Aluno(a):______________________________nº_______Data:____/____/___ Prof.:Alexandra Mensuração Rubrica
INSTRUÇÕES GERAIS: 01. Leia atentamente o texto e/ou enunciado que antecede a cada questão. 02. USE SOMENTE CANETA AZUL OU PRETA. QUESTÕES A LÁPIS NÃO SERÃO CONSIDERADAS. 03. Dê respostas claras e completas a todas as questões. As respostas confusas ou incompletas acarretarão perda de pontos. 04. Não abrevie, nem use reticência (...) ou etc... 05. Não use corretivo. 06. Não rasure as questões. Caso tenha que mudar o que já escreveu, passe um traço sobre essa parte. 07. É PROIBIDO CONSULTAR QUALQUER MATERIAL, LIVRO, RESUMOS OU CADERNO. 08. É proibido o empréstimo de material durante a realização da prova.
ENSINO MÉDIO – TEXT COMPREHENSION TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: George Orwell was the pen name of British author Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950). Noted as a political and cultural commentator, he is among the most widely admired English-language writers of the twentieth century. During most of his career Orwell was best known for his journalism; however, contemporary readers are more often introduced to Orwell as a novelist. His most successful books are Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. The writer is also known for his insights about the political implications of the use of language. His concern over the power of language to shape reality is also reflected in his invention of “Newspeak”, the official language of the imaginary country of Oceania in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. “Newspeak” is a variant of English in which vocabulary is strictly limited by government ordering. The goal is to make it increasingly difficult to express ideas that contradict the official line – with the final aim of making it impossible even to conceive such ideas. A number of words and phrases that Orwell invented in Nineteen Eighty-Four have entered the standard vocabulary, such as “memory hole”, “Big Brother”, “Room 101”, “doublethink”, “thought police” and “newspeak”. (Adaptado de: George Orwell. Disponível em: <http://www.saberingles.com.ar/reading/george-orwell.html>. Acesso em: 12 ago. 2012.)
1. (Uel 2013) De acordo com o texto, George Orwell, pseudônimo adotado pelo escritor britânico Eric Arthur Blair, a) é mais conhecido dos leitores contemporâneos como crítico político. b) escreveu romances que alcançaram pouco sucesso, entre eles Animal Farm. c) está entre os mais admirados escritores da língua inglesa do século XXI. d) evitava fazer menção a questões políticas e sociais em suas obras. e) inventou palavras e termos que entraram para o vocabulário da língua inglesa. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: 5 Ways To Turn Fear Into Fuel
Editor’s note: This is a guest post from Jonathan Fields, author of Uncertainty: Turning Fear and Doubt Into Fuel for Brilliance. Uncertainty. It’s a terrifying word. Living with it, dangling over your head like the sword of Damocles, 5day in day out, is enough to send anyone spiraling into a state of anxiety, fear and paralysis. 11 Like it or not, though, uncertainty is the new normal. We live in a time where the world is in a state of constant, long-term flux. And, that’s not all. If you want to spend your time on the planet not just 6getting-by, but consistently creating art, experiences, businesses and lives that truly matter, you’ll need to proactively 7seek out, invite and even deliberately amplify uncertainty. Because the other side of uncertainty is opportunity. Nothing great was ever created by waiting around for someone to tell you it’s all going to be okay or for perfect information to drop from the sky. Doesn’t happen that way. Great work requires you to act in the face of uncertainty, to live in the question long enough for your true potential to emerge. There is no alternative. 1 When you find the strength to act in the face of uncertainty, you till the soil of genius. 2 Problem is, that kills most people. It leads to unease, anxiety, fear and doubt on a level that snuffs out most genuinely meaningful and potentially revolutionary endeavors before they even see the light of day. Not because they wouldn’t have succeeded, but because you never equipped yourself to 8handle and even harness the emotional energy of the journey. But, what if it didn’t have to be that way? What if there was a way to turn the fear, anxiety and self-doubt that rides along with acting in the face of uncertainty—4the head-to-toe butterflies—into fuel for brilliance? 10 Turns out, there is. 3Your ability to lean into the unknown isn’t so much about luck or genetics, rather it’s something entirely trainable. I’ve spent the past few years interviewing world-class creators across a wide range of fields and 9pouring over research that spans neuroscience, decision-theory, psychology, creativity and business. Through this work, a collection of patterns, practices and strategies have emerged that not only turbocharge insight, creativity, innovation and problem-solving, but also help ameliorate so much of the suffering so often associated with the pursuit of any creative quest. Fonte: http://zenhabits.net/fearfuel. Acesso em 07/12/2011. Texto adaptado. 2. (Ita 2013) Na ref. 11, “Like it or not” a) refere-se à espada de Damocles. b) significa sendo ou não sendo como descrito no texto. c) refere-se à normalidade da incerteza nos dias atuais. d) significa goste disso ou não goste. e) refere-se aos sentimentos desencadeados pela incerteza. TEXTO PARA AS PRÓXIMAS 4 QUESTÕES: Ecotourist: What type are you?
