Inglés Electivo - 3ºM 2013

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Elective English Worksheets

Name:____________________________________________________________________ Class:_____________________________________________________________________

Compilation and exercises: Juan Carlos Vera C

English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

List of contents

Unit 1- Aborigines of America

1-The Aztecs Reading: Aztec Listening: In Search of History The Aztec Empire

2.-The Inca empire Reading: Inca empire Listening: Machu picchu decoded-National Geographic-01/04” History's Turning Points - The Conquest of the Incas Part 1/3 Movie:”Dancing with wolves”

3-Mapuche people Reading: Mapuche Listening: Chile: Protest over Death of Mapuche Indian

4-Easter island Reading: Easter island Listening: Easter Island Chile Moais Movie: “The last of the Mohicans”

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Unit 2- Chilean facts

1-Chilean coup d’etat Reading: 1973 Chilean coup d’etat Listening: The Other 9/11 - Chile - Coup d'état - September 11, 1973 Movie: “The house of the spirits” Movie “Machuca” English subtitles

2-Education in Chile Reading….2011-2012 Chilean protest . Listening…. Documentary on Chile's education (MalEducados)

3-Chile´s traditional food Reading…Gastronomic geography .. Listening…. Travel Bizarre Foods – Chile

4-Andes flight disaster Reading…Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 Listening…. Movie: Alive

5-Chilean miners Reading….. 2010 Copiapó mining accident Listening….. Al Jazeera Correspondent: Chilean Miners: Still Trapped?”

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Unit 1- Aborigines of America I-The Aztecs Activities 1 Read the text in silence. 2 Translate the text into Spanish. 3 Underline the verbs in the text. 4 Write down a summary of 100 words about the text. 5 Listen and answer the questions about the documentary: In Search of History The Aztec Empire (Youtube)6 Listen again and check the correct answers with your classmates.

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Large ceramic statue of an Aztec Eagle Warrior

The Aztecs The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. "Aztec" is the Nahuatl word for "people from Aztlan", a mythological place for the Nahuatl-speaking culture of the time, and later adopted as the word to define the Mexica people. Often the term "Aztec" refers exclusively to the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan (now the location of Mexico City), situated on an island in Lake Texcoco, from the 13th century, the Valley of Mexico was the heart of Aztec civilization: here the capital of the Aztec Triple Alliance, the city of Tenochtitlan, was built upon raised islets in Lake Texcoco. The Triple Alliance formed a tributary empire expanding its political hegemony far beyond the Valley of Mexico, conquering other city states throughout Mesoamerica. At its pinnacle Aztec culture had rich and complex mythological and religious traditions, as well as reaching remarkable architectural and artistic accomplishments. In 1521 Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II. Subsequently the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the ruined Aztec capital, from where they proceeded with

the process America.




Aztec culture and history is primarily known through archaeological evidence found in excavations such as that of the renowned Templo Mayor in Mexico City; from indigenous bark paper codices; from eyewitness accounts by Spanish conquistadors such as Hernán Cortés and Bernal Díaz del Castillo; And especially from 16th and 17th century descriptions of Aztec culture and history written by Spanish clergymen and literate Aztecs in the Spanish or Nahuatl language, such as the famous Florentine Codex compiled by the Franciscan monk Bernardino de Sahagún with the help of indigenous Aztec informants. Spanish conquest The empire reached its height during Ahuitzotl's reign in 1486–1502. His successor, Motehcuzōma Xocoyotzin (better known as Moctezuma II or Moctezuma, or Montezuma), had been Hueyi Tlatoani for 17 years when the Spaniards, led by Hernándo Cortés, landed on the Gulf Coast in the spring of 1519. Despite some early battles between the two, Cortés allied himself with the Aztecs’ long-time enemy, the Confederacy of Tlaxcala, and arrived at the gates of Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519. The Spaniards and their Tlaxcallan allies became increasingly dangerous and Page 5

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unwelcome guests in the capital city. In June, 1520, hostilities broke out, culminating in the massacre in the Main Temple and the death of Moctezuma II. The Spaniards fled the town on July 1, an episode later characterized as La Noche Triste (the Sad Night). They and their native allies returned in the spring of 1521 to lay siege to Tenochtitlan, a battle that ended on August 13 with the destruction of the city. During this period the now crumbling empire went through a rapid line of ruler succession.

Despite the decline of the Aztec empire, most of the Mesoamerican cultures were intact after the fall of Tenochtitlan. Indeed, the freedom from Aztec domination may have been considered a positive development by most of the other cultures. The upper classes of the Aztec empire were considered noblemen by the Spaniards and generally treated as such initially. All this changed rapidly and the native population were soon forbidden to study by law, and had the status of minors.

After the death of Moctezuma II, the empire fell into the hands of severely weakened emperors, such as Cuitláhuac, before eventually being ruled by puppet rulers, such as Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuh, installed by the Spanish.

The Tlaxcalans remained loyal to their Spanish friends and were allowed to come on other conquests with Cortés and his men.

Listen and answer the questions In Search of History - The Aztec Empire – Video 1 1-Where did the Aztecs come from? __________________________________________________ 2-What does the Aztec legend say about it? ____________________________________________________ 3-How did they communicate with the gods? _____________________________________________________ 4-What was the message of the gods? _________________________________________________________ 5-Why did the make offerings or sacrifices? ________________________________________________________ 6-What was meant the human heart for them? _________________________________________________________ 7-Why did they sacrifice people? ___________________________________________________________ 8-To what god they sacrifice children for? ___________________________________________________________ Page 6

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

9-What is the meaning of the “tears of the children” for them? ___________________________________________________________ 10-What was the meaning of the searching of an Eagle upon a cactus? ____________________________________________________________ 11-What name did they give to this place? ____________________________________________________________ 12-What happened in 1324? ____________________________________________________________ 13-Where did they establish finally after 200 hundreds years of journey? ____________________________________________________________ 14-How did they build a magnificent city in a small island surrounded by swamps? ____________________________________________________________ 15-What happened when the Spanish saw the city for the first time? ____________________________________________________________ 16-What is the similarity between Tenochtitlan and Venice in Italy? ____________________________________________________________ 17-Why did they create the calendar? ____________________________________________________________ 18-Why did they capture their enemies alive? ____________________________________________________________ 19-Why did they take off the skin of their enemies? ____________________________________________________________ 20-What did they do with the flesh finally? ____________________________________________________________ 21-Who was Moctezuma? ____________________________________________________________ 22-What happened in the year 1519? ____________________________________________________________ 23-Why this year and event was a coincidence for the Aztecs? Page 7

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____________________________________________________________ 24-Who was Cortez? ____________________________________________________________ 25-What was the excrement of the gods for the Aztecs? ____________________________________________________________ 26-Who was “Melinche�? ___________________________________________________________ 27-What did Montezuma think about Cortez after battle? ____________________________________________________________ 28-Why did Cortez take him as a prisoner? __________________________________________________________ 29-How did Moctezuma die? __________________________________________________________ 30-What was the other deadly legacy of the Spanish that killed 80 percent of the population? _______________________________________________

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

II- Inca Empire Activities

1-Read the text Inca empire and write down in your copybook 15 main sentences to summarize the text. 2-Watch the video Machu Picchu decoded-National Geographic and talk about it. 3-Watch the video History's Turning Points - The Conquest of the Incas Part 1/3 and answer the questions. 4-Listen again and check the correct answers with your classmates. 5-Watch the movie “Dances with wolves” and answer the questions.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire, or Inka Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu), was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as The Four Regions or The Four United Provinces. There were many local forms of worship, most of them concerning local sacred "Huacas", but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti—the sun god—and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun." History Incan oral history mentions three possible places of origin of their people: Page 10

three caves near Pacariqtambo, a place 33 km (21 mi) away from Cuzco; Lake Titicaca; or a place known as Tambo. Pacariqtambo, which means "the dawn tavern" or "the place of origin", was a place of three caves. The center cave, Tambo Tocco, was named for Capac Tocco. The other caves were Maras Tocco and Sutic Tocco. Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave. They were: Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Auca, Ayar Uchu, and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaca, Mama Cora. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the clans of the Inca people. It was traditional for the Inca's son to lead the army; Pachacuti's son Túpac Inca Yupanqui began conquests to the north in 1463, and continued them as Inca after Pachucuti's death in 1471. His most important conquest was the Kingdom of Chimor, the Inca's only serious rival for the coast of Peru. Túpac Inca's empire stretched north into modern day Ecuador and Colombia. Túpac Inca's son Huayna Cápac added a small portion of land to the north in modern day Ecuador and in parts of Peru. At its height, the Inca Empire included Peru and Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, a large portion of what is today Chile north of the Maule River in central Chile. The advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance by the Mapuche tribes. The empire also extended into corners of Argentina and Colombia. However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Qullasuyu, was located in the Altiplano.

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

The Inca Empire was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local

cultures all fully integrated. The Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour.

