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15-17. 11. 2013 + future urban intensities @Keio University Hiyoshi & Yagami Campus


Urban Moodscapes: Feelings, Spaces, and Attunement by Ben Highmore (University of Sussex, UK) SOCIOLOGY VÉRITÉ Imagine a form of urban sociology that found its methods in literary and artistic practices? It would be an empirical practice that could produce flexible and sensitive accounts of the urban…..

Still from News from Home by Chantal Akerman 1977. The film is made up of shots of Akerman travelling about Manhattan while she is reading letters from her mother on the soundtrack.

The self as a passionately intense instrument is the condition of possibility for its productivity as a measuring instrument attuned to the moods and intensities of the urban.

reflect ion

right to the city right to the city The time has come for a paradigm shift. We need new ‘world class’ city hypothesis: to reinforce Lefebvre’s powerful requests for the droit à la ville, the renewed right to the city, and for le droit à la difference, the right to difference; to reclaim the rights to (each particular) city and to (each particular) urbanity, as fully-developed local cultures; and to redefine urbanity, so that it embraces environmental responsibility.

Thoughts About Plots

Postcards of Linlithgow High Street and Others:

A plot can be more than a house.

Business premises

Economic system

Micro community

A Local Protected Microclimate

Many activites



David Sim Nature reserve

Even in close proximity, each plot can accommodate dierent uses and users

Energy source + energy bank


A Local Common Identity


Practices of reuse recognize the multiple meanings embedded in second-hand objects

Meaning and creativity embeded in reused environment are generators in the place-making process

how to capture (measure) creative reuse in the urban environment?

reuse place


urban regeneration


Resource approach and urban regeneration theories see pieces of architecture as integrated urban artifacts (Rossi 1991), capable to store and to disseminate the collective memory of the city. Within that view, existing urban resources are valuable not only because of significant embodied energy which they contain, but also for their capacity to embody memory. The recognition of architecture as cultural resource should not be restricted to heritage buildings, but extended to all types of buildings.

what kind of urban intensities that generate reuse + creative milieu or/and what kind of intensities that reuse + creative milieu can produce?

Creativity is defined by a certain abstract energy. One could even argue that creativity can be identified precisely by the presence of such energies of synthesis, in both the process (of making), the product and the ways in which they translate (or get translated by creative actors) into quality of designed objects or spaces (Negus and Pickering 2004)

Urban Requalification

The tangible aspects of spaces of consumption, commercial precincts generate encounter and invite exchange, not only of goods, but also of words, gestures, and glances; they facilitate full social interaction and more active public/private interface. “the shop-window stages the drama as a spectacle in which objects become social actors” (Highmore 2005). The idea of a spectacle of consumption space provides a public/private interface and also provides a tangible place to capture creativity

The term is inspired by the pioneering work of Jane Jacobs (1961), her axiom that “new requires old”, and her emphasis on mingled, fine-grained buildings of different age because they have the potential for different economic yields that nurture diversity. Urban requalifications generate new urban quality and introduce new spatial characteristics to their broader context. Creativity sustains the process of reuse and recycling of existing urban resources, needed to make products truly culturally sustainable. That subtle process needs local initiatives to sense and to identify creative places, as their creative milieu. Local creativities of this kind flourish within their own, local contexts, thus getting embodied in urban artifacts and building upon an already established repository of collective memory.

conceptual framework

TOKYO nakameguro

FRONT Main street Busy, vibrant High rise high density Dominated by commercial activities

small incubators

BACK Inner narrow streets Quiet, calm Low rise high density Dominated by residential

just a banal gentrification?

Inserted in ordinary residential buildings

Very small fashion incubators occupied some unconventional spaces in Nakameguro

high density / low intensity / dominated by residential activity / in progress of gentrification and physical transformation


chatuchak & rodfai markets

The two markets are very specific case for Bangkok. Chatuchak weekend market is about perpetual use and reuse of rudimentary market stalls. Small, dense and intense environment. Highly competitive commercial activities with fast pace of changes. Art and fashion zones represent high quality of display design and spatial arrangement.

high density / high intensity / highly competitive environment / high diversity of mono usage / small in size - high in numbers / perpetual use and reuse


Fashion Rodfai market Rodfai market


Rodfai night market is the extension of antique and vintage zone of Chatuchak market. The traders have occupied the old warehouse of the State Railway of Thailand for many years, they form an underground movement of second-hand cuture of Bangkok. Majority of the stalls decorate their space with the “retro” look.