Ecotourism accounts for 6% of the worldwide Gross Domestic Product with a staggering growth rate of 5% per year. The industry is being driven by a rising consumer demand, but 2there are different types of ecotourists. 6 According to the United Nations, there are three types: hard ecotourist, soft ecotourist and the adventure ecotourist. 3They have a common interest but enjoy slightly different flavors of green travel. The hard ecotourist is motivated primarily by a scientific interest in nature and is interested in bird watching, nature photography, and botanical trips. Sometimes they will take on activities that require strenuous effort and non-hotel accommodations. The second type is the soft ecotourist. They are the fastest growing segment. This type is interested in observing wildlife and participating in local culture. Hiking is a favorite activity and they are less intense than the hard ecotourist. 5 The third type is the adventure ecotourist. 4This type engages in moderate to high-risk activities such as surfing, scuba diving, snorkeling, wind surfing, whitewater rafting, and sport fishing. These types are the adrenaline all or nothing types 8looking for a challenge. Ecotourism promotes cultural awareness, tolerance and commitment to protecting the environment. But ecotourism does not mean sacrificing luxury. Luxury with an ecoexperience is a fast growing market. There is an increasing demand from consumers for green luxury. 7It is a myth that in order to do things in an ecologically friendly way there is sacrifice. 1Being green does not mean a reduction in our quality of life, it actually means an improvement in our quality of life. Fonte: Disponível em: <http://www.crocodilebay.com/blog/2012/08/17/ecotourist-whattype-are-you/>. Acesso em 17 ago. 2012.
3. (Ufsm 2013) O texto traz informações sobre ecoturistas, principalmente referentes a a) tipos de ecoturistas. b) deveres dos ecoturistas. c) sacrifícios dos ecoturistas. d) destinos preferidos dos ecoturistas. e) exigências contemporâneas dos ecoturistas. 4. (Ufsm 2013) A alternativa em que o segmento indica ação física é a) “there are different types of ecotourists” (ref. 2). b) “They have a common interest” (ref. 3). c) “This type engages in moderate to high-risk activities” (ref. 4). d) “Being green does not mean a reduction in our quality of life” (ref. 1).
