Portfolio of Urban Design Colby Cline
â€œThe best way to predict the future is to design it.â€? - Buckminster Fuller
Table of Contents TOD Design Guidelines ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis GM Stamping Plant Diagrams City of Indianapolis: Land Use Pattern Book
The Lane, Parking Day installation by 2018 MUD Studio
04-15 16-25 26-37 38-43
TOD Design Guidelines Product sample Internship with the Indianapolis Metropolitan Development Organization
The TOD Design Guidelines booklet was created to provide a graphic guide to inspire quality transit-oriented design (TOD) in the city of Indianapolis. Planning codes and requirements are often difficult to navigate through and become frustrating for designers and policy makers to understand. The design guidelines breaks down the complexity of Transit Oriented Design and provides an easy to understand guide. The book is intended for developers, city residents, and community activists to better understand TOD and also to raise their expectations of what could be built along the upcoming Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors and station areas.
Project Focus Living Options
Living Options Building options in a TOD district have a near unlimited number of possibilities. Here are a few architectural typologies which would fit well for TOD. The key is a structure that optimizes ground floors for spaces of retail, front porches, window shopping, cafes, boutique stores, and other pedestrian oriented uses.
Rowhomes with Ground Floor Retail
Apartments above Ground Floor Retail
3-5 Story Wood Frame Apartments/Condos
2-4 Story Traditional Uptown Building
3-4 Story Rowhomes
2-3 Story Village Mixed Use
10+Story Tower with Connected Ground Floor
5-7 Story Apartments
Condo Apartment Townhome A great example of this exists at the Lockerbie Square neighborhood of Indianapolis. Nice sidewalks and tree lined streets create excellent front entrances to residential dwellings.
Front door entryways can also exist within apartment buildings as well. The lower units can be optimized for first floor entrances, and the upper levels can then be accessed from common hallways.
The placement of front doors affects the overall culture and friendliness of a neighborhood. When entryways are placed directly off of sidewalks, front entries become social spaces. This creates safer, mores hospitable environments in which to live.
Surrounding buildings can utilize the corners locations and place awnings and street art to create dynamic storefronts desirable for small businesses.
Trees and landscaped spaces can provide a quiet and relaxing environment away from the roads to give residents a sense of peace and the benefits of living in an urban location.
Glazing at building corners on upper stories can provide views into lounges, conference rooms, and other uses so that people passing by can get a feel of the life inside the building.
Exterior columns can pull reinforce a color scheme on the exterior and extend through rooftops to provide overhang spaces for rooftop gardens.
Uniform yet Unique Townhome developments need to share characteristics which are uniform, such as setbacks, building height, and window placement, yet can keep certain unique to the units owner. This could be front door design, entry gardens, material differences, or other. Townhomes should contain elements of uniformity and uniqueness.
Artwork at intersections of prominent streets corners can begin to establish a cultural district within the TOD.
Elevating first floors can provide visual connections to the inner courtyards of a project site. This will draw pedestrians into the site and increase the benefit of greenspace to a neighborhood.
Dedicated bus lanes will be painted vibrant colors to distinguish them from other lanes of traffic.
Gardens Space Garden space can be a great way to achieve unique character throughout a design. Providing gardens for resident to maintain allows residents a chance to customize their own outdoor spaces. This can be done in apartments and single ownerships homes alike. It is best if each space is roughly similar in proportions or location in relationship with the dwelling unit. Apartment units are often lacking on personal greenspace for residents. Residents often only have a balcony space at best to plant vegetation in the warmer months. By creating rooftop greenspace, a combination of open gardens and rentable gardens can exist. Rentable garden space is a way building owners can offset the expense of green roof design by reclaiming some of the lost profits for residents who wish to have a little bit of their own customizable garden deck space. These could then be gated off, partitioned out, or be fully public.
Streetwall refers to the visual wall and sense enclosure created by a buildings relationship to the street or right of way. The phenomenon of the streetwall exists when all structures across a city block or more maintain uniform setbacks. Great streetwalls can transform a large urban environment into feeling like an outdoor room.
A complete tree lined street creates a sense of visual enclosure as one walks or drives. Implementing a planting plan can transform a lower performing tree lined street to a higher performing street which is more inviting, providing shade in the summer months, and protection from heavy winds in the winter.