Inca civil war and Spanish conquest

One of the main events in the conquest of the Incan Empire was the death of Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca on 29 August 1533 Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro and his brothers explored south from what is today Panama, reaching Inca territory by 1526 It was clear that they had reached a wealthy land with prospects of great treasure, and after one more expedition in 1529, Pizarro traveled to Spain and received royal approval to conquer the region and be its viceroy. This approval was received as detailed in the following quote: "In July 1529 the queen of Spain signed a charter allowing Pizarro to conquer the Incas. Pizarro was named governor and captain of all conquests in Peru, or New Castile, as the Spanish now called the land." When they returned to Peru in 1532, a war of the two brothers between Huayna Capac's sons Huáscar and Atahualpa and unrest among newly conquered territories—and perhaps more importantly, smallpox, which had spread from Central America—had considerably weakened the empire. Pizarro did not have a formidable force; with just 168 men, 1 cannon and 27 horses, he often needed to talk his way out of potential

confrontations that could have easily wiped out his party. The Spanish horsemen, fully armored, had great technological superiority over the Inca forces. The traditional mode of battle in the Andes was a kind of siege warfare where large numbers of usually reluctant draftees were sent to overwhelm opponents. The Spaniards had developed one of the finest military machines in the premodern world, tactics learned in their centuries' long fight against Moorish kingdoms in Iberia. Along with this tactical and material superiority, the Spaniards also had acquired tens of thousands of native allies who sought to end the Inca control of their territories.

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Listen and answer the questions History's Turning Points - The Conquest of the Incas Part 1/3 1- How many soldiers came with Pizarro? _________________________________________________________________ 2- What motivated them to conquer the Inca Empire? _________________________________________________________________ 3- Where was Pizarro from? __________________________________________________________________ 4- What were the lethal weapons of the Spanish? ___________________________________________________________________ 5- What did the strange patterns on the moon mean for the Incas at that time? ___________________________________________________________________ 6- What caused the civil war in the Inca Empire? ____________________________________________________________________ 7- Who were the two brothers-emperors at that time? ____________________________________________________________________ 8- What did the Incas know about the outside world in 1530? ____________________________________________________________________ 9- What were the best skills of the Incas at that time? _____________________________________________________________________ 10- Who controlled the Inca society before the Spanish arrival? _____________________________________________________________________ 11- What happened when an important Inca died? _____________________________________________________________________ 12- What were the main activities of common people? ______________________________________________________________________ 13- How many people lived in their valleys? ______________________________________________________________________ 14-What did they cultivate? _______________________________________________________________________ Page 12

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

15-Who were the “Chaskiz”? _________________________________________________________ 16-How much time did it take to the Chaskiz to go from Quito to Cuzco? __________________________________________________________ 17-How did they communicate the news without a written system? ____________________________________________________________ 18-How many men did the army of Atahualpa have? ______________________________________________________________ 19- How did the emperor receive the Spanish? _________________________________________________________________ 20- What was the plan of the conquerors? ___________________________________________________________________ 21- What did the Spanish priest require to the emperor? _____________________________________________________________________ 22- What did the emperor do with the book of the bible? ________________________________________________________________________ 23- What happened to Atahualpa and his army then? _________________________________________________________________________ 24- What did the emperor offer to be rescued? _________________________________________________________________________ 25- What was the amount of gold and silver collected by the conquistadores? _________________________________________________________________________ 26- Why was Atahualpa sentenced to death? _______________________________________________________________________ 27- Why did the emperor not want to die burning? _______________________________________________________________________ 28- Why did the Spanish offer him to turn into Christianity? _________________________________________________________________________

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30-When, where and how did the emperor finally die? _________________________________________________________________________ 31-How long was he a prisoner? _________________________________________________________________________ 32-Did the Spanish conquer Machu Picchu too? _________________________________________________________________________ 33-What happened finally with the 90 percent of the Inca population? _________________________________________________________________________

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

III- Mapuche

Activities 1 Translate the text into Spanish. 2 Underline all the verbs in the text. 3 Investigate and elaborate a mini dictionary Mapudungun-English with the most common daily words used (50 words). Include pronunciation and pictures (PowerPoint presentation) 4-Watch the video Chile: Protest over Death of Mapuche Indian and answer the questions. 5- Listen again and check the correct answers with your classmates.

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The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina. They constitute a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage. Their influence extended between the Aconcagua River and Chiloé Archipelago and later eastward to the Argentine pampa.

centuries, Mapuche groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas, fusing and establishing relationships with the Poyas and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranqueles and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups. The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture in what came to be called Araucanization.

The Mapuche make up about 4% of the Chilean population, and are particularly concentrated in Araucanía Region due to emigration into Santiago.

Historically Mapuches were known as Araucanians (araucanos) by the Spanish colonizers of South America. However, this term is now mostly considered pejorative[4] by some people. The Quechua word awqa "rebel, enemy", is probably not the root of araucano: the latter is more likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco) "clayey water".

The term Mapuche can refer to the whole group of Picunches (people of the north), Huilliches (people of the South) and Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía, or exclusively to the Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía. The Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture; their traditional social organisation consists of extended families, under the direction of a "lonko" or chief, although in times of war they would unite in larger groupings and elect a toqui (from Mapudungun toki "axe, axe-bearer") to lead them. The Araucanian Mapuche inhabited at the time of Spanish arrival the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers, south of it as did the Huilliche and the Cuncos lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th

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some Mapuches mingled with Spanish during colonial times, giving origin to a large group of mestizos in Chile, Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in late 19th century. Since then Mapuches have become subjects and then nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights both in Argentina and in Chile.

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

War of Arauco Although the Spanish subjugated the Picunche in the Conquest of Chile, the Moluche of the area which the Spanish called Araucanía fought against the invaders for over 300 years. The Mapuche repelled the Spanish after their initial conquests in the late 16th century so effectively that there were areas to which Europeans did not return until late in the 19th century. One of the main geographical boundaries was the Bío-Bío River, which the Mapuche used as a natural barrier to Spanish and Chilean incursion. The 300 years were not uniformly a period of hostility, and there was often substantial trade and interchange between Mapuche and Spaniards or Chileans. The long Mapuche resistance has become primarily known as the War of Arauco. Its early phase was immortalized in Alonso de Ercilla's epic poem La Araucana. From the mid-17th century, the Mapuches and the governors of Chile

made a series of treaties in order to end the hostilities. By the late eighteenth century, many Mapuche loncos had accepted the de jure sovereignty of the Spanish king while operating with de facto independence. When Chile revolted from the Spanish crown during the Chilean War of Independence, some Mapuche chiefs sided with the royalists of Vicente Benavides in the Guerra a muerte (war to death). The Spanish depended on the Mapuches as they had lost control of all cities and ports north of Valdivia. The Mapuches valued the treaties made with the Spanish authorities; however, many regarded the war with indifference and took advantage of both sides. After Chile's independence from Spain, the Mapuche coexisted and traded with their neighbors, who prudently remained north of the Bío-Bío River, although clashes frequently occurred.

Occupation of the Araucanía Orelie-Antoine de Tounens, who had declared himself King of Araucania, Chile overwhelmed the Mapuche in the course of the so-called "pacification of the Araucanía".

Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main loncos of Araucania in 1869

Chilean population pressures increased on the Mapuche borders, and by the 1880s Chile extended both to the north and south of the Mapuche heartlands. As a result of its preparation for and victory in the War of the Pacific against Bolivia and Peru, Chile had a large standing army and relatively modern arsenal. Finally, in the mid- to late-1880s, partially on the pretext of crushing a French adventurer,

Vintage engraving of Mapuche

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Using a combination of force and diplomacy, Chile's government obliged some Mapuche leaders to sign a treaty agreeing to the absorption of the Araucanian territories into Chile. The disruption of war caused widespread disease and starvation to many villages. It has been claimed that the Mapuche population dropped from a total of half a million to 25,000 within a generation.[11] Noted historians of the period have argued that the latter figure is exaggeratedly low. In the post-conquest period, Chile interned a significant

percentage of the Mapuche, and destroyed the Mapuche herding, agricultural and trading economies, while also looting Mapuche property (real and personal - including a large amount of silver jewelry to replenish the Chilean national coffers). The government created a system of reserves called reducciones along lines similar to North American reservation systems. Subsequent generations of Mapuche live in extreme poverty as a result of having been conquered and having lost their traditional lands.

Modern conflict Land disputes and violent confrontations continue in some Mapuche areas, particularly in the northern sections of the AraucanĂ­a region between and around TraiguĂŠn and Lumaco. In an effort to defuse tensions, the Commission for Historical Truth and New Treatments issued a report in 2003 calling for drastic changes in Chile's treatment of its indigenous people, more than 80 percent of whom are Mapuche. The recommendations included the formal recognition of political and "territorial" rights for indigenous peoples, as well as efforts to promote their cultural identity. Though Japanese and Swiss interests are active in the economy of AraucanĂ­a (Mapudungun: "Ngulu Mapu"), both the main forestry companies are Chileanowned. The firms have planted hundreds of thousands of acres with nonnative species such as Monterey pine, Douglas firs and eucalyptus trees, sometimes replacing native Valdivian forests, although such substitution and replacement is now forbidden.