e) “The third type is the adventure ecotourist” (ref. 5). 5. (Ufsm 2013) O público-alvo imediato do texto são a) agências de turismo. b) as Nações Unidas. c) governantes. d) ecoturistas. e) hotéis ecológicos de luxo. 6. (Ufsm 2013) Os ecoturistas são agrupados em três tipos, com base no critério do(s) a) tipo de lugar mais visitado. b) número de viagens realizadas. c) recursos financeiros disponíveis. d) interesses e atividades desenvolvidas. e) tipo de hospedagem usado. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO:
Reducing climate change is good for your health 7 More ‘climate-friendly’ investments in transport, energy and housing could help prevent significant noncommunicable disease, WHO review finds Washington, D.C., 14 June 2011 (PAHO/WHO) – 6Greener investments in transport, housing and household energy policies can help prevent significant cardiovascular and chronic respiratory disease, obesity-related conditions and cancers. These are among the findings of 10a new global World Health Organization series that looks systematically, for the first time ever, at the health ‘co-benefits’ of investments in climate change mitigation reviewed by the lntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Overall, 4sustainable development policies in housing, transport, and household energy may benefit health right away – even if the broader climate gains are realized over years or decades. “Some climate change mitigation measures yield broader health gains than others,” says Dr Maria Neira, director of WHO’s Department of Public Health and Environment. “Potential health benefits – as well as certain risks – should be considered more systematically in climate assessments. And if that is done, we can identify strategies that are truly win-win.” 5
Many forms of asthma and allergies, as well as heart disease and strokes related to increasingly intense heat waves and cold spells could be addressed by more climatefriendly housing measures, the report finds. As 8other examples of ‘best buys’ for health, initial findings from reviews of other sectors identify considerable evidence that: — 1Investments in, and use of, safe walking/cycling and public transport networks are strongly associated with more healthy physical activity, lower rates of premature
mortality, and less obesity. However, the last IPCC report focuses on better fuels and engines as mitigation measures, giving little attention to the much wider benefits offered by policies that favour walking, cycling and public transport. This neglects the broader range of health and social benefits that can be derived from adopting more sustainable transport. — 3Deaths of more than 1 million people annually from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to indoor air pollution from traditional biomass and coal-fired stoves are largely avoidable with more energy efficient stoves. An estimated 15% of this burden in Latin American and Sub-Saharan African could potentially be averted in less than a decade if more advanced biomass or biogas stoves were introduced at a pace compatible with UN targets for achieving universal access to modern energy services by the year 2030. “This series explains why green housing and home energy, transport, and urban environments can improve our health – and why the health sector can prevent much disease, at very little cost, by advocating for healthier investments in some key sectors,” says WHO’s Dr Carlos Dora, an epidemiologist and coordinator of the series. As much as 1180% of chronic disease is now occurring in lower income countries, where urban growth is driving rapid slum expansion, soaring traffic volumes, air and water pollution and rates of traffic injury. “9People really cannot make healthy lifestyle choices – unless they have a healthier environment,” Dora observes. “So we, as health professionals, need to promote basic environmental measures that cost the health sector very little, and can avoid many subsequent years of treatment. And these health savings can be captured immediately – while the climate benefits accumulate for the future.” Glossário: change – mudança choice –escolha disease – doença finding – descoberta gain – ganho
health – saúde heart – coração housing – habitação income – renda measure – medida
mitigation – redução slum – favela stove – fogão yield – produzir, render
Fonte: Disponível em: <http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id5583&itemid=19 26h>. Acesso em: 10 jul. 2012.