Chatuchak market


Kampong Glam

The heritage core of Kampong Glam

Haji Lane high density / high intensity / used to be a marginalised location / highly competitive environment / high diversity of mono usage / small size limited numbers / reuse of heritage buildings / fashion driven and totally gentrified

Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan

Bukchon, Seoul, Korea

Sawara, Chiba, Japan

Understanding Vernacular Landscapes as Spatialities and Temporalities of Urban Intensities

Heide Inai Hosei University




Tokyo Bay




MnM 2013 Symposium

Edges of Intensity: Redesigning the Urban Block

Row houses in Carabanchel (Madrid). Alzina Street. September 2013

Housing project in Carabanchel (Madrid) by Thom Mayne Morphosis, seen from Morales street. September 2013

New housing project in Carabanchel (Madrid) on the right, by S-M.A.O. Alzina Street. September 2013

Same density in different typo-morphologies (Source: Andrew Wright Associates, cited in Rogers and Urban Task Force, 1999, p. 62)

Jorge Almazán

Spaces designed today will be lived and experienced tomorrow. The future is the realm of design. At symposium “Future Intesities” this presentation aims to overcome two conceptual oppositions: desons learned from the Japanese city but adapted to Spanish urban conditions. By combining research with urban design, the possibilities for designing future intensities will be explored.

Barcelona: Solar slabs on urban podia The plan for the new La Sagrera district aims to reconnect the northern now these railways have divided this part of the city into two segregated parts. Our site, located on the northern tip of the future park, needed a special effort of re-connection. The site faces disconnected, isolated and monofunctional urban precincts of industry, residence, park, and shopboulevards, where vegetation and urban public space coexists. The tertiary program, located on service podia along the boulevards, activate the built ble and neutral structure. The residential program, located above the podia and orientated to the south, takes full advantage of the benign Mediterranean climate. Each housing block contains terraces and porches, and an inclined street that offers an additional transversal connection. To pursue full use of bioclimatic and passive design measures for energy saving, such as solar heating in winter and cross-ventilation in summer. Additionally, each urban block works as a energy production unit, generating solar energy by integrating photovoltaic louvers in the south façades and rooftops.

Cerdanyola: Micro-blocks in Macroblocks The master plan of this area was the by-default regular grid with perimeter blocks, a type of plan which has been in use in Spain since the 1980s with very negative consequences for the public space. These so-called “new urban expansions” are not able to create enough urban intensity. The relentless concentration of commerce in few units of large area wipes out the traditional street shops which gave animation to the street. The characteristic blocks with private collective patios that are systematically proposed in this type of plans aggravate the situation since they absorb the activity and animation into the patios. The resulting public spaces lack the required urban intensity. We proposed to combine two centrifugal and extrovert typologies to ensure appropriate responses to the site edge and to activate public space. Facing the wide avenues we propose metropolitan high-rise buildings façades, protecting well lit and ventilated dwellings. Behind the high rise buildings, a low and compact residential mat of courtyard houses. A hybrid urban morphology that that enables meetings and interactions to happen in public space so that this site does not become another bedroom suburb.

