Busy Ant Maths: Year 1 Teacher's Guide

Page 1


Teacher’s Guide 1

Series Editor: Peter Clarke Authors: Rachel Axten-Higgs, Nicola Morgan, Jo Power

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Number and place value

Counting and understanding numbers Contents Page number Introduction Key Principles of Busy Ant Maths How Busy Ant Maths supports the 2014 Primary National Curriculum for Mathematics The components of Busy Ant Maths Busy Ant Maths Teacher’s Guide Busy Ant Maths on Collins Connect Other components in Busy Ant Maths Busy Ant Maths Year 1 Medium-Term Plans

4 5 8 9 15 16 18

Getting Started 1: Number – Number and place value 2: Number – Addition and subtraction 3: Number – Multiplication and division 4: Number – Fractions 5: Measurement 6: Geometry – Properties of shapes 7: Geometry – Position and direction

26 35 41 47 49 59 62

Teaching and Learning Units 1 – 12 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12

66 100 134 168 202 236 270 304 338 372 406 440

Resource Sheets

476

Answers

600

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Introduction

Getting Started Introduction Key Principles of Busy Ant Maths Busy Ant Maths is a mathematics course that ensures complete coverage of the 2014 Primary National Curriculum for Mathematics.

The course has at its core the following seven key principles: 1 To inspire enjoyment of maths 2 To assist in developing children’s conceptual understanding of maths 3 To help raise levels of attainment for every child 4 To provide a rigorous and cohesive scope and sequence of the primary maths curriculum, while at the same time allowing for schools’ own curriculum design 5 To promote the most effective pedagogical methods in the teaching of mathematics 6 To offer manageable strategies for effective diagnostic, formative and summative assessment, to inform planning and teaching 7 To strengthen the home/school link. In addition to these seven key principles, Busy Ant Maths offers: • a straightforward yet flexible approach to the teaching of mathematics • lesson plans following a highly effective and proven lesson structure • a weekly bank of practical hands-on Learning activities • a detailed and systematic approach to the development of mental and written calculations • extensive teacher support through materials which: – are sufficiently detailed to aid confidence – are rich enough to be varied and developed – take into account issues of pace and classroom management – give careful consideration to the key skill of appropriate and effective questioning – provide a careful balance of teacher intervention and pupil participation – encourage communication of methods and foster mathematical rigor • controlled, manageable differentiation with activities and suggestions for at least three different ability groups • a stand-alone resource aimed at developing children’s fluency in number facts containing hundreds of whole-class, group, paired and individual games and activities • pupil materials which are enjoyable and purposeful.

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Introduction

How Busy Ant Maths supports the 2014 Primary National Curriculum for Mathematics All of the components of Busy Ant Maths emphasise, and provide guidance on, the importance of the cyclical nature of teaching in order to best promote learning and to raise pupils’ attainment.

• Promote learning • Raise pupils’ attainment

Te a c h i

ng

sment s e ss

Planning

A Planning

Busy Ant Maths supports teachers in planning a successful mathematics programme for their unique teaching context and ensures: • a clear understanding of pupils’ pre-requisite skills before undertaking particular tasks and learning new concepts • considered progression from one lesson to another • regular revisiting and extension of previous learning • a judicious balance of objectives, and the time dedicated to each one • the use of a consistent format and structure. The elements of Busy Ant Maths that form the basis for planning can be summarised as follows:

Long-term plans The 2014 Primary National Curriculum for Mathematics constitutes the long-term plan for schools to follow. By closely reflecting the Programmes of Study, the Busy Ant Maths course embodies this long-term plan.

Medium-term plans The Busy Ant Maths Medium-term Plans show termly outlines of units of work with National Curriculum Attainment Target references, and specific lesson objectives. Using the Busy Ant Maths online Planning Tool via Collins Connect, these plans can be easily adapted to meet the specific needs of individual schools.