7. (Ufsm 2013) Segundo o texto, as doenças que podem ser prevenidas a partir de investimentos nas áreas de transporte (ref. 1), habitação (ref. 2) e energia doméstica (ref. 3) são, respectivamente, a) obesidade – do coração – dos pulmões. b) câncer – dos pulmões – mortalidade prematura. c) dos pulmões – do coração – obesidade. d) mortalidade prematura – dos pulmões – alergia. e) do coração – obesidade – dos pulmões. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, like other pride parades around the world, is an event celebrating lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) culture. 4The first Gay Parade in São Paulo took place in Paulista Avenue in 1997. In the year 2006, it was named the biggest pride parade of the world by the Guinness Book of World Records. In 2010, the city government of São Paulo invested R$ 1 million in the parade. 1 Although the Pride Parade is strongly supported by the state and the city of São Paulo government, the federal government supports the parade too. 2The event has a solid security plan, and many politicians show up there to open it. 5During the Gay Parade, São Paulo usually receives about 400.000 tourists. Between R$ 180 million and R$ 190 million circulate during the event. The Gay Parade is organized by Associação da Parada do Orgulho LGBT de São Paulo (APOGLBT). 6It attracts a lot of attention from newspapers and television, from Brazilian authorities and from 3the hundreds of thousands of curious people that line the parade's route to watch it. In 2009, 3.2 million people went to the 13th São Paulo Gay Pride Parade. Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gay_pride_parade#Brazil. Access on August 22nd, 2012. 8. (Ufsj 2013) According to the text, it is CORRECT to say that a) the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade likes other pride parades around the world. b) the Guinness Book declared that the parade was the largest in the world. c) newspapers and Brazilian authorities attract a lot of attention during the parade. d) many politicians think the parade is only a show, so they go there to open it. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: LGBT rights in Brazil Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Brazil enjoy most of the same legal protections available to non-LGBT people. On May 5, 2011, the Supreme Federal Court voted in favor of allowing samesex couples the same 112 legal rights as married couples. 2The decision was approved by 10–0 with one abstention, and it will give same-sex couples in stable partnerships the same financial and social rights enjoyed by those in opposite-sex relationships. 1 The list of various LGBT rights in Brazil has expanded since the end of the military dictatorship in 1985, and the creation of the new constitution of Brazil of 1988. In 2009, a survey conducted in 10 Brazilian cities found that 7.8% of men identified as gay, with bisexual males accounting for another 2.6% of the total population (for a total of 10.4%). The Brazilian lesbian population was 4.9% of females, with bisexual women reaching 1.4% (for a total of 6.3%). There are no nation-wide statistics. According to the Guinness World Records, the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade is the world's largest LGBT Pride celebration, with 4 million people in 2009. Brazil had 60.002 same-sex couples in the same home, according to the Brazilian Census of 2010 (IBGE). The South American country has 300 active LGBT organizations. Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_rights_in_Brazil. Acess on August 22nd, 2012. 9. (Ufsj 2013) About the last paragraph of the text, it is CORRECT to say that a) São Paulo, Brazil, has three hundred lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) organizations.
b) the São Paulo Parade is the world's largest Pride celebration, so Brazil has 300 LGBT organizations. c) the 2010 Census showed that 4 million people participated in the São Paulo Gay Parade in 2009. d) the Gay Pride Parade in São Paulo, Brazil, is the biggest Pride celebration in South America. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: Leia o texto: In 1Higher Education, a Focus on Technology By STEVE LOHR The education gap facing the nation’s work force is evident in the numbers. Most new jobs will require more than a high school education, yet fewer than half of Americans under 30 have a 2postsecondary degree of any kind. Recent state budget cuts, education experts agree, promise to make closing that gap even more difficult. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and four nonprofit education organizations are beginning an ambitious initiative to address that challenge by accelerating the development and use of online learning tools. An initial $20 million round of money, from the Gates Foundation, will be for postsecondary online courses, particularly ones tailored for community colleges and low-income young people. Another round of grants, for high school programs, is scheduled for next year. Just how effective technology can be in improving education — by making students more effective, more engaged learners — is a subject of debate. To date, education research shows that good teachers matter a lot, class size may be less important than once thought and nothing improves student performance as much as one-on-one human tutoring. If technology is well designed, experts say, it can help tailor the learning experience to individual students, facilitate studentteacher collaboration, and assist teachers in monitoring student performance each day and in quickly fine-tuning lessons. The potential benefits of technology are greater as students become older, more independent learners. Making that point, Mr. Gates said in an interview that for children from kindergarten to about fifth grade “the idea that you stick them in front of a computer is 3ludicrous.” (www.nytimes.com/2010/10/11/technology/11online.html. Acesso em: 20.09.2012. Adaptado) 1
higher education: educação superior. postsecondary: termo que se refere aos cursos feitos após o high school ou, no modelo educacional brasileiro, o Ensino Médio. 3 ludicrous: ridícula, absurda. 2
10. (Fatec 2013) No terceiro parágrafo, o pronome ones em – (...) particularly ones tailored for community colleges and lowincome young people. – refere-se a a) high school programs. b) low-income young people. c) postsecondary online courses. d) the Gates and Hewlett Foundations. e) an initial $20 million round of money.