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Chile exports wood to the United States, almost all of which comes from this southern region, with an annual value of $600 million and rising. Forest Ethics, a conservation group, has led an international campaign for preservation, resulting in the Home Depot chain and other leading wood importers agreeing to revise their purchasing policies to "provide for the protection of native forests in Chile." Some Mapuche leaders want stronger protections for the forests. In recent years, the delicts committed by Mapuche activists have been prosecuted under counter-terrorism legislation originally introduced by the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. The law allows prosecutors to withhold evidence from the defense for up to six months and to conceal the identity of witnesses, who may give evidence in court behind screens. There are several violent activist groups, such as the Coordinadora Arauco Malleco, which utilize tactics including burning of structures and pastures, and death threats against people and their families. Protesters from Mapuche communities have used

InglÊs Electivo – 3º Medio

these tactics against multinational forestry corporations and private individuals. In 2010 the Mapuche

launched a number of hunger strikes in attempts to effect change in the antiterrorism legislation.

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Listen and answer the questions Chile: Protest over Death of Mapuche Indian

1-Why do they people there protest? ___________________________________________________________ 2-When was he killed? _____________________________________________________________ 3-How many were arrested? _______________________________________________________________ 4-What was the police doing on Wednesday? ________________________________________________________________ 5-Why did the policeman shoot at the mapuche Young man? _________________________________________________________________ 6-What happened to this person? _________________________________________________________________ 7-How many members of the mapuche are there approximately? __________________________________________________________________ 8-What are they demanding? __________________________________________________________________

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

IV- Easter Island Activities 1-Read and translate the text into Spanish. 2-Watch the video Easter Island Chile MOAIS and answer the questions. 3-Prepare a touristic guide (PowerPoint presentation) about a Chilean touristic attraction. 4- Oral report. Investigate about an American tribe or culture, prepare and present an oral report in front of the class. 5-Watch the movie “The Last of the Mohicans” and talk about it to the teacher. Write down a summary of the story and its historical context.

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Easter Island Location of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. Easter Island (Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui, Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian triangle. A special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888, Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapanui people. It is a World Heritage Site (as determined by UNESCO) with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park. In recent times the island has served as a warning of the cultural and environmental dangers of overexploitation. Ethnographers and archaeologists also blame diseases carried by European colonizers and slave raiding of the 1860s for devastating the local peoples.

Location and physical geography Easter Island is one of the world's most isolated inhabited islands. Its closest inhabited neighbour is Pitcairn Island, 2,075 km (1,289 mi) to the west, with fewer than 100 inhabitants. Easter Island's latitude is similar to that of Caldera, Chile, and it lies 3,510 km (2,180 mi) west of continental Chile at its nearest point (between Lota and Lebu in the Biob铆o Region). Isla Salas y G贸mez, 415 km (258 mi) to the east, is closer but is uninhabited. The island is about 24.6 km (15.3 mi) long by 12.3 km (7.6 mi) at its widest point; its overall shape is triangular. It has an area of 163.6 square kilometres (63.2 sq mi), and a maximum altitude of 507 meters (1,663 ft). There are three Rano (freshwater crater lakes), at Rano Kau, Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi, near the summit of Terevaka, but no permanent streams or rivers. The history of Easter Island is rich and controversial. Its inhabitants have endured famines, epidemics, civil war, slave raids, colonialism, and near deforestation; its population declined precipitously more than once. The first known painting of Easter Island in 1775 by William Hodges

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The island was most likely populated by Polynesians who navigated in canoes or catamarans from the Gambier Islands (Mangareva, 2,600 km (1,600 mi) away) or the Marquesas Islands, 3,200 km (2,000 mi) away.

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When James Cook visited the island, one of his crew members, a Polynesian from Bora Bora, was able to communicate with the Rapa Nui. The language most similar to Rapa Nui is Mangarevan with an 80% similarity in vocabulary. In 1999, a voyage with reconstructed Polynesian boats was able to reach Easter Island from Mangareva in 19 days. As the island became overpopulated and resources diminished, warriors known as matatoa gained more power and the Ancestor Cult ended, making way for the Bird Man Cult. Beverly Haun wrote, "The concept of mana (power) invested in hereditary leaders was recast into the person of the birdman, apparently beginning circa 1540, and coinciding with the final vestiges of the moai period." This cult maintained that, although the ancestors still provided for their descendants, the medium through which the living could contact the dead was no longer statues, but human beings chosen through a competition. The god responsible for creating humans, Makemake, played an important role in this process. Katherine Routledge, who systematically collected the island's traditions in her 1919 expedition, showed that the competitions for Bird Man (Rapanui: tangata manu) started around 1760, after the arrival of the first Europeans, and ended in 1878, with the construction of the first church by Roman Catholic missionaries who formally arrived in 1864. Petroglyphs representing Bird Men on Easter Island are exactly the same as some in Hawaii, indicating that this concept was probably brought by the original settlers; only the competition itself was unique to Easter Island.

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Listen and answer the questions in full Eastern Island Chile Moais

1-What did they do with the palm tree? __________________________________________________________ 2-What happened by the 10th century? ___________________________________________________________ 3-Why did they live in isolation? _____________________________________________________________ 4-What happened at the south-west coast of the island? _______________________________________________________________ 5-Who was Makemake? ________________________________________________________________ 6-Why were the three small rocky islands important for the people? ________________________________________________________________ 7-When did the birds arrive? ____________________________________________________________________ 8-What did they represent? ______________________________________________________________________ 9-What was the every year competition about? _______________________________________________________________________ 10-What did the winner have to do? ________________________________________________________________________ 11-What would have happened to him during the next year? _______________________________________________________________________ 12-What happened to him when he died? _______________________________________________________________________ 13-Why did this culture come to the end? _________________________________________________________________________ Page 24

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14-What happened when they cut down the last tree on the island? _________________________________________________________________________

15-What happened in 1774?__________________________________________________

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Unit 2- Chilean facts

I-Chilean coup d’état Activities 1 Translate the text into Spanish 2 Watch the video “The Other 9/11 - Chile - Coup d'état - September 11, 1973” and answer the questions. 3 Check the correct questions with your classmates. 4 Elaborate a questionnaire of 15 questions about how life was during that period and interview a person you know that has lived that .( Written and video) Present it in front of the class. 5 Watch the movie “The house of the spirits” and talk about the real and movie events. 6 Watch the movie “Machuca” (English subtitles) and talk about it with your classmates. Write down comparisons with facts of The house of the spirits movie.

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1973 Chilean coup d'état terror on its supporters which included the murder of former Foreign Minister Orlando Letelier. Before Pinochet's rule, Chile had for decades been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability in a South America hoarding military juntas and Caudillismo.

The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile. Following an extended period of political unrest between the conservative-dominated Congress of Chile and the socialist-leaning President Salvador Allende, discontent culminated in the latter's downfall in a coup d’état organised by the Chilean military and unofficially endorsed by the Nixon administration and the CIA, which had covertly worked to spread discontent and opposition against the government. A military junta led by Allende's Commander-in-Chief Augusto Pinochet eventually took control of the government, composed of the heads of the Air Force, Navy, Carabineros (police force) and the Army. Pinochet later assumed power and ended Allende's democratically elected Popular Unity government, instigating a campaign of

During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his last speech, in which he vowed to stay in the presidential palace, denouncing offers for safe passage should he choose exile over confrontation. Direct witness accounts of his death agree that he committed suicide in the palace. After the coup, Pinochet established a military dictatorship that ruled Chile until 1990; it was marked by numerous human rights violations. A weak insurgent movement against the Pinochet government was maintained inside Chile by elements sympathetic to the former Allende government.

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Military action By 7:00 am on 11 September 1973, the Navy captured Valparaíso, strategically stationing ships and marine infantry in the central coast and closed radio and television networks. The Province Prefect informed President Allende of the Navy's actions; immediately, the president went to the presidential palace, La Moneda, with his bodyguards, the Grupo de Amigos Personales (GAP) (Group of Personal Friends). By 8:00 am, the Army had closed most radio and television stations in Santiago city; the Air Force bombed the remaining active stations; the President received incomplete information, and was convinced that only a sector of the Navy conspired against him and his government. President Allende and Defence minister Orlando Letelier were unable to communicate with military leaders. Admiral Montero, the Navy's commander and an Allende loyalist, was rendered incommunicado; his telephone service was cut and his cars were sabotaged before the coup d’état, to ensure he could not thwart the opposition.

