ollide Communication Studies Dept. Student Magazine by students, for students
HEALTH & SEX Your personal guide to a long, fruitful, and glorifying life.
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Discounted Summer Classes Although your community college back home may have cut summer courses, you can still take a class or two at APU. To help your wallet, summer tuition is discounted 60 percent on more than 100 classes. Wrap up a few general studies requirements so you can graduate on time—or even early!
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4. Call the Office of the Undergraduate Registrar at (626) 812-3013 with any questions.
Dear Reader, I remember the day my pastor came to my public high school to talk about sex. Yeah, you read that right: sex. That big three-letter word that sent giggles through my youth group and caused older members to hold their breath. He came to speak at our on-campus Christian club. The club, also known as “Cougars for Christ,” (been a ‘cougar’ for seven years now) was host to a number of speakers who preached on teen topics. We were all yearning to hear how the Bible could relate to our culture, one marred with acne and puberty. But when it came to talking about sex in the church, somehow it was harder to discuss. It was easier to get information about sex in the school hallways or during lunch period. The day my pastor came, barriers were torn down but at some expense. The conversation was awkward, to say the least, and a little condescending. I felt like my Sunday !"#$$%&'())*%&+$(,-&#(-&",(!#*-&./0#&(&0,(!#1&2*,,1&34,/)5*,&!#$.6&71&4(!0$,&(00*840*-&0$&9!*& extreme language to add shock value, in addition to offering a little too much detail than needed. He -*:)/0*%1&.*)0&;$,&0#*<&=5$&+/5&$,&5$&#$8*>&(44,$("#6&?0&.(!&-/;;*,*)0&0#()&0#*&9!9(%&"$)!*,@(0/@*& talks but it got me wondering if going extreme on either side is ever the best way. That’s not what .*A,*&%$$B/)5&0$&-$&#*,*&./0#&$9,&0#*8*&/!!9*&$)&CDEFGC&()-&3DH6&I9,&/)0*)0/$)!&+*#/)-&:%%/)5&0#/!& issue with sexy and healthy articles is to educate—not shock, entertain, or sensationalize. I9,&,*4$,0*,!&#(@*&5,(44%*-&./0#&:)-/)5&0$4/"!&,*%*@()0&0$&1$9<&$9,&,*(-*,!6&?)&0#*&)*J0&;*.&4(5*!<&1$9A%%&:)-&;*(09,*!&$)&!09-1K;$$-!&0#(0&#*%4&1$9&,*8*8+*,&()-&(%0*,)(0/@*&8*-/"/)*6&I)&0#*& sexy end, there are articles about hooking-up and the dangers of oral sex. Online, a 93-year-old reveals the secrets to a healthy life and two Christian sex therapists discuss sex after marriage. 3$&0(B*&(&!*(0<&5,(+&(&"$;;**&L/;&1$9,&F*)0&4,("0/"*!&4*,8/0&/0M<&()-&*)N$1&$9,&:)(%&4,/)0& magazine of the semester. As always, thanks for reading and colliding with us. Sincerely,
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Collide Student Magazine, April 13, 2010, Issue 4 Editor-in-Chief | Kaitlin Schluter > firstname.lastname@example.org Business Manager | Adam Daley > email@example.com Print Design Manager | Troy Estes > firstname.lastname@example.org Photo Editor | 2$)&P/"B!$) > email@example.com Advisor | Karen Sorensen-Lang > firstname.lastname@example.org
Contributing Photographers | Q,()-$)&C$$B<&2$)&P/"Bson, Colleen Huston, Elissa Emoto, Zachariah Weaver
Contributing Writers | Elissa Emoto, Pauline Hassan,
R$%%**)&C9!0$)<&2/%%/()&2$1"*<&E%(/)(&S()5*%/)(<&O,/!0/)&S(00*,!$)<& Kirstina Bolton, Sarah Rogers, Zachariah Weaver
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Issue 4 | www.theclause.org/collide
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
IS COLLEGE BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH?
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: NATUROPATHY
The study foods students consume directly affect their alertness and concentration. College students adopt bad habits that may stick with them for the rest of their life. Naturopathy heals holistically while treating the source of sickness.
KILLER ORAL SEX
HEALTHY LIVES RESTORE HOPEFUL HEARTS
THE SEXIEST AGENDA
BREAKING DOWN THE HEALTH CARE PACKAGE
THE HOOK UP GENERATION
Education is a weapon against disease, especially when it comes to avoiding sexually transmitted diseases like HPV.
Homeless Healthcare of Los Angeles proves that improving the overall health and lives of L.A.’s homeless is possible. Magazine headlines send their own messages about sex but how does this affect our ideas about it? Starting the job hunt is difficult enough but understanding health care shouldn’t be.
Our generation’s practice of hooking up is affecting our understanding of relationships and sexuality.
OVERCOMING SEXUAL ASSAULT
Battling sexual assault begins with taking a step forward according to 2006 Miss Arizona Hilary Peele.
How do magazine headlines affect our views on sex?
Can’t get enough Collide?'G&)23'B&'-)/E.'&$.2&7?'H&)%'."'"+7'B&,($.&3' BBB?.2&clause.org/collide'."'7&)%'4"7&')7.$-#&(',>'"+7'0)/.)(.$-'.&)4'"0'7&*"7.&7(? The Giving Love
The Battle of Sextortion
Making the Change to Glutenfree
Why do you abstain from sex?
Health Never Gets Old
Weight Lifting Mistakes
The Skinny on Skin Care
Behind the vegan choice
FOOD FOR THOUGHT By: Sarah Rogers, English major
The studyfoods students consume directly affect their alertness and concentration.