Gabarito: Resposta da questão 1: [E] A resposta correta é a [E], pois o texto afirma: “A number of words and phrases that Orwell invented in Nineteen Eighty-Four have entered the standard vocabulary” (várias palavras e frases que Orwell inventou no livro 1984 entraram para o vocabulário padrão). Resposta da questão 2: [D] O trecho “like it or not” refere-se à possibilidade do leitor gostar ou não do fato de ter que viver com as incertezas. A alternativa [B] está apenas parcialmente correta, pois, apesar de falar sobre as incertezas, não fala sobre a questão de o leitor gostar delas ou não. Resposta da questão 3: [A] O texto afirma que existem três tipos de ecoturistas. “According to the United Nations, there are three types: hard ecotourist, soft ecotourist and the adventure ecotourist” (de acordo com as Nações Unidas, existem três tipos de ecoturistas: o tipo duro (hard), o tipo brando (soft) e o aventureiro (adventure)). Resposta da questão 4: [C] A alternativa [C] é a que indica ação física, pois afirma que “este tipo se engaja em atividades de médio a alto risco”. Resposta da questão 5: [D] Uma vez que o próprio título do texto é “Ecotourist: What type are you?” (Ecoturista: que tipo você é?), o público-alvo do texto são os ecoturistas. Resposta da questão 6: [D] O seguinte trecho pode ser usado como justificativa: “They have a common interest but enjoy slightly different flavors of green travel” (eles têm um interesse comum, mas apreciam particularidades ligeiramente diferentes de viagens verdes). Resposta da questão 7: [A] A alternativa [A] está correta, pois o texto afirma que “investimentos mais verdes em transporte, moradia e políticas energéticas domiciliares podem ajudar a prevenir doenças cardiovasculares e doenças respiratórias crônicas significativas, problemas ligados à obesidade e cânceres” (Greener investments in transport, housing and household energy policies can help prevent significant cardiovascular and chronic respiratory disease, obesity-related conditions and cancers).
Resposta da questão 8: [B] A alternativa [B] está correta, pois afirma que o Guinness Book declarou que a parada gay de São Paulo era a maior parada de orgulho do mundo. O trecho que justifica tal alternativa é: “In the year 2006, it was named the biggest pride parade of the world by the Guinness Book of World Records” (no ano de 2006, ela foi tida pelo Guinness Book de Recordes Mundiais como a maior parada de orgulho do mundo). Resposta da questão 9: [D] A alternativa [D] está correta, pois afirma que “a Parada do Orgulho Gay em São Paulo, Brasil, é a maior celebração de orgulho na América do Sul”. O seguinte trecho justifica a escolha da alternativa: “the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade is the world's largest LGBT Pride celebration” (a Parada do Orgulho Gay de São Paulo é a maior celebração de orgulho LGBT do mundo). Obviamente, se a parada é a maior do mundo, consequentemente, também é a maior da América do Sul. Resposta da questão 10: [C] A alternativa [C] está correta, pois “ones” refere-se a “cursos online após o ensino secundário”. O texto afirma: “An initial $20 million round of money, from the Gates Foundation, will be for postsecondary online courses, particularly ones tailored for community colleges and low-income young people” (uma quantia inicial de 20 milhões de dólares da Fundação Gates será destinada para os cursos online após o ensino secundário, particularmente aqueles [cursos] adaptados para faculdades comunitárias e jovens de baixa renda).