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COLEGIO DE BACHILLERES DEL ESTADO DE SONORA Director General Mtro. Jorge Luis Ibarra Mendívil Director Académico Profr. Julio Alfonso Martínez Romero Director de Administración y Finanzas C.P. Jesús Urbano Limón Tapia Director de Planeación Mtro. Pedro Hernández Peña

LENGUA ADICIONAL AL ESPAÑOL 4 Módulo de Aprendizaje. Copyright ©, 2010 por Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora todos los derechos reservados. Primera edición 2011. Impreso en México. DIRECCIÓN ACADÉMICA Departamento de Desarrollo Curricular Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola, Sector Sur Hermosillo, Sonora. México. C.P. 83280

COMISIÓN ELABORADORA: Elaborador: Jesús Moisés Galaz Duarte Revisión Disciplinaria: Edna Elinora Soto Gracia Corrección de Estilo: Edna Elinora Soto Gracia Supervisión Académica: Mtra. Luz María Grijalva Díaz Equipo Técnico RIEMS Diseño: María Jesús Jiménez Duarte Edición: María Jesús Jiménez Duarte Coordinación Técnica: Claudia Yolanda Lugo Peñúñuri Diana Irene Valenzuela López Coordinación General: Profr. Julio Alfonso Martínez Romero

Esta publicación se terminó de imprimir durante el mes de diciembre de 2010. Diseñada en Dirección Académica del Colegio de Bachilleres del Estado de Sonora Blvd. Agustín de Vildósola; Sector Sur. Hermosillo, Sonora, México La edición consta de 10,064 ejemplares.

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Ubicación Curricular COMPONENTE: FORMACIÓN BÁSICA

HORAS SEMANALES: 03

CAMPO DE CONOCIMIENTO: COMUNICACIÓN

CRÉDITOS: 06

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Content Presentación .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Mapa de asignatura ...................................................................................................................................... 10 BLOCK 1 EXPRESSES WHAT HE OR SHE WOULD DO IN IMAGINARY SITUATIONS Didactic Sequence 1 - Past Tense Start up activities ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Activity 1. Live Noughts and Crosses .............................................................................................. 14 Grammar .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Development activities ............................................................................................................................ 17 Activity 2. Verbs Chart ...................................................................................................................... 18 Exercises .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Closing Activities ...................................................................................................................................... 21 Activity 3. Story and Story board ..................................................................................................... 22 Didactic Sequence 2 - Cause and Effect Startup Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 26 Reading and Comprehension Questionnaire ................................................................................. 26 Grammar ......................................................................................................................................... 27 Development activities ............................................................................................................................ 28 Cause and effect sentences and exercises .................................................................................... 28 Activity 1. Chart completion and Reading comprehension ............................................................. 33 Closing Activities ...................................................................................................................................... 34 Questionnaire and Exercises .......................................................................................................... 34 Activity 2. Cause and Effect Diagram .............................................................................................. 38 Didactic Sequence 3 - If I saw her, I would marry her… Startup Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 39 Questionnaire ................................................................................................................................... 39 Grammar ......................................................................................................................................... 41 Sentences Examples ....................................................................................................................... 42 Development Activities ............................................................................................................................ 45 Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 45 Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 46 Activity 1. Writing listening and comprehension Activity ................................................................ 47 Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 51 Activity 2. Competition of sentences and discussion ...................................................................... 57 Closing Activities ..................................................................................................................................... 59 Exercises .......................................................................................................................................... 59 Talking practice ............................................................................................................................... 60 Activity 3. Multi task Activity ............................................................................................................. 61 BLOCK 2 DESCRIBES THINGS THAT HE OR SHE HAS EXPERIENCED Didactic Sequence 1 - English Verbs Review Startup activities ....................................................................................................................................... 68 Activity 1. Verbs Tense Review ........................................................................................................ 68 Grammar .......................................................................................................................................... 69 Review exercise................................................................................................................................ 70 Development Activities ............................................................................................................................. 71 Letter soup ....................................................................................................................................... 71 Verbs review exercises .................................................................................................................... 72 Activity 2. written and spoken practice ............................................................................................ 73 Closing Activities ...................................................................................................................................... 75

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Content (continuación) Crossword puzzles........................................................................................................................... 75 Activity 3. Irregular Verbs Review ..................................................................................................... 77 Didactic Sequence 2 - Have you ever been bungee jumping? Startup Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 81 Discussion and reading activities ................................................................................................... 82 Activity 1. Ideas and vocabulary organization ................................................................................. 83 Development Activities ............................................................................................................................. 84 Exercises .......................................................................................................................................... 84 Choosing the correct form .............................................................................................................. 84 Grammar Present Perfect ............................................................................................................... 85 Sample Sentences .......................................................................................................................... 86 Activity 2. Mind map ........................................................................................................................ 88 Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 89 Activity 3. Writing, Listening Activity ................................................................................................. 90 Reading Comprehension ................................................................................................................. 92 Activity 4. Reading Analysis ............................................................................................................. 95 Oral practice .................................................................................................................................... 97 Activity 5. filling sentences and analysis .......................................................................................... 98 Closing activity ....................................................................................................................................... 100 Activity 6. Job Interview .................................................................................................................. 100 Didactic Sequence 3 - Have you ever gone fishing? Startup Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 103 Activity 1. Dialogue Practice .......................................................................................................... 103 Development activities .......................................................................................................................... 105 Grammar ....................................................................................................................................... 105 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 106 Activity 2. Job interview .................................................................................................................. 107 Sentence correction ....................................................................................................................... 108 Listening Exercise .......................................................................................................................... 109 Closing Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 111 Activity 3. Interviews ....................................................................................................................... 111 Didactic Sequence 4 - Have you ever‌? Startup Activity ..................................................................................................................................... 112 Activity 1. Follow up ...................................................................................................................... 112 Grammar present perfect + adverbs ............................................................................................ 113 Development Activities ........................................................................................................................... 114 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 114 Closing Activity ...................................................................................................................................... 117 Activity 2. Biography ...................................................................................................................... 117 Didactic Sequence 5 - Present Perfect vs. Past Tense Startup Activity ...................................................................................................................................... 118 Activity 1. Experiences Test .......................................................................................................... 118 Grammar ....................................................................................................................................... 120 Development Activities .......................................................................................................................... 122 Present Perfect Vs. Simple Past Exercises .................................................................................... 122 Activity 2. Crossword Puzzle ......................................................................................................... 125 Exercises Past tense or Present Perfect? ..................................................................................... 126 Oral practice ................................................................................................................................... 127

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Content (continuación) Listening Practice “Lady in Red” Song ......................................................................................... 128 Closing Activities .................................................................................................................................... 129 Language in context ..................................................................................................................... 129 Activity 3. Power Point Presentation ............................................................................................. 131 Activity 4. Graphic grammar .......................................................................................................... 133 BLOCK 3 EXPRESSES LIKES AND DISLIKES Didactic Sequence 1 - We would rather … Startup Activity ...................................................................................................................................... 136 Activity 1. Reading and Questionnaire ......................................................................................... 136 Grammar expressing preferences ................................................................................................ 139 Development Activities .......................................................................................................................... 141 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 141 Activity 2. dialogue creation .......................................................................................................... 144 Practice ......................................................................................................................................... 146 Closing Activities ................................................................................................................................... 148 Listening Practice ........................................................................................................................... 148 Talking Practice ............................................................................................................................. 150 Activity 3. Multi task Activity ........................................................................................................... 152 Didactic sequence 2 - I like to go… Startup activity ....................................................................................................................................... 155 Activity 1 Questionnaire ................................................................................................................ 155 Grammar: Gerund and infinitives verb use.................................................................................... 156 Resuming infinitives and gerunds grammar ................................................................................ 157 Development activities ........................................................................................................................... 158 Gerunds and Infinitives Exercises .................................................................................................. 158 Activity 2 Game board ................................................................................................................... 161 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................ 162 Closing Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 165 Activity 3 Cocktail Party ................................................................................................................. 165 Rubric ............................................................................................................................................ 167 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................................. 168 Common verbs followed by Gerunds. ........................................................................................... 169 Common verbs followed by Infinitive / Verbs followed by object + Infinitive. .............................. 170 Common verbs list chart. ............................................................................................................... 171 BLOCK 4 DESCRIBES INFORMATION ABOUT OBJECT, PLACES AND PEOPLE Didactic Sequence 1 - I have a friend who is a great singer Startup activity ........................................................................................................................................ 174 Activity 1. Interview Practice ........................................................................................................... 174 Grammar: Using Relative Pronouns .............................................................................................. 176 Development activities ........................................................................................................................... 178 Let´s review.................................................................................................................................... 178 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................ 179 The paper Eater ............................................................................................................................. 179 Activity 2. Flip Chart ....................................................................................................................... 182 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 185 Closing activity ....................................................................................................................................... 193 Activity 3. Power Point Presentation .............................................................................................. 193

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Content (continuaci贸n) Didactic Sequence 2 - Listening & Oral practice General Review. Basic English Conversations. Startup Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 194 Activity 1. conversation and sentence correction .......................................................................... 194 Development Activities ........................................................................................................................... 196 Introducing people ......................................................................................................................... 196 Introduce your friend ...................................................................................................................... 197 Activity 2. shopping for a sweater story board .............................................................................. 199 Passport Control in the Air Port ..................................................................................................... 201 Checking in at a hotel .................................................................................................................... 202 Making Suggestions ...................................................................................................................... 203 Activity 3. Stop Game, game board filled ...................................................................................... 204 Asking for Favors ........................................................................................................................... 206 Requesting ..................................................................................................................................... 208 Asking for directions ...................................................................................................................... 208 Asking about place/location .......................................................................................................... 209 Descriptions ................................................................................................................................... 210 Telephone talk ................................................................................................................................ 211 Encouraging words ........................................................................................................................ 212 Speaking situations using encouraging words ............................................................................. 213 American Numbers and Prices ...................................................................................................... 214 Making plans for the weekend ....................................................................................................... 215 Asking for Repetition ...................................................................................................................... 216 Conversation practice / Inviting ..................................................................................................... 217 Talking about Locations ................................................................................................................. 218 Prepositions of Location ................................................................................................................ 219 Asking for Directions ...................................................................................................................... 220 Activity 4. Conversation Activities / Dialogue and exercises. / Rubric .......................................... 221 Talking about Travel ....................................................................................................................... 224 Using Measure Words ................................................................................................................... 226 Classroom Language and Questions............................................................................................ 228 Reading Obesity epidemic ............................................................................................................ 233 The Ten top tips ............................................................................................................................. 236 Closing activity ....................................................................................................................................... 238 Activity 5. cook book ...................................................................................................................... 238 Oral representation rubric .............................................................................................................. 239 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................... 240

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Presentación “Una competencia es la integración de habilidades, conocimientos y actitudes en un contexto específico”. El enfoque en competencias considera que los conocimientos por sí mismos no son lo más importante, sino el uso que se hace de ellos en situaciones específicas de la vida personal, social y profesional. De este modo, las competencias requieren una base sólida de conocimientos y ciertas habilidades, los cuales se integran para un mismo propósito en un determinado contexto. El presente Módulo de Aprendizaje de la asignatura Lengua Adicional al Español 3, es una herramienta de suma importancia, que propiciará tu desarrollo como persona visionaria, competente e innovadora, características que se establecen en los objetivos de la Reforma Integral de Educación Media Superior que actualmente se está implementando a nivel nacional. El Módulo de aprendizaje es uno de los apoyos didácticos que el Colegio de Bachilleres te ofrece con la intención de estar acorde a los nuevos tiempos, a las nuevas políticas educativas, además de lo que demandan los escenarios local, nacional e internacional; el módulo se encuentra organizado a través de bloques de aprendizaje y secuencias didácticas. Una secuencia didáctica es un conjunto de actividades, organizadas en tres momentos: Inicio, desarrollo y cierre. En el inicio desarrollarás actividades que te permitirán identificar y recuperar las experiencias, los saberes, las preconcepciones y los conocimientos que ya has adquirido a través de tu formación, mismos que te ayudarán a abordar con facilidad el tema que se presenta en el desarrollo, donde realizarás actividades que introducen nuevos conocimientos dándote la oportunidad de contextualizarlos en situaciones de la vida cotidiana, con la finalidad de que tu aprendizaje sea significativo. Posteriormente se encuentra el momento de cierre de la secuencia didáctica, donde integrarás todos los saberes que realizaste en las actividades de inicio y desarrollo. En todas las actividades de los tres momentos se consideran los saberes conceptuales, procedimentales y actitudinales. De acuerdo a las características y del propósito de las actividades, éstas se desarrollan de forma individual, binas o equipos. Para el desarrollo del trabajo deberás utilizar diversos recursos, desde material bibliográfico, videos, investigación de campo, etc. La retroalimentación de tus conocimientos es de suma importancia, de ahí que se te invita participar de forma activa cuando el docente lo indique, de esta forma aclararás dudas o bien fortalecerás lo aprendido; además en este momento, el docente podrá tener una visión general del logro de los aprendizajes del grupo. Recuerda que la evaluación en el enfoque en competencias es un proceso continuo, que permite recabar evidencias a través de tu trabajo, donde se tomarán en cuenta los tres saberes: el conceptual, procedimental y actitudinal con el propósito de que apoyado por tu maestro mejores el aprendizaje. Es necesario que realices la autoevaluación, este ejercicio permite que valores tu actuación y reconozcas tus posibilidades, limitaciones y cambios necesarios para mejorar tu aprendizaje. Así también, es recomendable la coevaluación, proceso donde de manera conjunta valoran su actuación, con la finalidad de fomentar la participación, reflexión y crítica ante situaciones de sus aprendizajes, promoviendo las actitudes de responsabilidad e integración del grupo. Nuestra sociedad necesita individuos a nivel medio superior con conocimientos, habilidades, actitudes y valores, que les permitan integrarse y desarrollarse de manera satisfactoria en el mundo laboral o en su preparación profesional. Para que contribuyas en ello, es indispensable que asumas una nueva visión y actitud en cuanto a tu rol, es decir, de ser receptor de contenidos, ahora construirás tu propio conocimiento a través de la problematización y contextualización de los mismos, situación que te permitirá: Aprender a conocer, aprender a hacer, aprender a ser y aprender a vivir juntos.

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DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 PAST TENSE

BLOCK 1 EXPRESSES WHAT HE OR SHE WOULD DO IN IMAGINARY SITUATIONS

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 CAUSE AND EFFECT

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 3 IF I SAW HER, I WOULD MARRY HER.

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 ENGLISH VERBS REVIEW

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 HAVE YOU EVER BEEN BUNGEE JUMPING?

LENGUA ADICIONAL AL ESPAテ前L 4

BLOCK 2 DESCRIBES THINGS THAT HE OR SHE HAS EXPERIENCED

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 3 HAVE YOU EVER GONE FISHING?

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 4 HAVE YOU EVER ...?

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 5 PRESENT PERFECT VS. PAST TENSE.

BLOCK 3 EXPRESSES LIKES AND DISLIKES

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 WE WOULD RATHER ...

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 I LIKE TO GO ...

BLOCK 4 DESCRIBES INFORMATION ABOUT OBJECTS, PLACES AND PEOPLE

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DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 1 I HAVE A FRIEND WHO IS A GREAT SINGER

DIDACTIC SEQUENCE 2 LISTENING & ORAL PRACTICE GENERAL REVIEW. BASIC ENGLISH CONVERSATIONS.


EXPRESSES WHAT HE OR SHE WOULD DO IN IMAGINARY SITUATIONS. Competencias Disciplinares básicas:      

Identifica, ordena e interpreta las ideas, datos y conceptos explícitos e implícitos en un texto, considerando el contexto en el que se generó y en el que se recibe. Evalúa un texto mediante la comparación de un contenido con el de otros, en función de sus conocimientos previos y nuevos. Valora el pensamiento lógico en el proceso comunicativo en su vida cotidiana y académica. Identificar e interpretar la idea general y posible desarrollo de un mensaje oral o escrito en una segunda lengua, recurriendo a conocimientos previos, elementos no verbales y contexto. Se comunica en una lengua extranjera mediante un discurso lógico, oral o escrito, congruente con la situación comunicativa. Utiliza las tecnologías de la información y comunicación para investigar, resolver problemas, producir materiales y trasmitir información.

Unidad de competencia:

Solicita e intercambia información de manera oral y escrita acerca de situaciones hipotéticas de forma sencilla.

Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque:

Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia en los contextos local, nacional e internacional.

Time assigned: 12 hours.


Didactic Sequence 1. Paste tense review. Start up activities 1.

Work with a partner and ask him or her, the following questions. Answer his or her, questions too. When were you born? You:

Partner:

How did you feel yesterday? You:

Partner:

Where did you go last weekend? You:

Partner:

When did you see a movie? You:

Partner:

What did you buy last week? You:

Partner:

When did you leave for school this morning? You:

Partner:

When did you do your homework? You:

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Partner:


2. Fill in all the gaps with the simple past (regular and irregular) of the verbs in parentheses.

Jonathan Harker's Trip to Dracula's Castle From Jonathan Harker's Journal As I _________________ (look) back I _________________ (see) the steam from the horses of the coach by the light of the lamps, and projected against it the figures of my late companions crossing themselves. Then the driver _________________ (crack) his whip and _________________ (call) to his horses, and off they _________________ (sweep) on their way to Bukovina. As they _________________ (sink) into the darkness I _________________ (feel) a strange chill, and a lonely feeling come over me; but a cloak was thrown over my shoulders, and a rug across my knees, and the driver _________________ (say) in excellent German-"The night is chill, mein Herr, and my master the Count _________________ (bid) me take all care of you. There is a flask of slivovitz (the plum brandy of the country) underneath the seat, if you should require it." I _________________ (take neg.) any, but it was a comfort to know it was there all the same. I _________________ (feel) a little strange, and not a little frightened; I think had there been any alternative I should have taken it, instead of prosecuting that unknown night journey. The carriage _________________ (go) at a hard pace straight along, then we _________________ (make) a complete turn and _________________ (go) along another straight road; It _________________ (seem) to me that we were simply going over and over the same ground again, and so I _________________ (take) note of some salient point, and _________________ (find) that this was so. I would have liked to have asked the driver what this all _________________ (mean), but I really _________________ (fear) to do so, for I _________________ (think) that, placed as I was, any protest would have had no effect in case there had been an intention to delay. By-and-by, however, as I was curious to know how time was passing, I _________________ (strike) a match, and by its flame _________________ (look) at my watch; it was within a few minutes of midnight. This _________________ (give) me a sort of shock, for I suppose the general superstition about midnight was increased by my recent experiences. I _________________ (wait) with a sick feeling of suspense; Then a dog _________________ (begin) to howl somewhere in a farmhouse far down the road, a long, agonized wailing, as if from fear. The sound was taken up by another dog, and then another and another, till, borne on the wind which now _________________ (sigh) softly through the Pass, a wild howling _________________ (begin), which _________________ (seem) to come from all over the country, as far as the imagination could grasp it through the gloom of the night. Found at: http://www.angelfire.com/wi3/englishcorner/grammar/Interactive/draculaspcl1.html

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Activity 1

Live Noughts and Crosses Equipment: Nine chairs or sitters arranged in three rows of three, some way of marking the students as two teams Time: 10-15 minutes Instructions: Make teams of 5 people. Toss to see which classmate starts then play as normal noughts and crosses but now each team is the nought or the cross, let each individual decide where to sit if decided you can put a sheet of paper in the sit or the teams wears the sign. Review past tense saying verbs (regular or Irregular) in a sentence correctly applied, each team lines up and answers in turn, a right answer means they can sit in a place of their choice and mark a nought or a cross in the sitting arrangement. Students in the seats may not answer any more to help their team. Use these verbs as a review the past tense; the team may use only two verbs from this list in the activity: Verb Come Kick Play Laugh Meet Go Dance Shout Run

Past Tense Came Kicked Played Laughed Met Went Danced Shouted Ran

Activity no. 1 Factual Reaffirms the verbs in past tense, regular and irregular ones. Co evaluation

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PRODUCT Evaluation Max. Value. Participation Voice level

2 4 2

Attitude

3

Fluency

2

Total

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Pronunciation

EVALUATION Live Noughts and Crosses KNOWLEDGE Procedural Pronounces verbs related to the past tense irregular and regular ones. C

MC

NYC

Student points.

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing teams activities. Is opened to feedback given by other teams of the class and the teacher. Obtained value:


Grammar

Use the past tense form of the verb in affirmative statements: She saw the movie and she liked it. in questions when the question word (who, what, how much/many, which) is the subject: Who saw the accident? What happened exactly? How many people went to hospital? in all cases (affirmative, negative, interrogative) with the verb "TO BE" Were you and Bob at the party? I was there, but bob wasn't.

Use the base form of the verb (the infinitive without "to) to form the present tense of most verbs (see quizzes on Present Tense) when you use the auxiliary verbs 'do,' 'does,' 'did' to form questions and negatives in the past and present tenses: She has a cat but she doesn't have a dog Did you have fun? Yes, I had a lot of fun. No, I didn't have fun.

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Grammar and pronunciation

Add ed

Started, finished, washed, helped, listened, watched

Verbs ending in e, add only d

Lived, cared, died, dated, shared

Change the y to i and add ed

Dried, cried, fried, married, spied

Donâ€&#x;t change the y to i just add ed

Prayed, played, stayed, destroyed

CVC rule: double the final consonant & add ed

Stopped, robbed, lobbed, napped

Do not double final w or x, just add ed

Wowed, mixed, jinxed, meowed, vowed,

nd

Two syllables, and the 2 is stressed, double the final consonant and add ed

Remitted, permitted, admitted, occurred

nd

Two syllables, and the 2 is not stressed, donâ€&#x;t double the final consonant, just add ed

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Happened, listened, opened, earned,


Development activities 3.

Interview your partner on your right and ask him / her, what he / she did yesterday…

My partner's name:

•she / he got up at _________ am.

.

•He / She went to bed at ______________________ am.

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Activity 2

Read the following text and find the past tense words from the box. Order them in the corresponding part of the chart according to their pronunciation. Arrived

pushed

slotted

forced

boarded

stayed

couldn‟t

hummed had

got

worked could

jumped been

The Sounds of Past Tense On Friday, no less than twelve letters arrived for Harry. As they couldn't go through the mail slot they had been pushed under the door, slotted through the sides, and a few even forced through the small window in the downstairs bathroom. Uncle Vernon stayed at home again. After burning all the letters, he got out a hammer and nails and boarded up the cracks around the front and back doors so no one could go out. He hummed "Tiptoe Through the Tulips" as he worked, and jumped at small noises. From Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone by J. K. Rowling ©1997

„d‟ or „t‟ ending sound

„id‟ ending sound

Irregular

past participle irregular

EVALUATION Activity no. 2

Verbs Chart

Value: KNOWLEDGE

Factual Reaffirms the verbs in past tense, regular and irregular ones. Auto evaluation

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Procedural Pronounces verbs related to the past tense irregular and regular ones. C

MC

NYC

Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing teams activities. Is opened to feedback given by other teams of the class and the teacher. Obtained value:


Exercises

4. Fix the mistakes in the sentences below. 1. Carmen didn‟t went to the doctor yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Did you took a have a shower? _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ignacio don‟t walk to school today because she was tired. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Javier and Amelia took an airplane to Obregon. They didn‟t took a boat. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. My grandfather didn‟t gave me any cash yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Frank didn‟t took any pictures because her camera was busted _____________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Marcos and Alba are not in school yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Armando is not sick last week. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5.

Re-write this paragraph changing every verb to the past tense.

Paragraph

•I run to my friend‟s house. I know he is at home. He tells me that I am his best friend. We talk, drink and have a good time. We begin to play video games like FIFA 2003. He is Real Madrid and I am FC Barcelona. The players fall down and run very quickly. I understand this game because it is just like real soccer. The players wear the same uniforms as they do in real life. Someone very smart writes these games. The game is over, I win!

Converted text

• _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________

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6. Give the correct past tense sense to the following sentences 1. Carmen /live (negative)/ in Cananea / in 1997. _______________________________________________________________ 2. Sergio / study (negative) / engineering. _______________________________________________________________ 3. Hectorâ€&#x;s parents / visit (negative) / him last year. _______________________________________________________________ 4. Dinosaurs / have (negative) / large brains. _______________________________________________________________ 5. Javier / help (negative) / me with my homework! _______________________________________________________________

7. Write correct sentences in past tense using contractions. 1.

Winston Churchill was a leader of Mexico.

2.

Confucius lived in Japan.

3.

Peleâ€&#x; played basketball.

4.

The Beatles sang in Arabic.

5.

The Titanic sank in the Pacific Ocean.