ou’ve heard it before, likely from your mother: “You are what you eat!” Unless you’re on top of the health game, you probably don’t think about the calorie or sugar content during late night study sessions. What you want to know for your midnight study snacks is how long it will keep you focused and awake. According to Dr. Susan Bobak, a nutritionist at the Healing Arts Center of Covina, the key to healthy, fueling study foods is protein. “Instead of having chips, or something like that, it’s better to have a plate of cheese or salami slices,” Bobak said. “Eat anything that’s protein, because it will have a more even burn.” Proteins don’t have the hard crash of sugary foods and coffee, but provide the energy and focus needed to write grade-A papers. Bobak !"#$%%"&'()"*+,&-).(/0)*1$#*'$0)!*2)&3+() and seeds, aged cheeses, and a lot of deep green vegetables to keep your brain in tip-top shape. The main culprit of brain fog and fatigue ,()+/")"4#"(()$5 )(3-*!)*&')!".&"')#*!6$/7drates. “What happens is, if you’re eating too many sugars and carbs, it can create a hypoglycemic or sugar imbalance problem, so then your energy is
&"1"!)(+*68"09):$6*;)(*,'<)=)#7#8")$5 )#$&(+*&+)"66)*&')>$2)$5 )(3-ary energy will leave you depleted, just like the infamous caffeine crash. Shannon Tenorio, ion cleanse therapist at the Healing Arts Center of Covina, said, “A lot of people over caffeinate and at some points, they’re nervous and jittery. You use up a lot of your brain resources to calm yourself back down.” Herbal teas, such as -,&("&-0)*!").&")*()8$&-)*()7$3)'!,&;) them in moderation. Make sure you keep yourself hydrated with water when you have caffeine. “With the caffeine, your muscles are going to get really tight and sore,” Tenorio said. “You have hundreds of eye muscles and they’ll start to spasm out.” Katie Shubin, physician assistant at APU’s Health Center, also stressed the importance of water with caffeine. “Make sure you’re compensating for the caffeine you’re drinking. When you drink coffee, drink water as well,” Shubin said. Breakfast will also help with studying because it
will get you off to good start. “A good, long-acting breakfast in your stomach would be something whole grain. So Raisin Bran, whole grain bread, whole grain cereal, and whole grain oatmeal are good,” Shubin said. While many people gulp fruit juice for breakfast, Shubin explained the high sugar content spikes everything in your system and causes an energy lull later. What each professional stressed was the importance of water and protein, and the plague of sugar in study foods. Stephen Ridder senior cinematic arts major, says he relies on sugar to keep him awake. ?@&)+/")8*(+)A.8%)(/$$+B)C)2$!;"')$&0)2")/*')*)+36)$5 ) Red Vines. We actually had a plate of vegetables and dip, but no one really went after that,” Ridder said. “Everything is loaded with sugar to get us through our 12 to 13 hour days.” He said they all feel the effects of the high sugar and high caffeine intake. “We usually feel really gross inside after consuming like 10 times the amount of daily sugar we should. The crash is pretty hard,” Ridder said. Students’ eating habits aren’t often up-to-par with doctors’ recommendations, a problem due to a lack of planning according to Katie Shubin. “All it takes sometimes is a trip to the grocery store or taking a bag of fruit instead of a cookie,” Shubin said. “Failure to plan is planning to fail.”
“All it takes sometimes is a trip to the grocery store or taking a bag of fruit instead of a cookie. Failure to plan is planning to fail.”
()*+,-./ !0123**,04/ "-+,04 Azusa Pacific University’s Master of Social Work program prepares you for a career dedicated to improving the lives of others in a variety of professional settings, locally and around the world. Internships in the Greater Los Angeles area Integration of faith and social work practice Full-time, part-time, and advanced standing options Two specialized concentrations
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IS COLLEGE BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH? College students adopt bad habits that may stick with them for the rest of their life. Q1T&2/%%/()&2$1"*<&R$889)/"(0/$)&309-/*!&8(N$,
he seven deadly sins have taken a college twist. These vices can trap students, slowly shift themselves into habits, and eventually capture a student’s health and hold it hostage. The misdeeds of a college student are: lack of sleep, lack of exercise, stress, poor eating choices, poor time management, coffee abuse, and constant energy drink consumption. For Stephanie Adem, a junior economics major, the change began slowly. In high school she was known as a health nut. She exercised, ate well, got enough sleep and opposed energy drinks. “I used to say, ‘I would never put that in my body, that’s so gross’,” Adem said. “Now it’s my main source of food.” Adem consumes, on average, three to four energy drinks daily. D/"E88)'!,&;)$&").!(+)+/,&-),&)+/")%$!&,&-0)*&$+/"!)*5+"!) chapel, the third at the end of the day before she starts her homework, and maybe another at night if she has a big paper due. With 18 units, a weekend job, a gig as a research assistant for a professor, and a boyfriend, Adem is always short on time. “I have so much work and I’m so overwhelmed,” Adem said. “I feel like my body is invincible because I’m young. I feel like I can take care of my body later. I know that I’m harming my body, but at the same time, I feel like me being productive is much more important.” ='"%)(*,')5$!)*)#$88"-")(+3'"&+0)/"*8+/),()+/").!(+)+/,&-)+$)-$) because it’s easiest to control. “I don’t want to see the inside of my body,” Adem said. “It’s so destroyed.” Jorge Macias, a sophomore physics major, says the key to staying healthy in college is learning your limits. After being rushed to the hospital his freshman year for taking two 5-Hour Energy drinks in a row, Macias has learned his boundaries. His second semester freshman year, Macias took two 5-Hour Energy drinks consecutively in order to work on a speech for the next day. In the morning, he woke with his heart racing and www.theclause.org/collide | 6
had trouble breathing. He was rushed to +/")/$(F,+*8)*&')-,1"&)*&+,G,&>*%%*+$!7) %"',#,&")5$!)+/"),&>*%"')*!"*)*!$3&')/,() heart and lungs. Macias said his mindset was: “My body is strong, I can handle it.” Since freshman year, Macias has also discovered the balance between schoolwork, extra-curricular activities, and athletics. “College teaches you how to be healthier in more stressful situations,” Macias said. “I feel like I’m already getting better at handling stress. I’m learning my limitations.” According to UCLA’s annual Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey, which was published in January 2011, emotional health for incoming freshman is at an all-time low. Only about half, 51.9 percent, of the students polled said their emotional health 2*()*6$1")*1"!*-"<)H/,().-3!"),()'$2&)I<J) percent from 2009. As emotional health declines, feelings of anxiety are on the rise. The study showed that 29.1 percent of students described feeling frequently overwhelmed by too many duties. A year earlier, this number was 27.1 percent. The survey also found a difference between males and females concerning their level of stress. Out of the women polled, 38.8 percent said they felt overwhelmed by all they had to do, while approximately half the number of men, 17.6 percent, reported feeling this way. While more students are feeling overwhelmed and fewer students believe they have good emotional health, the statistics for students participating in college activities is at a record high. In 2010, 31.1 percent of the students polled said there was a very high chance they would participate in volunteer or community service activities. =)+$+*8)JK<L)F"!#"&+)$5 ),&#$%,&-)5!"(/%*&) said they would participate in clubs or groups on campus. Stephanie King, a junior communication studies major, said she is the source of her own stress. “I’m trying to please a lot of different
