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n iEsrre ls out. R€metnber thc election? candid5tes' daggered re. lterrelv d Iterqely dehated s ellect on the econorny and on societt''s lutute. fufitle. lrlthile outety's

sonrcitrg got r lot ol lreat last fall, there wasn't a lot of illundnation on it5 real dlmunics.

Gall it the law of econornic Darwinisml

America has beqorne a nation oI out$oufcers.

Callit the law of economic Darwinism:America,liks so much ofthe restottheworld, has become a nationofoutsourcers.For many companiesthat comp€tegloballyit's a do-or-diestrategyand a natural partof their's a waY lor them to gain economiesof scale on skillsand mindshare,and keep operationscloseto businessprocess centersofexcellencearoundthe world-while alsocuttingcosts.As companiesbecomeincteasingly transnationalthanksto advancesin technologyand the Internet,this transformationshouldcontinue. outsourcingis part ofthe fundamentalm€turing processthat companies gothrough to cr€te bett€rproductsand

facilitiesservicesare the mosl commonly outsourceddepartments,but that finance,accounting, sales,and marketingservices are gainingpopularity. To get an insidelookat how outsourcingis reshapingthe coDorate landsc6pewe interviewedexpertsin the field to uncov€rthetop inclustry trends.Hereare fivetowatch:

Trend #l: The Globalization oI the Services Supply Ghain

lnsourcing,outsourcing,offshoring, nearshoring,onshoring.Theseand lotsof othertermsget thrown about with increasingJrequency.But what do they reallymean? compani€sars beginIn sssence, ningto adopta globalsupplychain approachIor businessservicesthat milrorswhathasbeengoingon in manufacturing tor years.In laymant termsitmsanslinkingallofthe companysinternaland externalpeopie, processes. to its andtechnologies customersand suppliersandforming a global corporateecosystem-"lt's how quickly almostbreathtaking manufacturing hasbecomea globalmarket with companiesrelying on theirtop-tiersupplierc to d€liverproductsto theircustomers,"says customers,while conTim Main,presidentand tinuingto deliverthe reCEOof St. Petersburg, turns their shareholders JabilCircuit. Fla.-based deserve, demandand Mainshouldknow.Jabil explainsDavidBarrett, law is one of the world'slargestproviders a partneratthe London-based of orfsourcingservicesfor th€ el€cfirm Simmons& Simmonswho in outsourcing.As many tronicsindustrythatservesclientslike specializes and Phillips, Cisco,Hewlett-Packard insidebusinesshaveknownfor decades,"ith a processofestablish- with operationsin Asia,Europe,and ing and evolvingpartnershipsthat The emergingtrendis a result can deliversuperiorresultsover of unrelentingcompetitionthat demandscompaniesreachoutside Dun & Bradstreetestimates that outsourcing,which beganover theirfourwallsto find the very best solutionsfor is 30 yearsago, is now a $4trillion hittingnearlyeveryindustryfrom a year busin€ss.Accordingto healthcareto telecommun;cations. industryexperts,today 25%of the ; It is poppingup everywhereand typicalexecutiv€'sbudgetgoesto m6nifestingitselfin a varietyof outsourcings!pplies or servi€es, pportcall waye-from customeFsu and that's €xpectedto increase cente.sin Indiato radiologistsin to 34Yoby the end oI nextyear AustraliareadingX-raysfor doctors A surueyof OutsourcingWorld in Boston,to consultantsmanaging Summit attendeesfound that lT, payrollandbenefitsfor corporations. manutacturing,and real-estate