8. Writing interrogative sentences in past tense using contractions 1. The Statue of Liberty came from Italy. 2. Thomas Edison invented the radio. 3. Stephen King wrote Romeo and Juliet. 4. The prophet Mohammed spoke Hindi. 5. Marilyn Monroe was an engineer.

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Closing activities 9. Complete the text to find out about Bob‟s day. Bob‟s Horrible Day

Bob (1. have) _____ a horrible day on Monday. First, he (2. be) ________Supposed to get up at 6 a.m., but his alarm clock (3. work, negative) ____________. He (4. wake up) __________ at 8 a.m. There (5. be) ________ no hot water for a shower, so he had to use cold water. After that, his car (6. start, negative) ________________, and he had to take the bus. When Bob (7. get) _________ to work, his boss (8. yell) _____________ at him for being late. Next, his computer (9. crash) ______________, and he (10. lose)____________ all of his documents. He (11. stay) ___________________at work until midnight to redo the documents. Bob (12. decide) ___________________ to stay home the next day because he (13. be) _______________too tired from all his bad luck.

10. Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences. Use the affirmative or negative of the verbs in the box.

ate cleaned did not play did not rain did not stay played rained stayed was watched

Saturday it _____________________________ all day long. Linda _____________________________ at home. She _____________________________

her

apartment.

Then

she

_____________________________

TV

and

_____________________________ her snacks. She _____________________________ tennis. Sunday

it

_____________________________.

It

_____________________________

a

beautiful

day.

Linda

_____________________________ at home. She did not clean her apartment. She _____________________________ tennis in the park.

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11. Choose the past tense verb for each sentence and write it on the line. 1. I ________________ all my homework in study hall. (do, did) 2. She ________________ of a better way to do it. (thought, think) 3. We never ________________ his real name. (know, knew) 4. Anna ________________ her arm when she fell down the stairs. (broke, break) 5. The dog ________________ a hole in the back yard. (dig, dug) 6. Mom ________________ cupcakes for my birthday. (make, made) 7. When the phone ________________ it woke the baby. (rang, ring) 8. There was gum ________________ to the bottom of my shoe. (stick, stuck)

Activity 3

Susana Just arrived from her last vacation in Rocky Point. Look at the picture. In pairs create a story about her and her experience.

First of all look at Susana. Tick ( talk about teaching go ice-skating go out to eat

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( ( (

) the activities you think she did on holiday. ) ) )

catch a fish sunbathing rent a house

( ( (

) ) )

go swimming play tennis go sailing

( ( (

) ) )

cook laugh a lot

( (

) )


According to the activities you tick produce you story. Donâ€&#x;t forget to use past tense.

_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

Write the past tense verbs used in the text and with the help of your teacher practice the pronunciation.

_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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Finally create a story board (cartoon) about your story. Present it in class.

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Evaluation PRODUCT Evaluation Development Story board content Correct grammar usage in the story. Attitude Correct paragraphs formation and content. Total

Activity no. 3 Factual Reaffirms the verbs in past tense, regular and irregular ones. Auto evaluation

Max. Value. 2 2 1.5 3

Student points.

1.5 10

EVALUATION Story and Story board creation Value: KNOWLEDGE Procedural Attitude Identifies and uses verbs related to the past Collaborates with classmates generating and helping in the tense irregular and regular ones. activity. Is opened to feedback given by the class and the teacher. C MC NYC Obtained value:

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Didactic Sequence 2. Cause and effect. Start up activities 1.

Read the paragraph below and think about WHAT is happening and WHY it is happening. Karen woke up early Monday morning because she had so many things to do. Before going to school she decided to make a list. If I don't make a list I might forget everything Karen thought. Since walking the dog is not Karen's job she put that first on her list. She would have to take Spot for a short walk so she wouldn't be late for school. Next on the list was to pack a lunch because her class was going on a field trip to the zoo and they wouldn't be able to eat in the cafeteria today. The last thing on Karen's list was to take her umbrella. Then if it rained she would stay dry and still be able to see all the animals at the zoo. This was going to be a great day

2.

Read each statement below. Think about what the effect is (what happened?). Do you know what the cause is (why it happened)?

Karen woke up early Monday morning. ____________________________________________________________________ Karen made a list of the things she needed to do ___________________________________________________________ Walking the dog was first on Karen's list. ___________________________________________________________________ She would take Spot for a short walk. ______________________________________________________________________ Karen had to pack a lunch today. _________________________________________________________________________ Karen had to remember her umbrella. _____________________________________________________________________

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Grammar A cause is what makes something happens. To find the cause, you need to ask yourself , “What happened first?”. that means, a cause is WHY something happens. An effect is what happens because of something else (the cause). To find the effect, you need to ask yourself, “What happened second?”. So an effect is WHAT happens. As you read be a detective. Look for clue words, such as if, then, because, since, and so. Clue words can sometimes signal causes and effects.

3. Identify if the underlined phrase is a cause or an effect. 1. We turned up the heat since it was getting cold. cause

effect

2. Tommy and Matthew are good friends because they have many common interests and hobbies. cause

effect

3. Anna practiced math during summer vacation, therefore, she finds math easy. cause

effect

4. I fell off my bike and scraped my knee. cause

effect th

5. Our apartment is on the 11 floor; therefore, we have a great view of the city. cause

effect

6. Because I helped my mother, she was able to finish her work quickly. cause

effect

7. It was a very windy day; therefore, we were able to fly our kite. cause

effect

8. Since the class was good this week, they were able to have movie Friday. cause

effect

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Development activities Cause and Effect Sentence Exercises REMEMBER: A cause is why something happens and an effect is what happens.

3.

Combine the set of sentences to form one sentence, use appropriate cause or effect transitions from the list at the bottom.

due to

because

therefore

consequently

so

since

because of

but

Juanita got home late. She missed her TV program. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Armando missed the bus. He woke up late. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ My brother does not sleep very well. The neighborhood is noisy. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Match the causes with the effects, and then build sentences using the word because: he was showing it around bats eat a lot of fruit she fell

she was running too fast they need energy to fly all night they took his money

________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Match the causes with the effects, and then build sentences using the word since: gardens need a sunny location it was the Day of the Dead the space telescope can see more

the atmosphere does not block small stars many plants only bloom in full sun relatives hired a mariachi band

_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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7. Match the causes with the effects, and then build sentences using the phrase as long as: I am going to college he gets to use his Game boy your dad took you to the movies

I get a scholarship it was a holiday or a weekend he does the homework on time

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

8. Are these cause-and-effect sentences correctly or incorrectly built? Write in a “C” for correct, and “I” for incorrect: (____) The test is difficult, since I want to pass with a good score.

(____) They made us wait to board the plane because the weather is bad in Hermosillo.

(____) Because she was born blonde, she ran very fast.

(____) Since Carlos loves music so much, he will get an IPod for his birthday.

(____) Manuel will appreciate your help, since he is so tired.

(____) This accident does not matter, as long as you pay for the repair.

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9. Read the paragraphs below. Identify the errors in the use of cause/effect conjunctions, underline the mistakes and with the help of your teacher write a brief explanation of the fault. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

•There are several possible reasons why my father is in excellent health, even though he is over eighty years of age. For one thing, he is in excellent condition because he has stopped smoking cigarettes. He quit smoking cigarettes because of whenever he climbed stairs he would invariably stop several times and cough loudly. His good health is also since his cutting down on the wrong kinds of foods. For example, whereas before he would eat fatty red meat and deep-fried dishes several times a week, nowadays he seldom does so. He has more energy as a result. He is also in good physical shape as a consequence his devotion to exercise. He swims three times a week at the local gym, and on sunny days he prefers to walk home rather than take the bus. So, my father is in better shape than some of his children are!

___________________________ ___________________________

__________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

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•The invention of the rocket has sometimes had negative effects on human society. For example, these devices have been used in warfare. Due to people have sometimes been killed en masse. Rocket technology has improved with time, so, rocket engines have come to possess greater range. Conceivably, deadly "warheads" can therefore, be sent to reach targets far away from the launch site. Recently, as a result the development of nuclear power, a rocket with a nuclear warhead can be the result of the deaths of millions of people in a few moments. Tens of millions more can possibly die due to the spread of radioactive fallout from a single explosion.


10. What is the effect? Due to their incredible force and unpredictability, floods can cause tremendous damage. They can ruin houses, roads and buildings. Floods can take down trees and cause mudslides. It often leaves mud, sand and debris behind. It can take months to clean up after a flood. What is the EFFECT? 1. Floods can cause a lot of damage 2. Floods happen in many areas without warning. 3. Floods are strong and unpredictable. 4. Flood damage is devastating The boy started to cry because he hurt his arm. What is the effect? 1. he started to cry 2. he ran home 3. he hurt his arm Write your own scenario that includes a cause and effect situation. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Elizabeth could not go to the party due to the fact that she was sick. Which words join the cause and effect parts of the above sentence? 1. Because 2. Could not 3. She was sick. 4. Due to the fact My ice cream was melting AS A RESULT OF the hot weather. What is the effect? 1. The ice cream melted. 2. As a result of cold weather my ice cream melted. 3. I was standing in the rain. 4. The hot weather made my ice cream melt. My soup was melting me AS A RESULT OF the hot weather. What is the cause? 1. The soup melted. 2. As a result of cold weather my soup melted. 3. I was standing in the rain. 4. The hot weather made me melt because of the soup. The CAUSE happens after the EFFECT. 1. True 2. False

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Last weekend Elianna was so excited about playing on the beach. She played in the water, built sand castles and picked up seashells. Because she forgot to put on sunscreen, at the end of the day she felt very hot, her skin was as red as fire, she couldn't stand to touch it. She was sunburned! What caused Elianna to get sunburned? 1. The beach was near her house. 2. It was raininy outside all day. 3. She forgot to eat bananas before she went to the beach. 4. She forgot to put on sunscreen. Last weekend you were so excited about playing on the beach. You played in the water, built sand castles and picked up seashells. Because you forgot to put on sunscreen, at the end of the day you felt very hot, your skin was as red as fire, you couldn't stand to touch it. You were sunburned! What is the effect of not wearing sunscreen? 1. You put on sunscreen. 2. You were sunburned. 3. You won't go to the beach again. 4. You had to sing a song while you ate.

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Activity 1 Read the chronicle below. Use it to complete chart underneath. My parents had been talking for months and months about a new and wonderful addition to our family. They showed me pictures of Elena and pictures of where she lived, and they told me what little they knew of Elena's life in Sarajevo. There was a war going on that had taken the lives of many people and destroyed much of the country. One group of people wanted to gain control of the country. Elena's parents had been killed, and her grandparents had been taking care of her. Her grandparents became sick and couldn't give Elena the attention a five-yearold needs. Elena's grandparents felt that the best chance for her to grow up in a safe place was to give her up for adoption in another country. When our community center agreed to help place orphan children, that's when my parents got involved. I couldn't help feeling a little angry and depressed. I didn't ask for this "new addition." Now there would be Nina and Elena Davis. I knew my parents would fuss over her. They were already fussing over what food to make for her and what clothes of mine she'd fit into-and she wasn't even here yet! I had just about made up my mind to ignore her. I'd heard stories on the news about orphans, but they just seemed like made-up stories about made-up people. Then I saw Elena as she arrived at the airport. As I watched her eyes search fearfully through the crowd for a familiar face, I realized she was a real person. I saw a very lonely and frightened little girl. I thought about how Elena had suffered through many things that I would never have to undergo. That one look changed how I thought about her. That was when Elena became my sister!

Complete the chart beneath with causes or effects from "The New Addition". Then on another sheet of paper, write your own cause/effect statement based on the story and present it to the class and the teacher. When the author doesn't state the cause directly why something has happened look for clues in the story. Then think of the effect what happened. Effect

Cause

War broke out in Sarajevo. Elena's parents were killed in the war. Elena's grandparents had given her up for adoption. An adopted sister was coming, and Nina thought her parents would fuss over her new sister. Nina welcomed Elena as her sister.

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies sentences cause and effect. Auto evaluation

EVALUATION Chart completion and Reading comprehension KNOWLEDGE Procedural Identifies and comprehends the main and secondary ideas in a text related to cause and effect. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Demonstrates values to moral dilemmas. Obtained value:

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Closing activities 12. Choose the cause and effect. 1. Which of the following is a possible cause of losing your car keys? a) You have a hole in your pocket. b) You are late for an appointment. c) You walked under a ladder. 2. Which of the following is a likely effect of losing your car keys? a) It starts to rain. b) You get angry. c) You get hungry. 3. Which of the following is a possible cause of doing well on a test? a) You slept through all the lectures. b) You guessed at all the answers. c) You studied hard. 4. Which of the following is a likely effect of doing well on a test? a) Your grade in the class goes up. b) You learn nothing. c) Your teacher yells at you. 5. Which of the following is a possible cause of feeling happy? a) Your wallet is stolen. b) A stranger purposely steps on your foot. c) You get a raise at work. 6. Which of the following is a likely effect of feeling happy? a) You smile a lot. b) You are short tempered with people. c) You develop a headache. 7. Which of the following is a possible cause of forgetting your best friend's birthday? a) Your best friend reminded you the day before. b) You wrote it down on your calendar. c) You were preoccupied with a family tragedy. 8. Which of the following is a likely effect of forgetting your best friend's birthday? a) Your best friend moves away. b) Your best friend is disappointed but understanding. c) You develop amnesia. 9. Which of the following is a possible cause of a car accident? a) The roads are slick with rain. b) Everyone drives carefully. c) People wear seatbelts. 10.

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Which of the following is a likely effect of a car accident? a) Other drivers slow down to look at the accident. b) It stops raining. c) Traffic clears up.


13. Match the cause with the effect. 1.

_____

Grandma plants seeds

a. The dog began to bark

2.

_____

It was raining outside

b. He got a tummy ache

3.

_____

The phone rang

c. Sue flew her kite

4.

_____

The baby began to cry

d. He scraped his knee

5.

_____

The butterfly is pretty

e. He ate dinner

6.

_____

Someone came to the door

f. She played in the sand

7.

_____

It is a windy day

g. He had nothing to wear

8.

_____

The boy ran too fast

h. Mom gave it a bottle

9.

_____

Betty ate too many cookies

i. She answered it

10. _____

The girl practiced hard

j. The girl chased it

11. _____

All the clothes were dirty

k. She won her game

12.

_____ Samuel got her shovel and pail

l. I shoved the driveway

13. _____

Tomas was hungry

m. Flowers began to grow

14. _____

It snowed outside

n. He jumped over it

15. _____

The horse ran at the fence

o. We went in the house

14. This is a multiple-choice exercise with sentences taken from a science book on using conjunctions and transitions to express cause and effect. Use the appropriate transition or conjunction and underline it. 1. Many species of wildlife are becoming extinct, __________ the rainforests are being destroyed. a) therefore b) since c) so d) consequently 2. __________ logging provides jobs and profits, the government is reluctant to control it. a) So b) Consequently c) Due to d) Since 3. Hemp can be used to make paper, __________ it could reduce the need for logging. a) therefore b) so c) due to d) because 4. Hemp was grown throughout history __________ its versatility; it can be used to make many different things. a) due to b) because c) since d) as a result

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5. Hemp is related to the marijuana plant; __________, it is illegal in many countries. a) so b) because c) due to d) as a result 6. Hemp cannot be used to produce marijuana, __________ its low THC content. a) because b) as c) because of d) consequently 7. Marijuana is less toxic than alcohol or tobacco. __________, some people believe it should be legalized. a) So b) Therefore c) Due to d) Because 8. __________ Canada has legalized hemp farming; we can expect to see pulp and paper produced from hemp very soon. a) Therefore b) Due to c) So d) As

15. Read the cause and write an effect. Then, write one full sentence that states the cause and effect. Example: Cause: A storm hit the city. Effect: All the schools were closed. Sentence: A storm hit the city, so all the schools were closed. 1. Cause: I planted some flower seeds. Effect: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Sentence: _________________________________________________________________________________________. 2. Cause: My sister stayed up last night. Effect: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Sentence: _________________________________________________________________________________________. 3. Cause: Elizabeth spilled milk all over the floor. Effect: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Sentence: _________________________________________________________________________________________. 4. Cause: Dario signed up for piano lessons. Effect: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Sentence: _________________________________________________________________________________________.

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16. Write the cause and effect for each sentence. 1. Tobias forgot his math book, so he was unable to complete his homework. Cause: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Kenya was hungry because she skipped lunch. Cause: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ernesto's car had a flat tire, so he called a tow truck. Cause: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Gerardo couldn't find the cookies because Papa hid them in the cupboard. Cause: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Kelly studied her spelling words and she got an A on the test. Cause: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Fill in an effect for each of the causes below. 1. The children were bored _______________________________________________________________________ 2. All the frogs jumped high ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Daniel did not study ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. His house is old ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. It was cold on Thursday _______________________________________________________________________ 6. We heard a spectacle _________________________________________________________________________ 7. Grandpa told funny jokes ______________________________________________________________________ 8. Our cat Titty sat in the sun _____________________________________________________________________ 9. My homework was hard _______________________________________________________________________ 10. Their Mom was late __________________________________________________________________________ 11. The student was shouting ____________________________________________________________________ 12. Two dogs were barking _______________________________________________________________________ 13. Gerardoâ€&#x;s CD player broke ____________________________________________________________________ 14. Everyone was hungry ________________________________________________________________________ 15. Two cars crashed ___________________________________________________________________________

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Activity 2

in teams of five people analyze and agree in a subject to identify a cause and effect situation which you will translate into the diagram provided and presented on a flip chart to the class then the team must explain the diagram and the situation.

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies cause and effect sentences used in a real life dilemma. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Cause and effect diagram KNOWLEDGE Procedural Categorizes uses and understands the main ideas of a discussion and analyzed a related dilemma of cause and effect situations. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Works courteously with the team doing the activity together. Obtained value:


Didactic sequence 3. If I saw her, I would marry her. Start up activities. 1.

Do you know these two artists?

In pairs write a brief description about what you know about them. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ What are their names? She is ________________________________________________________________________________________________ He is _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Would you like to see them in person?

Yes

No

I don‟t really care

What would you do if you saw Orlando Bloom or Beyoncé Knowles in a real plaza? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ What would your partner do if he/she saw Orlando Bloom or Beyoncé Knowles in a real plaza? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Maybe some of the sentences you could say are …

If I saw Orlando Bloom in a real plaza, I would kiss him.

If I saw Beyoncé Knowles in a real plaza, I would take her a picture.

If we saw Beyoncé or Orlando in a real plaza, we could invite them to eat out.

If it snowed tomorrow, we would be stranded.

The second conditional describes the consequence of an impossible or improbable if clause. This can be contrasted with the first conditional which describes the consequence of a possible or probable if clause. Note: just by choosing to use the first or second conditional you are making a statement about how likely you think an event is.

If it snows tomorrow, we'll be stranded.

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Grammar

When we are thinking about a situation in the present or future which is hypothetical, unlikely or unreal, we use:

IF – CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

If + Simple Past ,

Would + Verb

If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house.

We can reverse the order:

MAIN CLAUSE

IF – CLAUSE

Would + Verb

If + Simple Past

They would travel around the world if they won the lottery.

We can use could / might in the main clause instead of would.

If Tom didn’t pass the exam, he couldn’t go to the university.

Paul might get scared if he saw a ghost.

To give or ask for advice, we use were (it‟s more formal). But people often use was in spoken English.

If I were you, I’d get married.

If Jenny weren’t shy, she ‘d have more friends.

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Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you do not have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about winning in the future, like a dream. It's not very real, but it's still possible. IF

condition past simple

result WOULD + base verb

If

I won the lottery I would buy a car.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result. The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen.

Here are some more examples: IF If If If If

condition past simple I married Mary Ram became rich it snowed next July it snowed next July

result WOULD + base verb I would be happy She would marry Ram Would you be surprised What would you do

result WOULD + base verb I would be happy. she would marry him. would you be surprised? what would you do? IF if if if if

condition past simple I married Mary. he became rich. it snowed next July? it snowed next July?

Sometimes, we use should, could or might instead of would, for example: If I won a million dollars, I could stop working.

Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .) If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one. If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day. If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.

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The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations. If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall. If I were the President, I'd reduce taxes. If you were in my position, you'd understand.

Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice. If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live. If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.

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Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. Compare these examples. Otto thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't. Otto – If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.

Peter – If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.

Otto – If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.

Peter – If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.

Otto – If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.

Peter – If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.

Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.

If I was still working in Brighton, I would commute by train.

If she were coming, she would be here by now.

If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might.

If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.

If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.

If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.

What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here")

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Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")

He wouldn't agree. ("if I asked him")


ď€ ď€´Development activities Exercises 2.

Match up the parts of the sentence

1. If I lost my job, a) we'd both benefit. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) you'd be more aware of what people really felt. d) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. 2. If I were in your position, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) you'd be more aware of what people really felt. d) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. 3. If I spoke Japanese as well as you do, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. c) we'd both benefit. d) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. 4. If we spent more on Research and Development, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. d) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. 5. If you spoke less and listened more, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. d) you'd be more aware of what people really felt.

6. If you spent more time on your own problems and a bit less on mine, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) we'd both benefit. d) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. 7. If we controlled our expenses a bit better, a) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) we'd save a lot of money. d) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. 8. If you invested some time into learning how the Internet works, a) you'd find that it could really help you in your job. b) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one. c) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. d) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks. 9. If we opened an office in Tokyo, a) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. b) you'd be more aware of what people really felt. c) I'd be interested in working there. d) we'd both benefit. 10. If you didn't take the job, a) you'd regret it later. b) you'd be more aware of what people really felt. c) we wouldn't be so behind technologically. d) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks

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3. Fill the gap using the verb in paragraph. 5 spaces need a NEGATIVE verb! 1.

I ___________________ that if I were you. It's bad luck. (to do)

2.

They'd be a better team if they ___________________ fitter. (to be)

3.

If I had some spare money, I ___________________ a DVD player. (to buy)

4.

Those children ___________________ so horrible if their parents were stricter. (to be)

5.

I wouldn't go out with him even if you ___________________ me. (to pay)

6.

If we ___________________ so hard, we wouldn't be so tired all the time. (to work)

7.

If she didn't take so long in the shower, she ___________________ more time for breakfast. (to have)

8.

If you ___________________ so much beer, you wouldn't be so fat. (to drink)

9.

The world ___________________ a better place if politicians were less vain. (to be)

10. I ___________________ to visit Thailand if I had the chance. (to love) 11. If I had more free time, I ___________________ a play. (to write) 12. If you ___________________ a digital camera, you could send photos by email. (to have) 13. He would definitely lose weight if he ___________________ eating carbohydrates and sugar. (to stop) 14. We could go travelling across France if we ___________________ a tent. (to buy) 15 . Valencia would have the perfect climate if it ___________________ so hot in July and August. (to be) 16. If I understood more about computers, I___________________ help you out. (to be able to) 17

4.

I wouldn't do that if I ___________________ you. (to be)

Match the two columns so that each sentence is a meaningful sentence. Dependent Clause

Main Clause

1.

(

) If it rains,

a) I wouldn‟t do it.

2.

(

) If you promise to do it,

b) she‟d know what to do.

3.

(

) If she calls me,

c) I‟ll stay at home.

4.

(

) If Jane were here,

d) we‟d buy a bigger house.

5.

(

) If he had studied,

e) he‟d not be in bed now.

6.

(

) If he hadn't eaten so much,

f) tell her to leave a message.

7.

(

) If I were you,

g) he‟d have passed.

8.

(

) If we had money,

h) I‟ll help you.

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Activity 1

In pairs discuss about the questions made by an interviewer to an artist in a meeting but first write you and your partner‟s answers for each question. What is your worst habit? you

classmate

What is your “killer move” on the dance floor? you

classmate

When was the last time you wanted to punch someone in the face? you

classmate

What song would you be like to be remembered for? you

classmate

What‟s the most embarrassing thing that‟s happened to you on stage? you

classmate

What‟s the surest way to your heart? you

classmate

What‟s the most annoying noise you can make? you

classmate

What do you wish you were better at? you

classmate

Which of your new songs are you proudest of? you

classmate

What‟s the craziest thing you‟re read about yourself? you

classmate

Tell us something no one knows about you. you

classmate

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Listening practice Watch and Listen carefully to the interview made to Beyoncé Knowles. Pay attention to her answers. Then listen again to the interview and check her answers to complete the sentences bellow. Beyoncé doesn‟t like to keep things _____________________________________________________. She says she saves the “killed dance moves” for the ______________________________________. She says she has pretty good control of her ______________________________________________. If she could be remembered for one song it would be “________________” or “________________” The surest way to her heart is __________________________________________________________. She wishes she were better at __________________________________________________________. The most recent crazy thing is that her label and management told her she couldn‟t fly to London because of the _______________________________________________________________________. She just had a ____________________________________________ five minutes ago in an interview. Now let’s have a good time! Listen to the song and complete the lyric of “If I Were A Boy” If I were a boy even just for a day I'd roll out of bed in the morning And throw on what I wanted And go __________________ beer with the guys And ___________________ after girls I'd kick it with who I wanted And I'd never get confronted for it 'Cause they stick up for me If I were a boy I think I could ________________________ How it feels to love a girl I swear I'd be a better man I'd ____________________ to her

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'Cause I know how it _____________________ When you lose the one you wanted 'Cause he's taking you for granted And everything you had got destroyed If I were a boy I would turn off my phone Tell everyone it's broken So they'd think that I was sleeping _____________________ I'd put myself first And make the rules as I go 'Cause I know that she'd be faithful Waiting for me to come home, to come home If I were a boy I think I could ___________________________ How it feels to love a girl I swear I'd be a better man I'd _______________________ to her 'Cause I know how it ________________________ When you lose the one you wanted 'Cause he's taking you for granted And everything you had got destroyed It's a little too late for you to come back Say it's just a _____________________ Think I'd forgive you like that If you thought I would _____________________ for you You thought wrong but youâ€&#x;re just a boy, etc. etc. etc.