7 | Collide | April
people, and I set really high standards for myself,” King said. “A lot of stress comes from the standard I set for myself.” King is a full-time student, has three part-time jobs, and sings in Bel Canto, which occupies six hours of her week. She was involved with a swing dancing team, but had to leave this semester because she felt too stressed to handle it. King views all of her activities as opportunities that will further her college experience, and guide her towards a future career. King plans on eventually working with corporate event planning. While she knows she’s headed towards an occupation with high stress moments, she’s not worried. King’s method for handling all her activities is using a planner and prioritizing sleep. The planner helps her manage her time so that she can make room for everything she needs to complete. “I write it down in my planner, highlight, circle, and cross it off,” King said. At the top of King’s list of priorities is sleep. She said she’s never stayed up all night to work on an assignment. For her, getting four hours of sleep is an absolute minimum. However, King said some areas of her health have suffered since she came to college. She said she will eat whatever is cheap and easy to make, and rarely exercises because she doesn’t have time to. While she would like to make her life healthier, her current priority is her activities. “I really enjoy everything that I do, so I don’t know what I would cut out,” King said. “If I didn’t hold myself to such a high standard, everything I do would be more manageable.” Like King, Sam Papke, a freshman biology major, packs his schedule to the brim. He is not only taking 18 units and in the honors program, but he is the LAC for Trinity, an Ambassador, and a member of Man Choir. He also does guided research in the biology department. “Achiever is my top strength. I always need to have something to do,” Papke said. “I need to check things off my mental
checklist daily to feel like I’ve done something that day.” Papke said that he works well under stress, but also prioritizes his time. “I don’t get to do every fun event that comes around,” Papke said. One of the most important ways Papke utilizes his time is by learning things ,&)#8*(()+/").!(+)+,%")*!$3&'<)M*F;")(*,') that engaging with the material in class is one of the best ways students can save themselves time in the long run. “Active learning is the biggest thing. It’s a way of being in class that is far beyond presence of physical body,” Papke said. “You interact with material and store the material, so when you study, all you’re doing is refreshing instead of learning it for +/").!(+)+,%"<9) Dr. Todd Emerson, the medical director of APU’s health center, said in general, college health decreases due to students’ busy lifestyles. “We know that stress decreases the immune function a bit, and people under chronic stress do get sick more often,” Emerson said. Emerson recommends balance as a student’s best tool against the seven deadly college sins. He said regular exercise, six to nine hours of sleep, and conscientious eating are all paramount to a healthy life. And don’t fear, college kids, caffeine is still OK. Of course, moderation is key. According to Emerson, one or two cups of coffee a day is a reasonable amount. Emerson warns that caffeine is a mixed bag; it can 6")6"&".#,*8),&)($%")*!"*()*&')&"-*+,1") in others. For some, caffeine may allow for heightened mental focus, while for others it may lead to an increased risk of anxiety and depression. The importance of a healthy lifestyle ,&)#$88"-"),()(,-&,.#*&+)6"#*3(")$5 )+/") long-standing effects of negative decisions. Emerson cautions college students not to treat their bodies like they’re invincible. “A lot of times people make a lot of poor choices, and have a lot of ground to make up that doesn’t always get made up,” Emerson said.
Alternative Medicine: Naturopathy Naturopathy heals a person holistically while treating the source of sickness.
=()#$88"-")(+3'"&+(0)*)#$8')$!)+/")>3) can be an extreme snag in daily routines. If they come across our paths, we like to get rid of them fast. Taking a few Advil or some other type of painkiller can solve many headaches, colds, or stomachaches. But does this technique really solve the problem, or does it just cover up the symptoms? The approach of naturopathic medicine combats our natural desire to get quick results by focusing on healing ourselves, instead of eliminating the symptoms. According to the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, naturopathy is an alternative medicine that practices the belief that the human body has an innate healing ability. Naturopathic doctors (NDs) aim to tap into this natural healing power through changes in diet, exercise, lifestyle, and medications made from natural resources (called homeopathies), and therefore are not foreign to the human body. NDs aim to make long-term changes in lifestyle, so the results may not always come as quickly as taking a traditional antibiotic. Many who visit NDs are frustrated and tired of feeling sick all the time. They #*&E+).-3!")$3+)2/*+),()2!$&-<))NO()3(3*887)
9 | Collide | April
begin by giving the patients dietary restrictions, and many begin seeing results just from watching what they eat. Dr. Natasha Wolf has been studying and practicing naturopathy for 10 years. She owns a practice in San Diego called Vitalia Natural Medicine. Wolf believes naturopathy is the path to successful healing and should be given much more respect than it receives. Naturopathy takes a different approach to healing than traditional methods. “Our main focus is to use the symptoms as *)-3,'")+$).&')$3+)2/*+),()-$,&-)$&)3&'"!neath, allowing the body to heal the cause,” Wolf said. According to Wolf, naturopathy differentiates from traditional practice because NDs look at each person as an individual. “We don’t treat disease; we treat the patient. We look for the unique symptoms $5 )"*#/),&',1,'3*809)P$85 )(*,'<)?AQO(B) will spend about 15 minutes with a patient. NDs spend a minimum of 30 minutes, and 3(3*887)(F"&')*6$3+)JR)%,&3+"(0)2,+/)"*#/) patient. That can be healing in itself.” As the NDs look at the individual, they look at the individual’s symptoms as a unique map to show the person’s health problems. “Traditional medicine suppresses the
By: Colleen Huston, English major
Traditional medicine suppresses the symptoms, meanwhile, the problem still exists. symptoms, meanwhile, the problem still exists,” Wolf said. “Naturopathy goes for the cause of what’s affecting the individual.” O3!,&-)+/").!(+)*FF$,&+%"&+W2/,#/)+/") NO)3(3*887)!"T3,!"()+$)6")*&)/$3!)8$&-W+/") ND will try to understand the patient’s diet, lifestyle, stress level and overall health. NDs see each of these areas to be a contributing factor to health problems. At the end of the appointment, the ND will prescribe home$F*+/,"()+$)+/")F*+,"&+)2,+/)*)(F"#,.#)F8*&)+$) follow. They may also encourage the patient to make changes in their diet, exercise or lifestyles. These changes have been successful for many of Wolf ’s patients, many who had been told by