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tim€ zones, govsrnmentincentives. infrastrusturetelacommunications the listgoeson.Thisisjust astrue in ruralAmedcaasit is inthe Czech FhmslikBCushman& Republic. Wakafisldcan both edviseth€k clientsonthesecomplexissues andthenhslpthemoxecuteoncsa dccisionis made. ;i hl9^ia.l +^'r.inl .|lor'Fhi6, Ail?erica'sheEiihcare i iitlls rrt i; seamlesslyintegraternsrdeano osiusing a 6ectorthati3 incraasingly rid6 operations,"saysMarkloon. qf global suPP|Y chain services founderand CEO Houston-based the modeltomest its dauntingchala consultancythat EquaTerra, helpscompaniesuseoutsourcing lenges."Whsn you considertha fact that S1.7trillion was spent and othertechniquesto reduce on healthc6rein the U.S.last Yeat th€ir internalprocessingcosts with 10%to 12%ofthat beingad"Among and improveseryices. ministr6tivecosts.the potenti.l to our clients,interest;n this make healthcaremor€ affordable blendedapproachhasat least is enormous," throughoutsourcing tripled ovsrthe Pastcoupleof saysKevin Brown,presidentsnd Companiesnot onlywanttheir cEo of Rockville,lvd.-basedAmisys (ASl).ASlbl€ndstech' Syn€rtech to insideandoutsideop€rations nologywithonshoreandoffshore worktogethersmoothly,they wantto performwith consistent capabilitiesto provideoutsourced administrativsservicesto both no matterwherethey excellence 3re traditionalh€althcarepayers,such arein th€ world. -Companies insurers, as largeand mid-size about thinkingmoreholisticallY newer, consumeras w€ll as to theirglobalope€tions,"says directsdpl3ns. managingdirecArshCh6udhry, "ht essentiallyamenuof seF tor for clientsolutionsatCushman vicesthat customsrscanchoose &Wakefieldin NewYork.And whenthey do,theYwantPartnerc from basedontheit needs,"says the comp3ny'sCOO. Dav€Beaulieu, thatc6nprovidea consistently Administrativeoffetingsto this highlevelof qualityandseryices industryincludea rangeof sewices all aroundthe globe.Thatm€ans operatinggloballybut deliveringwith staningwith front-endmedical "Theydemand claimshandling,which includes deeplocalknowl€dge. sortrng,opening,and convening adds Chaudhry best o{ both," the paper documentsto el€ctronic As one ofrhe world'stoPrealmedia.N€xtcomesprocessing estat€servicesfirms Cushman& claimsth rough the customers or Wak€freldis ableto helPclients through its ASI'Ssystemsand r€viewingand obiectives msetthese settlingthem.Then,on the back-end, 1?3officesin 48 countries.ltslocal of benefrts, sendingout explanations expertisein eveMhing from site the callcenterfor and operating selectiontotransactionsand con_ both patientsandcareproviclers structionmanagementto f acilitisswith questionsalongths way. "We manag€mentservice6makesit a one-stopshop for customerslooking canlicensethe softlvaretechnology to our cjients,operateontheirtechto.ouiiourcesuchactjvjties, ' On; criticai roie is lo;dvise nology;or provideservicasremoiely from our U.S.Iocations.offshore clientson the bestplacesto setuP locations,or both," saYsBeaulieu. an operation.This is usuallya big Accordingto researchfitm d€cisionbecauseonceestablished growgeomet' this tYPeofoutsourcing Gartner, the operationst€ndto grow by 32%betweennow looked lvill a lot to be And there's rically. and 2007,rsaching$173billion atthat goesbeyondthe realestate accordingto worldwide---larger. size itself:proximityto customers, Main, than today'smarketfor outoithe wo*force, languageskills, sourcedelectronicsmanufacturing. laborcosts,employeaturnover.

Anotherdriver ofthis Phenomenon is the paceofchange.As companiesincreasinqlY relYon large numb€rsof outsourcePartn€rs, they needto bettermanageand coordinatetheir businessprocesses as partof one supplychainso th€y don't spiralout ofcontrol. "We call

Onrtsourcers ='rF-tss Gi.te




Thiskindof rapidgro$4his l€ad' ino to th€ fotmationot what Atul V;histha,cEo of neolT,a slobal callsglobal ousourcingconsultancV, centersof €xcellence"DiJferent ioc€tionsar€emergingwith diffetent th6! companiescanthen capabilities global deliverystrudure their build Th€ Philip' around,"saYsVashistha 3-ljp:i:: t,ir,gB rfia) ue be5:tt t vu|"s

TCSt GlobalDeliveryModel security. is basedon the premisethdllT tasks develoPment. suchas aPplication testing,analysls' andmaintenance, can svstemd€sign,andmanagem€nt in be oerformedbYhighlY_wo*ers de-. anylocationThe comPanYs33 veloomentcenters€crossths wono havereceivedthe industvs highsst Le, ri;lLsl;rr,,1n