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Vocabulary questions:

For each item, choose the phrase that is most similar in meaning.

1. Roll out of bed a) wake up slowly b) fall asleep unintentionally c) fall out of bed

4. stick up for me a) make jokes about me b) defend or justify my actions c) rob me

2. throw on what I wanted a) put on a CD b) get dressed casually c) throw something

5. take you for granted a) take you to dinner b) take you to jail c) not appreciate you

3. kick it a) spend time with friends b) play football c) practice karate

6. put myself first a) jump in the queue b) win something c) make yourself first priority

Activity no. 1 Factual Comprehends the use of the second conditional to express imaginary situations and gives advice. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Writing, listening and comprehension activity. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Recognizes written and auditory information in a segment about imaginary actions related to the second conditional. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with the classmates with a participative attitude showed in the activity Obtained value:


Exercises 5.

In teams of four discuss about the following questions. Register your and your classmate (cm) answers too. Finally present a flip chart with your teamâ€&#x;s answers. Use pictures, drawings to represent your ideas. Choose person from the team to present the flip chart to the class the rest should design it. 1) If you could be anyone in the world, who would you be? you

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2) If you were an animal, what animal would you be? you

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3) If you went back in time, what year would you go to? you

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4) If you had a special power, what would you be able to do? you

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5) If you could make one change to the world, what would you do? you

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6) If you could change something about your past, what would you change? you

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7) What would you like to do if you were a member of the opposite sex for one day? you

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8) If you had billions of dollars, how much would you give to charity, and which charities? you

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9) If you could go on a date with anyone in the world, who would it be? you

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10) If you stopped studying English, would your life change? you

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6.

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Look at the pictures and complete the sentences using the words in the box.


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7.

In pairs complete the following quotations

• “If men could get pregnant, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If everyone on earth just stopped breathing for an hour, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If God did not exist, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If there were no bad people, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 54


• “If I had no sense of humor, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If women didn‟t exist, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If God lived on earth, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________ • “If life was fair, You___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Partner _______________________________________________________________________________________________

8.

Choose the resultant clause to complete these second conditional sentences to help you practice.

1. If I were a bird, I... [ ] a. will fly and see many places. [ ] b. would fly and see many places. [ ] c. can fly and see many places.

5.

If I could speak Japanese... [ ] a. I will go to Japan. [ ] b. I would go to Japan. [ ] c. I am going to Japan.

2. If I were a computer,... [ ] a. I will be very stupid. [ ] b. I am very stupid. [ ] c. I would be very stupid.

6.

If you saw a thief stealing,... [ ] a. what would you do? [ ] b. what are you do? [ ] c. what are you doing?

3. If there were no police officers... [ ] a. there would be so much crime in the streets. [ ] b. there will be so much crime in the streets. [ ] c. there won't be so much crime in the streets.

7.

If you were a color,... [ ] a. what color will you be? [ ] b. what color would you be? [ ] c. what color are you be?

8.

If you were given 1 million dollars,... [ ] a. what will you do? [ ] b. what are you doing? [ ] c. what would you do?

4. People would spend more time at home, if [ ] a. there were no restaurants. [ ] b. there are no restaurants. [ ] c. there will be no restaurants.

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9.

Put the verbs into the lines. Form second conditional sentences.

Mind the position of the if-clause. Example: Thomas ________ (not/to buy) a new car if he _________ (to win) 20,000 Euros. Answer: Thomas would not buy a new car if he won 10,000 Dollar. Or Thomas wouldn't buy a new car if he won 10,000 Dollar. 1)

If I _______________________ (to meet) Richard, I _______________________ (to tell) him about our new office.

2)

If the steak ______________________ (not/to be) so hot, we ______________________ (to eat) it.

3)

What _______________________ (you/to do) if it _______________________ (to rain)?

4)

He _______________________ (to help) me if he _______________________ (can).

5)

If Andrew _______________________ (to prepare) the meal, I _______________________ (not/to come) for dinner.

6)

My father _______________________ (not/to be) angry with me if I _______________________ (to come) home early.

7)

We _______________________ (not/to have) a pet if we _______________________ (to live) in a flat.

8)

If he _______________________ (can/to speak) French, he _______________________ (to get) the job in Marseille.

9)

If you _______________________ (to take) the 7:40 flight, you _______________________ (must/not/to change) Heathrow.

10) I _______________________ (not/to stay) any longer if Gerry _______________________ (to sing) at the party.

10. Fill in the lines using the correct form of the second conditional and the verbs in parentheses. 1.

If it ________________________ (be) sunny tomorrow, we _______________________ (go) to the beach.

2.

If the 8 o´clock bus _____________________ (arrive) late, I ____________________ (get to) work on time.

3.

If I ________________________________ (be) you, I __________________________ (learn) how to cook.

4.

If I ______________________________. (win) the lottery, I _________________________ (leave) my job.

5.

If I _____________________. (go) to that restaurant, I ______________________. (tell) you what it´s like.

6.

If I ____________. (find) an envelope with a lot of money in it in the street , I _______________________. (take) it to the nearest police station.

7.

If you _____________________________ (boil) water, it ______________________________ (evaporate)

8.

If you ________________ (help) me with my homework, I _______________ (help) you clean the kitchen.

9.

If I ______________. (arrive) late, _______________ you _______________ my dinner in the oven please?

10. If England ___________________ the match tonight, they ____________________ (be) in the semi-finals!

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Activity 2

In pair complete the sentences as if you were your partner. You should not let your partner see what you are writing yet. Then when you finish, read out the completed sentences to your partner and ask for his / her comments. Give your observations and ask for feedback with your teacher.

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Activity no. 2 Factual Comprehends the use of the second conditional to express imaginary situations and gives advice. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Completion of sentences and discussion KNOWLEDGE Procedural Recognizes written and auditory information in sentences about imaginary actions related to the second conditional. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with the classmates with a participative attitude showed in the activity Obtained value:


Closing activities 9.

Each sentence has errors, identify them and write the correct sentence in the line. If you went abroad and studied your major without worrying about finance, you would be jealoused by other students. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If I found a wallet in the street, I would hand over to the police ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you handed over to the police, you would be treated by the owner ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If I won the biggest prize in the national lottery, I would establish the hotel ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you established the hotel, you would get a money ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If I got a money, I would go abroad and studied my major without worrying about finance. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you called another friend, you would feel to go out with your friend ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

If I found a wallet in the street, I would took out just the cash from it ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you used an ATM, you would pay a commission to bank ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you was a valuable customer with the bank, you would act like a noble in the 18th century ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you would act like a noble in the 18th century, you would become a famous person ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you saved lots of money, you would become rich ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ If you arrested, you would have to pay a big fine ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

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Talking practice

10. Read the problems below and ask your partner‟s advice. he or she should give you the ideas with “If I were you, I‟d…”

Then you should respond with “Thanks, I‟ll try that” “That might work.” “Maybe, I‟ll give that a try” or “Are you sure that‟s a good idea?” 1. I can‟t make my son say “Pardon” and not “What?” when he can‟t hear

10. I accidentally threw away my passport but I am flying to Hawaii on holiday tomorrow

2. My friend got divorced (because she wanted to) and I don‟t know if I should say “What a pity” or “Congratulations” when I meet her

11. I‟ve just arrived at work and then realized that I forgot to turn off the stove at home

3. My daughter doesn‟t put on warm clothes when she goes out

13. I‟ve run out of money and I don‟t get paid until next week

4. I can‟t get my cat out of a tree

14. My foreign boyfriend/ girlfriend‟s mother and father don‟t take off their shoes when they come into my house

5. My husband never picks his clothes up off the bedroom floor 6. I can‟t take the dog out for a walk because I‟ve broken my leg

12. My boss has asked me out on a date

15. People keeping putting out their cigarettes in the office pot plants 16. I don‟t get on with my little brother

7. I want to go back to my country for Christmas, but it‟s too expensive 8. My fiancé walked out of the church during our wedding 9. I am trying on a dress in the changing rooms of a shop, but it is too small and I have ripped it

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17. My ex (ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend) wants to go out with my younger brother/ sister. 18. I have just finished university and don‟t know what to do 19. I am homeless and don‟t have a job


Activity 3

In teams of four create a chain writing second conditional sentences.

Student A If I could decide how to spend the profits from the national lottery, I would ____________________________________________________________________________________ Student B If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student C If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student D If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________

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Now the Student B starts the chain.

Student B If I found a wallet in the street, (continue below) I would ____________________________________________________________________________________ Student C If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student D If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student A If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________

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Now the student C starts the chain writing.

Student C If I won the biggest prize in the national lottery, (continue below) I would ____________________________________________________________________________________ Student D If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student A If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student B If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________

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Now the student D starts the chain writing.

Student D If I didnâ€&#x;t have enough money to take the bus home, (continue below) I would ____________________________________________________________________________________ Student A If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student B If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________ Student C If you _____________________________________________________________________________________ But if I ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ would _________________________________________________________________________

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Finally the team discusses what each one would do in the four situations presented. Write about the discussion.

Winning the national lottery.

Not having enough money to take the train home.

Finding a wallet in the street.

Being able to decide how to spend the profits of the national lottery.

Why would you choose to do those things?

What do you think about your partners’ ideas?

The team assigns a person or the whole team presents a flip chart with the teamâ€&#x;s conclusion. The rest of the teams listen and gives feedback.

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Evaluate the activity.

ORAL PRACTICE PRODUCT Evaluation Max. Student Value. points. Participation in team 2 Pronunciation 3 1.5 Voice level 2 Attitude Fluency Total

1.5 10

PRODUCT Evaluation Participation in team Flip chart content Correct grammar usage. Attitude Correct paragraphs formation and content. Total

Activity no. 3 Factual Comprehends the use of the second conditional to express imaginary situations and gives advice. Co evaluation

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Max. Value. 2 2 1.5 3

Student points.

1.5 10

EVALUATION Multi task activity KNOWLEDGE Procedural Recognizes written and auditory information in a segment about imaginary actions related to the second conditional. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with the classmates with a participative attitude showed in the activity Obtained value:


DESCRIBES THINGS THAT HE OR SHE HAS EXPERIENCED Competencias Disciplinares básicas:      

Identifica, ordena e interpreta las ideas, datos y conceptos explícitos e implícitos en un texto, considerando el contexto en el que se generó y en el que se recibe. Evalúa un texto mediante la comparación de un contenido con el de otros, en función de sus conocimientos previos y nuevos. Valora el pensamiento lógico en el proceso comunicativo en su vida cotidiana y académica. Identificar e interpretar la idea general y posible desarrollo de un mensaje oral o escrito en una segunda lengua, recurriendo a conocimientos previos, elementos no verbales y contexto. Se comunica en una lengua extranjera mediante un discurso lógico, oral o escrito, congruente con la situación comunicativa. Utiliza las tecnologías de la información y comunicación para investigar, resolver problemas, producir materiales y trasmitir información.

Unidad de competencia:

Expresa y solicita información sobre experiencias de su vida en el pasado que tiene efecto en el presente, de manera oral y escrita, en contextos de socialización, recreación o laboral.

Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque:

Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia en los contextos local, nacional e internacional.

Time assigned: 14 hours.


Didactic Sequence 1 English verbs review Start up activities Activity 1

A) Think of eight verbs in past tense and write them in the figures. Then in parentheses write (I) if the verb is irregular and (R) if the verb is regular. Remember that a verb is a type of word that describes an action or state of being.

VERBS

B) Now use each word in a sentence. 1.

_____________________________________________________________________

2.

_____________________________________________________________________

3.

_____________________________________________________________________

4.

_____________________________________________________________________

5.

_____________________________________________________________________

6.

_____________________________________________________________________

7.

_____________________________________________________________________

8.

_____________________________________________________________________

Activity no. 1 Factual Reaffirms the verbs in past tense, regular and irregular ones. Auto evaluation

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Irregular verbs are verbs that don't follow the pattern of adding 'ed' at the end of the verb to form the past tense. It is important to know them because they are the most common verbs in the English language.

EVALUATION Verbs tense review Value: KNOWLEDGE Procedural Attitude Pronounces verbs related to the past tense Collaborates with classmates producing the activity. Is opened to irregular and regular ones. feedback given by other teams of the class and the teacher. C

MC

NYC

Obtained value:


Grammar Using Verbs and Past Participles Reading and Discussion

Verbs are the action words in a sentence. Verbs show action or state of being. Every sentence you write must have a verb. You can have a one word sentence as long as that word is a verb. Go. Eat. Run! These are all correct sentences. Another important thing you need to remember about verbs is their tense. Verb tenses tell us when the action happens.

Present tense tells us the action is happening now. I walk my dog. Past tense tells us the action happened in the past. I walked my dog yesterday. Future tense tells us the action will happen in the future. I will walk my dog next week. With future tense, you must use the helping verb will before the main verb.

That’s a lot to remember, isn’t it? Did you know there is another set of three you need to know as well? Each verb has three main parts. They are 1. present; 2. past; 3. past participle.

Although it might sound confusing, it’s really very simple. Participles help show tense or act as adjectives. Let’s concentrate on participles to help show tense. Let’s look at some examples: The present form of a verb is used by itself for present tense or with the helping word will to make future tense. The past form of a regular verb is written with the ed ending the past of an Irregular verb can end in a variety of ways to show a happening in the past. The past participle is used with the helping verbs have, has or had to form three perfect tenses.

I jump. (Now – present tense.) I will jump. (Future – future tense.) I jumped. (Past – past tense.)

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These are two forms of the verb to jump. In this block we are going to work with present perfect. Here is an easy way to remember those perfect tenses. Now let’s look at the third form of the verb to jump and its past participles. Each past participle can make three more tenses. These are called the perfect tenses. Remember when you write a verb as a past participle, you must use the helping verbs has, have, or had.

1. Present perfect is an action that you started in the past and have just finished or is still going on. 

I have jumped on this trampoline all day.

You started to jump in the morning and are still jumping through the day.

The perfect tenses are:

2. Past perfect is an action you started in the past and finished in the past.

Present Perfect: I have jumped. Past Perfect: I had jumped. Future Perfect: I will have jumped.

I had jumped on the trampoline all day.

You started to jump in the past and finished jumping. You are not jumping now.

3. Future perfect is an action that will be started and finished at a certain time in the future. 

By nine o’clock tonight, I will have jumped on the trampoline all day.

Review A: Name the two kinds of verbs used in a sentence. 1. ____________________ 2. ____________________ B: Write the three verb tenses. 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ C: Write the three principal parts of a verb. 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ D: Write the three helping verbs used with past participle? 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ E: Fill in the blanks in the sentences below to describe when each past participle takes place. 1. _____________________________ is an action that you started in the past and finished or is still going on. 2. _____________________________ is an action you started in the past and finished in the past. 3. _____________________________ is an action that will be started and finished at a certain time in the future. F: Use a dictionary and write the present and present perfect tenses of the verb “to laugh”. 1. Present tense _____________2. Present perfect tense _____________ G: Use a dictionary and write the past tense and past perfect tense of the verb “to giggle.” 1. Past tense _____________ 2. Past perfect tense _________________

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Development activities 1. Write the past tense next to each of the verbs below. Then, find the past tense of the verb in the word soup find them horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or downwards.

Drive fall choose bite become break Feel fight find fly hide sell hit shut hold

________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

speak keep spend leave stand lose teach mean tell pay think put wear quit win

__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

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2. Fill in the missing forms of the irregular verbs below. The first one has been done for you.

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1.

go

went

gone

2.

____________

saw

____________

3.

____________

____________

had

4.

break

____________

____________

5.

____________

sang

____________

6.

fly

____________

____________

7.

____________

did

____________

8.

become

____________

____________

9.

____________

____________

won

Example: say, lose, dance, sing Answer: say, lose, dance, sing -

10. ____________

threw

____________

1)

understand, drive, feed, check - __________

11. tell

____________

____________

2)

fly, plan, shake, begin -

__________

12. ____________

____________

rung

3)

hit, love, hurt, lead -

__________

4)

happen, run, pay , wear -

__________

13. ____________

____________

made

5)

stick, grow, look, speak -

__________

14. quit

____________

____________

6)

beat , send, leave , cry –

__________

15. ____________

heard

____________

7)

break, live, cost, hear -

__________

8)

lie, throw, shine, stop -

__________

16. ____________

____________

paid

9)

sink, mean, choose, borrow -

__________

17. run

____________

____________

10) collect, freeze, ring, shut -

__________

18. ____________

____________

worn

11) read, feel, play, see -

__________

12) listen, do, go, make -

__________

19. put

____________

____________

13) know, help, say, think -

__________

20. ____________

sold

____________

14) like, write, forget, eat -

__________

21. ____________

thought

____________

15) take, bring, cut, clean -

__________

16) watch, be, have, meet -

__________

22. ____________

____________

begun

17) put, buy, cook, teach -

__________

23. read

____________

____________

18) catch, find, answer, lose -

__________

24. ____________

____________

met

19) want, tell, win, sit -

__________

20) sell, build, drink, open -

__________

25. ____________

____________

left

3. Find the regular verb in each line and write it into the space. __________ dance


Activity 2 In teams of three or four make the following written and spoken activity Change each verb to past tense and make each agree with the pronouns, change the pronoun if needed. Then write the correct paragraph on the lines. I hike in the mountains with Fernanda and Gerardo. Us will enjoy the fresh air and beauty of nature. We wade in clear and cold streams. Gerardo bring a harmonica and entertains we. Fernanda and I are less adventurous than he. We take naps under tall pine trees and pick wildflowers for he. When we will leave, Gerardo says, “The Mountains are a second home for me.� _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Read the following text from a history book. Look for the verbs and change them to past tense. Columbus sailed his three ships and finds what he thinks is India in 1492. This explorer will return on three more voyages. Eventually, Columbus is believed that what he discovered is a new land. He will not have found the gold for which he searches, but he did claimed huge amounts of land for the king and queen of Spain. What is this paragraph about? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the tense used in the paragraph? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Is the paragraph correctly written?

Yes

No

After the team discusses, decides the reason of the in correction. Write your conclusions. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Rewrite the paragraph if the team decides that it must be corrected. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Search for a book of any of your school subjects, or on line. Select a short paragraph and compose your own past sentences, using past tense verbs. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Activity no. 2 Factual Reaffirms regular and irregular verbs in past tense. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Written and spoken activity KNOWLEDGE Procedural Pronounces irregular and regular verbs related to the past. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing teams activities. Is opened to feedback given by other teams of the class and the teacher. Obtained value:


4. Complete the crossword puzzle with the corresponding verb tense. Across: 3) Simple Past of BRING 5) Simple Past of STICK 8) Simple Past of SING 10) Simple Past of EAT 11) Simple Past of FEED 12) Past Participle of SHAKE 16) Past Participle of SELL 17) Past Participle of READ 18) Simple Past of LEAVE 20) Simple Past of MEET 21) Simple Past of DRAW 24) Simple Past of DRINK 25) Simple Past of FLY 26) Past Participle of STAND 27) Past Participle of MAKE

Down: 1) Simple Past of HURT 2) Simple Past of CHOOSE 3) Past Participle of BE 4) Past Participle of TAKE 6) Simple Past of UNDERSTAND 7) Simple Past of SIT 9) Past Participle of GO 13) Simple Past of HEAR 14) Past Participle of SWIM 15) Past Participle of WRITE 19) Simple Past of GO 22) Simple Past of PAY 23) Simple Past of WIN

1 2

3

4

5 7

8

6

9

10 11 12 14

13

15

16

17

18 19

20

21

22 23

25

24

26 27

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5. Fill in the puzzle with the past participles of the verbs below: For example DRIVE = DRIVEN

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Down

Across

1. write 4. forget 5. see 7. drive 8. build 10. have 11. mean

2. bring 3. cut 6. hear 8. begin 9. meet 10. hold 11. misunderstand 12. pay 13. spend


Activity 3 1. In pairs with the help of a dictionary and your teacher study the following verbs. If you need to translate some of them there is a line for that purpose in the activity. 2. Listen and practice the correct pronunciation of the verbs in all tenses. 3. Generate a presentation about these verbs, (a Pictionary, a reading, a video, etc.) 4. Create an ORAL presentation of at least 30 of the verbs from the list. Ask your teacher for help with pronunciation matters. 5. Evaluate

Irregular verbs LIST Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle

Translation

B 1.

Be

was/were

been

____________________________

2.

Become

became

become

____________________________

3.

Begin

began

begun

____________________________

4.

Bite

bit

bitten

____________________________

5.

Blow

blew

blown

____________________________

6.

Break

broke

broken

____________________________

7.

Bring

brought

brought

____________________________

8.

Build

built

built

____________________________

9.

Buy

bought

bought

____________________________

burnt

burnt

____________________________

10. Burn

C 11. Can

could

------

____________________________

12. Catch

caught

caught

____________________________

13. Choose

chose

chosen

____________________________

14. Come

came

come

____________________________

15. Cost

cost

cost

____________________________

16. Cut

cut

cut

____________________________

D 17. Do

did

done

____________________________

18. Draw

drew

drawn

____________________________

19. Dream

dreamt

dreamt

____________________________

20. Drink

drank

drunk

____________________________

21. Drive

drove

driven

____________________________

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Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle

Translation

eaten

____________________________

E 22. Eat

ate

F 23. Fall

fell

fallen

____________________________

24. Feed

fed

fed

____________________________

25. Feel

felt

Felt

____________________________

26. Fight

fought

fought

____________________________

27. Find

found

found

____________________________

28. Fly

flew

flown

____________________________

29. Forbid

forbade

forbidden

____________________________

30. Forget

forgot

forgotten

____________________________

31. Freeze

froze

frozen

____________________________

G 32. Get

got

got

____________________________

33. Give

gave

given

____________________________

34. Go

went

gone

____________________________

35. Grow

grew

grown

____________________________

H 36. Hang

hung

hung

____________________________

37. Have

had

had

____________________________

38. Hear

heard

heard

____________________________

39. Hide

hid

hidden

____________________________

40. Hit

hit

hit

____________________________

41. Hold

held

held

____________________________

42. Hurt

hurt

hurt

____________________________

K Keep

kept

kept

____________________________

43. Know

knew

known

____________________________

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Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle

Translation

L 44. Lay

laid

laid

____________________________

45. Learn

learnt

learnt

____________________________

46. Leave

left

left

____________________________

47. Lend

lent

lent

____________________________

48. Let

let

let

____________________________

49. Light

lit

lit

____________________________

50. Lose

lost

lost

____________________________

M 51. Make

made

made

____________________________

52. Mean

meant

meant

____________________________

53. Meet

met

met

____________________________

P 54. Pay

paid

paid

____________________________

55. Put

put

put

____________________________

R 56. Read

read

read

____________________________

57. Ride

rode

ridden

____________________________

58. Ring

rang

rung

____________________________

59. Run

ran

run

____________________________

S 60. Say

said

said

____________________________

61. See

saw

seen

____________________________

62. Sell

sold

sold

____________________________

63. Send

sent

sent

____________________________

64. Show

showed

shown

____________________________

65. Sing

sang

sung

____________________________

66. Sit

sat

sat

____________________________

67. Sleep

slept

slept

____________________________

68. Smell

smelt

smelt

____________________________

69. Speak

spoke

spoken

____________________________

70. Spend

spent

spent

____________________________

71. Stand

stood

stood

____________________________

72. Swim

swam

swum

____________________________

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Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle

Translation

T 73. Take

took

taken

____________________________

74. Teach

taught

taught

____________________________

75. Tell

told

told

____________________________

76. Think

thought

thought

____________________________

77. Throw

threw

thrown

____________________________

understood

____________________________

U 78. Understand

understood

W 79. Wake

woke

woken

____________________________

80. Wear

wore

worn

____________________________

81. Win

won

won

____________________________

82. Write

wrote

written

____________________________

Activity no.3 Factual Reaffirms the verbs in past tense, regular and irregular ones. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Irregular verbs review. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Practices present, past, and past participle tenses by pronouncing and translating verbs. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing team’s activities. Is opened to feedback given by other teams of the class and the teacher. Obtained value:


Didactic Sequence 2 Have you ever been bungee jumping?