MDs that nothing could help them. In a particular case, Wolf treated a 5-yearold girl who had been recently diagnosed with autism. Her mother brought her to Dr. Wolf after many MDs told her they couldn’t '$)*&7+/,&-)5$!)/"!)'*3-/+"!<))=5+"!)/"!).!(+) *FF$,&+%"&+0)P$85 )F3+)+/")-,!8)$&)*)(F"#,.#) homeopathic medicine plan, with strict dietary restrictions that included no wheat or gluten. According to Wolf, within six months the girl stopped her daily tantrums and her communication level had drastically improved. There 2*()*8($)*)(,-&,.#*&+)'"#!"*("),&)/"!)@SO) behaviors. The girl’s mother told Dr. Wolf, “I have my daughter back.” Dr. Wolf encourages people to have an open mind to naturopathy, and give it a try. “Put it to the test. It can’t hurt and it will most likely help you in some way,” Wolf said. “Conventional medicine paints a picture [for +/")F368,#B)+/*+)&*+3!$F*+/,#)%"',#,&"),(&E+) science-based and that’s just not true. It’s completely science and research based.” Peter Fredericks, a senior psychology and biochemistry major, grew up around MDs and hopes to become one himself. However, he believes naturopathy should be used in some cases, while other cases like recent heart attacks or certain cancers call for the security of traditional medicine. “Naturopathy is great for some people,” Fredericks said. “It allows people to get treatment without feeling like they have to abuse their body in order to help it. Traditional medicine comes off as very abrasive to some people.” For Fredericks, the two practices should come hand in hand, complementing each other as they heal the patient. “In my opinion, traditional medicine and naturopathic medicine should really be paired. I think we should treat patients with traditional medicine. It’s proven to work, and it’s going to help you. Naturopathic medicine does a lot for your whole body to help it,” Fredericks said. “The good thing about combining them is that
then it will heal the whole person.” Fredericks does advise those who suffer from heart attacks, cancer or other serious ,88&"(("()+$)-"+)+!"*+%"&+)5!$%)*)QO).!(+<)H/") QO)2,88)6")*68")+$)T3,#;87).4)+/")F!$68"%<)U") then recommends going to a ND for long-term care, in addition to exploring possible lifestyle changes to sustain their health. Kim Chartrand has a philosophy that is similar to Fredericks’. She has been blending the worlds of naturopathic and traditional medicine for years, using homeopathies on herself and her family. She also uses traditional medications to treat her patients at her current job as a school nurse at Capri elementary school in Leucadia, Calif. Chartrand also sees +/")6"&".+)$5 )68"&',&-)+/")+2$0)*&')!"#$-&,V"() that one type of medicine may be better for certain cases than the other. “For certain conditions, like allergies and colds, there are advantages in taking homeopathies,” Chartrand said. “If they don’t work as effectively as you want them to, you can always have the conventional treatment as a backup.” Chartrand sees the advantage of using naturopathy in many cases, for both physical and emotional health. “Another thing is that it’s really important for is emotional and mental distress,” Chartrand said. Both Kim and her husband Don have received excellent results from using homeopathies. “When my husband was in his 30s, he began to get really poor vision from looking at a computer screen for so long for his job. He started wearing reading glasses, and I started giving him a homeopathic remedies called nux vomica,” Chartrand said. “After a few months, he didn’t have to wear glasses anymore.” As naturopathy continues to give results through dietary changes, lifestyle changes, or homeopathies, it is recognized as a respectable approach for many health issues. Homeopathic remedies can be purchased online at abchomeopathy.com. The site recommends remedies for your symptoms.
www.theclause.org/collide | 10
KILLER ORAL SEX I>J'K$##$)/'K">-&3'!"44+/$-).$"/'L.+%$&('4)F"7
Education is a weapon against disease, especially when it comes to avoiding sexually transmitted diseases like HPV.
virus that can be passed during oral sex is the current leading cause of oral cancer, affecting both men and women. Research has shown that the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can be transmitted during oral sex, has passed tobacco as the leading cause of oral cancer, accounting for 64 percent of oral cancers. According to the Oral Cancer Foundation, over 120 different 014*!&$;&CSU&#(@*&+**)&/-*)0/:*-V&#$.*@*,<&)$0&(%%&(,*&%/)B*-&0$& serious disease. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are known to cause cervical cancer, and HPV 16 has recently been linked to oral cancer. ?)&(&!09-1&-$)*&+1&0#*&2$#)!&C$4B/)!&I)"$%$51&R*)0*,<&%*-&+1&P,6& Maura Gillison, researchers found, after testing 253 patients with head and neck cancer, that HPV 16 was present in 90 percent of the HPV positive tissues. The research stated that if a person has six or more oral sex partners in their lifetime, their chances of getting oral cancer from HPV increases eight times compared to someone who has never performed oral sex. These numbers are particularly disconcerting to Bonnie HalpernFelsher, professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco, who has studied over 600 adolescents to determine a younger generation’s view about sex. Halpern-Felsher found that the overall opinion of oral sex as not a big deal. Because oral sex is perceived as more normative, or more acceptable, Halpern-Felsher said it is also less of an attack on the individual’s morals. The study, published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Ado-
lescent Medicine, explored teen attitudes about oral sex. HalpernFelsher said teens perceive oral sex as less risky in health, social, and emotional consequences than vaginal sex. In addition, teens believe oral sex isn’t really ‘sex’. “When you talk to teens and say, ‘Don’t have sex’ they say, ‘I’m not!’” Halpern-Felsher said. Halpern-Felsher said she does view oral sex as sex and believes that most professionals do as well. “It’s still intimacy,” Halpern-Felsher said. “It’s still sexual contact.” Halpern-Felsher said the teen viewpoint should be met with open discussion and dialogue, with a concrete message about delaying sexual activity. She says the key is to specify oral sex as sex and discuss the risks involved. Cathy Wilde McPhee, MSN, FNP-C, RN, is the director of the RN to BSN program and the director of online education for the school of nursing. She also believes education about oral sex is necessary. “If you’re going to choose something, have the information to choose it,” McPhee said. “Know the risk factors. It can be a commitment to a disease for life.” McPhee said she recommends the HPV vaccination as a preventative measure. APU’s Health Center offers HPV immunizations for $150 each for a series of three shots, or $10 each if the patient is covered under student insurance and receives the vaccinations at the Student Health Center. McPhee said the most important step students can take is to research the risks involved with oral sex. “The bottom line is, they need to be educated about it,” McPhee said.