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controlstandardsThisis becauss andRussiator scientificsoftware TCS implementsdocum€ntatlon he sugges!s' apptications, comrolsto andinformation-secudty protr intell€ctual ensurethat a client's Trend #2: result, As a at alltimes. ertvis s€cura in i003 the firm bec€methe frrsi softwarecompanvwithover$1billionin outsourcean inAs corporations Bal€sto receivethe British Standard creasingnumberof busin€ssfuncfor Informations€cui1Y' tions,thev will haveto becomebener cenification on secur_ growing emPhasis The at prctectingtheir data'intellectual has outsourcing PartnershiPs ing prcperty,and Physicalassets lnes€ governments grouPs and industry m6oe be strategicresourc€smu$ working togetherto codify best moresecureunderoutsourclng orscticesinto gtrict standardsand not less'as some arr6ng€m€nts. iaws.The lnformationTechnologY haveargued.outsourcrngrarses Associationof Amsrica the baron security,and and its sister association anysupplierthatwants in Indi6,NASSCOIvI, to be parto{ a globalagreedlast Octob€rto a servicessuPPlYchain callto 6c!on s€ven-point hadbettermeetthe that includ€dPartnering securirystandardsof to strengtheninformation the most demanding securityPractic€sacross customeranywhere th€ industrysuPPoded alongthatchain. andenby legislation wantto "Companies respective their through forcement knoweveryonetheY'reworking the asso_ now Fight oovernments. with," saysneolT'sVashistha'.. to establish working are ;iations comPanYrrK€ Fora healthcare securitystandardson softwaro, AmisYs,this m€ansindePendent training,eatlywarnrng assurance, of allof its operations, certiflcation procedures,informaforensics and whereverfieY are,againststr'd cooPerarlon Iegal sharing, tion U.S.HIPM standardsfor medical and rcssarcn enforcement, aad law informationPdvacy6ndsecuritY' and develoPment. Thismay€ntailkeepingdatainfie At the samBtime, outsourclng on worked being if its U.S.even providers are busYmakingsureth€y from an offshoresite.ltalsorequires controlsin placeso have financisl no ningth€ workplaceso that redesig thev will be comPliantwith new onewith accessto Patientdatanas oo;ernancsregulsiionsSection404 the useof a stotagedevice,Printer, Act r€qukes ;f the sarbanes-oxlsY e-mail,websits,orevenPaperano ng Gnd ta6ii conirola' document€d p€ncilthatcouldbe usedto capture i't "Where remediationto €nsure andlatersharePrivatedata an outsourcingproviderhactiviti€s headqlr3r' Similarly,companies can materiallYaffectits client's teredoutsidetheU.s.,likelndia's musr oe financials,thoseProcesses (TCS), €n Services TataConsultancY accordance auditedsnd cenifiedin lT servicesandbusinessProcess with the new law'sr€quirements' of that's companY Pan outsourcing enhancingcontrolacrossthe-entire have theTatagroupconglomerate, chain, saYsHlcK suPPlY services to meetallotthe d€mandsoftheir at CroweGioup, a a Julien, Partnef includingthoseon gtobalclients,


IndustrY groups and €overnments -are wofking together to -develoP seGuritY standards for the industrY.


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Reasona Gompanies Outsource Reducr Costr 48% Inc!€aE€ Imovation 3% Ihprcv€ QuElity 3% Save Capitsl 3% Revenue 4% skitls 3% Ve alle Costs 13% stu.e: MichadE Cotbett &Asnciat s