Start up activities Discussion 1.

Look at the picture. What is the person doing?

2.

Work with a partner and answer the questions below.

Have you ever been bungee jumping? If you have, tell your partner about it. Is bungee jumping popular in your city? Ideas 3. Here are some words from a reading we will make in this block. Work with a partner. What will today’s article be about? (You can use your dictionary.) a 5-year-old, bungee jumping, banned, dangerous, father, world record Reading practice 4. Vocabulary Here are some verbs taken from today’s article. Match the words with their meanings. ( (

) to discover ) to ban

( ( (

) to receive ) to complete ) to advertise

1. to find or learn something for the first time 2. to give people information in the newspapers, on television or the radio about jobs, things to buy or something they can go to 3. to finish doing something 4. to get something that someone has given to you 5. to say that something must stop or must not happen

Spaces fill up 5. Read today’s article and fill in the gaps with the correct verbs from the list below. discovered, has banned,

received,

has completed,

advertised

Five year old banned from bungee jumping.

PARIS FRIDAY NOVEMBER 17 (REUTERS) - A French agency

(1)___ _____ a 5-year-old boy from bungee jumping. Mike Traut from Grenoble (2)___ already _____ 30 jumps. A local child protection agency (3) ______ the boy’s liking for bungee jumping after his father (4)______ for sponsors to support a jump that could have put the boy in the record Five-Year-Old Banned From Bungee Jumping books, French daily Liberation reported on Friday. The boy’s father, who holds a world record in bungee jumping, (5)______ a letter warning him that he might have to pay a big fine and spend two years in prison if he allowed children under 16 to compete in such dangerous sports. ARTICLE © 2000 REUTERS LIMITED. LESSON © 2001 WWW.ENGLISH-TO-GO.COM

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Vocabulary List: agency - a government office sponsor (n) - an organization or a person who pays for some of the expenses of an event in order to get publicity for themselves warning - telling somebody about something bad that may happen fine (n) - money you have to pay when you have done something wrong prison - a place where people must stay when they have done something that is wrong ARTICLE © 2001 REUTERS LIMITED. LESSON © 2001 WWW.ENGLISH-TO-GO.COM 2

Language 6. Look at the verbs from Reading Activity. Work in pairs. Why did the writer choose these verb forms? 1. Discovered ______________________________________________________ 2. Has banned ______________________________________________________ 3. Received ______________________________________________________ 4. Has completed ______________________________________________________ 5. Advertised ______________________________________________________ 7. Read the article again and answer the questions below. 1. How old is Mike Traut? ______________________________________________________ 2. What does he like doing? ______________________________________________________ 3. How many jumps has he completed? ______________________________________________________ 4. Who received the letter? ______________________________________________________ 5. What did the letter say? ______________________________________________________ Discussion 8. Work in small groups and discuss the questions below. 1. Do you think Mike Traut should be allowed to bungee jump? 2. Why do you think the child protection agency wants to stop him? 3. Why do you think Mike Traut’s father allows him to bungee jump? Writing 8. Write what you think about today’s article. Choose the beginning of one sentence and complete it with your own ideas. I think that Mike Traut should be allowed to bungee jump because........ I don’t think that Mike Traut should be allowed to bungee jump because.....

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Activity 1 What do I do? 1 A) In pairs, organize the expressions of time into two groups, according to whether they are finished or unfinished time.

1 B) Make sentences about yourselves using the expressions. You must make two sentences which are true, and two which are false. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 C) Divide into small groups (4 or 5). Student A in each group chooses one sentence and reads it aloud. The rest of the group decides whether it is true or false. 1 D) Continue until other teams have read out all their sentences.

Activity no. 1 Factual Distinguishes and classifies vocabulary and ideas related to the use of present perfect Co evaluation

EVALUATION Ideas and vocabulary organization KNOWLEDGE Procedural Elaborates different activities to practice vocabulary and ideas related to the present perfect. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates working in teams and values feedback given by the teacher. Obtained value:

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Development activities 9.

Change each of the following verb forms. If the infinitive is given, change it to the past form. If the past form is given, change it to the past participle. Use HAVE before the past participle form.

1. do

___________________

11. choose

_____________________________

2. began

___________________

12. broke

_____________________________

3. see

___________________

13. drink

_____________________________

4. rode

___________________

14. drove

_____________________________

5. went

___________________

15. froze

_____________________________

6. know

_______ ____________

16. shrank

_____________________________

7. spoke

___________________

17. ran

_____________________________

8. stole

___________________

18. ring

_____________________________

9. blew

___________________

19. fell

_____________________________

10. bring

___________________

20. swim

_____________________________

Choosing the Correct Form 10. Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses for each of the following sentences 1. They (rode, rid) in a crowded boat like the ones you have seen in the old movies. 2. Along with many other people, Mai’s parents (chose, choosed) to make such a journey. 3. These refugees (came, come) to be called “boat people.” 4. Mai’s parents abandoned their home after the capital city, Saigon, had (fell, fallen) to the enemy. 5. The people on the boat (brang, brought) few possessions or supplies. 6. After they (drank, drunk) what little water was on board, they went thirsty. 7. Mai’s father said the people had (ate, eaten) all the food in a few days. 8. When another boat of refugees (sank, sunk), its people crowded onto Mai’s parents’ boat. 9. They spent many days and nights on the ocean before they (saw, seen) land again. 10. Then it (took, taken) months for Mai’s parents to be moved from camps to the United States.

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GRAMMAR

The present perfect simple tense is used to talk about a past time, which has very strong meaning for the present. For example: Q) Where's Jane? A) She has gone out. She should be back in an hour.

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We form the present perfect simple by using the auxiliary verb have/has and the -ed form of the regular verb (the past participle) irregular verb forms have to be learned: Statements (+)

Statements (-)

Questions (?)

Short answer (+)

Short answer (-)

I've worked.

I haven't worked.

Have I worked?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven't.

He's worked.

He hasn't worked.

Has he worked?

Yes, he has.

No, he hasn't.

She's worked.

She hasn't worked.

Has she worked?

Yes, she has.

No, she hasn't.

It's worked.

It hasn't worked.

Has it worked?

Yes, it has.

No, it hasn't.

You've worked.

You haven't worked.

Have you worked?

Yes you have.

No, you haven't.

We've worked.

We haven't worked.

Have we worked?

Yes we have.

No, we haven't.

They've worked.

They haven't worked.

Have they worked?

Yes they have.

No, they haven't.

The present perfect simple is used to discuss events that have just been completed at the moment of speaking. For example: Q) Have you done your homework?" A) "Yes, I've just finished it." It is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present. For example: "The pound has fallen against the dollar."

It is also used to discuss unfinished time. For example: Q) Have you done your homework today? A) No, I haven't done it yet. Note - You are talking about today and today isn't finished, so you may do your homework later! Q) Have you ever been to England?" A) "Yes I have." Note - You are talking about something that has happened in your life and your life isn't finished!

You can also use the present perfect to discuss something from the past but you don't want to say exactly when. For example: Q) "Are you learning any languages?" A) "Yes, I've begun to learn English."

This tense is often used to discuss events that have been happening over a period of time, but aren't finished yet. For example: Q) "How long have you studied English for?" A) "I've studied English for 2 years now."

However it is better (grammatically speaking) to use the Present Perfect Continuous to express yourself in this way. For example: Q) "How long have you been studying English for?" A) "I've been studying English for 2 years now." !Note It is always for a length of time and since a point in time. http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/tensepresperfsim.htm

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Activity 2

After your teacher’s explanation about present perfect tense, in teams of three study the following map and draw your own but now as a mind map.

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Mind Map

Activity no. 2 Factual Distinguishes and manages the grammatical structure of present perfect using affirmative, negative, yes/no questions and wh / questions. Co evaluation

86

EVALUATION Mind map. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Diagrams in a mind map form his/her knowledge about present perfect after the teacher’s exposition. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing teams’ activities. Is opened to feedback given by other teams and the teacher. Obtained value:


Exercises 11. How the present perfect does works? Follow the following examples I have not worked today

I + have + past participle.

We have bought a new lamp.

we + have + past participle

We have not planned our holiday yet.

we + have + not + past participle

Where have you been?

(Question) have + you + past participle

He has written five letters.

he + has + past participle

She has not seen him for a long time.

she + has + not + past participle

Have you been at school?

(Question) have + you + past participle

School has not started yet.

singular noun + has + not + past participle

Has he spoken to his boss?

(Question) has + he + past participle

No, he has not had the time yet.

he + has + not + past participle

12. Read the statements and underline the best answer. 1

I have studied in this school for 3 years. a) b) c) d)

2

We have already analyzed the situation of the economic crisis. a) b) c) d)

3

It started in the past and continues in the present. It happened in the past and has a consequence in the present. It has just finished or happened recently. It indicates an indefinite or incomplete time.

Have you ever thought of singing in a group? You've got a beautiful voice. a) b) c) d)

5

It started in the past and continues in the present. It happened in the past and has a consequence in the present. It has just finished or happened recently. It indicates an indefinite or incomplete time.

The dog has eaten your dinner. You'll have to eat something else. a) b) c) d)

4

It started in the past and continues in the present It happened in the past and has a consequence in the present. It has just finished or happened recently It indicates an indefinite or incomplete time

It started in the past and continues in the present. It happened in the past and has a consequence in the present. It has just finished or happened recently. It indicates an indefinite or incomplete time.

I have just come back from Greece. It's a wonderful country. a) b) c) d)

It started in the past and continues in the present. It happened in the past and has a consequence in the present. It has just finished or happened recently. It indicates an indefinite or incomplete time.

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Activity 3 3 A) Match the pictures of flight attendant Lorene (1-7) with the sentences (a – g)

88


3 B). Complete the conversation between flight attendant Lorene and one of her passengers. Passenger: (1)…………….......................................................................an air hostess? Flight attendant Lorene: I’ve been an air hostess for five years. Passenger: (2)...........................................................................................................? Flight attendant Lorene: I fly all over the world. Passenger: (3)……........................................................................................flying? Flight attendant Lorene: Yes, I love it. In fact, I go paragliding in my spare time. Passenger: (4).........................................................................................................? Flight attendant Lorene: No, I’ve never flown in a hot air balloon. I’d like to try it one day. But planes are my favorite way of travelling. Lots of funny things happen if you work on planes. The funniest thing happened last year. Passenger: (5)......................................................................................................................? Flight attendant Lorene: A passenger proposed to me in the middle of the plane, in front of everyone! Passenger: (6)................................................................................................................................................................? Flight attendant Lorene: I said I was really sorry, but I was already married! Passenger: (7).............................................................................................................................. when that happened? Flight attendant Lorene: We were flying to Sydney. Passenger: And (8)................................................................................................................................ at the moment? Flight attendant Lorene: Look out of the window! We’re flying over the Andes. Passenger: I don’t like looking out of plane windows. I get worried that the plane will crash, especially when I’m in an old plane. (9) ……………......................................................................................................................................... ? Flight attendant Lorene: This plane was built last year. It’s very new, and very safe. Passenger: (10)......................................................................................................................................................... for? Flight attendant Lorene: Our planes are flown for ten years. After that we buy new ones. 3 C) Now listen to the conversation and check your answers. 3 D) Look back at the conversation in exercise 3B. Find examples of these tenses. 1 present simple .............................................................................................................................................................. 2 present continuous ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 past simple ................................................................................................................................................................... 4 past continuous ........................................................................................................................................................... 5 present perfect .............................................................................................................................................................

Activity no. 3 Factual Distinguishes and manages the grammatical structure of present perfect using affirmative, negative, yes/no questions and wh / questions. Auto evaluation

EVALUATION Writing, listening activity KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or auditory segment related to past experiences. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing the activity. Is opened to feedback given by other classmates and the teacher. Obtained value:

89


13. Order the following sentences using present perfect don’t forget to use the auxiliary HAVE and past particle of the verbs where correspond. Example: I (not/work) today I haven’t work today We (buy) a new lamp. _________________________________________________________________________ We (not / plan) our holiday yet. __________________________________________________________________ Where (be / you) ?_____________________________________________________________________________ He (write) five letters.___________________________________________________________________________ She (not / see) him for a long time. _______________________________________________________________ (be / you) at school? ___________________________________________________________________________ School (not / start) yet. _________________________________________________________________________ (speak / he) to his boss? _______________________________________________________________________ No, he (have / not) the time yet. _________________________________________________________________

Reading Comprehension Activity 13A. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, and then check the answers with a partner.

Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980's, technology ____________________ (change) a great deal. The first computers were simple machines designed for basic tasks. They didn’t have, much memory and they weren’t, very powerful. Early computers were often quite expensive and customers often paid thousands of dollars for machines which actually did very little. Most computers were separate, individual machines used mostly as expensive

typewriters

or

for

playing

games.

Times

____________________ (change). Computers ____________________ (become) powerful machines with very practical applications. Programmers ____________________ (create) a large selection of useful programs which do everything from teaching foreign languages to bookkeeping. We are still playing video games, but today's games ____________________

(become)

faster,

more

exciting

interactive

adventures. Many computer users ____________________ (get, also) on the Internet and ____________________ (begin) communicating with other computer users around the world. We ____________________ (start) to create international communities online. In short, the simple, individual machines of the past ____________________ (evolve) into an international World Wide Web of knowledge.

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14. Fill in the lines with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Example: I __________________ (see) my new teacher. I have seen my new teacher. The train to Chihuahua ______________________________________ (leave). At 6:00. Alan ______________________________________ (be) married twice. The Ballesteros ______________________________________ (have) a baby! I ______________________________________ (break) my leg once. We ______________________________________ (live) here for a year.

15. Now use negative statements with the sentences. Example: I __________________ (see) my new teacher. I haven’t seen my new teacher. The train to Los Mochis ______________________________________ (arrive).to the station. Alan ______________________________________ (be) divorced twice. The Burruel ______________________________________ (have) a baby boy! I ______________________________________ (break) my arm three times. We ______________________________________ (go) to Alamos for a year.

16. Use of Adverbs of time. Read and discuss with your partner to underline the correct option.

1 - I have done it yesterday. Correct Incorrect

6 - I have met her several times. Correct Incorrect

2 - I have done it yet. Correct Incorrect

7 - I haven't seen her recently. Correct Incorrect

3 - I have done it last week. Correct Incorrect

8 - I haven't had time to do it today. Correct Incorrect

4 - I haven't ever done it. Correct Incorrect

9 - I have ever tried it. Correct Incorrect

5 - I haven't done it yet. Correct Incorrect

10 - I have yet to do it. Correct Incorrect

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17. Choose the correct answer. 1 - Which is correct? I just have done it. I have just done it.

6 - Which is correct? Have you ever done it? Have ever you done it?

2 - Which is correct? I have already finished. I already have finished.

7 - Which is correct? Have you seen lately her? Have you seen her lately?

3 - Which is correct? I have been recently ill. I have been ill recently.

8 - Which is correct? I haven't spoken to her recently. I haven't spoken to recently her.

4 - Which is correct? I haven't done yet it. I haven't done it yet.

9 - Which is correct? I have seen today her. I have seen her today.

5 - Which is correct? Never I have been there. Never have I been there.

10 - Which is correct? Has it been yet done? Has it been done yet?

18. Work with a partner. Prepare an exposition for class . Pretend one of you is a student named ________________ (add a name). Ask questions to fill the lines with the missing information and complete the paragraph. ________________________(name) was born in ________________________ (where?) in

1977.

He went

to school in

Nogales,

Sonora

for

________________________ (how long?) before moving to Hermosillo. He misses ________________________ (what?), but he enjoys studying and living in Hermosillo. In fact, he ________________________ (what?) in Hermosillo for over 4 years. Currently, he ________________________ (what?) at the University of Sonora where he is going to receive his Bachelor of Science next ________________________ (when?). After he receives his degree, he is going to return to Nogales to marry ________________________ (who?) and begin a career in research. ________________________ (what?) at the University of Sonora and is also going to receive ________________________ (what?) next May. They met in ________________________ (where?) in 1995 while they were hiking together in the ________________________ (where?). They have been engaged for ________________________ (how long?).

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Activity 4

4 a) Read the passage and identify new words.

Tower of Pisa Gets a New Lean on Life

Famed building, now stabilized, is opened for a day 6/1720/00 (read original article) PISA, Italy - When the tower was closed to the public a decade ago, officials said it would be open again in just a few years. The ambitious plan to stop the tower's increasing tilt has taken far longer than expected, but officials say it is succeeding. Engineers are working on a complex project to stabilize, but not totally straighten, the 58-meter (189-foot) bell tower, which was leaning five meters (16 feet) from the vertical at the start of the latest stabilization work in 1998. Giant steel braces were applied to protect the 150,000-ton tower during excavation designed to take it fractionally back toward the upright. The lean has been gradually reduced. On Saturday, the tower was tilting 14 centimeters less (5.6 inches) than in January, said Edda Stagno, a spokeswoman for the project. The goal is to reduce the tilt by about 45 centimeters (18 inches) and restore the marble masterpiece to its angle of 300 years ago. "Then, we'll be set for the next two-and-a-half centuries," spokeswoman Edda Stagno said. Project officials hope to have the work finished next spring. When they do, the monument will lean less than it did in 1700 -enough to stabilize it, but not enough for the naked eye to detect.

The tower is built on spongy subsoil in an area known as the Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles). It was started in 1173 as a belfry for the nearby cathedral and has been leaning to the south since its third story was added in 1274. It was completed in 1350. The experts warn that even when the tower reopens, visitors might not be allowed in regularly. "The monument might hardly sustain the millions of tourists who would flock to it every year," warned a member of the experts' committee, Giorgio Macchi, pointing out how past visitors have worn down the stairs. Only a handful of people have been inside since the tower was closed to tourists in 1990. 4 b) Identify the tenses used in this sentence: "When the tower was closed to the public a decade ago, officials said it would be open again in just a few years. The ambitious plan to stop the tower's increasing tilt has taken far longer than expected, but officials say it is succeeding." was closed said has taken say 4 c) What is the time indicated by this sentence? Read the statement, choose the option and write it on the line. Giorgio Macchi, pointed out how past visitors have worn down the stairs. __________________________ a) An action started in the past and completed. b) An action occurring sometime in the past. c) A repeated action in the past and continuing up to now.

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4 d) What is the time indicated by this sentence? Read the statement, choose the option and write it on the line. "The lean has been gradually reduced." _______________________ a) An action started in the past and completed. b) An action occurring sometime in the past. c) Repeated action in the past and continuing up to now. 4 e) Does this sentence use the present perfect tense? "Project officials hope to have the work finished next spring."

No

Yes

Reason ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 f) What is the time indicated by this use of the present tense? "It was started in 1173 as a belfry for the nearby cathedral and has been leaning to the south since its third story was added in 1274. a) an action started in the past and completed in the past b) an action which occurred during an unknown time in the past c) an action beginning in the past and continuing up to now 3 g) Do these sentences use the present perfect tense? "Project officials hope to have the work finished next spring." Officials hope to have the work finished, employing a construction crew. I had the table wiped. (means = I had (someone) do a service. Result: the table was wiped) I had the car washed. I had the house re-roofed. I had the computer repaired. a) No, it has similar looking words: "have" and "finished", but it is not present perfect. b) These are similar "have" expressions that mean to employ a service.

Activity no. 4 Factual Reaffirms the use of present perfect analyzing in a reading several uses of this grammar form. Auto evaluation

94

EVALUATION Reading analysis KNOWLEDGE Procedural Develops and determines the use of present perfect analyzing the text in several forms. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing the activity. Is opened to feedback given by classmates and the teacher. Obtained value:


Oral practice 19. Find out if someone in your class that: 1. Has almost died ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Has met a famous person ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Has had a frightening experience on an airplane _________________________________________________ 4. Has had a dream that later came true __________________________________________________________ 5. Has fallen in love with a person they could not have ______________________________________________ 6. Has been on a terrible date ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Has backpacked in a foreign country __________________________________________________________ 8. Has been to a country disco. _________________________________________________________________ 9. Has eaten something disgusting (outside the US) ________________________________________________ 10. Has won something (for example, the lottery. a contest) __________________________________________ 11. Has been to a casino _______________________________________________________________________

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Activity 5 5 A) Write the verb in parenthesis into the correct tense. 1.

He_______________ (live) in London for two years and then _______________ (go) to Edinburgh.

2. 3.

When I left school I_______________ (cut) my hair and_______________ (wear) it short ever since. My brother_______________ (write) several plays. He_______________ (just/finish) his second tragedy.

4.

I_______________ (not see) him for three years, I wonder where he is.

5.

He_______________ (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give up.

6.

I_______________ (do) this sort of work when I_______________ (be) an apprentice.

7.

I_______________ (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp.

8.

_______________ you_______________ (see) the moon last night?

9. The clock isn't slow, it_______________ (stop). 10. She____________ (say) she'd ring me this morning, but it's now 12.30 and she_____________ (not/ring) yet. 11. It_______________ (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match _______________ (be) postponed. 12. He_______________ (not/stop) since he arrived. 13. He_______________ (ride), that's why he's wearing a riding hat. 14. _______________ (you/lock) the house before you left? 15. I can't go out because I_______________ (not/finish) my homework yet. 16. I_______________ (ride) all the horses in this stable. 17. The car_______________ (make) a very funny noise ever since it _______________ (run out) of petrol. 18. Originally, horses used in bull fights_______________ (not/wear) any protection, but for some time now they_______________ (wear) special padding. 19. That pipe_______________ (leak) for ages. We must get it fixed.

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5 B) Complete the present perfect sentences with the verbs in paragraph. I _____________________________ (speak) with the boss. They ____________________________ (not/eat) anything. She ______________________ (forget) my phone number. I ________________________________ (make) a mistake. You _____________________________(not/shut) the door. John _____________________________ (work) very hard. I _____________________________ ( not/hear) from Mary. Mary ___________________________ (not/learn) anything. I ___________________________________ (break) a cup. We ______________________ (remember) Ann’s birthday. The rain _________________________________ (not/stop) I _____________________________ (not/ see) Mary today.

5 B) Form sentences in the present perfect tense using the elements in parentheses. Use contractions where appropriate.

Activity no. 5 Factual Reaffirms the use of present perfect analyzing in a reading several uses of this grammar form. Auto evaluation

She _______________________________

her clothes. (wash/ already)

He _______________________________

some detergent. ( borrow / just)

She _______________________________

her clothes. (finish/ drying)

He _______________________________

change. (get/already)

She _______________________________

her laundry. ( finish)

He _______________________________

Change. (forget/ bring)

He _______________________________

to the grocery store. (go/already)

She _______________________________

an apartment. (rent/already)

EVALUATION Filling sentences and analysis KNOWLEDGE Procedural Develops and determines the use of present perfect analyzing the text in several forms. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing the activity. Is opened to feedback given by classmates and the teacher. Obtained value:

97


Closing activity Activity 6 Job Interview

Complete the following conversations. Use present perfect. Then listen to them and check if your answers were correct.

A:_______________ (you/vote) for in the last elections? B: I_______________ (vote) for Mr. Pars. A: He_______________ (not/be) elected yet, _______________ (be) he? B: No, he_______________ (lose) his place.

A: _______________ (you/like) your last two jobs? B: I_______________ (like) it at first but then I_______________ (disagree) with my employer and he_______________ (send home) me. A: How long_______________ (be) you there? B: I_______________(be) there for two weeks.

A: _______________ (Mary/feed) the cat? B: Yes, she_______________ (feed) him before lunch. A: What_______________ (she/give) him? B: She_______________ (give) him some fish.

98

A: I_______________ (not see) your aunt recently. B: No, she_______________ (not be) out of the house since she_______________ (buy) her color TV.


A: How_______________ (you/get) that scar? B: I_______________ (got) it in a car accident a year ago.

A: Why_______________ (you/make) such a horrible noise? B: I_______________ (lose) my key and I_______________ (try) to wake up my wife by throwing stones at her window. A: You_______________ (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door.

A: _______________ (you/ever/try) to give up smoking? B: Yes, I_______________ (try) last year, but then I_______________ (find) that I was getting fat so I_______________ (start) again.

A: _______________ (be) the plumber here yet? B: Yes, but he_______________ (only/stay) for an hour. A: What_______________ (he/do) in that time. B: He_______________ (turn off) the water and_______________ (empty) the tank.