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HEALTHY LIVES RESTORE HOPEFUL HEARTS By: Elissa Emoto, Communication Studies major
With his eyes half open, James Garmon explained why he was so tired. “I got a heart disease. When I was born I should’ve been a twin. I had an extra finger. I had an extra toe. I had extra valves in my heart,” Garmon said. “My heart can go fast enough for two people in less than ten minutes.” Like all the clients of Homeless Healthcare of Los Angeles (HHCLA), the 41-yearold met the criteria for the program because he was living with a chronic illness. Garmon was born with Wolff ParkinsonWhite Syndrome, which means his heart has extra circuits that lead to episodes of rapid heart rate. In addition to WPW syndrome, Garmon was also diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in 2005. “Streetwalker,” said Garmon, as he explained how he contracted the virus. “I was dealin’ with a girl and she told me to go get tested.” He then told how his past of substance abuse led him to HHCLA. “At the age of 16, I first started using drugs. You know how most people go to McDonald’s? Well I use to go to McDonald’s too,” Garmon said. “Only difference
13 | Collide | April
is when they went through the front door I was eating out of the trash bins.” At 16, he slept and panhandled on the sidewalks of Los Angeles, all the while wondering where his next meal would come from. Then in 2006, Garmon was referred to HHCLA after being sent to the state penitentiary three times for stealing. Now an alumnus of the Homeless Healthcare program, which helped him get housing, Garmon has been sober since February 2, 2007. He is a walking testament of the program’s success and doesn’t mind telling others about HHCLA. “The only way I can give, only way I can keep what I have, is by giving it away,” Garmon said. “If somebody didn’t care about people like me after they got sober, I’d probably still be out there.” On Beverly Boulevard, the main offices of HHCLA can be found in the heart of Los Angeles. With approximately 20 percent of L.A.’s homeless disabled, homeless healthcare is in high demand. Since 1985, over 100,000 homeless men, women, and children have received HHCLA’s services. The program is separated into different departments that focus on improving the health of the homeless
through direct services, education, and advocacy. A hopeful staff contributes to the success of Homeless Healthcare. The director of the Access to Housing for Health (AHH) program, Elda Lazaro, graduated with a master’s degree in social work and started working at HHCLA just four months later. “This is something that I have always naturally been gravitating toward,” Lazaro said. “I’m really happy. It was something I always knew I was going to be working with.” The AHH program helps the homeless get into Section 8 housing, a federally funded housing program that is present throughout the United States. AHH has been granted 115 vouchers from the government through Section 8. Those vouchers are then dispersed to the clients who meet the program’s criteria, eg. being homeless and hospitalized at least two times in a county hospital. Lazaro explained how potential clients are asked thorough questions in order to be admitted into the program. “As long as they meet that criteria, we will send a social worker out in the field and interview these clients and do an assess-
Homeless Healthcare of Los Angeles proves that improving the overall health and lives of L.A.’s homeless is possible.
ment,” Lazaro said. The name of the assessment itself is a tongue twister: a bio-psycho-social assessment, which asks about everything from the client’s history of homelessness to their current medical history. “We make sure we assess the client thoroughly,” Lazaro said. “And if they do meet the criteria of being in the program, we will take them in.” Another department within HHCLA is the Harm Reduction Program, which provides specific services, like the needle exchange. This life-saving program allows people to come and openly exchange used syringes for new ones. This program helps to reduce the number of drug users who would normally share syringes. Homeless Healthcare prides itself on being an open environment for people to come and be accepted just as they are in their current situation. “When I first came to the program,
I had a hard time telling people when I needed help,” Garmon said. “I was trying to get it myself, but with the help of Homeless Healthcare, I learned nobody knows you need help unless you let them know.” When asked what he liked to do in his free time, besides promoting the HHCLA program, Garmon didn’t hesitate. “Play videogames,” Garmon said. Now, with a stable living situation, Garmon is able to play videogames as much as he wants to in his apartment. “I play them on my computer,” Garmon said. “Any games that are matching. You got three cherries, you got three hearts, as long as it’s matching.” Along with the title of avid videogame player, Garmon can also add mentor and math tutor to his résumé. “I adopt kids off the streets, the youngsters,” said Garmon, who enjoys helping kids with math homework and being their friend when they need one.
The lyrics of Michael Jackson’s “Can’t Stop ‘til You Get Enough” rang through his phone, and the upbeat ringtone briefly stopped the conversation. “I can’t talk right now. I’m in an interview,” Garmon answered. The person on the other end was one of his “little play nieces”, who had a homework question for him. Even as a graduate of the Homeless Healthcare program, Garmon continues to participate in a group discussion session. He knows that he always has a safety net of support at HHCLA. When he thinks about using drugs again, Garmon reminds himself of something he learned during the program: a positive mindset will help with the times he feels like relapsing. “Knowing is just a thought, because the thoughts are going to pass away,” Garmon said. “For the rest of my life I’m going to think about that.”
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and experts who study it what we should know about the sex that is sold on the glossy covers.
Setting the Agenda
ary-Lou Galician and Debra L. Merskin explain the “AgendaSetting theory” in Critical Thinking about Sex, Love and Romance in the Mass Media. The book identi:*!&0#(0&0#*&8*-/(&8(1&)$0&0*%%& everyone “how” to think but they ./%%&-*:)/0*%1&%*0&9!&B)$.&=.#(0>& to think about. They explain that magazines act as agenda setters. They achieve this act when they identify and frame the issues for their readers. What are the editors and writers of Cosmopolitan, Men’s
subscription fee, leaving the reader to not worry about the purchase of the issue off of the racks. The second is the more impulsive and potential buyer who is going to be interested by what they see on each magazine cover in the stands. “We had to think about who our buyers were. With our philosophy at the time the two main things that the second buyers would be most interested in #*(,/)5&(+$90&;,$8&9!&.*,*&:0)*!!& and sex,” Spiker said. “There were two prominent cover lines for Men’s Health when I worked there and I wouldn’t say it has changed 89"#6&G#*&:,!0&4,$8/)*)0&.(!& :0)*!!&()-&0#*&!*"$)-&.(!&(&!*J& line.”
“If you look at many publications covers like Cosmopolitan or Glamour, you see a ton of that kind of content.”
Magazines headlines send their own messages about sex but how does this affect our ideas about it? By: Zachariah Weaver, English major
osmopolitan March 2011“The sex quiz”, “For his eyes only, this erotic touch will practically melt his boxer briefs.” Men’s Health Training Guide March 2011- “The better sex workout.” Glamour March 2011- “29 things he’s thinking when you’re naked, the good stuff guys don’t tell you.” Elle March 2011- “Always the friend, never the girlfriend? (How to get a love
15 | Collide | April
life)” Maxim March 2011- “Sex Academy: get an A in giving her an O.” These cover lines shoot out $)*&!/5)/:"()0&!955*!0/$)&0$&0#$!*& passing their eyes over them: Buy me! I teach you about good sex. W*&(,*&!0,$)5%1&/)'9*)"*-&+1& media. However, the top magazines in the racks may negatively shape our ideas about sex. I decided to ask people in the industry
Being a Better Lover
here is a fair amount of sexual content in magazines that focuses on the health within sexual relationships between males and females. Kim Walsh-Childers Ph. D., a professor in the journalism department at the University of Florida, says that there is even more focus on the content that is what she calls the “how to be a better lover” type of story. WalshChilders co-edited Sexual Teens, Sexual Media (2002) and has a long time interest in how the mass media presents the issue of health and sex to the public. The topic of sex represented in magazines can basically split into two sub topics: sexual health information and sexual instructional tips. “If you look at many publication’s covers like Cosmopolitan or Glamour, you see a ton of that
The Sexiest Agenda
Health, Glamour, Elle, Bust, Maxim and other top magazines wanting us to think about on a daily basis? One could gather from viewing any of these publications at the stands that they are at least interested in improving the sex lives of thousands of readers. I had the chance to ask Ted Spiker, a former editor for Men’s Health magazine from 1998 to 2001, how a publication decides to frame their information by what they put on the cover of each issue. “Certainly, one of the ways we did it is- we’d get a bunch of editors in one room and go through our lineup of stories and brainstorm some cover lines,” Spiker said. The magazine has two different types of buyers to consider. G#*&:,!0&$)*&/!&0#*&!9+!",/40/$)& buyer who has already been interested enough to pay a monthly
kind of content,” Walsh-Childers said. “It would be encouraging to see magazines, more often then they used to, offer constructional material that would help older teens understand their risks of STD’s and unwanted pregnancy.” “I have been studying the amount of skin cancer stories and information in magazines. From viewing this research, I would at least say that the content of sexual teasers hasn’t declined since I made the research in the book,” Walsh-Childers said. There may be no way to say that content on the best sex has increased in the past ten to 0.*)01&1*(,!6&E)-&/0&-*:)/0*%1& doesn’t exclude the fact that it has decreased. This means that magazines still have an unstable balance between sexual instruction and educational sex information. Magazines still have an agenda. “I found that readers of these magazines are at least up to eighteen years old and the magazines, by in large, make the assumption that all of their readers are very interested in having sex,” Walsh-Childers said. “At least they assume that the readers are more interested in ‘how to be a better lover’ rather than how to avoid being taken advantage of or avoid contracting an STD or become pregnant unintentionally.”