Many states are usinc incentives tE develop an indigenous outsoureir!€ industryi

servic63.Th6y h€ve abo dirsded podionsof their gener.l purchasing and contractingtowsrd disadvantag€dgroup6. Onspionee.wholivesby rhisethic is KathyBrittainWhhe,who founded RtiralSourcing in Jonesboro,Ark, two y€6rsagoto enabl6American CIOSto outsourcelT work to currentlyunderutilized and underemployed lT worksrs livingin outlyingareasoI the u.S..ThecompanyprovidestT andoutsourcing servicesfrom rural6reasin the a costthat is 30%to 50%towerth6n major Usingthesameglobaldelivery modelas offshor€companies, Rur6l Sourcingsuppliostop technology talent*projectmanagers, programmers and softwarstesters-working remotelyfrom placeslikeGresnvitle. N.C.and Portal€s, N.M-"At the endof thedartrends comeandgo," says Whits."Buttalsntedinformationtechnologyprofessionals will always be in demand.Weeandelivergreat work at low cost that meetsth€ needs of a lot of companies. " As sheexplains,lhecompanyhas public-private partnerships as partof its missionolrsachingoutto regions that needeconomicdevelopmenth go6sinto a region,financestraining anclhelpswith ths infrastructurewhileworking with the regionto getth€ facilityready,thenhires the employe€s{ofren nswcollegegraduates interestedin living at hom€andwillingto worft at a very competitivecost). Many stateeconomic-develop, ment groupEaretakjnga simitartack bytrying to d€velopan indigenous outsourcingindustryto spurjob growthand h€lp revitalizelowerincomecommunities.Oneis the North DakotaDeparrment of Comm€rce,which hasworkedwith Aetna,AmericanExpress,Microsoft. and SEllnJormation Technologyto establishand expsndcallcenterand softwaredevelopmentonshoreoutsourcingoperationsin the state. Similarly,lhecrcat FallsDevstopment Authorityis attractingout-

sourcingbusingss€s in the medicat and financialservices sectorEto northerncontralMontana.Even in urbansreas,organizations lik6 NewYorkCivs Fedcapar€ using outsourcingto createemployment opponr.initi€for 3.000individuals with disabilitiesand oth€rbardersto employm€nteveryyear EvenNativeAmericanbusin€ssesa16d€velopingoutsourcing capabilitiesto helpspureconomic dev€lopmentin their regions.On6 is LakotaTechnologies, a company ownsd bythe CheyenneRiv€rSioux tribe, that providescall-centsr, data-entrydocumsnt-imaging, 6nd r€latedservicestoboth govefimentaland commercialcustomers.

Trend #5: Gorrrorate Outsourcing Spinolls Probablytha biggeststoryin outsourcinglastye6rwas the s6looI a controllinginterostin Gensral Electrict internalback-office operations to a team ofv€nture-capital investors,ceneralAtlanticPartners andOakHillCapit6lPartnerc. The company,knownas cECIS{Gener6l ElectricCapitalInternationalSeF vics€),ls nowthe largestproviderof transactionprocessing,accounting and finance,and client supportservic€sin its field.As s standalone compaoycurrentlyvalued at 9800million,it is now embarkingonan aggressivshunt{or custom€rsto boost business25%by the end of2005. Thedealexemptifies a growingwaveofoutsourcingspinoffs to hit th€ marketptace."cE was oneof the firstcompanies to investin this kindofglobals€rvicesopsration, notjusl in India,burin China,Eastem Europe,and lvlexico,"says Mark Dzialga,oneof $e ceneralAtlantic partnerswho h€lpedput th€ deal togdher.Butwhat reallydif{erentiatesGECIS'S operationsaccordingto Dzialgais "cEt logendary focus on quality,operational excellence, and its Ebilityto attrgctand retain greatpeople." j BritishAiMays' very successfu outsourcingspinoffalso originated


in the pursuitofquality,a determinationto provide customersthe bestservicesin areasoutside BA's pr'mary expertis€.The world's seventhlargestairline and one of only a lew major carriersmaking a p.ofit, the companyhas been outsolrrcingsome functionsfor morethan a decade.Now the air iins +ar isuc-;e iis uirrr cli;is, such as passengerservic€and flight operations,explainsBryan Mitchell,managerof BA'sglobal facilitiesoperationsat its HeathrowAirport headquarters. Forexample,BAforgeda relationship a decadeago with U.S.-based EMCORto manage eveMhins fromthe 6irline'slighting, pow€r,andair-conditioning systemsto the cleaningof its pas, i sengerlounges.corporateoffices, callcenters,and hangars.Overatt,