99


A: Where_______________ (you/be or go) B: I_______________ (be or go) to the dentist. A: _______________ (he/take) out your bad tooth? B: Yes, he_______________ . A: _______________ (it/hurt)?

A: What_______________ (you/do)? B: We_______________ (pick) apples. A: How long_______________ (you/drive)? B: I_______________ (drive) for ten years.

Activity no. 6 Factual Identifies the use of present perfect and presents simple in a written and oral form based in audible segments Co evaluation

100

A: How many_______________ (you/pick)? B: We_______________ (pick) ten basketfuls.

EVALUATION Listening and written practice KNOWLEDGE Procedural Describes common situations in two forms (written and hearing fragments) to practice present perfect forms. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Demonstrates participative attitude in the activity. Obtained value:


Didactic sequence 3 Have you ever gone fishing? Start up activity Activity 1 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

Divide the class into groups of 4 or 5. Look attentively to the pictures and with the help of the team prepare a dialogue. Make sure you know what questions to ask according to the images. You have to ask and answer questions using the pictures and words. Indicate the part of the dialogue to be supplied by the pictures and words on them. For example: A: why are you angry? B: I’ve been waiting for you since 6 o’clock! A: why do you look sleepy? B: I’ve been out every evening this week. Now go round the class holding your module and repeat the dialogue with one or two teams. When finish evaluate the activity.

Why/be/angry?

Wait/for you since 6 o’clock

Why/look/sleepy?

Go out/every evening this week

why/be/hungry?

Not/eat/all day

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why/be/upset?

Just fall/driving test

why/look/pleased with yourself?

Write/six important letters today

why/not/be/hungry?

Just eat/a packet of biscuits

Subjects

value

Correct dialogue Correct language usage Pronunciation Fluency Confidence Total

3

Your team

Team A

Team B

3 1 1 2 10 EVALUATION

Activity no. 1 Factual Reaffirms the use of present perfect in different simple sentences. Co evaluation

102

Dialogue practice KNOWLEDGE Procedural Develops and determines the use of present perfect analyzing the sentences. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Collaborates with classmates producing the activity. Is opened to feedback given by classmates and the teacher. Obtained value:


Development activities Grammar PRESENT PERFECT + for, since When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present perfect with for + a period of time. When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with since + a point in time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours. I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty years. They have been married for six months. Since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, Since I was 12, since Friday, since 6 o'clock. I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June. We have been at this school since last year. So we can say that For & Since with Present Perfect Tense are used with the present perfect tense when: •We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years. •We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.

FOR a period of time 20 minutes three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever

SINCE a point in past time 6.15pm Monday January 1994 1800 I left school the beginning of time

Here are some examples: •I have been here for 20 minutes. •I have been here since 9 o'clock. •John hasn't called for 6 months. •John hasn't called since February. •He has worked in New York for a long time. •He has worked in New York since he left school. For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.

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Exercises 1.

Answer each question, filling in each blank with the correct preposition (for, since, or in):

1. Q: How long have you been studying German? A: I’ve been studying German ______________________________ three years. 2. Q: How long have you been living here? A: I’ve been living here ______________________________ 2004. 3. Q: How long is she going to stay in Italy? A: She’s going to stay ______________________________ two weeks. 4. Q: When is Thomas going back to school? A: Thomas is going back to school in one month. But today he’s gone ________________________ three days. 5. Q: How long have you guys known each other? A: We’ve known each other ______________________________ high school. 6. Q: When are your parents coming back? A: They’re coming back in 20 minutes. They’ve been out ______________________________ this morning. 7. Q: Have you spoken to him recently? A: No, I haven’t spoken to him ______________________________ three months. 8. Q: Are you going to stay there long? A: No, I’m going there ______________________________ two days. 9. Q: Have you spoken to him recently? A: No, I haven’t spoken to him ______________________________ the accident. 10. Q: When are you leaving? A: I’m leaving tomorrow. I’ve been going every week ______________________________ a couple of months. 2. Complete each sentence with for or since. 1 I’ve been here _______________ yesterday. 2 She’s been living in London _______________ 2002. 3 I’ve been learning English _______________ three years. 4 He’s been swimming every day _______________ he was ten. 5 He’s been a professional coach _______________ ten years. 6 I’ve lived in the same town _______________ a long time. 7 I’ve admired her _______________ we first met.

3. Complete the grammar summary below with for or since. We use _______________ to refer to a point in time. We use _______________ to refer to a length of time. 104


Activity 2 In teams of three, use the following instructions to create a Job interview in a role-play form. Characters: HRI = Human resources interviewer. AP= applicant. AST = Assistant (or secretary) 1. You must naturally lend the present perfect be introduced into your dialogue because of the focus of the block. 2. Make it as if were a “life experience”. 3. You must use the following questions with its corresponding answers. What experience have you had? How long have you been working in/for …… Have you worked in this area before? Where else have you lived/worked/studied? How long have you had a full driving license? Have you ever worked abroad?

CATEGORY

4

3

1

0

Before the interview, the student mostly prepared answers for the questions being asked.

The student did not prepare at all for any of the questions being asked.

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

Student will mostly well-groomed but is missing 1-2 major elements of professional dress and Appearance.

Student is not well groomed, clothing is not professional, dirty, or fit inappropriately, excessive Jewelry.

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

Greeter interviewer, eye contact only 75% of the time. Appeared a little too nervous and spoke too quietly or too hurriedly.

Appeared bored, disinterested, nervous, was not prepared. The student occasionally spoke clearly throughout the interview

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

Interview Skills

Highly proficient; appropriately utilized interview skills in an enthusiastic, motivating and engaging manner.

Somewhat proficient; Demonstration of competent interview skills in a generally confident manner.

Demonstration of poor interview skills with little confidence displayed.

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

Questioning

Questions and answers were articulated clearly, relevant to the profession and kept concise.

Questions and answers were somewhat articulated, though 12 questions were somewhat vague.

Questions and answers were mainly irrelevant to the profession, were longwinded and were not clearly expressed.

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

Politeness

Student never interrupted or hurried the person being interviewed and thanked them for being willing to be interviewed.

Student interrupted or hurried the interviewer 1-2 times during the course of the interview; thanked the person after the interview.

Several times, the student interrupted or hurried the person being interviewed; forgot to thank the person.

Preparation

Appearance

Communication

Before the interview, the student prepared and practiced quality answers for the questions being asked. Student is well groomed and neutral; Jewelry is minimal, clothes are professional in nature and Are clean and pressed. Greeted interviewer, excellent eye contact, polite, thanked interviewer. Appeared very confident. The student spoke clearly throughout the whole interview.

Student did not participate in mock job interview.

TOTAL

Activity no. 2 Factual Comprehends the use of present perfect with adverbs. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Job Interview KNOWLEDGE Procedural Identifies and comprehends the ideas related to the subject in an interactive activity. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Establishes dialogues with positive attitude and Shows respect participating. in the activity. Obtained value:

105


4. Read the sentence and write FOR or SINCE in the line to form correct sentences. 1 - I haven't seen them _______________________ ages. 2 - I have been living here _______________________ July. 3 - He worked there _______________________. several years. 4 - I haven't seen him _______________________ last week. 5 - It's been a long time _______________________ I've had such a good meal in a restaurant. 6 - He hasn't been able to work _______________________ the last three weeks. 7 - They've known about it _______________________ a long time. 8 - He hasn't worked this hard _______________________ he was at school. 9 - I haven't seen her _______________________ a fortnight. 10 - They haven't been here _______________________ 1993. 11 - She's worked there _______________________ years. 12 - He's been here _______________________ three o'clock. 13 - There haven't been any wolves in England _______________________ a long time. 14 - I haven't seen them _______________________ last week. 15 - It's the first time _______________________ 1973 that anyone has done so well. 16 - She's been working there _______________________ eighteen months. 17 - The weather has been dreadful _______________________ October. 18 - They've been going out _______________________ New Year's Eve. 19 - The film's been on at cinemas _______________________ Tuesday. 20 - Nobody has been so close to breaking the record _______________________ 1983. 21 - _______________________ then, I haven't been able to sleep well. 22 - I learnt German _______________________ two years while I was at school. 23 - I haven't had such fun _______________________ the last time we met. 24 - The film has been on at cinemas everywhere _______________________ July. 25 - I hadn't heard from them _______________________ ages.

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Listening practice

5. Listen to the dialogue and use the correct form of the verb in parenthesis and for or since to complete the conversation. Christian Martinolli: Dara, how long have you been swimming? Dara Torres: well, I started swimming when I was eight, so I’ve been swimming (1) _______________ 14 years. Christian Martinolli: and when (2) _______________ (do) you start swimming in competitions? Dara Torres: I (3) _______________ (enter) my first competition when I was ten. Christian Martinolli: (4) _______________ (do) you win? Dara Torres: no, didn’t. I (5) _______________ (win) my first race when I was twelve. It was fantastic. Christian Martinolli: and how many times have you (6) ______________ (win) then? Dara Torres: Oh! Lots of times. I’ve (7) _______________ (swim) in so many races I can’t remember. Christian Martinolli: what is the best moment so far? Dara Torres: when I (8) _______________ (be) in the Athens Olympic games in 2004. Christian Martinolli: yes, I remember, you won a medal … Dara Torres: that’s right. I won a bronze medal.

Extra points challenge: Do you know who is Dara Torres? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why is she being interviewed? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ What has she been up to now? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ How many important accomplishments does she have? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Why is she important in the modern Olympic history? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 107


6. Each sentence has one mistake. Write the correct sentences. 1 She has won her first race five years ago. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 She has been running for she was twelve. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 When have you start your new job? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 She has broke lots of records. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 I’ve dreamt of winning a medal since a long time. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 I been skiing last year. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 I started learning English for a long time ago. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Place each of these expressions into the table choosing either the “for or since” column.

last week

my grandfather’s party

9 months

a long time

I was a teenager

two and a half hours

two and a half hours ago

last Tuesday

5 minutes ages

3 weeks 1997

24 years

the whole of my adult life

my friend’s party a year

I was at University

yesterday

last two days of May

For

108

2 weeks ago

Since


Closing activity Activity 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Divide into teams of organize the activity. Check the questions and make sure you understand them. Write your answers to the questions individually. In teams, think of one false but believable answer for each question. This false answer replaces one of the real answers. Gather in pairs of teams. Team A asks the first question to team B. Each student in team B gives their answer. Team A tries to guess which student is lying! If they are correct they get one point. If they are incorrect team B gets a point. Now it's team B's turn to ask the first question to team A. Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6 until all the questions have been asked. The team with the most points is the winner.

Questions 1. Have you ever stolen anything? If yes, give details… _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Have you ever climbed a mountain? If yes, give details… _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Have you ever eaten frogs’ legs? If yes, give details… _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Have you ever met the leader of your country? If yes, give details… _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Have you ever tried bungee jumping? If yes, give details… _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Activity no. 3 Factual Comprehends the use of present perfect with adverbs. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Interviews KNOWLEDGE Procedural Dramatizes, Categorizes and comprehends the ideas related to the subject in an interactive activity. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Creates dialogues with positive attitude and Shows respect joining. the activity. Obtained value:

109


Didactic sequence 4 Have you ever …? Start up activity Activity 1 1.

Have you been following your teacher since the class started?

2.

What has happened since the beginning of the class, e.g. In today’s class, has anyone’s dictionary fallen on the floor? How many times has the teacher coughed?”

3.

Look around your class. Now, you have 2 minutes to pay attention to the whole class.

4.

Generate 8 questions.

5.

Then ask the questions to at least two partners Questions

Activity no.1 Factual distinguishes the use of present perfect with adverbs. Co evaluation

110

Student 1

EVALUATION Follow up. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Identifies and comprehends the ideas related to the subject in an interactive activity. C

MC

NYC

Student 2

Value: Attitude Establishes dialogues with positive attitude and Shows respect participating. in the activity. Obtained value:


Grammar PRESENT PERFECT + adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still) 'Ever' and 'never' are always placed before the past participle. 'Ever' = sometime before now, is used: a). in questions Have you ever been to Canada? Has she ever met someone famous? b). in negative questions Haven't they ever been to Canada? Haven't you ever eaten Thai food? c). and in negative statements using the pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever e.g. Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like that has ever happened to me. d). 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... e.g. It's the first time I've ever eaten Thai food. This is the first time I've ever been to Canada. 'Never' = not ever. Never is used after have/has. I have never visited London. I’ve never been so sick. Already, yet and still. It can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence. Already = sooner than expected, is used: a. I've already heard the story five times. b. Most people have already gone. It is also used in questions: a. Have you already rang Mike? b. Has he arrived already? Yet is used in negative statements and questions when we are expecting something to happen and goes at the end of the sentence. a. Have you bought a ticket yet? b. I haven't met her yet. c. Has your course started yet? d. They haven't arrived yet. Still = continuing longer than expected. Still is stronger than yet and often expresses surprise that a situation has continued for so long. a. She isn’t home yet. She’s still at work. b. I still haven’t found what I’m looking for. c. I’m still thinking about it. 111


Development activities 1. This is Tammy's shopping list. Make sentences about what she has and hasn't bought. She has already bought the things that are crossed out. Example: Bread: She hasn't bought bread yet.

Tammy's Shopping List 1. bread 3. meat 5. broccoli 7. ice cream

2. milk 4. apples 6. pasta 8. cereal

Milk: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Meat: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Apples: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Broccoli: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pasta:

Ice cream: __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cereal: __________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Choose the correct form. A: ___________________ 1 ___________________ Greg lately? B: No, I ___________________ 2 ___________________ . I ___________________ 3 ___________________ to him at the airport two weeks ago. But I ___________________ 4 ___________________ him since then. A: Where ___________________ 5 ___________________ ? B: He ___________________ 6 ___________________ to Greece for a holiday. A: I ___________________ 7 ___________________ Greece three times. I love Greece. B: Really? My wife and I ___________________ 8 ___________________ a week in Turkey in 1996, but I ___________________ 9 ___________________ Greece. By the way, ___________________10 ___________________ back yet? A: Yes, he ___________________ 11 ___________________ . I ___________________ 12 ___________________ him yesterday. He ___________________ 13 ___________________ extremely healthy.

112


3.

Organize the phrases in the box into three columns.

Simple past

4.

Present perfect

Simple present / Present perfect

Use these subjects and verbs to write sentences with “already” and “not yet.”

Example: I – go to church I have already gone to church. I haven’t gone to church yet. 1. I – graduate from college ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. My dog – get his shots ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 113


3. Blake – clean his room ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Mickey and Jane – get married ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.

Fill the lines with still, yet, already or just.

1

Javier sends his love. I've ______________ seen him in the high street.

2

We can't have chips again. We've ______________ had them three times this week.

3

I can't decide. I ______________ haven't made a decision.

4

I haven't phoned Veronica ______________. I'll do it when I get back from work.

5

Beto: Do you know anything about Sally? Bet: Oh she's fine. I've ______________ spoken to her on the phone.

6

Nohemi says she's ______________ this minute caught the train so she'll be here in half an hour.

7

Bet: Have you cleaned the bathroom yet? Beto: I've ______________ done it. I did it an hour ago.

8

We're going to a concert on Friday, but we haven't bought the tickets ______________.

9

Yenisei ______________ hasn't bought the tickets. I hope she does it soon.

10

The government ______________ hasn't said anything about the oil slick.

11

Have you finished your homework ______________?

12

Bill: I've finished using the computer if you want to go online. Ted: No, thanks. I've ______________ checked my email today.

13

I can't believe it. Begonia ______________ hasn't phoned me.

14

Bobby: Can I go online now, please? Veronica: Sorry. I ______________ haven't finished using the computer.

15

114

Have you seen the movie Bowling for Columbine ______________?


Closing activity Activity 2

Make an autobiography or biography about your favorite character describing what you or the one you decide have done in your life. Don’t forget to use the adverbs.

Picture here

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Activity no. 2 Factual Identifies the use of present perfect with adverbs. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Biography KNOWLEDGE Procedural Distinguishes and comprehends the ideas related to the subject in an interactive activity. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows respect participating in the activity. Obtained value:

115


Didactic sequence 5. Present perfect vs. past tense. Start up activity Activity 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Are you experienced?

Choose a partner. You are going to answer a questionnaire to find out how experienced you are. Read the list of things below each one which is true for you; circle the number next to it. When you have done that, add up the total score. Check the “What it means” section there you should read the comment corresponding to the score of your partner. Read the comment to your partner.

Is every day full of new things to try or have you done it all? Here’s a list of life experiences – all you have to do is add up your points and see how you measure up. You’ve visited the following continents: Asia 2, Africa 2,

You’ve helped an old lady across the road. 2

Australia 2, America 2, Antarctica 3.

You’ve written a poem for someone. 3

You’ve cried with happiness. 2

You’ve sent your food back in a restaurant. 3

You’ve cried at film. 1

You’ve worried that your live is going nowhere. 3

You’ve cried at funeral. 4

You are good friends with an ex-boy/girlfriend. 3

You’ve bought flowers for yourself. 2

You’ve caught a fish. 2

You’ve bought your parents a meal. 3

You can use chopsticks. 2

You’ve cooked your parents a meal. 4

You’ve been in a plane alone. 2

You’ve been to the cinema alone. 3

You’ve lived alone. 3

You’ve admitted that you snore. 2

You’ve given a speech in public. 3

You’ve been to the opera. 2

You’ve tried eating something you don’t like. 2

You’ve hitchhiked in a foreign country. 2

You’ve stopped smoking for good. 3

You have at least one close friend of the opposite sex. 5

You’ve never started smoking. 10

You’ve changed a baby’s diaper. 2

You’ve thrown away all your childhood toys. 5

You’ve broken a bone. 2

You’ve changed a car tire. 3

You’ve had stitches. 2

You know how to change a plug. 1

You’ve served an ace. 1

You can sew on a button. 2

You’ve written a romantic letter. 3

You’ve regretted having your hair cut. 1

You’ve apologized for something that wasn’t your fault. 2

You can whistle a tune. 1

You’ve grown a plant from a seed. 2

You can count up to ten in three languages. 2

You’ve used an electric drill. 2

You’ve found a perfume or aftershave that suits you. 2

You’ve bought an original work of art. 2

You’ve answered all of the above questions truthfully. 10

116


What it means

Over 90

You can die tomorrow knowing that you’ve done everything and you know everything.

80 to 89

An impressive score! You’ve nearly done it all.

70 to 79

You certainly haven’t been wasting your time.

60 to 69

You still have plenty of new experiences to try.

50 to 59

Life must be fun for you – there’s so much you haven’t done yet.

Under 50

Are you very young by any chance? Your total

Your partner’s total

Follow up:

Follow up: Add your own ideas of what makes an experienced person.

Activity no. 1 Factual Identify vocabulary related to hobbies, activities and experiences. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Experiences test KNOWLEDGE Procedural Uses the questionnaire related to the topic in the block to express the past experiences that continue in the present. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows participative attitude in the activity. Obtained value:

117


GRAMMAR

We use the SIMPLE PAST when we think only about the past.

We use the PRESENT PERFECT when we think about the past and the present together.

Examples: I made a cake for the children but they didn´t like it. I bought a new dress for the party last Tuesday.

Examples: I´ve made a cake. Would you like some? Look! I´ve got a new dress. I´ve written to Mary.

PRESENT

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT PERFECT

Mary knows now. I´m offering you some now. I´m showing you now.

I wrote to Mary. I made a cake. I bought a new dress.

I´ve written to Mary. I´ve made a cake. I´ve bought a new dress.

FINISHED ACTION

118

Letter (yesterday) Cake (this morning) New dress (last Tuesday)


SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT PERFECT

Interested in when a present situation began: When did you arrive in?

Interested in how long a present situation has been going on: How long have you been in Britain?

How long something went on that is no longer going on: I stayed with my grandparents for six months. (= and I am no longer there)

How long something has been going on that is still going on: I have been staying with my grandparents for six months. (= and I am still there)

To talk about something that happened at a particular, finished time in the past: Scientists made some fundamental discoveries in the 18th century.

To talk about something that happened in a period of time up to the present: Science has made many major advances this century.

To talk about something that was invented, produced, discovered or written in the more distant past: Chinese craftsmen invented both paper and printing.

To report that someone has recently invented, produced, discovered or written something: Two schoolchildren have invented a device for moving large objects up flights of stairs.

To talk about repeated actions or events and suggest that the action or event is finished and won’t happen again: Jimson made thirteen films before she was tragically killed in a car accident.

To talk about repeated actions or events and suggest that the action or event might happen again (often emphasized with phrases such as up to now or so far): Jimson has made thirteen films and I think her latest is her best.

To talk about a state that no longer exists: I knew him when we were both working in Rome.

To talk about a state that existed in the past and still exists now: I have known him most of my working life. (= I am still working)

In news reports, details are given in the simple past…

… After an event has been introduced with the present perfect: The film star Jim Cooper has died of cancer. He was 69 and lived in Texas.

With time adverbs that talk about finished periods of With time adverbs that connect the past to the present time (such as a month ago, at 3 o’clock, last week, on (such as just, already, since, so far, still, up to now, yet): Monday, once, then, yesterday, etc.): Marie died, at the Don’t disturb Amy. She’s just gone to sleep. age of 86, in 1976. * Before, for, recently could be used with either simple past or present perfect, depending on the meaning: Why didn’t you ask me before? Nothing like this has happened before. With time adverbs that refer to the present when that period is seen as a past, completed period of time: I didn’t shave today. (= the usual time for shaving has passed and I will not shave at all today)

With time adverbs that refer to the present when that period is seen as a period including the present moment: I haven’t shaved today. (= today is not yet over, so I might still shave)

With ever and never to emphasize that we are talking about a completed period in the past: When he was young, he never bothered too much about his appearance.

With ever and never to emphasize that we are talking about the whole of a period of time up until the present: It’s one of the most magnificent views I have ever seen. With since: usually it is used to talk about a period that started at some point in the past and continues until the present time: Since 1990 I have lived in a small house near the coast.

In a sentence with a since-clause, usually the since-clause has a simple past and the main clause has a present perfect: Since Mr. Hassan became president, both taxes and unemployment have increased. It is possible to have present perfect in both the sinceclause and the main clause if both situations extend until the present: Since I’ve lived here, I haven’t seen my neighbors.

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Development activities Present perfect vs. Simple past Exercises

1. Complete the sentences using the present perfect or the past simple of the verbs in brackets: Mark ________ (fall) when he was playing football and he ___________ (brake) his arm. I ____________ (never/be) ill but last year __________ (get) a cold. Some people ___________ (stop) smoking with the help of Chinese medicine. I __________ (have) three yoghurts so far today. _______________________ (have/you/ever/meet) a vegan? _______________________ (Susan and Carol / finish) their nutrition lessons last term? How long ___________________ (the doctor / arrive)?

2. Choose a verb change it to either the present perfect or past simple for these sentences.

agree

appear

continue

disappear

move

reach

show

solve

write

1. Research __________ that cycling can help patients overcome their illnesses. 2. The rabbit just __________ in my garden one day last week. 3. With this promotion, I feel that I __________ a turning point in my career. 4. Oh, no! My car __________ ! 5. Quite early in the negotiations, they __________ to lower the prices. 6. In 1788 he __________ his last great work in Vienna. 7. There’s not much more to do, now that we __________ the main problem. 8. Throughout the summer of 1980 Malcolm __________ to divide his time between London and New York. 9. When he was 13, his parents __________ to the United States.

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3. Suggest a verb that can complete both sentences in each pair. Use either the present perfect or the simple past. Add words outside the blank as necessary. 1a. the price of houses __________ dramatically in recent years. 1b. Unemployment __________ every year until 1985 and then started to fall. 2a. At his wedding he __________ a green suit and red tie. 2b. These are the glasses I __________ ever since I was 30. 3a. The company __________ many setbacks in its 50-year history, but it is now flourishing. 3b. Few of the trees in our village __________ the storms during the winter of 1991. 4a. This __________ his home for over 20 years and he doesn’t want to leave it. 4b. When I picked up the coffee I __________ surprised to find that it was cold. 5a. So far it’s been so cold that we __________ in the house all day. 5b. We __________ with Mike and Sue last weekend. 6a. I last __________ you in Navojoa three years ago. 6b. I never __________ anyone play so well in my whole life.

4. Find the following: (i) three sentences that are incorrect; (ii) three sentences with the present perfect which could also have the past simple (consider the difference in meaning!) and (iii) three sentences where only the present perfect is correct. (

) 1. Joanne has agreed to lend us her car.

(

) 2. Do you know ho many people have walked on the moon?

(

) 3. Phone for an ambulance. I think Kiev’s broken his arm.

(

) 4. In her twenties, Laura has spent many years traveling around Spain.

(

) 5. The Vikings have established a settlement at what is now York, in the north of England.

(

) 6. The house looks so much bigger now that we've painted the walls in brighter colors.