Creating the Message
he messages that publications put in their agendas become ingrained into the minds $;&!$"/*016&F*(#&2$!*4#!$)<&()& undergraduate senior at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, has put together her own research on
comparing messages of cosmopolitan about women’s sexual and romantic relationships. It is titled Sex and the Cosmo Girl. “Seeing the cover lines on magazines at the store certainly creates a message for women that in sex they need constant improvement and that sex is something they need to learn #$.&0$&-$<>&2$!*4#!$)&!(/-6&=?& think that the focus is on sexual improvement rather than on giving advice on how to create a healthy relationship or how to become 8909(%%1&!(0/!:*-6> “A lot of the suggestions related to how you observe your sex life often involve advice that promotes non-verbal and subtle communication, rather than any outright discussion about how either partner is enjoying the sex or how it can be improved in a way that is satisfying for both people,” 2$!*4#!$)&!(/-6&=E&%$0&$;&0/8*!&/0& has been framed that ‘you don’t want to hurt his masculinity’ and
they never suggest that he might need some sort of improvement.” So how do these sexual instructions create division in the equality of men and women as sexual partners? 2$!*4#!$)&-*!",/+*-&0$&8*& how women are reading 99 tips every month on how to improve themselves while men are assumed to be already naturally good at sex. She thinks discrepancy can be detrimental to a relationship. Magazines are basing their instructions off of their assumptions of genders and their sexual capabilities. After this is established in the couple’s minds, the ability for them to create their own healthy sexual and romantic relationship may be unattainable. “I think it could be really detrimental if one party or individual is being encouraged to follow these assumptions and not actually speak their mind about their sexual relationship or their
,*%(0/$)!#/4&/)&5*)*,(%<>&2$!*4#son said. This constant ingraining can make any number of age groups respond the same way but because college students are on the brink of crossing into adulthood, college years create much room for experimenting with sexual behavior. In a 2006 article No Strings Attached: The Nature of Casual Sex in College Students by Catherine M. Grello, Deborah P. Welsh and Melinda S. Harper, the ‘journey to adulthood’ includes a frequent amount of experimentation with sex. Therefore if these assumptions and agendas on magazine covers become ingrained in the researched college student, then there must be an alternative way of approaching sexual health. The sexiest agenda may need to become more equally balanced with its denounced subtopic of sexual health.
“At least they assume that the readers are more interested in ‘how to be a better lover’ rather than how to avoid being taken advantage of or avoid contracting an STD or become pregnant unintentionally.” www.theclause.org/collide | 16
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BREAKING DOWN THE HEALTH CARE PACKAGE Starting the job hunt is difficult enough but understanding health care shouldn’t be. By: ALAINA PANGELINA, Journalism major When looking for your future job, you will consider a lot of things: location, pay, hours, position, ability to rise in the company, and how much pride you take in your work. Not to add to the list, but the health care package is another important consideration. The United States Department of Labor divides health care in terms of medical, dental, and on more rare plans, eye care. These factors can be further divided depending on possible risks with the chosen job. As long as you are working full-time, the law requires some form of a health care package. But just as each job is different than the other, wages and possible packages for employees differ greatly. It is important to know what a good package is before you sign up.
KNOW WHAT’S INCLUDED
The first thing to consider when looking at a new job’s benefits or care packages is to understand what is included. “It [your health plan] plus perks, is creative in showing they value you,” said Laura Igram-Edwards, a counselor at the Azusa Pacific University Career Center. “It shows the value they place on you and what the company has invested in you.” The value here is in how much coverage the plan gives you. Typically 40 percent of your salary pays for a coverage plan, which then helps pay for anything covered in your plan. The only thing required at a regular paying, full-time job is that a plan is offered. Having any one of the three types of plans listed above counts as health care, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Employees should make sure they are listed as a full-time worker, instead of a “contractor.” Some employers will call workers “contractors” as a way of getting around these required benefits, according to Igram-Edwards. The U.S. Labor Bureau also recommends considering the more permanent plans if it is a company you want to stay with. These include plans like life insurance, which 79 percent of workers have required access to according to their 2009-2010 report.
WEIGH YOUR PRIORITIES
Connie Machuca, APU alumna, works full time to earn money and save up. She was offered insurance coverage, but declined because of the percentage it cost compared to what she earned. “It would have left me with a very small paycheck,” Machuca said. “And I’m barely making eight dollars an hour.” But if you are willing to receive less at first while you work your way up the ladder, consider the following. Research if the starting salaries and compensations are lower but improve with tenure. Also, consider if these plans are top priority for you at this point in
your career. Perhaps the “perks” offered, or just the convenience and pay, are enough. “Perks” are also a key part of what Igram-Edwards recommends looking into. According to Igram, perks are a way for the company to show what a worker is worth to them if they work hard. Perks could make up for the absence of a healthcare plan if it is something investment worthy. Some perks may include help through a doctoral program, gym membership, day care for young workers with children, or advanced health care plans.