Calahorra: Filigrane Blocks A large new development area was planned in the city of Calahorra (La ed for a new type of urbanism based on small units that create interstices

built unit was designed according to the public space to be created. Building and void were treated as a unit. Our goal went beyond resolving the particular problematic of the site, rather we propose a new urban texture which is as different from the preexisting textures as much as they are ated by density -determined by the Municipal Master Plan- and diversity, which is created through a rich and wide range of relationships and gradients between private and public, individual and collective spaces. The

Elda: Inhabited Park Residential substance can be added in strategic sites to add “eyes on the street.” A marginalized sector of the city of Elda was designated for redevelopment. We aimed not only at keeping the existing population on site, but also at increasing it in order facilitate the emergence of urban intensity. Housing was integrated in the area as part of the park, so that the park would change from being a dangerous area to an area were one could meet people and activities. We proposed three different ways of intervening, all of them closely interconnected by new and renovated roads and paths. In the Numancia district, where demolishing is not permitted, we proposed strategies for urban renovation that will catalyze gradual change of streets and new routes connecting with the city centre. In the Northern Tafalera Hill we propose an urban garden, which includes a hillside-housing area. In the valley area we create a new boulevard that connects with the currently neglected Vinalopo Riverside Park. This boulevard integrates trees, paths and housing in small towers. Our proposal included therefore two strategies for social regeneration: includes three types of housing: the existing low houses of Numancia, the hillside housing of Tafalera and the mini-tower housing of the valley.




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VELUXlab  :    innovation  between  ART  and  SCIENCE P r o f .   I n g .   M a r c o   I m p e r a d o r i Rector’s  delegate  Far  East  

Veluxlab   is   the   first   Italian   Nearly   Zero   Energy   Building.   It   is   placed   in   Bovisa   Campus  of  Politecnico  di  Milano  and  it   represents  a  study  case  of  high  energy   efficiency   building,   integrating   in   the   future   scenario    required  by  the  European   Directive   2010/31/UE.   VELUXlab   was   born   Directive as  a  Mediterranean  Model  Home  for  VELUX,   called  Atika,  designed  by  J.A.  Cantalejo  and   R.A.Ronda  from  ACXT/IDOM  studio.   It  personified  the  prototype  of  energy   efficiency   building   for   the   Mediterranean   Region  and  it  is  the  result  of  an  important   architectural   architectural and   performance   retrofit.   The   renovation  was  led  by  Atelier2  with  the   supervision   of   Professor   Imperadori   and   Professor   Motta   from   Politecnico   di   Milano.The  collaboration  between   Politecnico  di  Milano  and  VELUX  Italia  gave   Politecnico the  opportunity  of  create  a  new  lab,  a  sort  of   test  building,  where  it  is  possible  to  develop   the   experimental   research   on   going   in   the   University.   In   this   way   VELUXlab   became   itself  matter  of  research  on  the  energy   e fficiency     and   sustainability   in   the   building   sector.   The   use   of   innovative   solutions   and   materials  for  the  envelope  coupled  with  an   advanced  technological  system,  makes   representing   the   first   Italian   nearly   Zero   Energy   Building   in   a   University   Campus.   Furthermore,  thanks  to  its  energetic   performance  and  to  the  integration  of   renewable   source,   it   is   the   first   built   Active   House  in  Italy  (   VELUXlab  is,  therefore,  an  example  of  smart   and  sustainable  re-use  of  an  existing   structure  as  well  as  a  model  of  energy   e fficient  building  and  a  prototype  for  the  new   generation   home,   bringing   forward   future   experimentations   and   implementation   in   the   sector.   It   is   the   profitable   collaboration   between  Politecnico  and  construction   companies   companies that   allows   to   innovate,   test   and   research   sustainability   and   efficiency.   The   west  wing  of  the  building  and  the   conditioning  system  are  equipped  with  a   revolutionary   wireless   sensors   network   (WSN),   designed   by   the   DEI   Department   of   Politecnico  di  Milano  (Prof.  Cugola,  Ing.   Sivieri),   that   allows   a   constantly   monitoring   Sivieri), of   the   real   performance   of   the   envelope   -   indoor  comfort  system.  The  real  time  results   are   broadcasted   on   the   University   intranet,   elaborated   by   a   remote   server   and   then   made  available  on-line.  Thanks  to  this   streaming   it   is   possible   to   understand   the   streaming real   performance   of   VELUXlab   in   the   first   year   of   measurement.   This   data   portray   the   ordinary   operational   situation,   including   the   internal  strains  given  by  the  users;  it  is  easy   to   understand   that   the   building   itself   is   a   prototype,  conceived  as  an  active  and   dynamic   dynamic laboratory.   In   order   to   make   easier   the  data  interpretation  and  management,  the   Design   Department   (Prof.   Bordegoni),   is   been  studying  an  innovative  and  more   intuitive   way   to   visualize   the   sensors   data,   with    the  implementation  of  the  graphic   interface  in  an  augmented  reality  platform. It   is   easy   to   understand   that   VELUXlab   It offers  continuously  incentives  and   opportunities  for  testing  and   experimenting   innovative   solutions   and   ideas,  giving  the  chance  to  continue   research  and  studies.