(

) 7. My brother has gone into town to buy some new shoes.

(

) 8. The Earth as been formed about 4,500 million years ago.

(

) 9. I’ve worked in Puerto Penasco for three years.

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5. Decide which sentences are correct and rewrite those that are incorrect. 1. Terry drove to Glasgow last week to visit his father. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I have known a woman once who had sixteen cats. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann Baker already did four radio interviews about her new book. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Julie felt hungry. Then she has remembered the salad in the fridge. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I’ll introduce you to Dr. Davies – or have you met her before? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. We’ve had enormous problems recently with ants in the kitchen. We just can’t get rid of them. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I have talked to her yesterday about doing the work. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. They still live in the small house they have bought thirty years ago. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. You have not yet explained clearly what you want me to do. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We lived in Newcastle for three years now and like it a lot. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Choose the correct tense (Simple Past or Past Perfect). 1. The wind ___________________ (blow) away the leaves that we ___________________ (collect). 2. She ___________________ (throw) away the letter that she ___________________ (write). 3. They ___________________ (show) me the pictures, they ___________________(take) during their holidays. 4. In the evening, the children ___________________ (tell) their daddy what they ___________________ (see) at the zoo. 5. The boy ___________________(be) very sorry for what he ___________________ (do).

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Activity 2 Complete the puzzle.

Activity no. 2 Factual Recognizes the structures from simple past and present perfect. Co evaluation

the

EVALUATION Crossword puzzle KNOWLEDGE Procedural Distinguishes when an experience has happened in the past and continuous in the present C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Respects the participations and options from the classmates. Obtained value:

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Exercises Past simple or present perfect? 7. Listen and choose the most suitable tense, the Present Perfect or the Past Simple

She has studied very well at school. She studied very well at school.

Have you ever visited Italy? Did you ever visit Italy?

Thomas Edison has invented the light bulb. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.

How long have you had this job? How long did you have this job?

I have never smoked a cigarette ever since. I didn't smoke a cigarette ever since.

Charlie Chaplin has made a lot of films. Charlie Chaplin made a lot of films.

When have you last been to the cinema? When did you last go to the cinema?

It's the best car I've ever had. It's the best car I ever had.

How many times have you been married? How many times were you married?

We haven't had lunch yet. We didn't have lunch yet.

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8. Read the following sentences, and choose the correct tense. The first two have been done for you. All samples (failed / have failed) under the first test condition. Reason: Because we have the results, it is clear that the testing is complete; that is, past and finished. Recent studies (showed / have shown) that... Reason: It is unclear exactly when the studies were carried out. 1.

Research conducted in the 1990s (showed / has shown) that... Reason: The 1990s are past and finished.

2.

The studies (were not completed / have not been completed) yet. Reason: The word 'yet' shows that the timeframe for the studies is not past.

3.

Two years ago, researchers (demonstrated / have demonstrated) the link between... Reason: 'Two years ago' is past and finished.

4.

Over the past six years, there (were / have been) several exciting developments in the field of mechatronics. Reason: The exact times of the developments are not specified.

5.

Lewis's (2004) investigation (proved / has proved) the effect of... Reason: The exact year is given.

6.

An investigation ( was carried out / has been carried out) recently into... Reason: 'Recently' is the hint.

Oral practice

9. Ask questions using similar structures in both tenses. Then report back to the class. Have you ever eaten pizza?

Verb Eat Watch See fly Go Be Travel Drive Visit Try Look after

Present perfect Have/has eaten Have / has watched Have/has seen Have/has flown Have/has gone Have/has been Have / has traveled Have/ has driven Have/has visited Have tried Have/ has Looked after

When was the last time you ate pizza? Verb Eat Watch See fly Go Be Travel Drive Visit Try Look after

Past simple Ate Watched Saw flew Went Was Traveled Drove Visited Tried Looked after

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Listening practice 10. Listen to the song and fill in the lines to complete the lyric. Then answer the questions.

LADY IN RED by Chris De Burgh I'____ __________ seen you __________ so lovely as you __________ tonight I've never __________ you shine so bright I've never seen so many men ask you if you __________ to dance They're looking for a little romance __________ half a chance And I'____________________that dress you're wearing Or that highlights in your hair That catch your eyes I have __________ __________ Lady in red is dancing with me __________ __________ There's nobody here It's just you and me It's where I wanna be But I __________ know this beauty by my side I'll never forget the way you look tonight I've never seen ________________________________________ as you did tonight ____________________ you shine so bright you were amazing I've never seen so ______________________________ by your side And when you __________ to me and __________ it took my breath away And I have never __________ such a feeling such a feeling Of complete and __________ love, as I do tonight Lady in red is dancing with me Cheek to cheek There____________________ here It's just you and me It's where I __________ be But I hardly know this beauty by my side I'll never forget the way you look tonight I never will __________ the way you look tonight The lady in red lady in red Lady in red My lady in red I love you

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Questions: What is the subject of the song? ____________________________________ Can you guess what year is this song? ____________________________________ How many present perfect sentences are there in the song? ____________________________________ Did you like the song? Briefly say why ____________________________________


Closing activities Language in context 9. Read the following text

Over the last twenty years, the average size of households has fallen dramatically. The number of one person households has grown, due largely to the ageing of the population, as has the number of one parent families. Couples having smaller families have also contributed to the fall in household size. In 1976, 60% of families were couples with children. By 1996, this had fallen to 51%. Part of this change can be attributed to the increase in one parent families with dependent children, but most of the change is due to the increase in the proportion of couple-only families. People are now having children later in life, and are living longer. Therefore, they are spending more time living in couple-only families, both before they have families and after their children have left home. Close box this is a past perfect verb. It describes an activity which was completed by 1996. The past perfect may be used to describe the earlier of two points in the past. The year 1996 is in the past. The time before and up to 1996 is in the earlier past. However, children are leaving home later. In 1981, 34% of children aged 20-24 lived with their parents. By 1991, this had increased to 40%. This increase has to some extent countered, the fall in the couples with non-dependent children only. Close box this is a past perfect verb. It describes an activity which was completed by 1991. The past perfect may be used to describe the earlier of two points in the past. The year 1991 is in the past. The time before and up to 1991 is in the earlier past. (Source: ABS Yearbook Australia 1997, Number 79, Australian Government Publishing Service, ACT, p.81) Copyright in ABS data resides with the Commonwealth of Australia. Used with permission ABS Opens in a new window

10. There are two past perfect verbs in the 'Language in context' passage above. Write them in the lines 1. First past perfect verb: ____________________________________________________. 2. Second past perfect verb: _________________________________________________. A) Identify and write in the past perfect verb in each sentence below. These examples are not from the 'Language in context' passage. 3. It was announced that he had resigned from his position at the bank for personal reasons. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Several senior employees had left the company by the time the new manager arrived. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Until the new software was purchased, the staff had struggled to keep the accounts records up to date. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. In one paragraph say in your own words what is the text talking about? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 127


12. The following news report, which is an update on a major building project, uses both past simple and present prefect tenses. Write the correct tense of the verb on each line. The board of directors of Medway Medical Centre _________________ (announce) twelve months ago that an extension block would be built in the grounds besides the existing building.

Although funding

__________________ not yet __________________ (be approved), ProTec Engineering __________________ (complete) the design. The hospital CEO, Mr. Bernard Wilkes, __________________ (release) the design at a press conference yesterday. While the new building is designed to blend aesthetically with the older building, Mr. Wilkes __________________ (emphasize) yesterday that sustainability was one of the key design criteria.

'Green building technology

__________________ (be incorporated) at all stages of the design, as we __________________ (request) at the beginning of the project.'

13. Organize the sentences in the corresponding box. Write the numbers in the corresponding box. 1

2

13

4

14

5

15

6

16

8

9

10

PRESENT PERFECT

12

3

7

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11

PAST SIMPLE


Activity 3

Create teams of three or five.(your teacher decides) Study the following grammar and examples boxes. THE PAST SIMPLE (a PAST tense) Used for a finished action/activity. It's done-done. It answers "when?" He woke up at 7 and ate breakfast./ Did you see Alexis last week? Used for a specific finished time (even if that time isn't spoken, it's understood!) We met when we were 25. (We aren't 25 now, we can only meet once and it's finished) He had strawberries and champagne Thursday. (It's Saturday now, Thursday is done) She was really mad at me. (The argument/context is known by the speakers) Used for logical order of events- 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. They met in high school, fell in love and got married.

THE PRESENT PERFECT (a PRESENT tense- affects NOW) Used for the past to now. She's been married for 67 years. (She got married 67 years ago + she's married NOW) I've lived here since 1998. (I moved here in 1998, I still live here NOW) Used for experience- because I'm/you're not finished- it answers "what?" They've seen that film 3 times./ I've never been to Rome/ He's eaten dog meat. Used with time words: just/already/yet and since + specific time I've just hit him. They've already finished the shopping. George hasn't returned yet. He's had his new car since Wednesday/ since February/ since 3 o'clock. Used with 'for' when speaking about a time-length past to NOW I've known him for ages. (I met him in the past, I know him NOW) They've had that cat for 5 years. Used for recent past activities with results NOW He's been to the dentist. (he has a toothache) She's colored her hair. (She had black hair, now it's blonde)

COMPARE THE DIFFERENCE IN MEANING: I knew Jonas for ten years. (I don't know John now, or John is finished- he's dead I've known Jonas for ten years. (We met ten years ago, and still know each other NOW) I had a dog as a child. (Focus is on WHEN) I've had a dog before. (Focus is on WHAT- when is unknown or not important) She broke his leg a few years ago. (No plaster cast on her leg now, it's FINISHED) She's broken her leg. (She has a plaster cast on his leg NOW) A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet, 'A Practical English Grammar,' Oxford, Oxford University Press, 4th edition 1986

In teams generate a power point presentation (if you don’t have a computer use flip charts) where you will add. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Grammar points in your own words. Examples. Oral presentation must be included Include video or audio. Some practice for the class to solve.(an exercise example) 129


Evaluation rubric to measure proficiency in expressing oneself or the team in English CATEGORY

4

Grammar

Grammar covered in class was used to communicate effectively.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary studied in class was used to express ideas eloquently.

Fluency

Student acted as a facilitator, helping the conversation flow and develop.

Listening

Student responded to questions with appropriate answers, acknowledged all statements, and incorporated them into the discussion.

Student responded to most questions, acknowledged most statements, and incorporated many of these into the conversation.

Pronunciation was clear and inflection and expressions were used to enhance communication.

No serious problems arose, but better pronunciation, inflection, and/or non-verbal communication could have made communication more efficient.

Voice and nonverbal communication

1

3

2

1

A few minor difficulties arose from not using the grammar studied in class. A few minor difficulties arose from not using appropriate vocabulary. Some minor difficulties maintaining the conversation were evident.

Grammatical errors led to many minor difficulties or one major breakdown in communication.

Grammatical errors severely hampered communication.

Some difficulties arose due to limited vocabulary and/or bad diction.

Communication was severely hampered due to lack of vocabulary.

Some effort was required to maintain the conversation. There may have been a few long pauses. Student failed to answer some questions appropriately OR failed to acknowledge some statements and incorporate these into the conversation.

Much effort was required to maintain the conversation. There may have been many long pauses.

Some communication problems arose due to unclear pronunciation and/or lack of inflection and/or expression. Student may have been difficult to hear.

Pronunciation, inflection, and/or expression confused communication. Student may have been very difficult to hear.

2

3

Team’s results: 4 5 6 7 8

9

Student didn't understand or ignored most questions and statements. Student may have been using notes.

10

Team total: ________________________ Your total: _________________________

Team total: ________________________ Your total: _________________________

Team total: ________________________ Your total: _________________________

Team total: ________________________ Your total: _________________________

Activity no. 3 Factual Recognizes the structures from the simple past and present perfect. Co evaluation

130

EVALUATION Power point presentation. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Distinguishes when an experience has happened in the past and continuous in the present C

MC

NYC

Score

Value: Attitude Respects the participations and options from the classmates. Obtained value:


Activity 4

Aim: To practise the simple past and present perfect tenses. Task: Matching grammatically correct sentences to form shapes. Activity type: Pair work / Groups of three Procedure 1. Distribute the group into pairs or groups of three. 2. Study the individual triangles on the table and form sentences. The idea is that each adverb of time should be matched to a correct sentence. 3. You have to keep in mind that there is more than one correct answer for many of the sentences but only one works to make forms the required star or hexagon. 4. Finally write and read out the correct sentences found in the shapes and don´t forget to use the adverbs in the right position. 5. Present a flip chart. 6. Evaluate your other partners. Value Evaluation

1

2

3

4

5

Total

Logical formation of sentences. Pronounces in a correct way the sentences presented. Fluency Shows respect for the rest of the group. Creativity The flip chart is presented in a clean way.

Activity no. 4 Factual Recognizes the structures from the simple past and present perfect. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Graphic grammar KNOWLEDGE Procedural Distinguishes when an experience has happened in the past and continuous in the present C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition in the work. Respects the participations from the classmates. Obtained value:

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EXPRESSES LIKES AND DISLIKES.

Competencias Disciplinares básicas:      

Identifica, ordena e interpreta las ideas, datos y conceptos explícitos e implícitos en un texto, considerando el contexto en el que se generó y en el que se recibe. Evalúa un texto mediante la comparación de un contenido con el de otros, en función de sus conocimientos previos y nuevos. Valora el pensamiento lógico en el proceso comunicativo en su vida cotidiana y académica. Identificar e interpretar la idea general y posible desarrollo de un mensaje oral o escrito en una segunda lengua, recurriendo a conocimientos previos, elementos no verbales y contexto. Se comunica en una lengua extranjera mediante un discurso lógico, oral o escrito, congruente con la situación comunicativa. Utiliza las tecnologías de la información y comunicación para investigar, resolver problemas, producir materiales y trasmitir información.

Unidad de competencia:

Intercambia información oral y escrita de gustos y preferencias sobre aspectos de recreación.

Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque:

Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia en los contextos local, nacional e internacional.

Time assigned: 8 hours.


Didactic Sequence 1. We would rather... Start up activities Activity 1

1A. Read the following text.

Teens would rather text than talk: Survey. April 21, 2010 Debra Black

Teens love to text. In fact they love to text more than talking to their friends in person, according to a recent U.S. survey. According to Pew Research Centre’s Internet and American Life Project, 54 per cent of teens prefer to text on a daily basis, while only 33 per cent of those surveyed talk to their friends daily face to face. Overall text messaging among American teens and their friends has increased substantially from 38 per cent in February 2008 to 54 per cent in September 2009. “American teens text much more on a daily basis than Norwegian, Danish or Korean teens,” said Amanda Lenhart, senior research specialist with the project, one of seven that make up the independently funded research center. “It seems American teens are making up for lost time and have surpassed international counterparts in the use of texts every day.” While data for Norway, Denmark and Korea was available as a comparison, the team did not use any data from Canada. The U.S. survey talked to 800 teens, ranging in age from 12 to 17, and their parents in a telephone survey and teens, 12 to 18, in nine focus groups in four American cities. The margin of error for the survey is plus or minus 4. Part of the reason for the steep rise in use is cell phone plans for text messaging. As American cell phone and telephone companies have introduced unlimited text messaging plans, the use of text have increased accordingly, Lenhart said. Seventy-five percent of American teens surveyed have unlimited text messaging. The average American teen sends 50 text messages a day or about 1,500 texts a month. One-third of American teens send more than 100 messages a day or more than 3,000 texts a month. Those users are predominantly older teenage girls between 14- and 17-yearsold. Boys, however, typically only send and receive 30 texts a day. While texting has surpassed all other forms of communicating with friends, including talking face-to-face, calling on the cell phone remains critical when it comes to talking to parents, according to the survey.

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The message Lenhart takes away from the survey is simple: Teenagers have embraced this form of communication and technology. “It fits in within the spaces of time we have in our days,” she explained. “If I’m waiting for a bus, in the past I just waited or listened to music. Now I have my phone, I can text message, send an email, listen to music and I can take a picture of that funny thing I see on the street and send it to friends. “It’s a way of connecting with other people and sharing my experiences.” The survey also found a socioeconomic difference in the way some teens use their cell phones and the Internet. Forty-one per cent of teens from low income households say they go online using their cell phones as compared to 25 per cent of teens from higher incomes. And 44 per cent of African-American teens and 35 per cent of Hispanic teens use their cell phone to go online as compared to 21 per cent of Caucasian teens. Lenhart concludes the cell phone has become the favored communication hub for the majority of American teens – whether they are texting, calling, or going online. The study also found: • 64 per cent of parents look at the contents of their child’s cell phone and 62 per cent of parents have taken away their child’s phone as a punishment; • 46 per cent of parents limit the number of minutes their children may talk and 52 per cent limit the times they may use the phone; • 48 per cent of parents use the phone to monitor their child’s location; • 98 per cent of parents of cell-owning teens say their child has a cell so they can be in touch no matter what.

1B. Underline the words you don’t understand. Use your dictionary.

1C. Answer the following questions What is the general subject of the text? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ How much time do you spend texting? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

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What do you prefer texting or talking? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ How many text messages do you send a day? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ How many text messages does the text mention “US students send daily and monthly?” __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ What ages of teens does the text talk about? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the conclusion of the author? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Do you have a cell phone? Yes …. No Do you like to text? Yes ….. No How many text messages do you send a day? ___________ In the phone image write a text message for a friend about this activity.

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

138

EVALUATION Reading and Questionnaire KNOWLEDGE Procedural Uses grammatical structures to communicate likes and dislikes. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:


Grammar Expressing Preferences We often use words like: prefer, would prefer, and would rather, to talk or ask about preferences. "I prefer living on my own." "Would you prefer to see a movie or go to a club?" "Would you rather go shopping with me?" Those expressions are quite different in meaning and this is why learners of English often find them challenging. So here is how we can separate them:

Difference in meaning: We tend to use 'prefer' to talk generally about likes, dislikes, what we want. “He prefers reading books.” “I prefer going to the beach than going to a swimming pool.” The expressions 'would prefer' and 'would rather', to be a little more specific. “I would prefer to see him in person.”

Difference in form: Followed by a different verb form: “I prefer living in a city.” (followed by the gerund; the '-ing' ending) “I would prefer to be told the truth.” (followed by the infinitive; to+ the verb) “Would you rather stay at a hotel?” (followed by the base form of the verb; the verb without 'to'.

Different prepositions to state the choice. prefer, would prefer – go with 'to' “I'd prefer living in a city to living in the country.” “I would (I'd) prefer being alone to being with the wrong person”. would rather – goes with 'than' “I would (I'd) rather talk to him in person than call him on the phone.”

“I would rather go home now.”

Prefer and would rather, can be used interchangeably. As you indicate, when we are talking about general preferences, prefer is followed by verb-ing, thus: - I prefer listening to music to watching TV. - I'd rather listen to music than watch.

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However, when we are talking about specifics, would rather is used as an alternative to would prefer to followed by an infinitive. Would rather is very common in spoken English and is often abbreviated to 'd rather. It is used in this form with all personal pronouns: I'd / you'd / he'd / she'd / we'd / they'd rather… Study these examples: * Would you like to go out for dinner tonight? No, I think I'd rather eat at home / I'd prefer to eat at home.

'd rather

* Would you rather drink beer or wine with the curry I'd rather drink beer. What about you? * They'd rather have the strawberries by themselves, but I'd prefer to have them with cream.

Rather than means instead of and can be used in combination with would prefer to and would rather. Study the following and note the intricacies of the verb forms: * Rather than lose precious sleep discussing it now, I think we should go to bed and talk about it in the morning. * My mother would prefer us to email each other once a week, rather than spend half an hour on the phone every night. * My mother would rather we emailed each other once a week instead of spending half an hour on the phone every night. In fact, she insists on it. So we'd better do that, I suppose.

'd better Note that'd better, which is similar structurally to 'd rather, is used to suggest necessary action. In this case however, ’d is the abbreviated form of had, not would. Like’d rather, ’d better is followed by the bare infinitive without to. Study the following: * We'd better not be late for the Ambassador’s party. It would be unforgivable to arrive late. * You'd better phone him and tell him that you're not going. * They'd better buy me a Christmas present or I shall never forgive them. Note that it is sometimes slightly threatening in tone, as in the last example. Had better is always more urgent than should or ought to and has the same force as I would advise you strongly to…. or We must / we mustn't….

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Development activities Exercises

1. Paying attention to the meanings of the sentences, and to the presence of inverted word order, write the sentences using: prefer, would prefer, would rather and fill in the lines with the correct word chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example: Would like to come, ___ I do not have time. (but, nor) Would like to come, but I do not have time. 1. I opened the door _________ looked out. (and, yet) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. She was not in the back yard, _________ was she upstairs. (or, nor) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The sun had set, _________ it was still light outside. (or, yet) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but, or) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He has not arrived yet, _________ have they. (and, nor) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I read the book, _________ did not understand it. (but, or) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We searched diligently, ________ found nothing. (or, yet) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Write sentences using "I prefer " (something) " to " ( something else). Put the verb into the correct form where necessary. 1.( drive / travel by train ) I prefer… ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.( tennis / football ) I prefer…. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.( phone people / write letters) I … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.( go to the cinema / watch films on TV) I prefer… ________________________________________________________________________________________________

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3. In pairs, write four more sentences using “I prefer” and share them to your partner read the sentences in pairs. 1.

__________________________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________________________

3.

__________________________________________________________________________________

4.

__________________________________________________________________________________

4. Rewrite the sentences using the structure " I prefer ( to do something) rather than … " 1. I prefer…rather than.. 2. I prefer…rather than… 3. I prefer…rather than… 4. I prefer…rather than…

5. Write sentences using " I would prefer… " or " I would rather… " 1. Can we walk home? ( prefer)….. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do you want to eat now? ( rather) …. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. May we watch TV? ( prefer) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What about a game of tennis ? ( rather) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Should we leave now? (rather) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Do you want to go to a restaurant? ( prefer) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I think we should decide now? ( rather) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would you like to sit down? ( prefer) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Do you want me to come with you? ( prefer) … ________________________________________________________________________________________________

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6. Put the following verbs in parenthesis into a suitable tense: 1. I'd rather you ___________________________________________________ (not watch) TV while I'm reading. 2. Sue would rather ____________________________ (read) than ___________________________ (watch) TV. 3. I wish you ___________________________________________________ (try) to listen to me just for once! 4. Jack prefers me ______________________________________ (not say) anything about the missing money. 5. Jack would rather ____________________________________ (not say) anything about the missing money. 6. I'd prefer you __________________________________________________ (not drive) tonight, it's raining a lot. 7. What ______________________________ you _________________________________ (prefer) coke or juice? 8. I ______________________________________________________________________________ (prefer) coke. 9. I'd rather he ______________________________________________________________ (not smoke) in my car. 10. I'd rather ___________________________________ (meet) my grandfather, he died before I had been born.

7. Fill in the lines with had/’d better or would/’d rather. 1. It’s getting dark. We ______________________________________________________________ go back now. 2. A: Can I borrow your car? B: You ________________________________________________________________________ not. 3. A: Can I borrow your camera? B: I _____________________________________________________________________ you didn´t. 4. You know, I ______________________________________________________________ you didn’t copy your homework in front of the teacher. 5. You ____________________________________________________________________ take insect repellant if you’re camping near Yecora. 6. I _______________________________________________________________________ go to Altar than Oquitoa any day. 7. We _____________________________________________________________________ you didn’t hang out with Carlos. He’s bad news. 8. A: Miguel, I ______________________________________________________________ you didn’t wear jeans in the office. B: Carlos, I’d rather you weren’t my boss.

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Activity 2

In class make the following survey. Prepare the questions you will need to do to make the questionnaire. If you are not sure ask your teacher for help.

Running is more pleasant than swimming. I prefer to go hiking than walking. I hate writing letters! I prefer to send e-mails than to write letters. i feel tired every evening. I prefer dogs to cats do you mind if someone tells you the truth? I’d prefer to be at home I prefer French food to English I rather go to the movies on Wednesdays.

Student 1 Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

Student 2 Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

Now in teams of three create a dialogue using the questions and answers obtained in the survey, finally roll play the dialogue in class. Example: A: Do you prefer to go hiking than walking? B: Yes I love to hike, but C says he rather walks than hike. Dialogue here:

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Dialogue continuation here:

Activity no. 2 Factual Identifies the use of preference modals to show likes and dislikes related with realia activities Co evaluation

EVALUATION Dialogue creation. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Recognizes and understands spoken messages created in a dialogue form by the team regarding to tastes and preferences in relation to recreation aspects. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude

Collaborates with peers through activities in teams. Obtained value:

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8. Complete each sentence using “prefer to” or “rather than”. Now draw an image for each sentence.