DO SOME RESEARCH
So you landed a job and nothing was said about compensation besides pay, but you really need some sort of coverage. Now what? Igram-Edwards explained that asking about the health care package is less routine compared to asking about pay. She rather recommends talking to Human Resources with the company before the interview and after. Applicants should also ask employers for the standard two to three day period to respond to a job offer. In that time, ask around in offices like Human Resources. Find out what compensations are offered and weigh for yourself if everything really does say thank you for your hard work. Remember, however, that these plans are non-negotiable, which is different from the actual pay rate. Again, Igram-Edwards and most career advice sites through the “Job Choices 2011” magazine advises asking someone in the actual company’s Human Resources department the pros and cons of a job and how a company shows you what you are worth to them for your time and energy, and loyalty.
www.theclause.org/collide | 18
GENERATION Our generation’s practice of hooking up is affecting our understanding of relationships and sexuality. I>J'M7$(.$/';)..&7("/3'!$/&4)'I7")%-)(.'97.('4)F"7 Two girls walk down the aisle at the grocery store. One girl turns to her friend and asks, “So? How was Friday night?” The other girl blushes and looks embarrassed. “A little crazy,” she admits. “What? What happened?” shrieks the first girl. “Um, I got so drunk that I hooked up with Ryan,” the second girl admits. As they walk away, continuing to gossip and giggle, I am left thinking about how shocked my mom would be if she heard the conversation that didn’t seem at all out of place to me, if she could even understand what was being talked about. What brought about the changes in culture that made hooking up normal? How did our generation so radically change from the one before it? Sexuality has become a common theme, discussed casually and shared with a variety of people, even strangers. “Hooking up” is perhaps the quintessential demonstration of this concept. So, what is “hooking up” exactly? A study done in 2001 by the
Institute for American Values entitled Hooking Up, Hanging Out, and Hoping for Mr. Right: College Women on Dating and Mating Today explained hooking up as “a widely recognized practice, that explicitly allows sexual interaction without commitment or even affection.” Dr. Diane Puchbaugh, professor of psychology in APU’s Graduate School, said that “hooking up” just means that two people did something sexual. This can be anything from making out to intercourse. Ashley Nelson, a senior social work major, says it’s a common theme with many people she knows. “Hooking up is no strings attached with no understanding of what sex is supposed to be like,” Nelson said. Confusion seems to be a common theme in the lifestyle provided by frequent hook-ups. The Institute for American Values study concluded “there is considerable confusion and disagreement
among college women themselves over the definitions, meanings, and practices of hooking up, dating, having a boyfriend, and more.” Senior cinematic arts major Scott Crozier said that he doesn’t understand the pressure to hook up. “It complicates friendships and puts a strain on relationships between friends. Having two of your friends hook up can be one of the most awkward and stressful situations to go through. Trust me,” Crozier said. According to the study by the Institute for American Values, some of the problems that exist are because of a lack of support. The study reported that “often it seems that many of today’s young women are left to negotiate a complex time in their lives — full of conflicting needs, feelings, and demands — almost entirely on their own. Nowhere is the sense that these women are making it up as they go along more clear than when it comes to talking about commitment.” Many of these women do want to get married eventually, but their experiences now do not prepare them well for that future. Puchbaugh says that hooking up does not usually lead to relationships, but it hasn’t done away with dating. “I don’t think dating is obsolete,” Puchbaugh said. “I actually think that with the hooking up phenomenon, people are actually more deliberate about dating.” Although people often think hooking up and dating are two sides of the same coin, Puchbaugh said that they are not at all related. “You hook up with people you don’t know, you don’t intend to know, and you don’t want to know,” Puchbaugh said. “A lot of people that I know who do this would be appalled at the idea of hooking up with someone they liked.”
People are almost practicing a form of abstinence for potential relationships. “They’re saving themselves, in a way,” Puchbaugh said. “If they’re going to date someone and have a serious relationship, they behave very differently because what that person that they like thinks of them matters.” One thing seems clear, the way that the younger generation views sexuality has clearly undergone a very dramatic shift. The proposed reasons for this vary. Puchbaugh thinks the change is a relatively new one. “My perception of this change is recent, like, in the last ten years,” said Puchbaugh. Dr. Keli Finnerty-Myers, assistant professor in the communication division at Pepperdine University, has done significant research on sexuality in the current generation. “Evidence increasingly suggests that exposure to sexual television content contributes to emerging adults’ sexual socialization,” Finnerty-Myers said. “The majority of emerging adults (73 percent) report that they have learned “some” or “a lot” about sex from the media.” Portrayals of sexuality in media have undergone dramatic shifts in the last fifty years, and even in the last ten years. Lauren Guerard, a senior cinematic arts major, has been studying the media’s portrayal of virginity and sexuality. She said that virginity loss is portrayed in one of three ways: “As a stigma that needs to be gotten rid of as soon as possible, as a rite of passage; a normal part of growing up, or as a gift, something to be held onto, that’s very precious,” Guerard said. To Guerard, hooking up feeds into the stigma idea or the rite of passage idea. “If you see virginity as a stigma, hooking up is a way for people to affirm that not only did they get rid of [virginity], but they didn’t
put any unnecessary value on it,” Guerard said. Crozier believes that hooking up is both degrading and harmful to the self-esteem of the parties involved. “Hooking up is really awful,” Crozier said. “You are putting yourself out there emotionally and physically, but for all of the wrong reasons.” The concern is that the current state of sexuality and the way that people relate to it has devalued sex in some way. People will not necessarily view sex in the proper light if their only experience with it comes through hook-ups. “Casual sex is not as thrilling as a long-term committed relationship,” Puchbaugh said. “If all your early experiences with sexuality are all casual, you’re not going to value it. You’re not going to value what would have been meant to be a really beautiful thing to share with your committed mate.” The shift in sexuality and its perceptions have also brought about a change in the way that marriage is viewed. “I think because we don’t understand sexuality, it affects long-term marriages,” Nelson said. Nelson believes that people in our generation do not see sex the way it should be seen, almost trivializing it and its consequences. “Sexuality is all about connection,” said Nelson. “There’s no thought or intentionality in ‘hooking up’. That leaves people needing to have sex more, because they’re not fulfilled enough. People need to have that closeness.” This closeness fulfils a need that people have for deep and significant relationships. Nelson is concerned about the effect that our generation’s casual view of sex is having on our ability to form and maintain connections. “In our generation, we don’t know how to have meaningful relationships,” Nelson said. “We’re not doing it right.”