Short-term plans Individual Lesson Plans and accompanying Learning activities represent the majority of each yearly Teacher’s Guide. The lessons provide short-term plans that can easily be followed closely, or used as a ‘springboard’ and varied to suit specific needs of particular classes. An editable ‘Weekly Planning Grid’ is also provided on Collins Connect, which individual teachers can fully adapt.

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Introduction Number and place value

Teaching The most important role of teaching is to promote learning and to raise pupils’ attainment. To best achieve these goals Busy Ant Maths believes in the importance of teachers: • having high expectations for all pupils • systematically and effectively checking pupils’ understanding throughout lessons, anticipating where they may need to intervene, and doing so with notable impact on the quality of learning • generating high levels of engagement and commitment to learning • consistently providing high quality marking and constructive feedback to ensure that pupils make rapid gains • offering sharply focused and timely support and intervention that matches pupils’ individual needs.

To help teachers achieve these goals, Busy Ant Maths provides: • highly focused and clearly defined learning objectives • examples of targeted questioning, using appropriate mathematical vocabulary, that is aimed at both encouraging and checking pupil progress • a proven lesson structure that provides clear and accurate directions, instructions and explanations • meaningful and well-matched activities for pupils at all levels of understanding to practise and consolidate their learning • highly effective models and images to clearly illustrate mathematical concepts, including interactive digital resources. Each lesson in Busy Ant Maths has a specific learning objective derived from an Attainment Target from the 2014 Primary National Curriculum for Mathematics Programmes of Study, and follows the same teaching and learning sequence.

National Curriculum Attainment Target

Learning Objective

Teaching and Learning Sequence Getting Started

Teach

Individualised Learning

Plenary

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Introduction

Assessment Assessment, record-keeping and reporting continue the teaching and learning cycle and are used to form the basis for adjustments to the teaching programme. Busy Ant Maths offers manageable and meaningful assessment on four levels: • Diagnostic assessment The Assessment Tasks from the Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide assist teachers in determining pupils’ readiness for a particular unit of work. They are designed to yield information that will directly support the teaching of individual pupils and whole-class teaching. • Short-term ‘on-going’ assessment Progress Check Questions ( ) are an important feature of every Busy Ant Maths lesson and are linked to specific learning objectives. They are designed to provide immediate feedback to pupils and to gauge pupil progress in order to adapt teaching. Shared Success Criteria are also provided in each lesson to assist pupils in identifying the steps required to achieve the learning objective. • Medium-term ’formative’ assessment As well as being used for diagnostic assessment, the Assessment Tasks, along with the Assessment Sheets, from the Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide can be used to review and record the progress of both individual pupils and the class as a whole, in relation to the National Curriculum Attainment Targets. An End of Unit Test is provided for each of the 12 Busy Ant Maths units. Each test is designed to assess the mathematics covered during the three-week unit. The formative Assessment Tasks, Sheets and Tests provide individual and/or group opportunities to identify those pupils who are not yet reaching, or who are exceeding, national expectations. They can also be used to set individual targets for pupils. • Long-term ‘summative’ assessment The End of Year Class Evaluation document shows individual pupils’ attainment against national standards. It draws upon the data gathered throughout the year including results from Assessment Tasks and Sheets, performance in whole-class discussions, participation in group work, written evidence and any other supplementary notes. It is this document that forms the basis for reporting to parents and informing the next year’s teacher. Importantly, it also helps to determine whether pupils are on track to meet expectations at the end of the key stage. Collins Connect contains a powerful assessment tool for diagnostic, formative and summative assessments. Along with manageable and meaningful record-keeping formats it allows you to collect assessment data to store online and present digitally for class and whole school analysis. Refer to the Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide or the Busy Ant Maths Getting Started Guide on Collins Connect for a more detailed explanation of the assessment, record-keeping and reporting features of Busy Ant Maths.