Leadership of the Navy was transferred to José Toribio Merino, planner of the coup d’état and executive officer to Adm. Montero. Augusto Pinochet, General of the Army, and Gustavo Leigh, General of the Air Force, did not answer Allende's telephone calls to them. The General Director of the Carabineros (uniformed police), José María Sepúlveda, and the head of the Investigations Police (plain clothes detectives), Alfredo Joignant answered Allende's calls and immediately went to the La Moneda presidential palace. When Defence minister Letelier arrived at the Ministry of Defense, controlled by Adm. Patricio Carvajal, he was arrested as the first prisoner of the coup d’état. Despite evidence that all branches of the Chilean armed forces were involved in the coup, Allende hoped that some units remained loyal to the government. Allende was convinced of Pinochet's loyalty, telling a reporter that the coup d’état leaders must have imprisoned the general. Only at 8:30 am, when the armed forces declared their control of Chile and that Allende was deposed, did the president grasp the magnitude of the military's rebellion. Despite the lack of any military support, Allende refused to resign his office.

Allende's death President Allende died in La Moneda during the coup. The junta officially declared that he committed suicide with a revolver (an AK 47 according to the link 'death of Salvador Allende) given to him by Fidel Castro, two doctors from the infirmary of La Moneda stated that they witnessed the suicide, and an autopsy labelled Allende's death a suicide. Vice Admiral Patricio Carvajal, one of the primary instigators of the Page 28

coup, claimed that "Allende committed suicide and is dead now." At the time, few of Allende's supporters believed the explanation that Allende had killed himself. Allende's body was exhumed in May 2011. A scientific autopsy was performed and the autopsy team delivered a unanimous finding on 19 July 2011 that Allende committed suicide using an AK47 rifle given to him by Fidel Castro. The gun was set to fire automatically and the shots tore off the top of Allende's head, killing him instantly.

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Guerrilla resistance MIR newspaper El Rebelde saying; Neltume, Spark of Rebellion.

After the coup, left-wing organizations tried to set up resistance groups against the regime. Many activists created groups of resistance from refugees abroad, while the Communist Party of Chile set up an armed wing, which became in 1983 the FPMR (Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez). In the first three months of military rule, the Chilean forces recorded 162 military deaths. A total of 756 servicemen and police are reported to have been killed or wounded in guerrilla incidents. The Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Left Movement, MIR) founded at the University of Concepción suffered heavy casualties in the coup's immediate aftermath, and most of its members fled the country. Among the killed and

disappeared during the military regime were 440 MIR guerrillas. Many guerrillas confessed under torture and several hundred other young men and women, sympathetic to the guerrillas, were detained and tortured and often killed. Nearly 700 civilians disappeared in the 1974–1977 period, after being detained by the Chilean military and police. In 1976 there had been plans to infiltrate 1,200 Marxist guerrillas from Argentina into Chile in an operation christened Plan Boomerang Rojo (Red Boomerang Plan), but the infiltration failed to materialize due to the cooperation with Argentine authorities. Chilean officials reported 100 of the "Red Boomerang" guerrillas succeeded in infiltrating into Chile, but that 14 were captured.

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Listen and answer the questions The Other 9/11 - Chile - Coup d'état - September 11, 1973 1. Who was Verónica Ahumada? _____________________________________________________ 2. Where did she work? ________________________________________________________________ 3. What was the information received by the president at that moment? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Who was Isidro García? ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Who was Arturo Jirón? ___________________________________________________________________ 6. When was Salvador Allende elected as a president? ___________________________________________________________________ 7. What reforms did he introduce to combat poverty? ___________________________________________________________________ 8. What was the result of the nationalization of industries? ___________________________________________________________________ 9. Did Allende think that General Pinochet was loyal to him first? ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Who was the commander in chief of the army? ___________________________________________________________________ 11. What did the army want from the president? ___________________________________________________________________ 12. Who named Pinochet commander in chief of the army? When? ___________________________________________________________________ 13. What were the buildings in front of “La Moneda” used for? ___________________________________________________________________ 14. What did Pinochet offer the president? ___________________________________________________________________ 15. Did Allende accept the offering? ___________________________________________________________________ 16. Who was Juan Osses? ___________________________________________________________________ 17. Where did Allende get the gun machine from? ___________________________________________________________________ 18. Why did the daughters of Allende leave “La Moneda”? ___________________________________________________________________ 19. What time did the planes bomb “La Moneda”? ___________________________________________________________________ 20. How many rockets were sent to “La Moneda”? ___________________________________________________________________ 21. Did the people inside “La Moneda” die? ___________________________________________________________________

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22. Did the president leave the palace? ___________________________________________________________________ 23. How did the president die? 24. Who was with him at that moment?

25. What happened with the prisoners outside the palace? ___________________________________________________________________ 26. How did Allende’s daughters escape from the center? ___________________________________________________________________ 27. How did they escape from “Plaza Italia” detention? __________________________________________________________ 28. What was the announcement for at about four in the afternoon? ___________________________________________________________________ 29. Why did the army start arresting people in different places of the country? ___________________________________________________________________ 30. Where was Arturo Jirón sent finally? ___________________________________________________________________ 31. What happened with Verónica Ahumada finally?

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

II- Education in Chile Activities 1 Read the text and comment to the class about the topic. Compare it with your own experience. 2 Listen to the video Documentary on Chile's education (MalEducados) and answer the questions. 3 Check the correct questions with your classmates. 4 Write down about your opinion of the educational system in Chile.

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

2011–2012 Chilean protests Date

May 2011 - present


Throughout Chile

Sign reading 'Education is not for sale'


The end of the Chilean school voucher system, its replacement by a public education system managed by the state. The end of for-profit education. Changes to tax code to better finance education. Casualties Death(s) One student protester Injuries Several hundred protesters 500+ police officers Arrested ~1800 students The 2011–2012 Chilean protests, Chilean violence on the part of a side of protestors as well as riot police. Winter (in particular reference to the massive protests of August 2011) or The first clear government response to Chilean Education Conflict (as labelled in the protests was a proposal for a new Chilean media) were a series of studenteducation fund and a cabinet shuffle led protests across Chile from May– which replaced Minister of Education December 2011. Protesters had Joaquín Lavín and was seen as not multifaceted goals, broadly related to fundamentally addressing student lowering the price and strengthening the movement concerns. Other government role of the state in secondary and higher proposals were also rejected. Student education. mobilizations continued for several Unique in the world, only 45% of high months but in early January 2012, movilizations had essentially ended. school students in Chile study in traditional public schools and the Student protestors did not achieve all education system is largely in private their objectives, but they contributed to hands. a dramatic fall in Piñera's approval rating, Beyond the specific demands regarding which was measured at 26%-30% in education, there is a feeling that the August polls by respected Chilean protests reflect a "deep discontent" pollsters and have not increased as of January 2012. among some parts of society with Chile's high level of inequality. Protests have included massive non-violent marches, but also a considerable amount of

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Background The onset of the 2011 Chilean protests have been attributed to several causes. The Economist explained the protests as being the result of "one of world’s lowest levels of public funding for higher education, some of the longest degrees and no comprehensive system of student grants or subsidised loans" and a flat job market as the detonant. Historian Gabriel Salazar describes the student conflict as being the continuation of a long strife between popular citizen movements and civic and military dictatorships. BBC have attributed "students' anger" to "a perception that Chile's education system is grossly unfair - that it gives rich students access to some of the best schooling in Latin America while dumping poor pupils in shabby, under-funded state schools." Many newspapers and analysts have traced the protests back to the 2006 Penguin Revolution that occurred during the government of Michelle Bachelet, some claiming that these are the same secondary students who headed the 2006 movement that when in university are heading the 2011 student protests. Bachelet has defended the legacy of her

government and said that in the aftermath of the Penguin Revolution the right-wing opposition prevented them from eliminating for-profit activity in education. Ruling party politician Cristián Monckeberg responded to this by saying that if Bachelet would have solved the problem in 2006 the students would not be protesting now. In June 5 it was noted in the Chilean TV discussion show Tolerancia Cero that the Chilean students protests followed a cyclic pattern with major protests every 2 or 3 years. Víctor Lobos, intendant of Biobío Region attibuted the protests to the increasing number of children born outside matrimony claiming that this condition made them susceptible to anarchism.