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NovEmbER 2013


‘Invisible private’ to trigger public A case study in Kizu river promenade design project in Osaka Ryoko Iwase, Principal Architect at RYOKO IWASE, Japan / Assistant at Keio University, Japan, Abstract: this paper aim to introduce the winning proposal for a competition, Kizu river promenade design project to explain a design methodology to activate public of the area where locals have their poor interpersonal relations and to be a trigger for the weak community of the area. Many Public spaces, such as parks, promenade, square, have been designed by following a set of guidelines that by government. However, we can see many of them are used by few people and stay empty. This fact tells that the ‘Public space’ can be for nobody.

Terraced garden landscape against the huge storm surge barrier

Transition of the site appearance (year of 1793, 2012)

In private space, there are a lot of the examples to show the private items (in use) can color the surrounding space such as many beautiful public space to activate the ‘communications’ there. The Private items had to be ‘invisible’ in the public space.


access to the city


The project is in the residential district in Osaka and it has been designed as a space to trigger to create the ‘communication’ between the locals can grow plants. The private of these plants are ‘invisible’ to public, bench

Keyword: public space, invisible private, design, local, communication, urban agriculture


music stage

Various use of the terrace

Private items color the street in the project site

The project is now on the process of designing and going to be open to the public partly in 2014. We are parallel working on the local workshop to discuss how to proceed to the project. The local involvement is very important: the space needs to be activated in use, and to be maintained well for longer period. Here I showed the one project to explain the methodology to activate public by using ‘invisible private’.

Rhythmical, Dizzying, or Boring Street - Frequency Analysis to Townscape Impression Takahiro Yakoh, Keio University Introduction Conventional technologies of computer vision can detect many kinds of image features from a single image. Brightness, contrast, colors, character surfaces and lines, and the spatial distribution of these elements, are the part of examples of the algorithmically detectable features. These features are derived from some image processing on a computer without any intentions. Therefore, such features and these derivatives are categorized as quantitatively measurable indices. On the other hand, the visual impression arisen in ones mind is hard to be measured. The impression undoubtedly exists only in ones mind. However, human beings do not have any techniques to read or sense such impressions directly from ones mind by now. Therefore, the conventional evaluation of townscape, room design, or any other visual design of constructions are based on questionnaire for users or passengers historically. In such cases, the results tend to be biased by its questioners or evaluators. So such qualitative results are far from absolute/universal quantitative evaluations. Since the color information has significant impact to the appearance of construction, the relation between the color and the impression have been researched. Also, psychological evaluation based on gaze area or duration of gazing have been also researched. However, the combination of then have not yet been researched. To build up the quantitative evaluation method of visual impression, this paper firstly proposed a simplified visual impression model. This model is a human mind simulator which output the impression from an input image. In principle, a human mind is recognized as a quite complexed information processing system. Therefore, it is still hard to simulate even only the visual impression arising process part. However, this paper utilized a simplified model and introduced a machine learning algorithm called a support vector machine (SVM). For its learning process, eye-tracking information is used additionally to observe the implicit intention for watching images. Furthermore, the relationship between the human impression of a image and the features of it has been researched recently. Combining this kind of knowledge with the computer vision technology enables us to estimate the human impression of a image only with the image processing of computer vision. This way is deserve to go because it can eliminate the bias of examiners and extract the quantitative indices. The next proposal of this paper is the temporal analysis of visual impression. In general, a townscape itself is almost static. However, environmental changing and the observer’s motion induces the changing of visual impression. This changing is considered as a key element to cause the impression of street as rhythmical, dizzying, boring, or any other temporal impression. Therefore, this paper tried to analyze the changing of visual impression and visual features in video sequences captured with a wearable camera during walking through several streets. Since the proposed visual impression model is also used in this analysis, its result gives us another quantitative index for each street to describe the activity ratio.