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Year 1 Unit 1

Week 1: Number - Number and place value Week 2: Number - Addition and subtraction Week 3: Geometry - Properties of shapes

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Year 1, Unit 1

Week 1: Number - Number and place value National Curriculum attainment targets

Pupil targets

Pupils should be taught to:

• Recognise, count, read, write and order numbers 0–20

• count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number

• Identify one more and one less than a given number between 0 and 20

• count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals

• Use the language ‘more than’ and ‘less than’ correctly when comparing two numbers

• given a number, identify one more and one less • identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least

• Represent numbers to 20 with objects and pictorial representations • Use ordinal numbers correctly, and in context

• read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals • practise ordering [first, second, third] *

Weekly overview Pupils recognise and order numbers 0–20. They become familiar with reciting them forwards and backwards, and identify the numbers that come before and after a given number. Pupils continue to practise ordering numbers 0–20, as they become familiar with finding one more and one less than a given number. They count sets of 0–10, then 10–20 objects, labelling sets with numbers 0–20 after counting. They use ordinal numbers, working with numbers ‘first’ to ‘tenth’, then extending to ‘twentieth’. Prerequisites for learning • Recognise, count, read, write and order numbers 0–10

2: Count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and ten

• Understand the concepts of ‘less’ and ‘more’

3: Given a number, identify one more and one less

• Count sets of 1–10 objects accurately

4: Identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least

Assessment Use the following assessments from Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide 1:

5: Read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals

1: Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number Tracking back and forward through the curriculum Foundation Stage (40 to 60+ months) • begin to count beyond 10

Year 1

Year 2

• count aloud in ones, twos, fives or tens

• count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number

• count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward

• recognise some numerals of personal significance

• count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals

• read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words

• recognise numerals 1 to 5 • say the number that is one more than a given number

• given a number, identify one more and one less

• find one more or one less than a number from 1 to 10 • use language such as ‘more’ or ‘less’ to compare two numbers

• compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs

• say and use the number names in order in familiar contexts

• identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least

• recognise some numerals of personal significance

• read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals

• read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words

• recognise numerals 1 to 5 • use ordinal numbers in different contexts

• practicing ordering [first, second, third] * Related Busy Ant Maths Units

Related Collins New Primary Maths Foundation Stage Units

Previous Y1 Units

Future Y1 Units

Y1 Units

Unit 1

Unit 11

Unit 15

Unit 27

Unit 5, Week 1

Unit 1, Week 1

Unit 5

Unit 13

Unit 21

Unit 28

Unit 8, Week 1

Unit 5, Week 1

Unit 9, Week 1

Unit 9, Week 1

Unit 8 Related EYFS Early Learning Goal: Numbers – Children count reliably with numbers from one to 20, place them in order and say which number is one more or one less than a given number.

* Notes and guidance (non-statutory)

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Year 1, Unit 1

Week 2: Number - Addition and subtraction National Curriculum attainment targets

Pupil targets

Pupils should be taught to:

• Combine two sets of objects to find a total

• read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs

• Understand, read and record addition facts within 5 using the symbols + and =

• represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20

• Relate addition to counting on and use this idea to find the total of two sets of objects or numbers • Relate subtraction to counting back and taking away, and apply this understanding in a practical context • Understand, read and record subtraction facts within 5 using the symbols − and =

Weekly overview Pupils use addition facts within 5, counting two sets of objects and then combining them to find the total number of objects. They become familiar with using the + and = symbols in addition number sentences and use a number track to support their working. They use subtraction facts within 5, counting a set of objects and then taking away a given number to find the number left. They become familiar with using the − and = symbols in subtraction number sentences and use a number track to support their working. Prerequisites for learning

Assessment

• Recognise, count, read, write and order numbers 0–10 • Count sets of 1–10 objects accurately

Use the following assessments from Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide 1:

• Understand how to combine two groups of objects to find a total

6: Read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (-) and equals (=) signs