Demands Increased state support for public universities, which currently finance their activities mostly through tuition More equitable admissions process to prestigious universities, with less emphasis on the Prueba de Selección Universitaria standardized test Free public education, so access to higher education doesn't depend on families economic situation. Creation of a government agency to apply the law against profit in higher education and prosecute those universities that are allegedly using loopholes to profit. The students oppose direct (fellowship and voucher) and indirect government aid (government-backed loans) to for-profit schools. A more serious accreditation process to improve quality and end indirect state support for poor quality institutions Creation of an "intercultural university" that meets the unique demands of Mapuche students Repeal of laws forbidding student participation in university governance

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

High school students High school students are more loosely organized than the university students, with no national federation. However, their demands have also been included in CONFECH's proposal and include: Central government control over secondary and primary public schools, to replace the current system of municipal control which allegedly leads to inequalities The application of Chile's school voucher system in pre-school, primary and secondary levels be applicable only to nonprofit schools. The Chilean system, although defended by researchers linked to the conservative Heritage Foundation, is criticized by researchers like Martin Carnoy, blaming it for the tremendous inequalities across all the Chilean educational system, measured by OECD's standards. Increases in state spending. Chile only spends 4.4% of GDP on education, compared to the 7% of GDP recommended by the UN for developed nations.] Additionally, Chile ranks behind only Peru in educational segregation among the 65 countries that take the PISA test. Prominent Chilean education researcher Mario Waissbluth has called the Chilean system "educational apartheid" Use of student bus pass throughout the year Development of more vocational high schools Reconstruction of schools damaged during the 2010 Chilean earthquake Moratorium on the creation of new voucher/charter schools Higher pay for teachers and a national plan to attract the best talent to the profession and raise its social stature.

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Listen and answer the questions: Documentary on Chile's education (MalEducados) What are the two main paradigms of the education in Chile? (write a summary) ____________________________________________________________________ Why is it said the education in Chile is a for-profit education? _____________________________________________________________________ According to the interviewed girl: Why are you taught more mathematics and science than history or language? _____________________________________________________________________ Why is it said that the education is socially segmented? _____________________________________________________________________ Why do parents prefer a public school for their children but they don’t take them there? ______________________________________________________________________ Why did families say that education must be free? ________________________________________________________________________ Why is it relevant that this generation was not raised with fear to the dictatorship? ________________________________________________________________________ Why did the dictatorship change the education in Chile? ________________________________________________________________________ Who were the “Chicago Boys”? _________________________________________________________________________ What does the constitution of 1980 say about the education? _________________________________________________________________________ Why is it said that the project of the dictatorship continues? _________________________________________________________________________ What does the OECD say about the Chilean system in 2004? _________________________________________________________________________

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

What is the position of the broadcasters in the topic? _________________________________________________________________________ If the owners of the universities cannot profit legally, what do they do to get the profits of money “legally”? _________________________________________________________________________ Why is it said that is a global phenomena? _________________________________________________________________________

What is your personal opinion about it? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

III- Chile’s traditional food Activities 1 Read the text “Gastromic geography of Chile” and write down a list of all the dishes, food and products mentioned in the text. 2 Elaborate a map of Chile pointing the typical products and meals of each region or zone. 3 Watch the video “Travel Bizarre Foods – Chile” and answer the questions. 4 Listen again and make the correction of right sentences. 5 Watch the extra videos about the topic. a) Chilean Chacarero by Chef Pilar Rodríguez at the Fancy Food Show b) Chilean Food! Delicious food c) Anthony Bourdain No Reservations 6 Prepare a gastronomy presentation according to the instructions given by the teacher.

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Gastronomic Geography of Chile Following the physical geography of Chile from north to south, one develops a gastronomic knowledge of the food not served in fashionable restaurants nor found on hotel menus, but in humble businesses, on the simple tables of the city and the countryside. Every town contributes its foods as part of the dietary atlas. Every region owns a style and a taste. Geography and History In Chile the varied geography combines with the realities of production and history: indigenous diets, foods brought by the invading Inca, and the contributions of the Spanish conqueror, shape the triple fusion that is the Chilean cuisine. Customs and Festivals Related to Food There are Chilean food customs determined by summer and winter and foods associated with religious and profane holidays, such as the food of Fridays, of Holy Week, of the supper of St. John (June 24, with St. John’s stew[3]); of the fiesta of the Cross of May (May 3 to 30); of the food of the dead (November 2); and of hot toddies served at wakes, to comfort and to combat the cold of dawn. Holiday foods are prepared for Christmas, New Year, national holidays, trips to the country, saints’ days or birthdays, weddings, and baptisms. And for threshings, potato diggings, grape harvests, rodeos, shearings, working parties, or celebrations for setting house beams. Seafood Some regions are known for their fish and seafood, others for vegetables, or for meats and sausages, wines and ciders, sweets and fruits. Chile is blessed with a

sea that offers more that two hundred eatable species within its tripartite divisions: From Iquique to Coquimbo, the sea’s bounty is rich; from Tongoy to Constitución, less rich; and from Talcahuano to Chiloé and the southern archipelago, very rich. There are ruff, swordfish, grunts, bonito, tuna, sardines, anchovies, croakers, conger eels, flounder, mackerel, jerguilla, snoek, dogfish, sand perch, mullet, rock bass, silversides, hake, cod, eel or sea snake, blennies, elephant fish, sheepsheads, pampinito, brick sea bass, breca and octopus. For shellfish the zones are Antotagasta, Talcahano, Puerto Montt, Chiloé, Aisén and the Magallanes, [Chile’s far south] which provide blue mussels, abalones, beach clams, sea squirts, razor clams, ribbed mussels, crabs, scallops, sea urchins, crayfish, and those Juan Fernandez lobsters that fly all over the Americas integrating themselves into the menus of grand banquets; and there is the oyster, the finest and most valuable of Chilean mollusks, said by followers domestic and foreign, to be one of the world’s best; and more, there are spider crabs; and all along the coast are eatable seaweeds, laver, and bull kelp, an algae that is one of the globe’s largest plants, whose fleshy root is eaten in salads. And there are sperm whales, humpbacked and blue, pursued all over the seas for their tasty filets. Page 39

English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Chilean wines

And then there are the wines, the Chilean’s second blood, those grape musts, those broths that enhance conviviality, that can be loose, sold from the barrel; or in bottles with labels bearing names of saints like San Jorge, San Pedro, San Carlos, Don Bosoc; and of female saints like Santa Carolina, Santa Lucía, Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Santa

Matilde, Santa Enmiliana, Santa Filomena, Santa Elena, and following the calendar of saints’ days and the mystical, are the mellow names of the Spaniards, Basques, and French; of Cousiño, Errázuriz, Urmenta, Undurraga, Tocornal and Ochagavía. Wine is not ignored in summer, but is accompanied by minced fruit, ice, and sugar to make Borgoñia, wine and fruit punch, and wine with strawberries. And when the wine must be replaced by grape juice, by poor wine from clay jugs, or by cider pressed from grapes, toasted flour is added to give it more consistency, more body; a mixture that changes its name with the length of the country calling itself “pihueloI,” ”chupilca,” or “chicha with arithmetic.”

Sweets made by the hands of nuns

Candy and pastry making, a Spanish inheritance that arrived in Chile through the conquistadors and was spread through the convents, the nuns. Spanish religious women made the most delicate preserves such as fruits and flowers of sugar paste, icings or marzipan, nougats, and dulce de leche. Indian Sisters, from within and outside of convents, made sweets the Chileans call by Arab and Hispanic names: alfajor, alfeñique, almendrados, roscas, coronillas, cajetillas and merenges.

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And they were the grandmothers of the townswomen who sweetened Chilean’s lives and who gave birth to the towns of sweet lineage like La Serena, with its fruit preserves; Elqui and Vicuña with their sugar paste candies or peach pulps; La Ligua with its candies known as liguanos; Melipilla and Curacaví with their merengues, Curicó with its cakes; Constitución with its sweets called Margaritas; and Chillán with its sweetened poultry “substance” called “Substance of Chillán.”

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Fresh and Exquisite Fruits

In this delightful appetizing geography are fruits, beginning in the extreme north with the subtropical fragrance and taste of mangos, passion fruit, sugar cane, guavas, pineapples, pacayes, pepinos, bananas, an astonishingly juicy and exquisite small lime [key lime], and cantaloupes. In the “Little North” figs appear, along with chirimoyas, the fragrant Chilean papaya, and the lúcuma. And then comes the “Central Zone” with its dialog of leaf and fruit

whose vines span half of Chile, the great variety of peaches, nectarines, the dented peaches, the yellow and Virgin aurimelos; the apples that seem torn from oil paintings, the huge quinces, the pears: Lloicas, Luisas, water pears, Christmas and Easter pears; apricot plums, Purísimas and Claudias; the dove heart cherries; the red and white strawberries; the melons, cactus fruits, moscateles, flaming red watermelons, oranges, and following the pomegranates, a white fig and a black one, fit for the best table or for an exposition.

Taste of the Big North The provincial tastes begin in the Big North and where the strong and spicy flavors found in Peru and Bolivia continue: salted beef; chalón or salón, salted or frozen lamb for the northern cazuela; llama filets, guanaco roasts, ceviche like in Peru; stuffed sea urchins; perol de locos [abalone ceviche], rabbit or octopus or shrimp picante [in a cheese and chili sauce], and conger chupín [stew with tomatoes]. The fruits are tested by the burning sun and taste of the tropics, and the wine seems hidden in the canyons and little valleys. Taste of the Little North In the provinces of the Little North green fruit trees emerge from among the rocks, the mines. And the sun’s conquest begins, making fresh fruits dry, like raisins from white grapes and dry peaches stripped of their seeds; and the preserved fruit, its juice turned to honey. And their wines, that are like the Lord’s tears, and the pisco, a drink like aguardiente , with a very pleasing taste. And the shellfish here deliver a delicious meal of seafood.

