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I N T E R N AT I O N A L

PRIMARY SCIENCE

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Contents Topic 1 Plants

1

Parts of plants Plant roots and stems Plants need water Plants need sunlight Plants need warmth Healthy plants Water plants Plants in the desert Mountain plants Flowers and unusual plants

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Looking back Topic 1

22

Topic 2 Humans and animals

23

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

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Life processes Living and non-living things Food for energy Eating the right food Eating the wrong food Exercise Your senses How your senses help you Classifying living things (1) Classifying living things (2)

24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42

Looking back Topic 2

44

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Topic 3 Material properties 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12

45

Properties of materials Hard or soft? Strength Flexibility Structures Uses of materials Staying the same shape Floating or sinking? See-through or not? Wet or dry? Magnets Using magnets

46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

Looking back Topic 3

70

Topic 4 Forces and motion

71

Pushes and pulls Making things move Natural forces Measuring forces Stopping and starting Changing direction Changing shape Friction

72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Looking back Topic 4

88

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Glossary

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Topic

1

Plants

In this topic you will learn about the different parts of plants. You will learn that plants need water and light to grow. You will also learn how water moves in plants and that plants need healthy parts to be able to grow well. Finally, you will learn that temperature affects plants’ growth. 1

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Key words

• roots • leaves • stem • flowers

1.1 Parts of plants Plants have different parts that do different things. These parts work together to keep the plant alive and help it to grow. The roots are below ground. They hold the plant in the soil. The roots also take in water from the soil.

Leaves use sunlight and water to make food for the plant to grow. The stem holds the plant up and keeps the leaves off the ground. This allows the leaves to get as much sunlight as possible. The stem also joins the leaves and flowers to the roots. 1 Where does the water come from for the roots? 2 Trace the path of water into the leaves. 3 What do all plants need to make food? flower

leaf stem root

2

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Topic

1

Plants

Activities 1 Look at photographs A and B. Identify the

roots, stem, leaves and flowers of each plant.

A

2 Collect leaves from many

different plants. Lay them out and examine them. What is the same? What is different?

B

3 Are there any leaves

you can eat? Talk about this and make a list of edible leaves.

I have learned ●

Plants have different parts.

Each part of the plant has a different role.

The main plant parts are the roots, stems, leaves and flowers. 3

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Key words

1.2 Plant roots and stems Plants use their roots to hold them in the soil. Roots also take in water from the soil and transport it to the leaves. The plant uses this water to make its food.

• tap root • fibrous roo t • weed • tree • trunk

Some roots grow deep into the soil. These are called tap roots. Other roots spread out widely to capture as much water as possible. These roots are called fibrous roots. The roots of some plants become swollen, because the plant stores food in them.

1 What are the two main roles of plant roots? 2 Look at the pictures. Which is a tap root? Which is a fibrous root? Which is a root that is storing food? Explain your answers. 3 What types of roots would you find: ● in a desert plant? ● in a weed which is growing between paving stones? ● in a mountain plant? Explain your answers. 4

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Topic

1

Plants

Activities 1 Dig up a weed. Draw and label its roots, leaves, stem and flowers in your Workbook.

2 In your group, make Trees are plants too. As a tree grows larger, its stem grows harder and thicker. This stem is called a trunk. Each year a new ring forms inside the trunk. We can tell how old a tree is by counting these annual (yearly) rings.

a list of the root vegetables that you eat. Draw a picture of each vegetable and label your pictures.

3 Do the tree survey on this page. Write the results of your survey in your Workbook.

Tree survey 1. Is the tree growing in a shady or a sunny place?

I have learned ● ●

Roots hold the plant in the soil. Roots take in water and transport it to the leaves. Different types of roots do different things.

2. Draw its shape. 3. What does the trunk look and feel like? 4. What kinds of leaves does it have? 5. Does it have flowers, fruit or thorns? 6. Can you see any roots? 7. Write down one more interesting thing about the tree. 5

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Key words

1.3 Plants need water Plants take in water and minerals from the soil through their roots. Roots absorb water from the soil. The water is transported up the stem to the other parts of the plant.

• minerals • absorb • transport

In dry soil, plants need to gather and store as much water as possible. 1 Look at pictures A and B. Name the parts of these plants. 2 Explain the way water and minerals get to these parts. 3 What kind of roots do you think each plant has? Explain your answer.

A

B

6

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Topic

Activities

1

Plants

1 Plan a fair test to show that plants need water. Discuss it with your partner.

2 Use these pictures and the table to help you plan your fair test. Plant 1 (no water)

Plant 2 Plant 3 (watered (watered three once a week) times a week)

Height at start Height, week 1 Height, week 2

3 Measure and record your findings in your

Workbook. Explain what your results show.

I have learned â—?

Plants need water to grow.

â—?

Water is taken in through the roots and transported through the stem to other parts of the plant. 7

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Key words

1.4 Plants need sunlight

• energy • carbon dio

xide

All living things need food to stay alive. Food gives them energy. Humans and animals have to find food, but plants can make their own. They use sunlight, water and minerals from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air to make their food.

8

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Topic

1

Plants

Without sunlight, most plants could not make their own food. If plants couldn’t make food, humans and animals would have nothing to eat. 1 What is special about plants? 2 What do plants use to make food? 3 What would happen to animals and plants if there was no sunlight? If you put one plant in a sunny place and another in the the dark what do you think will happen?

Activities 1 Using two healthy bean plants,

plan a fair test to show that plants need sunlight.

2 At the end of the week, fill in the table in your Workbook. What does the experiment show?

3 Explain how you can make sure that this is a fair test.

I have learned ●

Humans and animals need plants for food.

Plants need sunlight to make food and grow.

9

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International Primary Science Student Book 3  

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