____________________________________

__________________________________________

____________________________________

__________________________________________

Eat at home

Listen to some music

____________________________________

__________________________________________

____________________________________

__________________________________________

Wait till later

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Get a taxi stand


____________________________________

__________________________________________

____________________________________

__________________________________________

Go alone

Think about it for a while

____________________________________

__________________________________________

____________________________________

__________________________________________

Go for a swim

Wait a few minutes

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Closing activities Listening practice

8. Read the following sentences. Correct them if needed. Then listen to the audio track and check your answers. 1.

Pedro prefer to driving to travelling be train. He always drives to work.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

Sandy prefers living in the city into living in the country. She likes going shopping, eating out, and meeting

people. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

Andres prefer skiing the swimming. He goes to the mountains every month.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

Margarita prefer to liveding in a house to living in a flat. She has a nice garden with horrible plants and

flowers. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.

Samuel prefers not reading a book into watching television. She has got a lot of books.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.

Daniel prefers eat the home to goesing to a restaurant. His mother cook delicious food.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

I would rather eating a colder sandwich.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.

Veronica’s friends inviteding sher to the cinema. However, she isn’t very tired. She would to rather staying at

home than to go to he cinema. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

I doesn’t wants to watch TV tonight. I’d rather readed a books than watch TV.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I’d rather telephoneing then send a e-mailer. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. I’d rather ate healthys food than junker food. _________________________________________________________________________________________________

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12. It might rains. You must better taken an umbrella. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. You better go to bed early. You doesn’t have an exam tomorrow. You’d better go to bed early. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. You don’t looked very wall. You better stay in bed and rest. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. It’s not cold outside. You better put on your coats. _________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. Complete the sentences choosing the correct option. (

) 1. They___________keep off the fissure, or they will fall. a) 'd better not b) 'd better c) would rather not

(

) 6. I think you'd better_________________in this weather. You will catch a cold. a) not go out b) go not out c) not to go out

(

) 2. I wanted to go on, but the doctor told me____________ a) I'd better not because I looked very tired b) I would rather be better c) I had me better

(

) 7. Really, I'd rather _______________what I think about his last novel, he would kill me. a) you didn't tell me b) not tell you c) not have told you

(

) 3. What_________________,have some coffee now or wait until lunch ? a) had you better do b) would you rather do c) did he do better

(

) 8. I'd rather sleep for a While_____________keep on working like crazy a) before than b) that c) than

(

) 4. Don't push me.____________ one thing well, than many wrong. a) We'd better do b) I'd rather do c) I'd rather not do

(

) 9. Who______________go to Guaymas instead of doing the skating evening ? a) had better b) would rather c) would you rather

(

) 5. I don't like them at rather____________with them. a) you not go b) you don't go c) you didn't go

(

) 10. The teacher said we __________ learn the present first and then go on to the past. a) had better b) hadn't better c) hadn't rather

all.

I'd

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Talking practice 11. Form teams of three. Tell your partner, what do you prefer? Example: A holiday at the seaside or in the mountains. I’d rather spend my holidays at the seaside than in the mountains. 1. Working from home or from the office? 2. Travelling by car or by public transport? 3. Going to the cinema or to the theatre? 4. Meat of fish as a main course? 5. Winter fashion or summer fashion? 6. Reading or watching television? 7. A dog or a cat? 8. Learning vocabulary or grammar?

12. Register your partner´s participation

150

Category

Value

Participates in the activity

2

Listens to Others

2

Orders the words correctly

3

Uses the grammar correctly.

2

Eye contact

3

Student 1

Student 2

Total


13. Work in teams of three, practice your English and talk about the situations supposing that your friend did the following: He/she gossiped about you to a friend, called your brother a liar, wasn’t polite to your father ("He can’t drive !"), borrowed your pen and broke it, danced too closely to your boy / girlfriend, left you waiting for him/her at the park for more than 45 minutes.

Talk about what you didn’t like. Use the structures reviewed. (rather / prefer) Write your conclusions

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

Category

Value

Participates in the activity

2

Listens to Others

2

Orders the words correctly

3

Uses the grammar correctly.

2

Eye contact

3

Student 1

Student 2

Total

151


Activity 3 Which School Should We Choose?

Imagine that your group would like to study at an intensive English program in a country where English is the primary language. You have the following three schools from which to choose. In teams formed by your teacher, decide which school you would like to attend basing your decisions on whatever reasons you feel are valid (i.e. free time, English learning goals, cost, duration, curiosity about the country and its culture, etc.). Below you will find phrases and language helpful in expressing opinions, preferences and disagreeing.

Suggestions: Where shall we...., Let's ..., Why don't we...., What about...., How about....

Opinions, Preferences: I think..., In my opinion..., I'd like to..., I'd rather..., I'd prefer..., The way I see it..., As far as I'm concerned..., If it were up to me...

Disagreeing: I don't think that..., Don't you think it would be better..., I don't agree, I'd prefer..., Shouldn't we consider..., But what about..., I'm afraid I don't agree...

British Best

Hawaiian Paradise Learning

a) London, England

a) School located in a park on Oahu Island 60

b) Language instruction 6 hours a day, Monday through Saturday

miles from Honolulu b) Language instruction 4 hours a day, Monday

c) Housing with a British family - breakfast included d) 14 days - 12 days of instruction

through Friday c) Housing in a bungalow 5 minute walk from the

e) Teachers qualified with TEFL Certificate f)

beach - breakfast, and dinner included

4 Outings included: Tate Gallery, Concert in

d) 14 days - 10 days of instruction

Royal Albert Hall, The Countryside around

e) English native speaking teachers

London, Cats (Musical)

f)

g) Price: $1,500 round-trip airfare included

Beach Party, Scuba-Snorkel Safari, Wind-Surfing included

g) Price: $1,700 round-trip airfare included

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English Program at University of Sonora a) School located in the small town of Hermosillo in Sonora, MEX, population 40,000 b) University staff - all teachers with Masters Degree c) Language instruction 5 hours a day, Monday through Saturday d) Dormitory style housing, breakfast, lunch and dinner included e) 14 days - 12 days of instruction f)

Nature walks, meet American and Mexican students party (party to make introductions between Mexican students and international students), skiing at weekends included.

g) Price: $1,400 round-trip airfare included

Prepare a power point (if you don’t have a computer prepare flip charts) and an oral presentation with your team’s preferences. Don’t forget to use the forms given in the block. Use the following rubric to grade the activity.

Grading Rubric CATEGORY

4

3

2

1

Knowledge

Can accurately tell author, illustrator, title and favorite part of story when asked several days after the retelling.

Can accurately tell author, title and favorite part of story when asked several days after the retelling.

Can accurately tell title and favorite part of story when asked several days after the retelling.

Has trouble remembering title without prompting.

Listens to Others

Always listens attentively to other storytellers. Is polite and does not appear bored or make distracting gestures or sounds.

Usually listens attentively to other storytellers. Rarely appears bored and never makes distracting gestures or sounds.

Usually listens to other storytellers, but sometimes appears bored. Might once or twice accidentally make a gesture or sound that is distracting.

Does not listen attentively. Tries to distract the storytellers, makes fun of them, or does other things instead of listening.

Usually speaks loudly, slowly and clearly. Is easily understood by all audience members almost all the time.

Usually speaks loudly and clearly. Speaks so fast sometimes that audience has trouble understanding.

Speaks too softly or mumbles. The audience often has trouble understanding.

The solution to the problem is easy-tounderstand and is somewhat logical.

The solution to the problem was a little hard to understand.

No solution was attempted or it was impossible to understand.

Voice

Solution to Problem in Story

Always speaks loudly, slowly and clearly. Is easily understood by all audience members all the time The solution to the problem is easy-tounderstand and is logical. There are no loose ends.

153


Vocabulary

Uses a varied vocabulary appropriate for the audience, and also successfully tries to enlarge the audience's vocabulary.

Uses a varied vocabulary that is appropriate for the audience.

Uses a varied vocabulary that is occasionally a little to simple or a little too hard for the audience.

The vocabulary was not varied OR was routinely inappropriate for the intended audience.

Role Shifting

Shifts roles smoothly almost all the time. It is very easy for the audience to tell which character is speaking.

Shifts roles pretty well. It is usually easy for the audience to tell which character is speaking

Tried to do role shifting, but it wasn't very successful. It often was hard for the audience to tell which character is speaking.

Did not attempt role shifting. It was very difficult for the audience to tell which character was speaking.

Total

Activity no. 3 Factual Recognizes and understands in several messages “Real English usage� regarding tastes and preferences Co evaluation

154

EVALUATION Multitask activity KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation and auditory segment related to preferences. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows participative attitude in the activity. Obtained value:


Didactic Sequence 2. I like to go… Start up activity Activity 1

Answer the questionnaire. A). Choose the appropriate word or sentence. 1.

What is a verb form ending with -ing called? a) gerund b) passive c) infinitive d) possessive

2.

A verb form that begins with “To” is called: a) possessive b) gerund c) infinitive d) passive

3.

Which sentence is in the correct form? a) She began to sing the song. b) I hope waiting for you. c) They denied to have any money. d) You avoided to see your mother.

4.

Which sentence is in the correct form? a) After the teacher left, we continued reading the book. b) The judge agreed having the man’s plea. c) Jane needs buying new shoes. d) I hope waiting for you.

5.

Select the word that completes the sentence. The salesman wanted me ________ the new car. a) to drive b) to drived c) runs

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies and recognizes grammatical forms relating them to prior knowledge. Auto evaluation

B)

Identify the underlined words. Sneezing spreads colds. a) Past participle b) Gerund c) Present participle d) Infinitive He suggested taking the A train. a) Past participle b) Gerund c) Infinitive d) Present participle Just imagine being there! a) Past participle b) Present participle c) Infinitive d) Gerund He was concerning about swimming so soon after lunch. a) Present participle b) Gerund c) Past participle d) Infinitive

C).

Correct the sentence below, make any necessary changes.

He claims having to read that book in school. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

EVALUATION Questionnaire KNOWLEDGE Procedural Uses and recognizes segments of prior grammar knowledge in the questionnaire’s resolution. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows a respectful and cooperative attitude with classmates and with the solution of the activity. Obtained value:

155


Grammar Gerunds and Infinitives Easy and Clear Rules • The gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence. Eating too much fast food is not good for your health. Playing basketball is very fun.

• Use It is [adjective] to … (infinitive) to make the infinitive the subject of a sentence. It’s not good for your health to eat too much fast food. It’s very fun to play basketball.

• Use the gerund after a preposition. I’m tired of doing the same thing over and over gain every day. They are excited about attending the meeting tomorrow. I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon. She’s used to driving at night

• Use the infinitive after an adjective. I was surprised to see her at the party yesterday. They were anxious to meet with the president this weekend. I’m glad to meet you. • Use the infinitive to explain the purpose of an action. I came here (in order) to study English.

• Put not just before the gerund or the infinitive to make it negative. Not doing your homework is a big mistake. She was angry about not being invited to the reception. I decided not to go there tomorrow. Try not to be late.

• … Verb [someone] to … (infinitive) He told us to stay home. I want you to be the best student in class. She advised me not to take such a risk.

• Use the gerund after a possessive (my, their, Tom’s, etc.) I appreciate your inviting me to the party. We are proud of Mary’s winning the first place in the race.

156


Resuming Infinitives and Gerunds grammar There are a few basic rules regarding the use of infinitives and gerunds.  Infinitives and gerunds are noun forms. If used before the main verb, they are the subject of the verb; after the main verb, they are the object of the verb.  If a preposition is used after the verb, do not use an infinitive.  If a common expression ends with a preposition, then it may be followed by a gerund. Examples:  Verb + infinitive (A): We cannot afford to wait.  Verb + (pro)noun + infinitive (B): That will cause him to think again.  A or B: They are allowed to stay out past midnight. Please allow her to be absent tomorrow.  Verb + gerund: I admit getting defensive when I am incorrectly blamed for something.  Verb + infinitive or gerund: You advised me to take that course. You advised taking that course. In addition, some verb phrases take gerunds e.g. carry on (doing something), or put off (doing something). Also, infinitives may be used after a number of adjectives, e.g. happy (to do something) or determined (to do something), or other structures.

157


Development activities Gerunds and Infinitives Exercises

1. Put the bracketed verb into the appropriate gerund or infinitive form: Ex.

(tell) They hesitated to tell her because they were afraid. (smoke) She quit smoking.

1. (kick) Stop __________________________the ball into the river. 2. (fall) The rain kept _________________________last night. 3. (pick) I must go to the pharmacy __________________________up your prescription. 4. (have) I am ________________________my birthday party this Saturday. 5. (watch) Do you like _________________________wrestling on T.V? 6. (date) Are you __________________________that boy? 7. (stand) No one is allowed _________________________up on this ride. 8. (call) She is _________________________out your name. 9. (make) Would you like _________________________a cake with me? 10. (run) She enjoys __________________________to school. 11. (write) No ________________________on the desks please. 12. (sing) Would you like _________________________with the choir this year?

2. Use either the gerund or infinitive form of the bracketed verb to complete the sentences correctly. Examples:

I don’t know how ________ (tell) Jim that I don’t want to go to the ball with him. I don’t know how to tell Jim that I don’t want to go to the ball with him. Connie is _______ (go) see the dentist after school today. Connie is going to see the dentist after school today.

1. Roberto and Juan hesitated _____________________________ (tell) Hiram that he wasn’t invited to the party. 2. I think Mom should quit _____________________________ (smoke) because it can cause serious health problems later on. 3. I am very excited about _____________________________ (meet) Martha Stewart next week. 4. If had a daughter and she was 15, would you allow her _____________________________ (date)? 5. Marcos is planning _____________________________ (join) a singing contest next month. 6. Raquel is _____________________________ (deny) that she copied my homework. 7. Remember _____________________________ (wash) all the dishes before you go out today.

158


8.

In my opinion, policemen are supposed __________________________ (do) everything they can __________________________ (catch) thieves.

9.

Sandra’s dad is starting _____________________________ (accept) her new boyfriend.

10. Enrique hates _____________________________ (get) into arguments with his wife about money. 11. Daniel and Ricardo learned _____________________________ (play) Volleyball together when they were young. 12. It stopped _____________________________ (rain) an hour ago; I think we can go out now. 13. We need _____________________________ (drink) 8 glasses of water each day in order to maintain a nice complexion. 14. Why are you_______________________________________ (walk) back and forth in front of the TV? it is ____________________________ (get) very annoying. 15. By not _____________________________ (confront) them, we are only _____________________________ (show) them we are afraid and want _____________________________________________ (continue) _____________________________ (hide). 16. If you drink and drive, you are going _____________________________ (lose) your license. 17. After Beatriz eats chocolate, she doesn’t like _____________________________ (brush) her teeth. 18. Dogs like _____________________________ (go) for walks when it is hot outside. 19. Hey Bernardo. Please remember _____________________________ (lock) the door when you leave. 20. I don’t like _____________________________ (swim) when the water is cold.

2. Choose the correct verbs and write it in the line. 1) I like to _____________________________ (swim/swimming) 2) Every morning I go _____________________________ (run/running) 3) The author spends all his time _____________________________ (write/writing) 4) John really _____________________________ to go to the movies (likes/liking) 5) I like to _____________________________ to music (listen/listening) 6) My girlfriend likes to go _____________________________ (shop/shopping) 7) My friend’s dad hates to _____________________________ (cook/cooking) 8) I really need to _____________________________ for this English 161 exam (study/studying) 9) There is too much _____________________________ in this class (read/reading) 10) I really need to _____________________________ my room; it’s filthy (clean/cleaning)

159


3. Fill in the correct form of the verb.

1. Mary enjoys ________________________________ to music. (listen) 2. I don’t mind ___________________ the washing up. (do) 3. Irregular verbs are not easy ___________________ . (remember) 4. Mateo is really good at ___________________ . (cook) 5. She waited ___________________ a movie ticket. (buy) 6. The doctor encouraged his patients ___________________ healthy food. (eat) 7. My flat is easy ___________________ . (find) 8. She is interested in ___________________ a doctor. (become) 9. He is saving money ___________________ a new car. (buy) 10. When I met her I couldn’t help ___________________ her. (hug) 11. My favorite hobby is ___________________ . (cook) 12. My father helped me ___________________ my homework. (do) 13. I’m sick of ___________________ hamburgers every day. (eat) 14. It is important ___________________ the net for more information. (surf) 15. She advised me ___________________ a doctor as soon as possible. (see) 16. I don’t feel like ___________________ English today. (study) 17. Isabel got Diego ___________________ her car (wash) 18. ___________________ sport every day is good for your health. (do) 19. At last they decided ___________________ the apartment. (rent) 20. I pretended ___________________ asleep. (be)

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Activity 2 Game

5. Description: This is a guided-speaking activity with conversation prompts. The prompts encourage use of gerunds and infinitives following a main verb. Play in groups of three or four, using a coin to flip. You can use heads moves one and tails moves two, or to create more competition, heads moves one and tails moves three. The team should use the questions and speak with a few full sentences in order to practice the use of gerunds and infinitives. However, beyond that, converse freely about the questions, asking each other questions for more details.

Start here What do you enjoy doing in your free time?

What is something you promised your mother to do?

What will you never stop doing?

What do you sometimes put off doing?

Have you ever forgotten to do something important? What?

What is something special you really want to do before you die?

What are you nervous about doing in your future?

What chores were you responsible for doing when you were a child?

What do you think you are too young to do?

What do you think you are too old to do?

Do you have enough time to do what you need to do in your life? Explain.

Are you considering any job or career changes? Explain.

What are you good at doing?

What topics are you interested in reading about?

What do you hate doing?

END

What is something you can’t wait to do?

When and where is the last place you went sightseeing?

What do you need to do to succeed in school?

What would you like to learn to do?

Why do you believe or not believe in ghosts?

Do you ever feel too shy to do something? Explain.

Activity no. 2 Factual Distinguishes the grammatical structures and manages the use of infinitives and gerunds in a ludic/playful activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Game board KNOWLEDGE Procedural Recognizes and identifies information on the use of verbs followed by infinitives or gerunds to make the board game. C MC NYC

What are thinking about doing next summer?

What are you doing in the future that you are excited about?

Value: Attitude Collaborates actively and participative with peers to do the activity. Obtained value:

161


6. Write in each line either the gerund or the infinitive form of the verb in parentheses. Alejandro was in his first year at university, studying History. He was rather

a

lazy

student,

and

he

tended

to

avoid

(work)

_________________________ whenever he could. In the middle of the semester, his history professor gave out an assignment, due in two weeks.

Alejandro

intended

(do)

_________________________

the

assignment, but he postponed (write) _________________________ it for a week. The following week, he forgot (do) _________________________ it. The night before the assignment was due, he suddenly remembered it, and rushed to the library. He tried (read) _________________________ as much as possible on the topic, but there wasn't enough time. Alejandro considered (ask) _________________________ for more time to do his paper, but the History professor was known to be very tough on students, so finally he decided (cheat) _________________________ and copy his paper from somewhere else. He found an old article on the same topic, and quickly typed it out. The next day, he submitted the paper. The following week, he was alarmed (see) _________________________ the professor approaching him, looking angry. "Is this your own work, or did you copy it?" asked the professor. Alejandro denied (copy) _________________________ the paper. "If you expect me (believe) _________________________ that, you must be very stupid," said the professor. "Every word is taken from an article I wrote myself five years ago. Did you really think I would forget (write) _________________________ it?"

7. Underline the gerunds or gerund phrases in each sentence. 1. Raising the funds proved to be a difficult task. 2. Camping at Kino Bay was the Smith family’s annual summer vacation. 3. Jose hoped to obtain a job by learning the welding trade. 4. The Martinez family loves cooking for relatives. 5. I am able to earn money by working in the campus library. 8. Underline the infinitives in each sentence. 1. Clara goes to her grandmother’s house to eat homemade sweets. 2. The purpose of the class was to teach children how to swim. 3. The hostess asked Jill to refill the punch bowl. 4. To clean the house seemed like an impossible task. 5. Doris was asked to host the baby shower. 162


9. Underline the verb in each sentence and indicate whether it is a gerund (G), or an infinitive (I). (I) 1. Jennifer’s goal was to graduate from the University of Sonora. 2. John’s favorite outdoor activity is skiing. 3. Going on a cruise and climbing Mt. Lemon Rachel’s summer vacation plans. 4. Dancing with the famous instructor, Daniel felt like a star. 5. Animals dumped in the streets often become a menace. 6. The girls love to swim at Julia’s house. 7. Watching the birds is one of Mr. Mazon’s hobbies. 8. Enedina, was baking 10 cakes for the festival, but accidentally burned one of them. 9. Working out daily should be an essential part of Mexican life. 10. I have a book to return to the library.

10. With a partner, decide which of the meanings from the box best matches the meaning in each sentence. 1. I remembered to pay my bills this past weekend.

(

)

2. I often forget to put money in the parking meter.

(

)

3. I remember watering my garden when I lived in England. It took three hours because the garden was so big.

(

)

4. How can you forget visiting Thailand?

(

)

5. I’ll never forget buying my first car.

(

)

a. duty or responsibility b. to recall or not recall the past c. wishing you had not done

6. I regret to tell you that Arthur Ashe has died. I know how much you admired him.

(

)

something in the past

7. She regrets to tell us that she can’t come to our party.

(

)

d. telling bad news

8. I regret starting to smoke when I was 13 years old.

(

)

e. experiment with new

9. We regret moving to New York City.

(

)

approaches or solutions

10. I have tried to learn Spanish, but I’m not a good student.

(

)

f. make an effort

11. He tries to exercise every day.

(

)

12. Andrea tried sleeping on the floor, but her backache continued.

(

)

13. If you burn yourself, try putting ice on the burn immediately.

(

)

163


11. Choose the best answer to each of your teacher’s five questions. Then discuss your choices with your team. Your teacher will repeat a question if there is disagreement within your group. 1. a. Jose stopped to buy premium gas last week. b. Jose stopped buying premium gas last week. 2. a. Mary remembered to lock the door before she left. b. Mary remembered putting the cat out before she left. 3. a. I regret telling you the secret about Jennifer. b. I regret to tell you that I wrecked your car. 4. a. Tomas was very hot, so he tried to turn on the air conditioner. b. Tomas was very hot, so he tried turning on the air conditioner. 5. a. Luis did not forget to tell you about the test. b. Luis did not forget receiving your letter.

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Closing activity Activity 3 COCKTAIL PARTY Class activity Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Arrange the group in teams of 6 to 8. Each group must stand together. Each group chooses a situation box. 2. As in a party setting (but with a time limit), the team should socialize by asking questions or making statements and suggestions about the situation. You must use verbs followed by infinitives or gerunds whenever possible. 3. A different situation may be given by your teacher to the team after a few minutes of talking.

Situation #1

Situation #2

Plan a birthday party, complete with entertainment and food, for a classmate.

A classmate wants to be accepted at a prestigious university, but he/she is nervous about the oral interview. Give advice.

Verb suggestions: advice, stop, consider, recommend, enjoy, ask, plan, prepare, remember, want, (don’t) forget, promise

Situation #3 Complain about the rising cost of living such as health care, car insurance, etc. Try to end the conversation on a positive note. Verb suggestions: admit, deny, anticipate, dislike, can’t help, regret, tolerate, claim, afford, hesitate, pretend, understand, learn, want, appreciate, wish

Verb suggestions: advise, avoid, finish, (don’t) delay, mention, practice, remember, dislike, (don’t) quit, decide, need, want, wait

Situation #4 Give advice on (a) losing weight and (b) gaining confidence to make a good impression on people (boss, spouse, girlfriend/boyfriend, etc.). Verb suggestions: advise, avoid, keep, (don’t) miss, postpone, suggest, expect, hope, seem, need, struggle, learn, offer, want, plan

165


4. As a follow-up activity, you can write the questions or statements that you remember from the party interaction. on the box provided.

166


Rubric Value

0-4

Subject

Delivery

CRITERIA

SCORE

___kept eye contact with the audience (1 pt.) ___used gestures appropriately (1 pt.) ___had a correct posture (1 pt.) ___the interest level of the audience was maintained (1 pt.) ___Pronunciation of the words and fluency were appropriate ( .43 pts.) Accurate use of grammar structures in the use of:

0-3

Language usage

___ Simple past (.43 pts.) ___ Simple present (.43 pts.) ___ used to (.43 pts.) ___ Future (.43 pts.) ___ Present progressive (.43 pts.) ___ Phrasal verbs (.43 pts.)

___Presentation was clear and organized (1pt.)

0-7

0-3

0-3

Content

Visual aid

Comprehensibility

Description of (3 points each description, 1 each idea): ___ the events as a child ___ the hobbies as a child ___ activities the person does nowadays ___what the person is doing nowadays ___the plans for the future ___why you admire this person Use of the visual aid: ___ was appropriate ( .75 points ) ___ was attractive ( .75 points ) ___ enhanced the presentation ( .75 points ) ___ kept the interest of the audience ( .75 points ) ___Correct pitch of voice (1 pt.). ___Explanation appropriate for the level (1 pt.). ___All questions from the audience were answered (1 pt.).