Simplified Model of Visual Impression Process • Two$kinds$of$inputs$were$used,$i.e.$image$features,$and$psychological$reac9ons •Machine$learning$method$was$used$to$tune$weigh9ng$factors$for$each$input •This$model$can$es9mate$human$impression$in$accuracy$of$80%

Warm color Cold color Center of Gravity

Temporal Analysis of Visual Impression

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FACTOR ANALYSIS OF WELL BEING (HAPPINESS) AND ITS APPLICATION TO COMMUNITY DESIGN Takashi Maeno, Masao Saeki and Yui Shinoda Graduate School of System Design and Management, Keio University

1. Result of Factor Analysis of happiness (well being) Competence Meaning in Life Mastery Self Actualization Self Esteem Autonomy Thought and Religion Sense of Societal Connection Hope Personal Growth Kindness Work Motivation Clear Purpose of Life Preference to Make Someone Happy Gratitude Love Humor Positive Relationship with Others Savoring Optimism Self Acceptance Having no anxiety Switching Minds Self Concept Clarity Social Comparison Factor Loadings Cumulative Contribution Ratio

1 .739 .722 .696 .676 .644 .638 .606 .602 .587 .570 .539 .526 .493 .415 .259 .301 .279 .302 .473 .245 .438 .227 .366 .018 .101 6.214 24.856

Factors 2 3 .231 .192 .356 .290 .278 .340 .246 .375 .381 .323 .269 .142 .235 .156 .233 .261 .479 .327 .488 .143 .492 .054 .330 .069 .321 .324 .734 .019 .729 .172 .656 .315 .586 .200 .509 .372 .480 .350 .216 .622 .361 .556 .007 .529 .204 .423 .021 .114 .044 .083 4.122 2.438 41.344 51.094

4 .068 .112 .015 .135 .033 .039 .289 .244 .055 .120 .026 .199 .115 .002 .127 .054 .150 .314 .203 .136 .266 .476 .293 .693 .538 1.604 57.511

Commu nality .641 .745 .678 .677 .666 .501 .531 .545 .684 .599 .536 .431 .465 .712 .644 .624 .484 .587 .617 .512 .702 .557 .440 .493 .308 14.378

1. Having purpose and learning new things (focusing into self) 2. Relationships, gratitude and kindness among people (focusing into relationship among others) 3. Positive and optimistic attitude 4. Keeping one’s own pace for independent behavior

2. Result of brainstorming using four factors of happiness

Layer of Ordinary Activities (LOA) as mediation In the morning, when the hour strikes at which I am accustomed to rise, I might receive this impression, as Plato says; I might let it blend with the confused mass of impressions which fill my mind; perhaps in that case it would not determine me to act. But generally this impression, instead of disturbing my whole consciousness like a stone which falls into the water of a pond, merely stirs up an idea which is, so to speak, solidified on the surface, the idea of rising and attending to my usual occupations. This impression and this idea have in the end become tied up with one idea have in the end become tied up with one another, so that the act follows the impression without the self interfering with it. In this instance I am a conscious automation, and I am so because, I have everything to gain by being so. As Henri Bergson pointed out well, the majority of our daily actions are performed in this way and that, owing to the solidification in memory of such and such sensations, feelings, or ideas, impressions from the outside call forth movements on our part which, though conscious and even intelligent, have many points of resemblance with reflex acts. And, in many case, the purpose of our daily actions is led by a beacon, and it will be difficult to keep having more than one meaning. So, then, the means of our daily actions lose the importance/self-consciousness, and become to be almost transparent on the process. Therefore, if we wake up when the hour strikes by an alarm clock in our daily life, the action-wake up is one part of a series of actions led by the strikes, and if the series are quite ordinary for us, our consciousness of the part will be almost unconscious like a point of resemblance with reflex acts. Therefore, to put it simply, in our ordinary life, we form our daily actions by the 'Idea' that solidified on the surface of our consciousness through the 'impression', and the relationship between the 'Idea' and the 'Impression' is translated to the relationship between 'Self-imaging' and 'Mass-mediation' as more current/external matters related to urban scale. As Appadurai has shown, Electric Mediation allow script for possible lives to be imbricated with the glamour of film stars and fantastic film plots and yet also to be tied to the plausibility of news shows, documentaries, and other black and white forms of telemediation and printed text. And, Appadurai regarded that electric media provide resources for 'self-imaging' as an everyday social project, because of the sheer multiplicity of the forms in which they appear (cinema, television, computers, and telephones), and because of the rapid way in which they move through daily life routines. However, the reason that the electric media resources for 'self-imaging' as our everyday social project does not only depend on the sheer multiplicity and the rapid way, but also depend on the existing and repeating and automatic 'mediation' itself, and people depend on the 'strikes' themselves, and side with a script/text/context/story.