A similar road on Talbott Street is noticeably different. These trees were planted many years ago and have reached adult stage. The sidewalks are well defined. Pedestrians and roads are nicely separated. Scents of trees and greenery are abundant throughout. A visual site line gives the perception of a destination to be walked to.
To develop an effective streetwall, a neighborhood should first adopt a consistent setback and parking standard. Second, each new developments should hug the BRT corridor as much as possible. Third, developments should try to occupy both sides of a street or infill between empty lots. Lastly, all parking should be designed to navigate traffic to using alleyways and not main roads. Following these steps will ensure a streetwall, making travel through neighborhoods very engaging to the pedestrian. There will then be more opportunities for ground floor retail, front porches, cafes and other pedestrian friendly experiences. 10
Streetscaping is the act of placing various pedestrian amenities along the street, making urban places more hospitable. The 4 aspects to focus on are planters, bicycle parking, outdoor furniture, lighting, and signage.
A street with a quality ground floor and proper setbacks sets the stage for a great urban space, but leaves it feeling unfinished. This is similar to a house with nothing but white walls. The walls may be structurally sound, but until they are painted and furnished, the house will not feel like a home.
Outdoor Furniture With the implementation of outdoor furniture, bicycle parking, tree lined streets, lampposts, water features, garden walls, and awnings, a simple space along a street can become a memorable place along the street. A streetscaped space should feel like a cozy indoor atmosphere.
Buildings immediately facing the BRT stations should utilize the ground floor by prioritizing uses that most appropriately fit a transit oriented lifestyle. The storefronts should ideally provide a lounge atmosphere so that customers can enjoy the space while waiting for their bus. Building uses would benefit from, but are not limited to: athletic gyms, coffee shops, diners, bookstores, lounges, and donut shops.
The Lynx Blue Line in Charlotte is accessible from apartments and condos built along the line. The TOD stations provide quick access to the urban core.
Awnings and overhangs provide protection from sun and rain for customers while also providing a well defined frontage.
Sandwich boards and outdoor menus can display daily specials and engage with an outdoor seating plaza.
Windows and food counters should be placed to provide visual site lines to BRT stations.
West Lake Station in Seattle offers shopping centers, food stations, coffee houses, and urban public space at this large transit hub.
Parking garages should be designed internally in relation to the block. This keeps the pedestrian sidewalk as continuous as possible with minimal curb cuts. Garages should be accessible through alleys to reduce congestion off of main roads. Parking structures should be enclosed with building frontages or exterior walls on three sides to keep the site focus on the architecture and public spaces. If not possible, garages can add lights, paint, and unique facade materials to keep them well designed.
Define the Block
Each block should have a visually distinguishable feel when one is inside the block and on the outside of the block. Inside the block should be free of cars driving through. Vehicles only need to access parking and services such as trash pickup or deliveries.
Buildings, when built to proper setbacks, should define the location of the alleyway into the garage. The alley should only be as wide as needed to provide access to those who live or work inside the block.
Three access points provide enough routes for vehicles to come and go inside the block. There should be as few curb cuts as possible to maintain quality sidewalks.
Surface Parking Design Surface parking should be considered in every design phase of the building it serves. A surface lot should compliment the design nearby structures, not detract from it. In general, start with the primary building frontages facing the BRT corridor. To establish a framework for design, pedestrians should be considered first, followed by BRT riders, cyclists, and lastly automobile traffic.
Access to surface lots should be available primarily through alleys and not off of main roads. This reduces curb cuts and excessive road congestion on the primary roads.
or two entries into the 2 One surface lot provide enough space for vehicles to move about. A surface lot should have well defined curbs, landscaping, and paving materials.
along the edges of the should maintain 3 Trees 4 Sidewalks surface lot provide the lot with consistency throughout the a sense of enclosure. Trees help to reduce noise pollution, reduce urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and are in general pleasant to look at.
development in terms of materials, width, and curb height.
between building at least 5 Gaps 8â€™ wide create walkways for pedestrians to travel between surface lots and storefronts. Pathways should tie together the two halves of a development.
ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis Concept Proposal Booklet Professor Thom Gallagher Indianapolis, IN
The ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis is an adaption of the ZAC Rive Gauche mixed-use building in Paris. After analyzing the characteristics, the project was imposed into Indianapolis as a case study to determine if the design would be an effective mixed-use development in the downtown region. Some adaptations were implemented for site specific context. This graphic proposal engages thoughtful design through visual illustrations and perspectives to entice readers into think differently about the future of design within Indianapolis.
In di an a
ZAC Rive Gauche
Context Map N Capitol Ave
N Senate Ave
W New York St
W Ohio St
The ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis sits just north of the Indiana State Capitol building. The site utilizes the access to four primary roads: Ohio St, Washington St, New York St, and Indiana Ave. The location of the site in relation to the many major roads suggests vantage points into the site to be a high priority. Commuters come downtown primarily from Senate Ave from the north and Washington Street from the west. The close relation to surrounding buildings such as Salesforce Tower, the Sailors and Soldiers Monument, and the various businesses within the Mile Square offers a great option for people considering moving closer to their place of work. The site offers a walkscore of 76 and a bikescore of an impressive 91, allowing future residents of the ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis to enjoy the close proximity of urban amenities. Most day to day commutes and errands can therefore be achieved without an automobile, keeping the car as a convenience for travel, and not a necessity for daily life.
The form of the ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis develops first with simple geometric cubes. The massing of first structure is layered and optimized for rooftop greenspace. Circulation throughout the building is achieved by carving away at the exterior to create a walkable outdoor journey as residents traverse to the upper levels. Every second level is then extruded outwards to create balcony spaces for the residential units directly above, which also creates a ledge to maintain privacy for the units below. The second massing of the building shares the same width as the first, but introduces spaces for retail and public use on the first floors. A large stairwell brings residents and guests alike from the upper topography of the site into the lower levels of the structure optimized for first floor retail and commercial uses.
Stamp Drop Circulate
Establishing A Culture
Sitting near the historic Indiana Ave, the ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis will reestablish the cultural legacy that the many jazz clubs, bars, and theaters once provided in the early 1900â€™s. The ZAC Rive Gauche will offer citizens an enjoyable atmosphere to come to after a long days work. The project will build upon the arts and entertainment district of Indiana Ave by providing a variety of programmable outdoor spaces. The project will fill many of the currently missing links of living in downtown Indianapolis today, such as a lack of dog parks, greenspaces, and pedestrian oriented entertainment districts. Those who visit will enjoy the experience of walking across the elevated platform and enjoying the benefit of public rooftop access. A combination of apartments and condominiums will allow both renters and prospective owners to live within, allowing for an equitable environment that allows the city of Indianapolis to grow with both new and existing residents.
Bike and Pedestrian Circulation The ZAC Rive Gauche in Indianapolis will introduce a free-form elevated platform into the rigid, orthogonal architecture. This provides a convenient walkway for those who wish to pass through the site to access neighboring parking garages and buildings. A 3 foot railing will wrap around the edges of the platform and allow people to peer into the sunken plaza and enjoy the active scenes from the dog park and various seasonal events below. Ground level storefronts will be visible from the upper levels and draw people down into the site.
In order to engage more cyclists, a proposed bike ramp will tie the existing Cultural Trail through the site and over to the Indianapolis Canal Walk. The bike ramp will be placed underneath the elevated platform and provide a convenient link for cyclists and walkers alike. The soft grade of the ramp will be smooth for cyclists and negligible for those walking through.
Designed for every Season The sunken plaza will provide ample opportunities to for seasonal festivities and planned events. Ice skating can occupy the plaza in the winter months, outdoor concerts in the summer months, and carnivals, beer tours, and other outdoor festivals during the rest of the year. The sunken plaza creates natural walls, which is beneficial for keeping kids safely inside when the park is open, and allowing the space to be gated off when needed for ticketed events as well.
Privacy in major urban areas is complicated when neighboring buildings have substantial variation in height. If a rooftop space is privately accessible, yet can be peered into from windows of taller surrounding buildings, the space would become ineffective. Analyzing these variations before the project is built can save many of these issues before they happen.
