]. NIELSEN, J. (2016). Getting Users to a Specific Feature in a Usability Test. [online] Available at: articles/feature-user-test/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2017]. Norman, D. (1988). The design of everyday things. Sanders, E. and Stappers, P. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. CoDesign, 4(1), pp.5-18. Tohidi, M., Buxton, W., Baecker, R. and Sellen, A. (2006). Getting the right design and the design right. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems - CHI ‘06. *All other quotes were gathered by myself from research participants throughout the design process


Jackie - Design Rationale 2017  

A rationale conducted as part of my masters programme in interaction design at NCAD.

Jackie - Design Rationale 2017  

A rationale conducted as part of my masters programme in interaction design at NCAD.