Local People, joggers, cyclists at small square of a perimeter of King's Cross Redevelopment, London, UK (2005-6)

Walkers, a shopper chatting with a florist, and waiting for another shopper, at Hakuraku, Yokohama, Japan (2012)

High school students, a student who is working in Rawmen shop, a family, & boozers at Hakuraku, Yokohama, Japan (2012)

Passengers, a driver, & other drivers taking lunch at but terminal under shopping mall around Central, Hong Kong, China (2013)

A girl, drivers who are smoking, Drivers, Workers, Shoppers, & Sellers at Mumbai, Thai (2013)

Kids, smoker, worker, & cyclist at Little India, Singapore (2013)

Category 2:

Re-Creation as diversion Being exhausted is much more than being tired. It's not just tiredness, I'm not just tired, in spite of the climb. The tired person no longer has any (subjective) possibility at his disposal; he therefore can not realize the slightest (objective) possibility. But the latter remains, because one can never realize the whole of the possible; in fact, one even creates the possible to the extent that one realize it. The tired person can not longer realize, but the exhausted person can no longer possibilize. In our everyday life, it is not too much to say that we are always dancing on the 'authorized/exhausted dance step' composed by some conscious/unconscious script/text/context/story through a variety of mediation. However, it will be necessity that people's action/behaviour is solidified by the repeating/automatic on the dance step, because, by these dance step, we can keep our 'self'. In other words, we will have to keep/make our each dance step. By the similarity/resemble/difference/conflict/reciprocity/contradiction/etc between the each dance step, we can not only keep our 'self', but also keep our 'family/friend/community/society/culture', and even our 'enemy/rival/match'. That is to say, by the dance step, people can keep/participate/receive their everyday life. And, the exhaustion and the following absence of presumptive context of that would create a diverse quality of the city. 'Let us suppose that people in a tribe are disciplined keep in the expressionless. In the tribe, even an expression is some kind of childish. The discipline is very strict. They do not talk about their 'pain'. Specially, they do not talk with each other by a presumptive context. If somebody sorrows, everybody ridicule and punish him/her. Nobody has a suspicion that somebody camouflages. The sorrowful itself is already some kind of camouflage.'

Drivers, Sellers, & Policemen who keep touching the guns and only show a grin to Seller at Golden Sands, Varna, Bulgaria (2006)

Ice Cream sheller, shoppers who are eating ice cream everywhere, & a tea seller, at Central, Cairo, Egypt (2007)

Shoppers, an antigue shop seller, a chiropracticer who are sharing a public toilet, at Hakuraku, Yokohama, Japan (2012)

A Korean barker, shoppers toward Korean pop stars' gift shops , & people who are waiting, on the street of Shinokubo, Tokyo, Japan (2012)

A family, tourist, & a young couple who are seriously kissing, at the top of Shopping Mall, Mong Kok, Hong Kong, China (20013)

Walkers, Sellers, & Prostitutes who are carefully looking at walkers, on the street of Mong Kok, Hong Kong, China (20013)

Indonecian people who are singing, eating, and chatting on a walkway under highrised blds, at Central, Hong Kong, China (2013)