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Taste of the Islands There are insular foods and there are food filled islands like the Juan Fernandez’s with their lobster. And if fish or shellfish become tiring, there are doves marinated in oil, vinegar and spices, or however you would want them; and kid goat roasts are part of the islander’s diet. And the most isolated food of any island is that of Rapoa Nui or Easter Island, astounding the scientific world, whose island food style is Polynesian cooking with hot stones. And there are fish and shellfish that taste nothing like those here. One eats a long rough potato; an exquisite sweet potato, a cooked banana. Bananas are fruit, stew and bread and at the side are pineapples, figs, plums, and peanuts. Taste of the Central Zone

The provinces that make up the Central Zone are the essence of nature, the heart of Chile where one eats empanadas [turnovers] made with air dried pino or picadillo [hash] and baked in an adobe oven fueled with hard mesquite-like wood; the chicken cazuela with oregano, the pastel de choclo in its clay bowl, the humita [tamale], or rather the “umita” of the Quechuas, smelling of basil; the puchero, essence of the Spanish stew, served with various salads; the pancutras or pantrucas and resbalosas, hojitas de alamo, and panchitas [types of dumplings], throw-me-ins for the pot of jerky or crackling meatballs, and always broken eggs; beans with pumpkin; beans with corn or wheat hominy, or with cracklings, bacon or chuchoca, yellow corn meal often served with potatoes that multiplies in flavor when added to a turkey or pork cazuela; and the various locros based on corn; ajíaco, a soup of fried meat, onions, eggs, potatoes and chili; valdiviano, a dish born in Valdivia. It contains roasted jerky pounded into bits, onions, eggs, potatoes, spices and Page 42

the essential chili. These are the vegetable medleys that the conquistador and founder of our cities, Don Pedro de Valdivia, ordered as wages for his soldiers stationed in this region. And with these ingredients the retched soldiers made this soup that took the name Valdivia and so remained bundled into the history of Chilean food.


Here the stews, common among the Quechuas and Araucanians, that end in “-can” originated: tomaticán, minced corn, crushed tomatoes, fried meat, minced onion and chili; charquicán, a mash of vegetables, corn, ground or pounded jerky, served with a rain of parsley and accompanied by a beef rib, or if you prefer, with pickled onions; the luchicán, potatoes with seaweed and fried onion; sangricán blood with

Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

potatoes and fried onion; and chercán, with a base of toasted wheat flour. The dishes based on the outsides and insides of animal are abundant: chanfaina, stew of sheep offal; wrapped malotillas , chunchules, fried or grilled beef or mutton intestines; testicles in soups or fried; trunk soup; pork ribs or prepared as an arrollado [filled meat roll]; various blood sausages served with rice or mashed potatoes; pork hocks colored with chili sauce; pork headcheese, meat and tongue seasoned, pressed and molded. And the pebre or the pebres, those sauces that condiment and add flavor; minces of cilantro, garlic, chili, and seasonings, or the one with tomatoes, garlic, and chili called chancho en piedra, because it is ground in a stone mortar and for the light taste pork it takes when dressed with it.

In winter there are sopaipillas and doughnuts in honey or chancaca [brown sugar loaf] syrup that temper the southern days. In the summer it is mote con huesillos [peaches stewed with wheat] that is the drink and sweet with the spirit of Chile, about which they say “More Chilean than mote con huesillos,” although the Araucanians [Mapuche] adopted the word mote, cooked corn or wheat, from the Quechua.

Taste of the Araucaria And in the south are various provinces in the where the indigenous reservations are found, remains of the Araucarian people who conserve their food traditions, a different Chilean cuisine, with blood dishes like ñachi and apol; with dishes of wheat and corn; of horse meat, of a solidified chili paste called merquén, and of corn beer, muday.

European Taste European cuisine, via the German settlers who colonized the south and brought German cuisine with hams and sausages that rival the best in the world, pork hocks served with sauerkraut, and Valdivia beer. They like apple tarts called kuchen and many wild fruit jams and a delicious apple cider that tastes like Champaign.

Taste of the Austral South Next come the provinces of the Austral south where fish and shellfish have their greatest representation. The oyster appears, and this is the land where the potato is native. These are the dominions of the oyster and the potato.

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

The amazement of the Chilean and the foreigner begin with curanto, opulent cooking with rare flavor, made for strong palates. A banquet cooked in a hole in the earth because its contents would never fit in a pot and that is not served on a plate. Curanto is a burial, over hot rocks, of shellfish, fish, pork, chicken, sausages and vegetables. It is a gastronomic backfill that when uncovered delights the eye and the palate. And there is the pulmay, a pot of shellfish cooked in their own juices; the cazuela of Chiloe made of shellfish instead of meat; the roast sierra [fish]; the Chiloe chorizos [spicy sausages] that are the best reward; for good reason they say “Well done, deserves chorizos.” And in the manner of bread, strange bread, are trapaleles, mella, and catutos [steamed potato or wheat doughs]. The final province closing southern Chile is the Magallanes [lands of Magellan] where sheep raised for wool provide an abundance of mutton and lamb. Young sucking lamb of no more that four pounds is the best regional roast, and lamb surrenders its blood for blood sausages filled with vegetables; and its innards for soups. And there are the products of the sea, fish along with mussels, little sea urchins and spider [king] crabs. The food varies in relation to the urban population and the workers of the sheep ranches, where they serve two breakfasts, the second of chops fried with eggs.

The pioneers of the region, the Yugoslavs, and the nearby Argentineans have established other culinary novelties. The Yugoslav community, with its typical foods: Yugoslav stew, their cabbage dishes, their sweet cakes, the porsuratas, and their povetiza [pastry roll]. And the gnocchi and pastas reminiscent of Italian cooking from the nearby border with Yugoslavia. The Argentinean influence is in the open air barbeques; combinations of spicy sausages, pieces of pork, lamb, beef, wieners, kidneys and liver. As a fruit pleasure appear strawberries, red currants, raspberries; and among the wild fruits are the murtilla, the chura and the calafate, whose berries are made into jams and jellies. Taste of Chile This trip bringing together culinary peculiarities as well as the national taste, does not include all the dishes or tastes of Chile. On this table, whose foods may excel but cannot be compared, the tablecloth lacks many dishes remembered and known, but what cannot be left out is the affection that the people have for their cooking, the cordiality that is established by eating in common and expressed by the saying “welcome to your house, with pebre by the spoonful;” by curanto, where the meal companions gather in a circle Page 44

InglÊs Electivo – 3º Medio

increasing the companionship around the cooking pit, the endless table; by the spit roasted mutton, which requires only the desire to eat and a knife; by the mate cup, which is passed from mouth to mouth; by the horn or glass of wine that establishes a family unity among the recently arrived or strangers; by cachada, the collective giant glass that is conviviality and solidarity.

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

Listen and answer the questions Travel Bizarre Foods - Chile

1 Why do Chileans love their sea food? ______________________________ 2 When was Santiago founded? ____________________________________ 3 What did the death of Pedro de Valdivia symbolize? __________________ 4 What did the Mapuches do with his heart? __________________________ 5 Why is best known the restaurant Ana María? _______________________ 6 What does the restaurant remind Mr.Andrew? _____________________ 7 Who is Ricardo Price? ____________________________________________ 8 What does Mr. Andrew say about the abalone? _______________________ 9 Where does the abalone live? _____________________________________ 10 How do they tenderize the abalone?_______________________________ 11 How many beats should be enough to tenderize them?_______________ 12 What is a “parrillada” according to Mr.Andrew? ______________________ 13 What are “chunchules” according to Mr.Andrew?____________________ 14 What does he think about the utter?______________________________ 15 What are the ingredients of the hot dog that Mr.Andrew ate?__________ 16 What is at the bottom of Cerro San Cristóbal?______________________ 17 What can you find at the Bellavista neighborhood? ___________________ 18 What are the characteristics of the Lucuma according to Mr.Andrew? ________________________________________________________________ 19 What does the donkey milk cure?_________________________________ 20 What does he think about the milk flavor?________________________ 21 What does he think about the “picoroco”?__________________________ 22 What does he think about the “cochayuyo”?________________________ 23 What does he remember with the “pastel de choclo”? ________________________________________________________________ 24 What is a “colectivo” for Mr.Andrew? ______________________________ 25 Who is Mauricio and what does he do? ____________________________

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

26 Why is the Chilean environment good for agricultural products? ________________________________________________________________ 27 What is the most popular fish in Chile? _____________________________ 28 What are the products that Mr.Andrew can see at the sea market? ________________________________________________________ 29 What does he think about the “piure”? _____________________________ 30 How old is Mr. Andrew? _________________________________________ 31 How is the center of Chile according to him? _______________________ 32 Where is Fundo Collanco located? ______________________________ 33 Who are its owners? _________________________________________ 34 What activity are they going to see in the ranch first? ______________________________________________________________ 35 Why do the ranchers castrate only young males? ______________________________________________________________ 36 How many bulls do they castrate a day? __________________________ 37 In what season? _______________________________________________ 38 How far is Quintay from Santiago? ________________________________ 39 What is Quintay? ______________________________________________ 40 What was Quintay in the ancient times? ____________________________ 41 What are the three ways to fish congrio? ___________________________ 42 What does Andrew think about congrio for lunch? ___________________ 43 What is a funicular?____________________________________________ 44 What does Andrew think of Chile at the end of the documentary? _________________________________________________________________

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English Department - Colegio San Buenaventura

IV -Andes flight disaster Activities 1 Investigate about the accident and have a small talk about it with your classmates. 2 Read the text. Underline the verbs and compare the information with the movie. 3 Watch the movie “Alive� and answer the questionnaire. 4 Write down a summary of 200 words about the most important events of the accident and talk about it to the teacher.

