By: Lilli C., Micaela C., Marlene D., Lena J., Courtney K., Nicole K., Selin L., and Daijha M.
The impact of the war on military technology……………………………3-6 The war and changes in U.S. industry, science, and technology…….7-10 Medicine and the war........................................................ ..................11-14 The economic effects of the war on the USA………………… ………15-17
Can you see me? I’m under the chair of Winston Churchill! He was Britain’s leader at the time! He’s with Franklin Roosevelt (on his left), and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin (left of Roosevelt)! The were called “the Big Three” because they were the major leaders of the Allied Powers!
Chapter 1: IMPACT ON MILITARY TECHNOLOGY
By: Lilli and Nicole
An atomic bomb test site in Nevada
INTRODUCTION: When I traveled back in time, I saw that the war brought many different technologies and military techniques to the world. Most of the technology was invented before the war started but it wasn’t developed or advanced until the war began. Either way, military technology has been was impacted a lot due to World War II. I can’t wait to share what else I’ve discovered!
Radar: During the war a technology called radar was used by almost every nation. Radar means, Radio Detection and Ranging. It would tell the soldiers where and how far away other boats, airplanes, or missiles are. Although Germany, Italy, and Japan had radar before World War II, it wasn't as developed and advanced Britain’s radar. The USA received information on Britain’s technology in exchange for other military secrets. The improvements that Britain had developed in radar technology helped the USA as well as Britain win many important battles such as the Battle of the Atlantic which was fought against the This is radar! The center of the circle is Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, where it is located while the white blob on the side is an approaching object such as and Japan). a plane, boat, or submarine!
Rockets and Bazookas: One of the technologies that were invented during the war was the bazooka. The bazooka is a rocket-propelled weapon that can destroy tanks, boats, or even submarines. The USA introduced the bazooka to the war in 1942 when the US would use them to fight battles in Africa and in Japan. Most soldiers didn’t like using bazookas because the smoke from the rocket would give away their location to the enemy. The bazooka wasn’t very helpful in the Pacific Campaign because it wasn’t very accurate but, it also was a major part in battles against Japan because the impact would destroy their tanks and other equipment. This is an American soldier using a bazooka to fight in the war!
Atomic bomb: A scientist, Albert Einstein sent President Roosevelt a letter explaining that these tiny things called atoms could be cut in half to make really powerful bombs. These new bombs would be more even stronger than before. But, Roosevelt was scared that this place called Germany would come up with the same invention as us. The Manhattan Project was the name of a project that tried to make these new bombs. Roosevelt and this other guy Churchill decided to start working together. Finally, the first bomb was ready to be tested! There were 3 main research sites set up in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Hanford, Washington, and Los Alamos, New Mexico. But all together, there were about 30 sites all researching for this one bomb!
Jet Aircraft: One of the more important new things invented during World War II was the jet engine which was used in planes to make them go super fast! The planes that did use a jet engine were better at fighting than the planes with the normal engine. Sadly, that technology wasn’t officially introduced until near the end of the war. So, the engines didn’t really affect the war that much but, they did change how war is fought now. The jet engines created a foundation for better models to build off of so the USA could be successful in wars in the future. They also brought German and American scientists together in order to create new technologies and eventually send men to the moon! I love flying on those jet
Aircraft carriers: Aircraft carriers were these huge boats that carried airplanes. The ocean was a lot easier to travel on than the ground. Japan had 10 aircraft carriers while the US only had 6. Aircraft carriers helped to make one of Japan’s attacks a lot easier. If the US and Japan wanted to attack islands that were scattered all over the Ocean, they would need aircraft carriers. But before aircraft carriers were invented, battleships made the sea powered by one nation. The Musashi and the Yamato were the two biggest battleships and were both sunk into the Ocean. Aircraft carriers helped the US win the war. The Battle of the Coral Sea, The Battle of Midway and The Battle of the Philippine Sea were all battles won by the US thanks to aircraft carriers. Now, the US not only had control over the air, but the sea, too.
Chapter 2: CHANGES IN U.S. INDUSTRY, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY
By: Courtney and Selin
Radar was a critical invention to Americaâ€™s success in the second World War.
INDUSTRY When the U.S. joined the war, they began to experience shortages in important materials like rubber, steel, and aluminum, which lead President Roosevelt to start the War Production Board. The WPB controlled production to make sure that the U.S. was able to produce all that it needed for the war. All the big time corporations were involved and many factories switched over to making products only for the war. This included cloth factories switching to making things like parachutes and mosquito nets. The WPB even stopped the creation of private cars! Companies like Ford, Chrysler, and GM started manufacturing guns, engines, trucks, and tanks. The shipbuilding industry also became a lot faster; before the war, shipyards were only making 23 ships but during the war it went up to over 4,000! Wowza!! Another huge improvement was rubber production. When the war began, there wasn’t a lot of rubber in the U.S. So, the U.s started to recycle rubber but it still didn’t make enough! Eventually, the U.S. began creating fake rubber and were able to double the world’s natural rubber production! The WPB was able to easily make industry manufacture for the war, increase production in the U.S. and make the U.S. able to provide for the Allies (Britain, France etc.) as well as itself in the war. The WPB was a very important part of the Allies’ Victory against the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan).