• Understand how to subtract one set of objects from another to find the number remaining

7: Represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20

Tracking back and forward through the curriculum Foundation Stage (40 to 60+ months) • observe number relationships and patterns in the environment and use these to derive facts • in practical activities and discussion, begin to use the vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting • begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects and subtraction to ‘taking away’

Year 1

Year 2

• read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs

• represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20

• recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100

Related Busy Ant Maths Units Related Collins New Primary Maths Foundation Stage Units Unit 25

Unit 29

Unit 26

Previous Y1 Units

Future Y1 Units

Y2 Units

Unit 2, Weeks 1 & 2

Unit 1, Week 2

Unit 7, Weeks 1 & 2

Unit 4, Week 1

Unit 2, Weeks 1 & 2

Unit 9, Week 2

Unit 5, Week 2

Unit 5, Week 2

Unit 11, Weeks 1 & 2

Unit 7, Weeks 1 & 2 Unit 9, Week 2 Unit 11, Weeks 1 & 2 Related EYFS Early Learning Goal: Numbers – Using quantities and objects, they add and subtract two single-digit numbers and count on or back to find the answer.

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Year 1, Unit 1

Week 3: Geometry - Properties of shapes National Curriculum attainment target

Pupil targets

Pupils should be taught to:

• Associate the number of sides and corners with 2-D shape names (circle, triangle, square and rectangle)

• recognise and name common 2-D shapes, including:

• Name 2-D shapes (circles, triangles, squares and triangles) regardless of size or orientation

- 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]

• Use partial views to identify simple 2-D shapes • Create and identify different triangles • Understand what makes a square a special rectangle • Create and identify different rectangles, including squares

Weekly overview Pupils name 2-D shapes as circles, triangles, rectangles and squares and discuss their properties, including their number of sides and corners and whether their sides are curved or straight. They also consider the differences between rectangles and squares and are introduced to the idea of squares as a special type of rectangle. Pupils rotate and change the size of 2-D shapes to develop their understanding that size and orientation do not affect the names of shapes. They make different triangles and consider how many there could be, to develop their understanding that there are an endless number of possible triangles. Pupils make, rotate and resize rectangles and squares to develop their understanding of their properties, and why a square is a special rectangle. Prerequisites for learning

Assessment

• Recognise simple 2-D shapes in pictures: circles, triangles, rectangles, squares

Use the following assessments from Busy Ant Maths Assessment Guide 1:

• Use everyday language to describe 2-D shapes

19: Recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including: - 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles] - 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres]

• Use the words ‘side’ and ‘corner’ when talking about 2-D shapes • Recognise simple 2-D shapes in objects and pictures • Sort 2-D shapes using information about their sides and corners Tracking back and forward through the curriculum Foundation Stage (40 to 60+ months) • begin to use mathematical names for ‘solid’ 3D shapes and ‘flat’ 2-D shapes, and mathematical terms to describe shapes • select a particular named shape

Year 1

Year 2

• recognise and name common 2-D shapes, including: - 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]

• use familiar objects and common shapes to create and recreate patterns and build models

• identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line • identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid] • compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects

Related Busy Ant Maths Units Related Collins New Primary Maths Foundation Stage Units Unit 32

Unit 41

Previous Y1 Units

Future Y1 Units Unit 11, Week 3

Y2 Units Unit 1, Week 3

Unit 33 Related EYFS Early Learning Goal: Shape, space and measures – They explore characteristics of everyday objects and shapes and use mathematical language to describe them.