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Inglés Electivo – 3º Medio

Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571

Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, also known as the Andes flight disaster, and in South America as Miracle in the Andes (El Milagro de los Andes) was a chartered flight carrying 45 people, including a rugby team, their friends, family and associates that crashed in the Andes on October 13, 1972. More than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, and several others quickly succumbed to cold and injury. Of the 29 who were alive a few days after the accident, another eight were killed by an avalanche that swept over their shelter in the wreckage. The last 16 survivors were rescued on December 23, 1972, more than two months after the crash. The survivors had little food and no source of heat in the harsh conditions at over 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) altitude. Faced with starvation and radio news reports that the search for them had been abandoned, the survivors fed on the dead passengers who had been preserved in the snow. Rescuers did not learn of the survivors until 72 days after the crash when passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, after a 10-day trek across the Andes, found a Chilean huaso, who gave them food and then alerted authorities about the existence of the other survivors. The crash On Friday the 13th of October, 1972, a Uruguayan Air Force twin turboprop Fairchild FH227D was flying over the Andes carrying Old Christians Club rugby union team from Montevideo, Uruguay, to play a match in Santiago, Chile. The trip had begun the day before, when the Fairchild departed from Carrasco International Airport, but inclement mountain weather forced an overnight stop in Mendoza. At the Fairchild's ceiling of 29,500 feet (9,000 m), the plane could not fly directly from Mendoza, over the Andes, to Santiago, in large part because of the weather. Instead, the pilots had to fly south from Mendoza parallel to the Andes, then turn west towards the mountains, fly through a low pass (Planchón), cross the mountains and emerge on the Chilean side of the Andes south of Curicó before finally turning north and initiating descent to Santiago after passing Curicó. After resuming the flight on the afternoon of October 13, the plane was soon flying through the pass in the mountains. The pilot then notified air controllers in Santiago that he was over Curicó, Chile, and was cleared to descend. That proved to be a fatal error. Since the pass was covered by the clouds, the pilots had to rely on the usual time required to cross the pass (dead reckoning). However, they failed to take into account strong headwinds that slowed the plane and increased the time required to complete the crossing. They were not as far west as they thought they were and, as a result, the turn and descent were initiated too soon, before the plane had passed through the mountains, leading to a controlled flight into terrain.

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Dipping into the cloud cover while still over the mountains, the Fairchild soon crashed on an unnamed peak (later called Cerro Seler, also known as Glaciar de las Lágrimas or Glacier of Tears), located between Cerro Sosneado and Volcán Tinguiririca, straddling the remote mountainous border between Chile and Argentina. The plane clipped the peak at 4,200 metres (13,800 ft), neatly severing the right wing, which was thrown back with such force that it cut off the vertical stabilizer, leaving a gaping hole in the rear of the fuselage. The plane then clipped a second peak which severed the left wing and left the plane as just a fuselage flying through the air. One of the propellers sliced through the fuselage as the wing it was attached to was severed. The fuselage hit the ground and slid down a steep mountain slope before finally coming to rest in a snow bank. The location of the crash site is 34°45′54″S 70°17′11″W34.765°S 70.28639°W, in the Argentine municipality of Malargüe (Malargüe Department, Mendoza Province). Early days

Survivors amongst the wreckage Of the 45 people on the plane, 12 died in the crash or shortly thereafter; another five had died by the next morning, and one more succumbed to injuries on the eighth day. The remaining 27 faced severe difficulties in surviving high in the freezing mountains. Many had suffered injuries from the crash, including broken legs from the aircraft's seats piling together. The survivors lacked equipment such as cold-weather clothing and footwear suitable for the area, mountaineering goggles to prevent snow blindness (although one of the eventual survivors, 24-year-old Adolfo "Fito" Strauch, devised a couple of sunglasses by using the sun visors in the pilot's cabin which helped protect their eyes from the sun). They lacked any kind of medical supplies, and the death of Dr. Francisco Nicola left a first and a second year medical student who had survived the crash in charge to improvise splints and braces with salvaged parts of what remained of the aircraft. Anthropophagy The survivors had a small amount of food: a few chocolate bars, assorted snacks and several bottles of wine. During the days following the crash they divided out this food in very small amounts so as not to exhaust their meager supply. Fito also devised a way to melt snow into water by using metal from the seats and placing snow on it. The snow then melted in the sun and dripped into empty wine bottles. Even with this strict rationing, their food stock dwindled quickly. Furthermore, there was no natural vegetation or animals on the snow-covered mountain. The group thus survived by collectively making a decision to eat flesh from the bodies of their dead comrades, beginning with the pilot. This decision was not taken lightly, as most were classmates or close friends. In his 2006 book, Page 50

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Miracle in the Andes: 72 Days on the Mountain and My Long Trek Home, Nando Parrado comments on this decision: At high altitude, the body's caloric needs are astronomical ... we were starving in earnest, with no hope of finding food, but our hunger soon grew so voracious that we searched anyway ...again and again we scoured the fuselage in search of crumbs and morsels. We tried to eat strips of leather torn from pieces of luggage, though we knew that the chemicals they'd been treated with would do us more harm than good. We ripped open seat cushions hoping to find straw, but found only inedible upholstery foam ... Again and again I came to the same conclusion: unless we wanted to eat the clothes we were wearing, there was nothing here but aluminium, plastic, ice, and rock. All of the passengers were Roman Catholic. According to Read, some equated the act of cannibalism to the ritual of Holy Communion. Others initially had reservations, though after realizing that it was their only means of staying alive, changed their minds a few days later. Avalanche Eight of the initial survivors subsequently died on the morning of October 29 when an avalanche cascaded down on them as they slept in the fuselage. For three days they survived in an appallingly confined space since the plane was buried under several feet of snow. Nando Parrado was able to poke a hole in the roof of the fuselage with a metal pole, providing ventilation. Among the dead was Liliana Methol, wife of survivor Javier Methol. She was the last surviving female passenger to die. December 12 On 12 December 1972, some two months after the crash, Parrado, Canessa and Vizintín began their trek up the mountain. Parrado took the lead, and often had to be called to slow down, though the thin oxygen made it difficult for all of them. It was still bitterly cold but the sleeping bag allowed them to live through the nights. In the film Stranded Canessa called the first night during the ascension, where they had difficulty finding a place to use the sleeping bag, the worst night of his life.

On the third day of the trek, Parrado reached the top of the mountain before the other two expeditionaries. Stretched before him as far as the eye could see were more mountains. In fact, he had just climbed one of the mountains (as high as 4,650 metres (15,260 ft)) which forms the border between Argentina and Chile, meaning that they were still tens of kilometers from the red valley of Chile. However, after spying a small "Y" in the distance, he gauged that a way out of the mountains must lie beyond, and refused to give up hope. Knowing that the hike would take more energy than they'd originally planned for, Parrado and Canessa sent Vizintín back to the crash site, as they were rapidly running out of rations. Since the return was entirely downhill, it only took him one hour to get back to the fuselage using a makeshift sled. Page 51