21 | Collide | April
wo days before Hilary Peele was crowned Miss Arizona in 2006, she competed in a 8$#*8)F*-"*&+)+/*+)2$38')%*!;)*)(,-&,.#*&+) turning point in her life. She stood before a panel of judges, ready to answer their questions during the interview round with a beauty queen-worthy smile. What the judges didn’t know was that behind this shining expression, there was something going on. Peele was battling an internal struggle, and she was winning. Just four days earlier, a stranger broke into her on-campus apartment at Arizona State University and raped her. “I decided I didn’t want this man to control me and continue to affect my life,” said Peele, who made the decision to compete in the pageant despite the traumatic event. Peele, now 25, looks back on her response as a time of strength. That day she shared her experience with the judges and changed her community service platform to rape awareness. “I wasn’t embarrassed,” Peele said. “I just thought people needed to be aware that if it could happen to me, it could happen to anyone.” Peele’s case doesn’t match the typical myths about sexual assault. She locked her door. She didn’t wear suggestive clothing. She wasn’t drinking. The man who attacked her broke in through the window of her apartment while she was taking *)(/$2"!<)P/"&)(/").&,(/"'0)/")2*()2*,+,&-)5$!) her on the other side of the door. She never saw his face. He threw a towel over her head and held a knife to her throat, pushing her into her bed!$$%<)H/")%*&)+/"&)F!$#""'"')+$)!*F")/"!)5$!)JX) minutes. Peele now speaks nationally to women of all ages through the Rape, Abuse, Incest and National Network (RAINN), offering a glimpse of hope to those that have been victims of sexual assault. Peele shares that although nothing can be done to prevent sexual assault altogether, safety precautions and awareness reduce risks.
OVERCOMING SEXUAL ASSAULT
Experts on confronting sexual assault share the tools to healing and prevention, starting with dispelling myths that tell you: ‘It could never happen to me.’ KNOW YOU ARE NOT ALONE he assumption that ‘this would never happen to me’ is a common one. But according to statistics, sexual assault is not a rarity. The RAINN website reports that one in six American women have been sexually assaulted. Out of these women, 80 percent $5 )1,#+,%()*!")3&'"!)+/")*-")$5 )IX)*&')JJ)F"!#"&+)*!")3&'"!)LY<)=&'0),+) can happen to men too. Jessica Sears Brown, vice president and co-founder of Pandora’s Project, has seen male sexual assault victims speak out on their organiza+,$&E()ZJ[K)$&8,&")#$%%3&,+7)5$!3%(<)@&")%*&)2*()("43*887)*((*38+"') 2/,8"),&)+/")%,8,+*!7<)H/")5$!3%()("!1")*()*).!(+)*&')8*(+)(+$F),&)+/") /"*8,&-)F!$#"((0)$55"!,&-)*)%"*&()+$).&'),&(+*&+)(3FF$!+)*&')#$&&"#+) (3!1,1$!(<)P/"&)+/")#/*+)!$$%().!(+)$F"&"'),&)ZXXL0)+/"!")2"!")ZXX) members. The numbers have grown to over 30,000. This includes a variety of ages. “It happens to children as young as one and grandmas as old as 80,” Brown said. “It just happens to everyone. Don’t buy into the myths because you have to look beyond the myths in order to protect yourself.” Another myth is that sexual assault victims dress the part and “ask for it.” The California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (CALCASA) recognizes “Denim Day California” during the month of April in response to myths like these. The Italian Supreme Court case that inspired the event dismissed a young woman as a rape victim because of her clothing. The judge ruled the woman’s jeans were too tight to be taken off by force. The perpetrator would have required assistance and consent by the victim. Executive director of CALCASA, Sandra Henriquez, hopes that myths can be dispelled during the organization’s statewide Sexual Assault Awareness Month this April. Throughout the month, events will be held to rally supporters to join the movement against sexual assault. Part of this month includes dispelling another important myth: Women #*&E+).-/+)6*#;<)U"&!,T3"V0)2/$),()JELLEE)*&')+"*#/"()("85G'"5"&("0)(*,') that it is possible no matter your body structure.
KNOW YOU CAN FIGHT BACK ne of the basic ways to combat sexual assault is to exude #$&.'"&#")*&')6")%$!")*2*!")$5 )7$3!)(3!!$3&',&-(<)D*,!*/) Jahangir, Teen Prevention Specialist at Project Sister, referred to a series of interviews with imprisoned rapists. These offenders admitted they were less likely to attack a victim if they directly looked at them. . Jahangir encouraged women to practice this and pay attention to details like scars and tattoos. Another tool is to enroll in a self-defense class, offered by many
&$&GF!$.+)$!-*&,V*+,$&()*&')#$88"-")#*%F3("(<)=+)M"*#")@1"!)\,$8"&#") in Pasadena, Calif., weekly programs are offered. Yvette Lozano, lead instructor and director of intervention services, also informs college students on practicing safe social drinking. But when it comes to defense, Lozano said it could look different for everyone. “It’s about options and a choice,” Lozano said. Sometimes that means submitting to get out alive. The Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) system is a program available +$)(+3'"&+()*+)=V3(*)M*#,.#)]&,1"!(,+7)*&')&",-/6$!,&-)#$88"-"(<)H/") 12-hour program is split between two days and includes physical contact simulations. Anthony Strickland, RAD instructor, said the program is ,%F$!+*&+),&)63,8',&-)6*(,#).-/+,&-)!"(F$&("(< “It’s important to know that you can hit someone, how it feels…” Strickland said. “All those things are good to experience in a controlled "&1,!$&%"&+),&(+"*')$5 )'$,&-),+)+/").!(+)+,%")A,5 )*++*#;"'B<9 Lisa Thompson and her daughter, Ashley Osburn, signed up to take the class together during freshman orientation week. Ashley, a freshman nursing major, said the most impacting experience was the simulations. During the simulations, both “attackers” and “victims” wear protective padding and roleplay a situation. In Ashley’s case, it was getting money out of an ATM. The “attacker” taunted her as she pretended to withdraw money and then pulled her to the ground. “When he grabbed me, I stopped breathing and I just elbowed,” Osburn said. Osburn said it was good to see her natural reaction and learn better ways to get out of dangerous situations. She still wants to take the class again, to condition healthy responses. Her mother, who watched her simulation, was encouraged by her daughter’s performance after the training. “It gave me extra piece of mind that at least I feel there’s something she can do to react,” Thompson said. APU female students that study abroad with the Los Angeles term also take RAD training, but as a requirement. Melanie Jarrer, junior global studies major, was among those students last Fall 2010. Although Jarrer responded intensely to the simulations, she left with more than basic technique. “Even if you go for training, you learn something about humanity,” Jarrer said. “You learn how to empathize and how you can feel for these people that have gone through these things. And again, you don’t do everything that they do, but you get a piece of it.” Overcoming sexual assault begins by taking that step, whether from the viewpoint of a victim or someone looking to prevent it. For Hilary Peele, it started by taking a step into the spotlight of a pageant platform. C&)+/")(*%")2*70)+/")!"#$1"!7)F!$#"((),()!">"#+"'),&)+/")'"(,!")+$)%$1") forward.