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Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 1

Ordering numbers to 20 National Curriculum attainment target

Lesson objectives

• Count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals

• Count, read and write numbers to 20 in numerals • Identify numbers to 20

Previous related lessons

Future related lessons

None

Unit 1, Week 1, Lessons 2–4; Unit 5, Week 1, Lesson 1; Unit 9, Week 1, Lessons 1 and 4

Prerequisites for learning

Success criteria

Pupils need to:

Pupils can:

• recognise numbers 0–10 • write numbers 0–10 in numerals

• recognise and read numbers 0–20 in numerals, and put them in order

• be familiar with numbers 11–20

• write numbers 0–20 in numerals

Vocabulary zero, nought, one, two … twenty, count back, count on, before, after, forwards, backwards

Getting Starte d • Choose an activity from Number – Number and place value. • Choose a game or activity from Fluency in Number Facts: Y1/Y2 – Number and place value.

Teach

Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1

Resources card showing a number in the range 0–20 (per child) 1

2

Alter the range of numbers used, as appropriate. If children are confident with numbers 0–10 but struggle with 11–20, reduce the range, for example, to 0–15 initially. Once they are confident in using this range, extend it to include all the numbers 0–20.

• Display: Slide 1 showing a 0–20 number track with the numbers hidden (or Slide 2 showing a 0–20 number line, if preferred) or the Number Line tool. Give each child a number card showing a number in the range 0–20. • Say: We need to put the numbers on this number track. If you have a card with zero on it, hold it up. • Click to reveal 0 on the track. • Say: If you have the card that comes next after zero, hold it up. • Click to reveal 1 on the track. • Say: 0, 1, … can you tell me the number that comes after 1? (2) If you have the card with 2 on it, hold it up. • Continue clicking to reveal all the numbers 0–20, in turn, on the number track. • Point to each number in turn and count forwards with children from 0 to 20. • Repeat, this time to count backwards from 20 to 0. • Say a number in the range 0–20 and ask individual children which number comes before it and which comes after. Repeat for various numbers. • Ask children to close their eyes. Click to hide one of the numbers on the track. • Ask children to identify the missing number. Click to reveal it on the track. • Say: If you have this number, hold it up. • Repeat several times for different numbers. • Ask children to swap their number card with a partner. • Say: Tell your partner about your number. Which number is it? Which number comes before it? Which number comes after it?

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Unit 1: Number - Number and place value

• Use the number track to recite with children the numbers 0–20, forwards and backwards. • Point to or circle numbers on the track at random. Ask quick-fire questions for either the whole class or individual children to answer. • Ask: What’s my number? Can you tell me this number?

Individualised Learning Refer to Activity 1 from the Learning activities on page 78.

Activity Book 1A – Page 2: What’s my number? Progress Guide 1 – Support, Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 1: Missing numbers

Plenary 1

2

• Display: Slide 1 showing the 0–20 number track (or Slide 2 showing the 0–20 number line, if preferred). Click to reveal all the numbers. • Say the number names in order from 0 to 20 with children, pointing to each number as it is named. • Point to a number on the track, for example, 10. • Say: Tell me this number. (10) • Ask: Which number comes before ten? Which number comes after ten? • Continue to point to numbers on the number track. • Recite the number names from 0 to 20 with children, forwards and backwards.

Overcoming Barriers • Children may be confident reciting number names in sequence but have difficulty recognising individual numbers when presented in isolation or out of order. Provide plenty of opportunities for them to match spoken number names to the corresponding written numerals. Ensure that they are able to recognise numbers 0–10 easily, before extending the range to 15, then 20.

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Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 2

Counting one more and one less National Curriculum attainment target

Lesson objectives

• Given a number, identify one more and one less

• Given a number, identify one more and one less • Use the language of more than, less than

Previous related lesson

Future related lessons

Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 1

Unit 1, Week 1, Lessons 3 and 4; Unit 5, Week 1, Lesson 1; Unit 9, Week 1, Lesson 4

Prerequisites for learning

Success criteria

Pupils need to:

Pupils can:

• be confident in recognising and ordering numbers from 0 to 10

• accurately identify one more and one less than a given number between 0 and 20

• be developing confidence in recognising and ordering numbers from 10 to 20

• use the language ‘more than’ and ‘less than’ correctly when comparing two numbers

• understand the concepts of ‘less’ and ‘more’ Vocabulary zero, nought, one, two … twenty, more than, less than, count back, count on, before, after

Getting Starte d • Choose an activity from Number – Number and place value. • Choose a game or activity from Fluency in Number Facts: Y1/Y2 – Number and place value.