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Finding help Parrado and Canessa hiked for several more days. First, they were able to actually reach the narrow valley that Parrado had seen on the top of the mountain, where they found the bed of Rio Azufre. They followed the river and finally reached the end of the snowline. Gradually, there appeared more and more signs of human presence, first some signs of camping, and finally on the ninth day, some cows. When they rested that evening, they were very tired and Canessa seemed unable to proceed further. As Parrado was gathering wood to build a fire, Canessa noticed what looked like a man on a horse at the other side of the river, and yelled at the near-sighted Parrado to run down to the banks. At first it seemed that Canessa had been imagining the man on the horse, but eventually they saw three men on horseback. Divided by a river, Nando and Canessa tried to convey their situation, but the noise of the river made communication difficult. One of the horsemen, a Chilean huaso named Sergio Catalan, shouted "tomorrow." They knew at this point they would be saved and settled to sleep by the river. During the evening dinner, Sergio Catalan discussed what he had seen with the other huasos who were staying in a little summer ranch called Los Maitenes. Someone mentioned that several weeks before, the father of Carlos Paez, who was desperately searching for any possible news about the plane, had asked them about the Andes crash. However, the huasos could not imagine that someone could still be alive. The next day Catalan took some loaves of bread and went back to the river bank. There he found the two men still on the other side of the river, on their knees and asking for help. Catalan threw them the bread loaves, which they immediately ate, and a pen and paper tied to a rock. Parrado wrote a note telling about the plane crash and asking for help. Then he tied the paper to a rock and threw it back to Catalan, who read it and gave the boys a sign that he understood. Catalan rode on horseback for many hours westwards to bring help. During the trip he saw another huaso on the south side of Rio Azufre and asked him to reach the boys and to bring them to Los Maitenes. Instead, he followed the river till the cross with Rio Tinguiririca, where after passing a bridge he was able to reach the narrow route that linked the village of Puente Negro to the holiday resort of Termas del Flaco. Here he was able to stop a truck and reach the police station at Puente Negro, where the news was finally dispatched to the Army command in San Fernando and then to Santiago. Meanwhile, Parrado and Canessa were rescued and they reached Los Maitenes, where they were fed and allowed to rest. The following morning the rescue expedition left Santiago, and after a stop in San Fernando, moved eastwards. Two helicopters had to fly in the fog, but reached a place near Los Maitenes just when Parrado and Canessa were passing on horseback while going to Puente Negro. Nando Parrado was recruited to fly back to the mountain in order to guide the helicopters to the remaining survivors. The news that people had survived the October 13 crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 had also leaked to the international Page 52

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press and a flood of reporters began to appear along the narrow route from Puente Negro to Termas del Flaco. The reporters hoped to be able to see and interview Parrado and Canessa about the crash and the following ordeal.

The mountain rescue In the morning of the day when the rescue started, those remaining at the crash site heard on their radio that Parrado and Canessa had been successful in finding help and that afternoon, 22 December 1972, two helicopters carrying search and rescue climbers arrived. However, the expedition (with Parrado onboard) was not able to reach the crash site until the afternoon, when it is very difficult to fly in the Andes. In fact the weather was very bad and the two helicopters were able to take only half of the survivors. They departed, leaving the rescue team and remaining survivors at the crash site to once again sleep in the fuselage, until a second expedition with helicopters could arrive the following morning. The second expedition arrived at daybreak on 23 December and all 16 survivors were rescued. All of the survivors were taken to hospitals in Santiago and treated for altitude sickness, dehydration, frostbite, broken bones, scurvy and malnutrition.

Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa (sitting) with Chilean Huaso Sergio Catalán.

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Answer the questions

1-Who were the passengers that were traveling to Chile and why? ___________________________________________________________________ 2-Why did they land in Mendoza first? ____________________________________________________________________ 3-Where and why did the plane crash? ____________________________________________________________________ 4-How many people died at the moment the plane crushed? _________________________________________________________________ 5-How many people survived? __________________________________________________________________ 6-What was the food that remained in the plane when it crashed? __________________________________________________________________ 7-What happened with the mother and sister of Mr. Parrado? ___________________________________________________________________ 8-What did they do when the food supply was over? ____________________________________________________________________ 9-What was the promise they made if one of them died? ____________________________________________________________________ 10-What did they listen on the radio then? _______________________________________________________________________ 11-What did they decide to do then? _________________________________________________________________________ 12-How many people died because of the avalanche? _________________________________________________________________________ 13-How many days did the expedition last? _________________________________________________________________________ 14-What did Nando see on 20th December? _________________________________________________________________________ Page 54

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15-Who was that man? __________________________________________________________ 16-What did they do? ______________________________________________________________________ 17-How many days were they in the mountains? ________________________________________________________________________ 18-How many passengers survived? _________________________________________________________________________ 19-Who were the two people that went into the expedition for help? _________________________________________________________________________ 20-What did the people (who were still in the plane) listen on the radio then? _________________________________________________________________________ 21-Where were they taken when they were rescued? _________________________________________________________________________

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V - Chilean miners Activities 1-Translate the text into Spanish. 2-Watch the video “Al Jazeera Correspondent: Chilean Miners: Still Trapped?� and answer the questions. 3-Check the correct answers with your classmates.

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2010 Copiapó mining accident The 2010 Copiapó mining accident, also known as the "Chilean mining accident", began in the afternoon of Thursday, 5 August 2010 as a significant cave-in at the troubled 121-year-old San José copper–gold mine. The mine is located deep in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest and harshest regions on earth, about 45 kilometers (28 mi) north of Copiapó, in northern Chile, South America. The buried men, who became known as "Los 33" ("The 33"), were trapped 700 meters (2,300 ft) underground and about 5 kilometers (3 mi) from the mine's entrance via spiraling underground service ramps. The mixed crew of experienced miners and technical support personnel subsequently survived for a record 69 days deep underground before their rescue. Previous geological instability at the old mine and a long record of fines and safety violations for the mine's owners had resulted in a series of accidents, including eight deaths, during the dozen years leading up to this accident. As a result of the mine's notorious history, it was originally thought that the workers had probably

not survived the collapse or would starve to death before they were found, if ever. The country of Chile had just sustained the 2010 Chile earthquake and its associated tsunami less than six months before the accident. The nation's tremendous outpouring of public concern for the plight of the 33 lost miners and the Chilean people's strong empathy for the workers' grief-stricken families led the national government to take over the faltering search and rescue operation from the mine's financially strapped owners, privately held San Esteban Mining Company. Eight exploratory boreholes were hastily drilled. Seventeen days after the accident, on 22 August, a note written in bold red letters appeared taped to a drill bit when it was pulled to the surface after penetrating an area believed to be accessible to the trapped workers. It read simply "Estamos bien en el refugio, los 33" (English: "We are well in the shelter, the 33"). The nation of Chile erupted into a wave of euphoria and demanded that Chile's leaders find a way to bring the trapped workers safely home to their waiting families.

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Once the government rescuers knew that the men were alive, Chile implemented a comprehensive plan to both nurture the workers during their entrapment and to rescue the miners from the depths. It included deployment of three large, international drilling rig teams, nearly

every government ministry, the expertise of the United States' NASA space agency and more than a dozen multi-national corporations. After 69 days trapped deep underground, all 33 men were brought safely to the surface on 13 October 2010 over a period of almost 24 hours. After winching the last trapped miner to the surface, the mine rescue paramedics, the best available drawn from multiple national agencies, all still underground, held up a sign for the TV cameras reading "Misi贸n cumplida Chile" (English: ""Mission accomplished Chile"), which was seen by a TV/Web audience estimated at more than 1 billion viewers around the world watching the rescue live.

All 33 miners were rescued, almost all in good medical condition with no long-term physical effects anticipated.

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Al Jazeera Correspondent: Chilean Miners: Still Trapped?

1 Where did they travel after the accident? __________________________________________ 2 Why did they go to Holy Land? ____________________________________________ 3 How is Copiapó according to her description? _______________________________________________ 4 What psychological problems do they have? ________________________________________________ 5 What are the characteristics of the Atacama desert? ______________________________________________ 6 What are the main uses for copper? _______________________________________________ 7 What many dollars a day does Chile export for copper? ________________________________________________ 8 Who are the “pirquineros”? ________________________________________________ 9 What are the characteristics of the small mines and their miners? ___________________________________________________ 10 How many mines are there in the Atacama Desert? ___________________________________________________ 11 What are the security problems of these mines? ____________________________________________________ 12 What are the health problems working on mines? ______________________________________________________ 13 What were the problems and danger of San José mine? _______________________________________________________

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14 When was the day of the accident? _______________________________________________________ 15 How many meters down earth were they trapped? _________________________________________________________ 16 What did the miners feel and do inside the mine? ________________________________________________________ 17 How many drills were working first? ________________________________________________________ 18 How many days had passed before they listened to the drill? _________________________________________________________ 19 How did they indicate that they were alive inside? _________________________________________________________ 20 How much time was it supposed to take them out of the mine first? _________________________________________________________ 21 How did they receive food and other supplies? _________________________________________________________ 22 What health problems did they have inside the mine? ________________________________________________________ 23 How did they get out them of the mine? _________________________________________________________ 24 What changes have been carried out to prevent other accidents? _________________________________________________________ 25 What did some of them refuse to talk to the journalist? _________________________________________________________

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Links 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Movie:”Dancing with wolves” 9 10 Movie:”The last of the Mohicans”

11 Movie” The house of the spirits” Movie “Machuca” English subtitles

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12 13 Bizarre Food 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 E1B9E7C304FDCB 22

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