Shadows Study A shadow study of the surrounding urban context provided a better understanding of seasonal solstice pattern to the project site. The study shows that the site will be largely covered by shadows during the morning hours due to the large structures to the east which block the morning sun. During the midday hours, the site receives ample sunlight due to the lower height of the statehouse to the immediate south. Views of the southern sky offer ample opportunity for greenery on the upper levels. Evening hours suggest the rooftop locations will provide pleasant views to the evening sun setting to the est. 25
GM Stamping Plant Diagrams RACER Trust Indianapolis, IN MUD Studio 2018
The former GM Stamping Plant occupies 100 acres of land along the White River and sits within close proximity to downtown Indianapolis. The brownfield was studied for best next-step uses and the 2018 MUD Studio developed graphic analysis diagrams for future development to occur. The analysis was part of a framework which had catered to the cities pitch for the future Amazon HQ2.
Project Team Colby Cline Aliyah Clark Matthew Lascheid Imran Khalid Zander Franklin Steve Himebrook Josh Law Brandon Burgoa
Project Focus 1
The Road Cap
Critical Mass for Amenities
The Road Cap Phase 1
Existing rail lines are split into three different sections south of Washington Street on the site. The rail lines and Washington Street currently cut through the site making a disconnected network of roads. The street grid will be reconnected for better accessibility.
Once the ground fill is placed, it will adjust the 20+ foot difference in elevation from the lower street grid to the elevated Washington Street. This will provide three road access options into the GM Stamping Plant site as compared to previously only being accessible through the Washington Street ramp.
Washington St Ramp
Phase 2 Condensed Lines
Three lines of trail become consolidated into 2 lines which split further down the track on the outskirts of town. The lines will remain in function during the entire process. This allows more room for roads to rebuild the street grid due to a more consolidated line.
Phase 5 Union Line
Tunnels will be constructed over the existing lines. The tunnels will allow the train lines to remain protected while they are being covered with earth. The train will remain in full function during this process
The Union Line can now be laid over the top of the road cap and will allow for better connectivity to areas such as 16 Tech and downtown. The Union Line crosswalks will be pedestrian and car friendly and will allow a multi-modal GM Stamping Plant site.
Buildings will then be built over the top of the road cap. The foundations and supports will be strategically located during Phase 3. This will allow for the road cap to be a viable piece of land for further development of structures. Washington Street will then provide greater connectivity into the site.
Campus B City Neighborhood Campus A
Arts District Observatory
Phase 7 Future buildings will be constructed along the Union Line track and will allow the site to be connected to the other various neighborhoods around Indianapolis. Addressing internal connectivity is a must. If the road cap is well executed, it will ensure a site where all forms of transit are encouraged, and the former GM site is no disconnected from the rest of the city.
Neighborhood Connections Existing Neighborhood The existing neighborhood is located to the south and west of the proposed Amazon site.
Proposed Amazon Site The location of the Urban Village as part of the proposed Amazon site will integrate the form, conditions, and accessibility of the existing neighborhood.
Central Corridors Identifying the central corridor as an edge for the existing neighborhood and the proposed Urban Village forms a visual and physical connection between the two communities.
Form The existing neighborhood will share the common form of single and rectangular building footprints.
Adaptive Design A similar form is carried over from the existing neighborhood to the proposed Urban Village. A combination of mixed-use residential and local shops are used as program spaces for the Urban Village in order to integrate the existing homes with the new form.
Accessibility Four key intersections will allow interaction along the central corridor from the existing roads to the new roads. Accessibility from one area to the next will be smooth and continuous.
Greenspaces Shared green spaces promote social interactions and encourages walkability within and around the site.
Single Family Houses
8 Dwelling Units / Acre 3 People / Dwelling Unit 24 People / Acre
12 Dwelling Units / Acre 2.5 People / Dwelling Unit 30 People / Acre
18 Dwelling Units / Acre 2.5 People / Dwelling Unit 45 People / Acre
20 Dwelling Units / Acre 2.5 People / Dwelling Unit 50 People / Acre
Dense Urban Apartments
32 Dwelling Units / Acre 2 People / Dwelling Unit 64 People / Acre
72 Dwelling Units / Acre 2 People / Dwelling Unit 144 People / Acre
102 Dwelling Units / Acre 2 People / Dwelling Unit 204 People / Acre
200 Dwelling Units / Acre 2 People / Dwelling Unit 400 People / Acre
Critical mass for Amenities Convenience Shopping Center Anchors Number of Stores Total Retail Space Site Area Market Area Population Market Area Radius
Convenience grocery, drugstore 3-20 stores 10,000-30,000 sq. ft. 1-3 acres under 20,000 under 2 miles
Requirements for Shopping Amenities A quarter mile is considered the ideal walking distance. We will focus on a quarter mile radius, or approximately one half square mile, so that future stores will be walkable.