Teach

Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1

Resources card showing a number in the range 0–20, excluding 10 (per child) 1

2

• Display: Slide 1 showing a 0–20 number track with the numbers hidden (or Slide 2 showing a 0–20 number line, if preferred) or the Number Line tool with the numbers hidden. Give each child a number card showing a number in the range 0–20, with the exception of 10. • Say: We know numbers from zero to 20. Let’s say the number names in order up to 20, counting forwards from zero. • Recite the numbers 0–20 with children. • Say: Now we are going to complete this number track. Click to reveal 10 on the track (on the right of the second row). • Ask: Which number comes just before 10? Count back one to find out. • Say: If you have the number that is one less than 10, hold it up and say the number. Click to reveal 9 on the number track. • Continue counting back and finding ‘one less’ each time, until the sequence 0–10 is complete. • Count forwards with children from 0 to 10, then backwards from 10 to 0. • Complete the number track from 10 to 20, each time counting on from 10 and finding ‘one more’. • Count forwards with children from 0 to 20, then backwards from 20 to 0. • Say: I am thinking of a number that is one more than eight. I have to count on one from eight. What is my number? Using the number track, count one more with children to land on 9. • Say: Nine is one more than eight. • Repeat with different numbers, asking children each time to find the number that is ‘one more than …’. • Say: I am thinking of a number that is one less than eight. I have to count back one from eight. What is my number? Using the number track, count one less with children to land on 7.

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Unit 1: Number - Number and place value

• Say: Seven is one less than eight. • Repeat with different numbers, asking children each time to find the number that is ‘one less than …’. • Show a number in the range 0–20. Ask individual children to identify the number which is ‘one less’ or ‘one more’. Repeat for other numbers. • Say: Show your partner the number on your number card. Can they tell you the number that is one more? Can they tell you the number that is one less? Ask children to use the number track to check their answers.

Extend the activity by hiding two or three numbers on either side of the given number. Extend it further by leaving only 0 and 20 on display, along with the given number.

• Invite children to show their numbers and tell the rest of the class about them, saying which numbers are ‘one more’ and ‘one less’. • Ask children to close their eyes, then hide the two numbers either side of 9 on the number track. • Ask: Can you tell me which number is one more than nine? Reveal 10 on the track. • Ask: Can you tell me which number is one less than nine? Reveal 8 on the track. • Repeat several times for different numbers in the range 0–20.

Individualised Learning

Activity Book 1A – Page 3: Monster numbers

Refer to Activity 2 from the Learning activities on page 78.

Resources: coloured pencils or crayons (per child) Progress Guide 1 – Extension, Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 2: One more, one less

Plenary Resources 0–20 number fan (per child) 1

2

• Display: Slide 1 (or Slide 2, if preferred) or the Number Line tool with all the numbers 0–20 visible. Distribute 0–20 number fans to children. • Say: Use the number track to help you. Show me the number that is one more than eleven. • Repeat several times for different numbers between 0 and 20. • Call out a number, for example 5, and invite individual children to say which number 5 is one more than (4) and which it is one less than (6).

Homework Guide 1

• Repeat several times for different numbers between 0 and 10, then between 10 and 20.

Resources: glue; scissors; coloured pencils or pens

Year 1, Unit 1, Week 1, Lesson 2: Numbers on our street

Overcoming Barriers • Children may have difficulty in grasping the concepts of ‘less’ and ‘more’. If so, explain using visual or concrete contexts. For example, show a small number of birds sitting on a branch and establish how many there are. Then have one joining the others to illustrate ‘one more’, and repeat for one flying away to show ‘one less’.

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