Indonecian people who are singing, eating, and chatting on a walkway under highrised blds, at Central, Hong Kong, China (2013)

Category 3:

Composite as a scenario Furniture is tool. And, it is servant. It satisfies our necessity. Our necessity is ordinary, rule, and always same. It is always same. Our furniture is proportionate to the order, the constant, and the systematic function. All the people are waiting their same necessity and time everyday all their life. I n this declaration, we can see the mechanical viewpoint for every day life and the quite positive stance for an authorized dance step, and by the following question, we can see another view. And even once we have reached the highest point of the house, as in the terrace of Villa Savoye on the sill of the window that frames the landscape, the culminating point of the promenade, here also we find a hat, a pair of sunglasses, a little package (cigarettes?) and a lighter, and now, where did the gentleman go? Le Corbusier pointed out the strong trace of the 'gentleman' in advance, and on the site, people and furniture follow the 'gentleman', as his 'servant'. Therefore, on the site, the 'servant' will be gave the order/position strictly. As his photograph/sketch/drawing shows, he conspired with the 'gentleman' and pushed forward the more 'authorized dance step' on the site. In Cubism, there are some categorical differences, such as the analytic, classical, and synthetic. However, the essential theme will be not only to connect with the subject and the object on the canvas/space/site but also to make ambivalence between them by using the 'continuous repetition'. On the other hand, in the case of the viewpoint of Purism, Le Corbusier eliminated the 'ambiguous' of Cubism, and he attached importance to the movement itself between 'A' and 'B'. That is to say, he eliminated the importance of the process itself between 'A' and 'B', and the result, he eliminated the importance of the 'continuous repetition'. That is why, 'A' is for 'B', and 'B' is for 'C', and 'C' is for 'D' and 'D' is... On the site, all the elements including 'people' are given the role as the 'ordinary/usual elements themselves' that keep an 'order', like 'guitar, cup, bin, plate' that he often drawn. As his architectural notation emphasize, the rule/patterns of people's action/behaviour are authorized, and the process of the dance step exists on the site, just as a process. Therefore, a 'coffee cup' is given the position/order/process as 'a coffee cup', which is paradoxically a key for understanding a composite as spatial scenario of the city.

Category 4:

Direct Action as an in/externalization, & possibility In 'The Manhattan Transcript', Tschumi attempts to play with the fragments of a given reality at the same time as the rational structure of abstract concepts, while constantly questioning the nature of architectural signs. And, his transcript shows the three disjoined levels of 'reality', which are 'the world of objects', composed of buildings abstracted from maps, plans, photographs, and 'the world of movements', which can be abstracted from choreography, sport, or other movement diagrams, and 'the world of events', which is abstracted from news photographs. In this transcript, the theme of the trial is how we can 'cut off'' the reality on a site just as it is. However, in order to abstract our everyday life, it would be useful not only to juxtapose those elements but also to overlap the more detailed micro elements. And, rather than transcript of the live elements from a strong 'event', transcript of that from an 'the half-exhausted routine' would be demonstrative for the modernity at large. Deleuze separated 'The Exhausted' and 'The Possible'. Meanwhile, people's behavior and all the live elements of everyday life have been often not differentiated, and keep the relationship between each other like 'watercolors in water'. Therefore, wherever people live, and whatever people do, there are the half-exhausted routine, which is a key for externalizing a potential relationship between physical and social structures of the city.

Resident as a watchmen, Drug Users, dogs, a girl, & mum who tied up a ring of her dog, at an entrance/ wayout of Christiania, Cophenhagen, Denmark (2006)

Sellers under umbrellas, drivers, policemen, & a family who live in a small park, at peripheral area of indutrial district, Mumbai, India (2008)

Fruit Seller, walkers, & local residents who are chatting, leaving a dog, on a perimeter of a community, Bangkok, Thai (20013)

Old men kept standing up, workers, indian boy who are kissing with prostitutes around peripheral area between Red-Light, Redevelopment at Gayling, Singapore (20013)



Category 1:

House in Chayagasaka


From the perspective of the author as a conservation architect, this paper illustrates innovative concept of urban cultural heritage which pay attention to urban qualities comprising tangible and intangible values. To understand urban qualities, various kinds of methods to measure non-measurable features are invented. In this study, Bangkok is raised as a good example to see how the place-based and landscape-based conservation concepts applied to non-western urban characters.