Neighborhood Shopping Center Anchors Number of Stores Total Retail Space Site Area Market Area Population Market Area Radius
Supermarket and drugstore 10-40 stores 30,000-100,000 sq. ft. 1-3 acres 10,000-30,000 people 1-3 miles
The goal is to provide enough housing for the required number of people to support a store of the typologies above in this half square mile.
*Data from Urban Land Institute
1/4 Mile Walk Radius
A half mile squared is 160 acres. Referencing the numbers from the diagrams on the previous page, single family housing (bottom left) will provide 3840 people (24 x 160) in the half square mile area. 1/2 Square Mile 33
Inadequate Single family housing would not provide a high enough population to support either of the store typologies listed above.
Considering the surrounding neighborhoods, some compromise between single family housing and dense urban apartments will be enough to support a grocery store of one of these two typologies.
Single Family Houses 8 Dwelling Units / Acre 3 People / Dwelling Unit 24 People / Acre
More than necessary On the contrast, the dense urban apartments that provide 400 people per acre provide 64,000 people in the half square mile, which would be significantly more than necessary to support either of the typologies above.
There are many ways to create compromise between different types of housing typologies. As illustrated in the diagrams, housing types can be mixed in attractive ways that transition from low density, single family housing to higher density apartments. The typologies can coexist and share central courtyard space, as illustrated. The combination of housing types will be subtle and attractive, and will allow for high enough population to support stores.
Dense Urban Apartments 200 Dwelling Units / Acre 2 People / Dwelling Unit 400 People / Acre
Considering only our 20 acre site, the dense urban apartments with 400 people per acre would provide 8,000 people, which would be enough for a small convenience shopping center and not quite enough to support a neighborhood shopping center. 34
Rainfall Resilience Proposed Site
Lagoons & Sponges These areas will be able to retain thousands of gallons, which could be released before an oncoming flood.
As shown previously, the site has a high quantity of high rise towers providing high levels of excellent urban density.
Water Collection Cisterns will be built underneath major through-ways as a last line of defense for rainwater collection.
The 100 acre site provides incredible surface area for water retention in the case of heavy rainfall.
Buildings provide ample coverage for rain collection, the first line of defense, during non-flood times.
The following illustration shows a typical section of a complete system working where all rainfall methods are in harmony with one another.
Riparian Relationship Normal Conditions
In order to reestablish a connection between the site and the White River, a section of the existing levee will be removed to create a new riparian landscape that will help absorb the storm surge that comes down the river during a heavy rainfall. The upper elevation is equal to the 100-year flood elevation, which means that in the case of a 100-year flood the area (shown in green) will be completely filled. This was done in part to both slow down and minimize the flooding of the storm surge as it moves down river. In addition to providing a distinct new type of greenspace that bridges the gap between the new urban development and the western bank of 36
the White River, this area will act as a way to more passive way to deal with drainage on site by allowing water to have a chance to percolate into the soil as it slowly moves towards the river. That being said, if flooding conditions were to exceed the 100-year condition, this area provides a suitable outlet for receding floodwaters. This was done to combat the fact that areas of the site currently, if hit by a 500-year flood, would not be able to drain as the levee currently blocks water on its western side from being able to drain into the river. 37
Land Use Pattern Book Graphics City of Indianapolis Department of Metropolitan Development 2017 The Department of Metropolitan Development were in need of visual representations to supplement the upcoming Land Use Pattern Book. The graphics were designed to portray a selection of various urban typologies so readers could relate the text descriptions to the visual representations.
Typologies 1 2 3 4 5
Office Commercial City Neighborhood Heavy Industrial Regional Commercial Urban Mixed-Use
Office Commercial 39
City Neighborhood 40
Heavy Industrial 41
Regional Commercial 42
Urban Mixed-Use 43
Colby Cline | 2018