THE ATOMIC BOMB One of the biggest advancements of the war was the atomic bomb. It was first discovered by German scientists in the late 1930s. They experimented by splitting a uranium atom, creating a great amount of power. When the U.S. joined in the war in 1941, German scientists who had fled Hitler came to America and helped to create the actual atom bomb itself. By 1945, the team of scientists had successfully made 3 atom bombs and tested one in the New Mexico desert. I was “blown away” by the bomb’s power!
TECHNOLOGY New inventions helped certain sides to advance over others and the way people thought of warfare was changed for good. Inventing and creating new technologies was crucial in WWII.
Chapter 3: MEDICINE AND WAR
Earl the Unicorn arrived at a field hospital where he saw soldiers having illnesses and injuries. The hospital was on a field of grass instead of inside a building. There were many tents which were arranged really close to each other. Many people inside the tent were crowded together waiting for help. Where can we find this help? Maybe Earl has some medicine for them!
By: Marlene and Micaela
All of a sudden medicine fell from the sky! The box was labeled Penicillin! Earl was not sure of what it was and what it did.
Earl talked to Nurse Amelia and found out a lot of information about Penicillin.
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929.
Penicillin was used to help heal infections in the middle ears, sinuses, mouth, throat and lungs that many soldiers got along the war zone. It also helped cure diseases such as pneumonia which was a lung disease that made it hard to breath.
The United States manufactured 600 billion units of penicillin to be sold in the markets.
The remarkable medical effects of this medication on diseases made World War 2 different from any previous war.
The discoveries of penicillin lead to the discovery of more antibiotics.
Penicillin gained recognition by the public with the help of Howard Florey and Ernest Chain’s production and development.
Penicillin was also called the ‘wonder drug’.
There were also some soldiers who were in need of blood. Of course Earl had medication for them as well- a box of Blood plasma. Blood plasma helped to cure infections and treat measles. This was delivered to soldiers who were losing blood or in a shock. Blood plasma saved many lives in the war because it could be easily sent. Since it was dried up in bottles you were able to use it for a long time. Another medicine that was found in the field hospital was DDT. It was a medicine that prevented insect-borne diseases such as malaria or typhus. It was sold in the United States after World War II and it was popular because of how effectively it worked, how available it was to the public and the cheap price of the product.
Facts: The government established an effective plasma collection. First introduced to the 3rd Army troops during WWI.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is the long name for the insecticide DDT. DDT was commonly used by soldiers who were located in coastal places such as Italy or the South Pacific
Earl was wondering how all the soldiers survived the diseases with the pain they suffered from. The pain was probably the worst feeling from all the diseases. There should be a pain reliever! Essentially the last box was labeled morphine syrette.
Facts: First introduced by German pharmacist Friedrich Sert端rner
In WW2 400,000 troops were reported as sufferMorphine syrette was a shot filled with morphine ing from morphine addiction
that was used to inject soldiers so that their pain and their wounds would not be as harsh. The medication did not always relieve the pain entirely but it lessens the shock. The drug was one of the most dangerous drugs because of its depressant action. That is why the drug was only used to lower severe pain.
Edward Robinson Squibb developed an injector for morphine in 1939 Morphine was found in every first aid packet.
The drug was injected in warm areas such as the skin on the chest under the arm- Morphine is found in opium which is the pit. dried latex of a plant
The development of medicine during World War 2 treated many diseases and implied a better chance of survival. Earl was very happy that those medications were used during the war without them there would have been much more deaths.
Chapter 4: ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE WAR ON THE U.S.
By: Daijha and Lena
Economic Effects on the War After World War II, America became the country with the most powerful economy in the world! With the effects of the Great Depression still in play, America wanted to stay out of another expensive war. However, this proved to be very hard. As demand during the war increased, so did American production. Therefore, multiple new plants and production facilities were developed, decreasing the unemployment rate. Also, the gross national product grew by over $100 billion within the span of 10 years ( in 1940, it was approximately $200 billion and in 1950, it was approximately $300 billion). But just why did the demand increase so much during the war? Well your favorite unicorn, me of course (Earl Tyrone Jackson) is here to tell ya!! I wanted to do my part! I worked in the factories a little when I time traveled!
During the war, the U.S. distributed war bonds as a way to return their debts to citizens who helped fund the war. Once the war was over, these citizens received the money owed to them through the bonds, and well, letâ€™s just say these people went a tad bit crazy. Demand for goods skyrocketed as many citizens began to purchase consumer goods using the money they had earned from the war bonds. Therefore, production increased leading to multiple job opportunities and continued economic growth. However, because consumer spending increased by a large amount, the income tax was introduced in order to help regulate it. The income tax is a tax put on oneâ€™s income (AKA the money they make). The income tax still exists to this day and helps to provide the government with sufficient funds. Now, American citizens were not the only ones who demanded U.S. goods. Foreign countries, particularly Europe caused for the high demand of the products also. Eventually, an open trading system emerged and trading between countries was able to occur without tariffs/ restrictions. This led to even more economic growth and an even healthier economy for America. Although most of America appeared to be in pretty good economic shape, many farmers were still suffering. The number of family owned farms began to decrease as modernized farms and plants began to take over. This then made it very hard for many farmers to stay out of debt and at the very least, provide
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On his adventure back in time to World War II!
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WWII Children's Story eBook Assignment for American Studies Created by Lilli C., Micaela C., Marlene D., Lena J., Courtney K., Nicole K., S...