Today, conservation of urban heritage pays an important role in maintaining non-static values. Urban intensity and complex cultural specificity of place are raised to be a part of values that should be maintained. To conduct the conservation works along such concept, we need to discover the proper tools to identify the non-measurable urban qualities which are

grounded on sense of place and experiences of the inhabitants. Moreover, the other equally high importance is to reinterpret the valuable abstraction to urban design and planning.




Representational Spaces--Trok Neighborhoods

Representation of Historical Spaces

The trok neighborhoods are fine-grains-soft core surrounded by hard shells of shop-houses and large-scale buildings. The webs of alleys are in labyrinthine forms grounded on former natural or man-made water ways and walkways which can be traced back to urban formation the in the late seventeenth century. Concerning urban form and socio-cultural dimension, Bangkok heritage core can be seen in two levels: the layer of community networks (alley community: chunchon trok), coexisted with high cultural hierarchy of temples, palaces and noble houses; and the patchwork of named places (district: yarn).

The current conservation practices in forms of stated-led revitalization programs in Bangkok showed that the non-measurable heritage supporting dwelling patterns and its unique urban intensity are not properly interpreted and represented. Generally, they choose only the iconic monuments and urban spaces in relevant with monarchy and Buddhism to represent chumchon and yarn. Moreover, some programs intend to revitalize the communal areas to tourist dominated areas.

Place and Landscape Under the new conservation concept, place and landscape are used for describing the sense of interrelation between cultural heritage, ecology and human being. They can be defined as spaces of representation or lived space that have been produced and modified over time through its use and invested with symbolism and meaning.

Tangible and Intangible The new conservation connotation that shifted towards value-based management aims at protecting significances of cultural heritage, rather than concrete things. To protect overall values of heritage, tangible heritage which can be considered as measurable features and intangible heritage referring non-measurable features are considered.

Place and Time

In the sense of heritage conservation, what should be considered are specific qualities of urban Thai which provide opportunities for urban intensity. They consist of the complexity of sub-cultures supporting by the way of life and set of beliefs, the tolerance in terms of multilayer of urban forms and usages, and many layers of history and diverse tradition in modes of life.

King Rama I (1782-1809)

King Rama III (1824-1851)

King Rama IX (1982) palace temple

The formation of chumchon (indigenous communities) and yarn (districts or named places)

community (chumchon) market (talad) district (yarn)

The acceptance of continuity and change is concerned in relevant with the new conservation concept. The association between place and time can be seen in the formation of the lived spaces generated by their inhabitants over time, as well as the creation of individual perception and collective memory.

Complexity The other interesting concept is the acceptance of continuity and change. The association between place and time can be seen in the formation of the lived spaces generated by their inhabitants over time, as well as the creation of individual perception and collective memory.

Methods Identification

(above) The Master Plan for Land Development: Ratchadamnoen Road and Surrounding Area intends to build the network of iconic monuments and sites. The networks of indigenous neighborhoods are not presented.

To identify the places is based on character-defining features expressing both tangible and intangible heritage. The important idea is to do not overlook normal architectures, spaces or common cultures that are not rewarded as national heritage. Additionally, the identification process should not oversimplify to pick up only simply readable urban contexts. The complexity, multi-layer of historical relics and cultural expression should be considered.

Interpretation and Representation After choosing and expressing heritage values, the next step is to interpret and represent its values to public. This process is relevant with the representation of space that conceived or conceptualized by planners and technocrats. It can be in several forms of conservation planning and designs. However, in these days, community involvement is significantly put in all courses of action.

Trok neighborhoods, the fine-grains-soft core inside the urban blocks show complexity and liveliness. (middle, below) Regarding the Rattanakosin and Chao Phraya River Front Program, the new tourist commodities are replaced on the river front communities.

Mnm2013 posters