beenrankedas the BestPerforming BPOProviderin the Offshgre100. a rankingdevelop€dbythe San Ramon.C6lit.,consultancyneolT. Othergreatcompanieshave seentheadvanrages of outsourcing spin-offs.Fivsyearsago,one of lndia'slargestcompanies,ITCLtd., a $2,6billionconglomeratein L:";si*€!*a!Esui;'+ria ag iin!;3 and brandedapparel,createdITC Infotechto servethe technology needsofa globalclientbase. Operatingfrom jtstschnologyp6rk in Bangalore,lndia,the company provideslT consulting,software development, implementation, and supportservicesfor keyindustries includingmanufacturing, consumer products,bankingand insurance, and hospitalityandtravel. Forexample.workingwith its partn€r,Needham,Mass.-based ror0rneganv€ prEss. Isassumedromean1r outsourcing has saved the airtjne PTC,6 lead€rin productdevelop 15%in costsa yearon average.Bur ment software, ITCInfotech is savingsar€ actuallythelastthing providingthe platformusedby that BAconsiderswhen contem, the GlobalEngineManufacturins platingoutsourcing."The tirst thing Alliance,a joint venturoof Daimler emcEnny manage tnerEcrnuer nghtheF: w€ tookat," saysMitche , "is ChryslerHyundai,and Mitsubishi . ihl whetherthe expertiseand skillsare Motors,that is designingand betteron th€ orJtside. Canleading manufacturing a new{amilyof .,,,,., -. comoanies companies like EMCoR tike EMCOBdetiver deliv.. cost-€fficient enginesthat witt meet _ . ,: , ,,:" . Uutdortcompaniestosa crntrot whdtr'. sotutions andvaluethatwecan,t andbeatthebestin the world today. gel on ourown?We reallydonrt "We'rea business-fdendly solution looklor or expecta quickhir on provid€r,which meanstucilitatins costs.Thatcomesovertime." businesssolutionslikethis rather Otherairlineswant superior thanjust providingtechnology," servicesas well,which led to BAt saysSaniayVerma,ITCIntotechk profitablospinoff.Backin 1996,BA managingdirector.ITCInlorech beganoperationsnearMumbai, similarlyprovidesSiebebased India.for someot its customer solutionsto oneof the largest relationsand financefunctions, consumergoodscompaniesf |om becauseit foundtherea pool of h.sBangalore center. .. bright. ei r y r r L. rEnglish-speaking r r s i i r r .},c c ^ r g gradustes. gr duudu Outsourcingprovidersare also .'i ltwas ableto speedserviceto its expandingtheircapabilitiesand ::; customersand ultimatetydrive servicesthroughstratedicmergers ,j.: down costs.The operationbecame often c€lledspin-insourcing. One 'BA Wtraratrut theemptoyee--l so srrccessfut thar beganover ofthe bigg€stofthe pastyear, Maclnrs: Weh6ve 28,000 emptoy€es al time to bring in work from other which hasakeadystarteda rrend Ell/lCoR, manyofwhomwere emplot€d by airlines-{realing a new revenue throughort the industry.was . ourclienll padotol,l Fiort0bci0mflid streBm.By 2oo2ihe operarionwas ' HewittAssosiates' m6rserw;ih oqanizationasa lesullofEIVlC0n assuming thrivingand BAdecidedto selta Exllt 6 human-resources business managemenr ol rheirhcility.AsBtarge majoritynake to the investment processoutsourcingcompanyin emrloter, wearcverygoodatmanaging. fi rm Warburg pincus,creating Irvine,C€lif.The dealcombined . people. Andbecause thesepeopte arEi;ining what is todai ca ed WNS Gt;bal Hewitt'sstrenglhsin HRconsulring anoqaniuarion busineasis lEMCoRlwhose Services.Fo. its part,WNS ctobal and benefits-plan administration inalignmenr withthencoteiobskilts, this Services,oncepart of British with Exulth t€chnologyand ofienBnables ustoprcsentrhem wjft betrer Airways,hasgoneon to become Processoxpenisein areaslike career opporluniries thantheyhad before. a teaderin its indusrry tt hasiun PaYroll,r€cruiting,andtraining.



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please read the attached documents and summarize them like an essay type


please read the attached documents and summarize them like an essay type