Activity no.3 Factual Recognizes and uses in a coherent way the vocabulary related to daily activities and the subject from the block. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Cocktail party KNOWLEDGE Procedural Uses and recognizes segments of prior grammar knowledge in the questionnaire’s resolution. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows a respectful and cooperative attitude with classmates and with the solution of the activity. Obtained value:

167


COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES LISTS

168


Common verbs followed by Gerunds. An asterisk (*) denotes a verb that can also be followed by infinitive

Abhor

endure

practice

tolerate

acknowledge

enjoy

prefer

try*

Admit

escape

prevent

understand

Allow

evade

prohibit

urge

Appreciate

explain

propose

Attempt

fancy

practice

Avoid

feel like

prefer*

be worth

feign

prevent

Began

finish

prohibit

*can't bear

forgive

propose

can't help

give up (stop)

quit

can't stand*

hate*

recall

Celebrate

imagine

recollect

Confess

justify

recommend

Consider

keep (continue)

regret*

*continue

like*

report

Defend

love*

resent

Delay

mention

resist

Deny

mind (object to)

resume

Detest

Miss

risk

discontinue

necessitate

shirk

Discuss

Omit

shun

Dislike

permit

start*

Dispute

picture

suggest

Dread

postpone

support

169


For example, I dread seeing my Aunt Bessie. She gives me kisses all over my face.

Common Verbs Followed by an Infinitive Example:

I

refuse

to lie

to my customers.

Verb

Infinitive

afford

come

hesitate

prefer

swear

agree

consent

hope

prepare

tend

appear

continue

hurry

pretend

threaten

arrange

dare

incline

profess

turn out

ask

decide

intend

promise

venture

attempt

deserve

learn

prove

volunteer

begin

determine

like

refuse

want

can’t afford

elect

long

request

wish

can’t bear

endeavor

love

resolve

would like

can’t stand

expect

manage

say

yearn

can’t wait

fail

mean

seek

care

get

need

seem

chance

grow up

offer

shudder

choose

guarantee

pay

start

claim

hate

plan

strive

Verbs Followed by Object + Infinitive Example:

They

invited

me

to go

to the party.

Verb

Object

Infinitive

*Indicates verbs that can be followed by an infinitive only (no object).

170

advise

force

remind

encourage

prepare*

allow

hire

require

permit

would like*

ask*

invite

teach

warn

cause

need*

tell

expect*

choose*

order

urge

forbid

convince

pay*

want*

persuade


Common verbs list

Verb + infinitive (A) Verb + (pro)noun/ + infinitive (B) afford cause agree challenge aim dare appear enable arrange encourage attempt forbid care force claim hire consent instruct decide invite demand need deserve order fail permit happen persuade hesitate remind hope require intend select learn teach manage tell mean urge need warn offer omit plan prepare pretend propose prove refuse seek seem struggle swear tend threaten train turn out undertake volunteer wait

(A) or (B)

Verb + gerund Verb + infinitive or gerund

allow ask beg choose convince expect promise want wish would like

admit anticipate appreciate avoid complete confess consider delay deny despise detest discuss dread enjoy escape excuse fancy finish imagine involve justify (dis)like keep (on) mention mind miss postpone practice quit recall recollect recommend resent resist risk save stop suggest tolerate understand

advise begin can’t make** can’t stand continue feel** forget* guarantee hate hear** let** like love neglect prefer regret* remember* stop* start try watch *meaning differs between gerund and infinitive forms ** “to” is omitted with these verbs, e.g. I helped him carry the ladder.

171


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DESCRIBES INFORMATION ABOUT OBJECTS, PLACES AND PEOPLE.

Competencias Disciplinares básicas:      

Identifica, ordena e interpreta las ideas, datos y conceptos explícitos e implícitos en un texto, considerando el contexto en el que se generó y en el que se recibe. Evalúa un texto mediante la comparación de un contenido con el de otros, en función de sus conocimientos previos y nuevos. Valora el pensamiento lógico en el proceso comunicativo en su vida cotidiana y académica. Identificar e interpretar la idea general y posible desarrollo de un mensaje oral o escrito en una segunda lengua, recurriendo a conocimientos previos, elementos no verbales y contexto. Se comunica en una lengua extranjera mediante un discurso lógico, oral o escrito, congruente con la situación comunicativa. Utiliza las tecnologías de la información y comunicación para investigar, resolver problemas, producir materiales y trasmitir información.

Unidad de competencia:

Expresa y comprende información sobre objetos, lugares y personas en contextos reales..

Atributos a desarrollar en el bloque:

Durante el presente bloque se busca desarrollar los siguientes atributos de las competencias genéricas: 4.1 Expresa ideas y conceptos mediante representaciones lingüísticas, matemáticas o gráficas. 4.2 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los objetivos que persigue. 4.3 Identifica las ideas claves en un texto o discurso oral e infiere conclusiones a partir de ellas. 4.4 Se comunica en una segunda lengua en situaciones cotidianas. 4.5 Maneja las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para obtener información y expresar ideas. 6.4 Estructura ideas y argumentos de manera clara, coherente y sintética. 7.1 Define metas y da seguimiento a sus procesos de construcción de conocimiento. 8.2 Aporta puntos de vista con apertura y considera los de otras personas de manera reflexiva. 10.3 Asume que el respeto de las diferencias es el principio de integración y de convivencia en los contextos local, nacional e internacional.

Time assigned: 15 hours.


Didactic sequence 1. I have a friend who is a great singer. Start up activity Activity 1 Let’s Interview Our Friends! 1a). - Interview three of your class mates. Choose a hobby from the boxes What is your hobby? Friend 1: _______________________________________________________________ Friend 2: _______________________________________________________________ Friend 3: _______________________________________________________________ What kind of house do you live in? Choose an option from the box. Friend 1: _______________________________________________________________

Hobby: plays basketball; goes fishing; watches television; watches movies; eats curry rice;plays with their pet; makes plastic models; plays TV games.

Friend 2: _______________________________________________________________ Friend 3: _______________________________________________________________ What is your friend doing? Choose an option from the box.

House/Home: blue; white; black; red; gray; tall; big; small; large; pink; old; new.

Friend 1: _______________________________________________________________ Friend 2: _______________________________________________________________ Friend 3: _______________________________________________________________ 1b) Now in teams of four gather to share your team mates information. 1c) Practice these sentences to introduce your friend. 1. I have a friend who plays basketball. 2. My friend has a home which is blue. 3. My friend has a friend that is sitting in this classroom. 4. My friend is Ken.

1d) Now is your turn. Introduce your friends to the class according to the information you have.

174

Friend is…: sitting, reading, standing, talking, smiling, walking.


Register your friend information here.

Friend 1 Name Ramon

hobby basketball

house/home blue

What is __________________’s friend doing? sitting

Friend 2 Name Aurora

hobby Watches movies

house/home short

What is __________________’s friend doing? sitting

Friend 3 Name Ken

Hobby basketball

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

house/home blue

Sitting

EVALUATION Interview practice KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or hearing segment related to the interview. C

MC

What is __________________’s friend doing?

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:

175


Grammar Using Relative Pronouns

While we use personal pronouns the most, there are also other types of pronouns. Let’s take a closer look at relative pronouns.

Pronouns are words that stand in for a noun. Instead of writing this: Icela rode Icela’s bike to the park.

We could use pronouns and write this: She rode her bike to the park. She and her are some of the personal pronouns we often use.

Relative pronouns are used as connecting words to introduce adjective clauses. •An adjective clause does the same job as a single adjective. It modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun.

Remember to use who, whose, and whom with proper nouns or names. •Sergio, who helps the men at Fire Station 24, rides on the fire truck. •Mrs. Soto is the teacher whom everyone likes.

Here are some common relative pronouns: •that, who, whom, what, which, whose, whomever, whoever

Use the relative pronouns that and which when talking about things or animals. The fire truck, which is parked next to the station, is shiny. Sam returned the bike that he had borrowed. 176


What is a dependent clause?

Let’s look at our last sentence. * Sam returned the bike that he had borrowed.

Relative pronouns are used to introduce a dependent clause.

A dependent clause is a group of words that cannot express a complete thought and cannot stand alone. Is this a complete thought? No.

The relative pronoun is that. It introduces that he had borrowed.

Could it stand alone as a sentence? No. What about the rest of the sentence? Sam returned the bike. Is this a complete thought? Yes. Could that stand alone? Yes.

So the words that he had borrowed are dependent on the rest of the sentence, Sam returned the bike, to make sense. Therefore, that he had borrowed is a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun.

177


Development activities 1.

Let’s Review.

1. What type of pronoun introduces an adjective clause? __________________________________________________ 2. What does an adjective clause do? __________________________________________________________________ 3. Name four relative pronouns.______________ ______________ _______________ ______________ 4. Name two relative pronouns used when talking about people? ___________________and ____________________ 5. Name two relative pronouns used when talking about things? ___________________ and ____________________ 6. What is a dependent clause? _______________________________________________________________________ 2.

Underline the relative pronouns in the following sentences.

1. Mars, which is the largest planet, is often called the red planet. 2. Dad flew the kite that I had built. 3. The neighbor, who lives behind us, mows our lawn 4. The boat that has the yellow stripe is my favorite. 5. The children whose desks are neat will go to recess first. 6. Mrs. Thompson, whom all the children like, will be the story leader. 3.

Write a sentence using that and a sentence using who.

1. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. That or who? Fill in the blanks with the correct relative pronoun. 1. My brother, _______ likes to build model ships, won the boat-building contest. 2. The turtle ________ we keep in the aquarium is fun to watch.

178


5.

Read the text, and fill in the lines in the exercise That When Which Which Whose

That When Which

What When Which

When Where Which

Who

Who

Who

The paper-eater By Lilliam Hurst Have you ever hear about the man _________________ eats paper? This is a

true

story

_________________took

_________________I

heard.

_________________suffers

It's from

place

the

in

story

some

Australia

from

of

man

sort

a

of

disease

_________________makes him crave cellulose; _________________is the material

paper

is

made

of.

He

used

to

eat

newspapers,

_________________was all he could get, until his wife decided that it would be better if she made paper for him (so he wouldn't have to eat the ink _________________covers newspapers, you know). She didn't want to be known as the woman _________________husband was obliged to eat inky newspapers because he had no kind person to make newsprint for him. His wife is a woman _________________loves a joke, so she makes him paper _________________has all sorts of exotic flavors. So, now he only eats the paper _________________his wife makes and only eats ordinary newspapers _________________he is travelling, for instance _________________he is in New York. He likes to visit New York, because it is _________________the newspapers are the thickest. He is happiest on Sunday; _________________he is in New York, because that is _________________the newspapers are really thick. Thick newspapers, for him, are like a banquet at an excellent restaurant.

6.

Underline the correct pronoun (who, which, that).

Example: People enjoy eating in restaurants (who, that) offer a variety of dishes. 1. Florida residents (who, that) live in populated areas can find good restaurants. 2. Some people choose restaurants (that, which) are located nearby. 3. For those (who, whom) like seafood, there is a wide variety. 4. Fred likes to go to restaurants (that, who) are located near his home. 5. He has found many local restaurants (who, that) serve delicious dinners. 6. Some people will drive to a restaurant (that, which) is located far away. 7. My best friend, (who, which) lives in Tampa, drives eighty miles to a restaurant in Orlando. 8. She likes the Hard Rock CafĂŠ, (who, which) is located near a popular tourist attraction. 9. There are people in Florida (which, who) eat out every day! 10. In Florida, Fred is the man (who, whom) the restaurant owners love.

179


A. Underline the correct pronoun (who, which, that). B. Below each statement, write the two sentences that this sentence was built from. 7.

The first one is done as an example.

1. John loves to go to restaurants (which, that) serve spicy food. Eleazar loves to go to restaurants. Sanborn’s restaurants serve spicy food. 2. He likes tacos with chili’s (that, who) set his mouth on f ire. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Indian curry, (which, that) is hot and spicy, makes him smile. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If John gets a pizza, he adds red pepper, (which, who) the waiter brings to the table. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He must have a stomach (who, that) is very strong. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. John is a person (who, which) never gets sick from food. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. He can eat everything (that, which) the waiter brings. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. John also brings spicy food to work. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. He brought some peppers (that, who) burned our tongues. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We love the smell (that, which) comes out of the microwave into the hall. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

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8.

Write the correct pronoun (who, which, that).

Example: Small pack and ship stores mail things that people need to send. 1. Some people live near the ocean mail large seashells. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. One couple mailed two car seats, almost did not fit in a huge box. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Brian, was doing the packing, almost fell in the box. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He said a guy mailed a surfboard was over five feet long. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. People mail clocks need special handling. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. One clock, was over three feet, was too big for the store to mail. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Crystal containers, came from Austria, were very difficult to pack. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. However, the glass made it safely. The person packed it did a great job. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

Join the two sentences with: WHO, THAT, or WHICH clause.

1. The food called “Tex-Mex” is spicy. I like the spicy food. Example: I like the spicy food called “Tex-Mex.” 2. Students need money for tuition. They can apply for work-study scholarships. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. She asked to see the dress. The dress was in the store’s window. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman. Thomas Jefferson had many other interests. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. She is the friend. The friend always gets me into trouble. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. My idea was simple. I shared my idea. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The Civil War was an unpopular war. The war was really motivated by greed. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 181


8. The movie is well known over the world. The movie is Star Wars. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The basket was full of newspapers. The newspapers were old. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. They are the people. I told you about the people. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 2 2a) Read the following biography about this famous painter. Use your dictionary to find new words. Write them in the box provided with its meaning. Edouard Manet, who was an attractive, well-dressed, charming Parisian, was not the stereotypical bohemian artist who starved in a garret. The painters with whom Manet studied were traditionalists who usually rounded figures in paintings to give them a realistic sculptural quality. Manet, whose art contrasted sharply with the art of his contemporaries, painted flat figures in jewel-bright colors without shadows or shading. This approach, which left an “unfinished” look, tried to capture what the eye momentarily saw. Manet’s painting that most shocked the French people was Luncheon in the Grass, which pictured a nude woman at a picnic with two fully dressed men. In Manet’s time, paintings were usually judged by a prestigious Parisian art establishment that was known as the Salon. The judges of the Salon, who held an annual showcase of the Academy of Fine Arts, only included work that conformed to their standards. The Salon always rejected Manet’s paintings, which were full of color. Now his paintings, which were so badly received during his lifetime, hang in the Louvre and the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

2b) Find sentences using relative pronouns and relative clauses. How many did you find? ________________ 2c) Underline each relative pronoun with a red color ink pen or color pencil. 2d) Underline each relative sentence with a green color ink pen or color pencil.

182


2e) Separate and write the text in as many sentences as you can find where the use of relative pronouns is evident.

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2f) Now based on the biography you just read and analyzed, search for one of your favorite actor, actress or singer and make a biography flip chart about him or her. Pay attention on correct use of the sentences and be sure to utilize as many relative pronouns and relative sentences as you can. 2g) Include a picture about him or her and an example of something that he or she has made and makes that person so special for you to choose. 183


Flip’s chart Rubric CRITERIA

0-2 pts

Organization

SCORE

___Writing is coherent. ___There is logical sequencing.

Development of topic is appropriate to level and the ideas are well developed in the 3 meaningful sentences for each of the following points:

0-2pts

Content

0-4 pts

Grammatical accuracy

0-2 pts

Language use

___ giving a description of three important events the person experienced as a child ___ describing the hobbies the person had as a child ___ describing what the person usually does nowadays ___ talking about what the person is doing these days ___ talking about the plans and goals the person has for the future ___ explaining why you admire this person ___ at least 4 relative pronouns or relative sentences

Accuracy in the use of the following tenses: ___ simple past (.67) ___ simple present (.67) ___ used to (.67) ___ future (.67) ___ present progressive (.67) ___ phrasal verbs (.67)

___Adequate range of vocabulary. ___Vocabulary is appropriate to level.

Activity no. 2 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

184

EVALUATION Flip chart KNOWLEDGE Procedural Describes oral and written information related to the biography. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:


Exercises 10. Complete the sentences using relative clauses. Use who and which. 1. A Mexican is a person (live in Mexico) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The axolotl is a monster (live in Mexican lakes) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. A fridge is a thing (keep food cool) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. A DJ is someone (play music in a party or discotheque) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. A bee is an insect (make honey) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. A lemon is a fruit (be yellow and sour) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. A watch is a thing (tell the time) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. A ferry is a ship (carry people across the water) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. A shop assistant is someone (work in a shop) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. A key is a thing (can open and lock doors) _________________________________________________________________________________________________

185


11. Select the correct relative pronoun from the box for each of the following sentences. Have you ever spoken to the people ( 1. Those (

) live next door?

) have not yet registered should do so at once.

2. There's a program on tonight (

) you might like.

3. He's got a job in a new firm, (

) they don't work such long hours.

4. What's the name of the tall man (

) just came in?

5. It's a book (

) will interest people of all ages.

6. The people (

) live next door keep having all-night parties.

7. These are the keys (

A. WHICH B. WHO C. THAT

) open the front and back door.

8. He's married somebody (

) I really don't like.

9. I gave him an envelope,(

) he put in his pocket at once.

12. Relative pronoun match

186

(

) I hate coffee shops

a) Who have traveled a lot.

(

) I don’t like films

b) That I can enjoy and stay at home.

(

) I admire people

c) Which make a lot of noise.

(

) I hate machines

d) Who talk about themselves too much.

(

) I hate mornings

e) Which play loud music.

(

) I look forward to weekends

f)

(

) I dislike people

g) Which have happy endings.

When I have to get up early.


13. Look at the chart of RELATIVE CLAUSES with WHO, WHICH and WHOSE and complete the activity below: WHO- Is used for PEOPLE:

WHICH - Is used for ANIMALS/THINGS:

WHOSE - Is used to express POSSESSION:

"David lives near my house. He walks to school every day" = "David, who walks to school every day, lives near my house." WHO refers to DAVID

"The red sweater is dirty. I was wearing it yesterday."= "The red sweater, which I was wearing yesterday, is dirty." WHICH refers to THEREDSWEATER ("it" doesn't appear in the relative clause, because the referent is "which" now)

"Andrea is moving to Navojoa. Her husband is working in a store there."= "Andrea, whose husband is working in a store, is moving to Navojoa." WHOSE refers to HERHUSBAND

a) The boy _______________________________________________________ won the prize felt really happy about it. b) The boy ___________________________________________ parents are talking to the teacher is sitting over there. c) David, _______________________________________________________ owns a very fast car, is a careless driver. d) Those jeans _____________________________________________________ you want to buy are really expensive. e) My cousin, ___________________________________________ school grades are outstanding, is always studying. f) That girl __________________________________________________ is carrying the red handbag is new at school. g) These three books, ____________________________ the teacher recommended us to read, are really interesting. h) All the children _______________________________________________ parents are waiting outside can go home. i) Lewis, ________________________________________________ plays tennis professionally, is an excellent player. j) My grandmother, ________________________________ dream is to do a parachute jump, is a very active woman.

14. Rewrite the sentences using a relative pronoun (who, which, whose), add commas where necessary. Then, relate them with pictures. Write the sentences with the same abbreviations you find in the given clauses: a) The film had already started when we arrived. It was very romantic. . ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ b) My grandfather is a very optimistic man. His third wife died three years ago. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 187


c) I bought all the ingredients. I needed them to prepare a cake. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ d) Tomas and Sara went to the cinema last weekend. They usually come to the cafeteria. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ e) Alma went to the police station yesterday. Her handbag was stolen in Reforma Street. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ f) My classmates went to the Natural History Museum last Friday. They love nature. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ g) My grandfather has lived in Nogales all his life. He was born in Italy. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ h) Alicia is sad because she has lost her handbag. It was new. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ i) My grandmother told me her secret recipe for the chocolate cake. It is delicious. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ j) The Natural History Museum in Mexico City is full of dinosaur skeletons. It is my favorite museum. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Combine the two sentences into one using the relative pronouns who (m), which, where etc. 1. Teresa is happy. She won the race. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I remember the day very well. I met Mr. President then. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. She is the woman. I told you about her. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I apologized to the woman. I accidentally broke her window. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The picture was beautiful. Alma was looking at it. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Mr. Carvajal has a painting. Its value is inestimable. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The town is small. I grew up there. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you know the boy? His parents are secret agents. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. I’ll never forget the time. We were a happy couple then. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

188


10. I’ve been to the famous house. Shakespeare lived there. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. The city has sixteen schools. Two of them are private. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. I have three brothers. All of them are married. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Roberto came home very late. It surprised me. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. The cooker is out of order. It makes our life really difficult. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. Add commas where necessary. 1. We enjoyed the city where we spent our summer holiday. 2. A rebel is a person who fights against authority. 3. The elephant which is the earth’s largest land mammal has few natural enemies. 4. One of the most useful materials is glass which is made mainly from sand, soda and lime. 5. Gasoline which some people refer to as black gold is one of the most valuable resources in the world today. 6. Mr. Smith? You mean the Mr. Smith who is your neighbor? 7. Martin who speaks Russian applied for the job. 8. Hawaii which consists of 8 principal islands is a favorite vacation spot.

17. Finish the sentences with relative clauses. 1. Jack is the only person ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. I’m incapable to help her. There’s nothing ____________________________________________________________ 3. I listen to everything _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. I don’t trust people ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I’ll never forget the food ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Everything _________________________________________________________________________________ is true. 7. Rafael told me about a fantastic hotel ________________________________________________________________ 8. I didn’t like the book _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. I’ll always remember the day ________________________________________________________________________ 10. He didn’t want to tell me the reason ________________________________________________________________ 11. The police are still trying to identify the body _________________________________________________________ 189


12. I really like people ________________________________________________________________________________ 13. My brother works for a company ___________________________________________________________________ 14. Miguel recommended a restaurant_________________________________________________________________ 15. Sandra asked him about the money ________________________________________________________________ 18. Write relative clauses without using the relative pronoun. Example: 1. I gave you a book. It had many pictures. The book I gave you had many pages________________________________________________________________ 2. I am reading a book at the moment. It is very interesting. The book ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Geronimo lives in a town. The town is very old. The town ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The candies are delicious. I bought them yesterday. The sweets ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The football match was very exciting. My friend Sergio played in it. The football match ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The letter hasn't arrived yet. I posted it three days ago. The letter ________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Yolanda lives in a house. The house is not very big. The house _______________________________________________________________________________________ 8. They are playing a song on the radio. Do you like it? Do you like ______________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Juan wore a beautiful shirt yesterday. Did you see it? Did you see _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Susana is going out with a boy. I don't like him. I don't like _______________________________________________________________________________________

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19. Put in the relative who, which or whose where necessary. Example: Peter is the boy ____ rides the blue bike. Answer: Peter is the boy who rides the blue bike. 1) This is the teenager_____________ had an accident. 2) Yesterday I saw a car _____________ was really old. 3) Mandy is the young woman _____________ I met on Friday. 4) I haven't seen Cesar; _____________ brother is five, for a long time now. 5) The thief stole the car _____________ the lady parked in front of the store. 6) This is the gentleman _____________ house is on fire. 7) Can I talk to the girl _____________ is sitting on the bench? 8) The book _____________ you gave me is great. 9) Raquel likes hamburgers _____________ are hot. 10) Bill Clinton, _____________ was President of the USA, has only one daughter.

20. Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used or not. (

) 1. The book which is on the table belongs to Benito. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

) 2. The museum which we visited last month is closed now. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

) 3. Yes, Maria. The man who you saw in the house is my cousin. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

) 4. Francisco, who I know very well, is going out with Mary. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

) 5. I cannot forget the song which they played last night. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

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(

)

6. The woman who is talking to Martha is my aunt. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

)

7. I cannot remember the hotel that we stayed at. Do you remember it? a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

)

8. Raquel, who I haven't seen for ages, rang me last night. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

)

9. A person that you don't trust won't trust you either. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

(

)

10. My mother, whom I helped to install her computer, always forgets her password. a) relative pronoun is necessary b) relative pronoun is not necessary

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Closing activity Activity 3

In teams of 4 for 5 students, prepare a power point presentation for class. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Give an explanation in your own words about relative sentences and relative pronouns. When and how to use those subjects. Everyone in the team must participate in the exposition. You may use a song, a dialogue or a movie to illustrate the presentation. In your report include research and note taking. Pre-production planning storyboard. (your drawn plan)The presentation must include introduction, content, and some text. Graphics, sounds and animations will be evaluated.

Presentation Rubric 1 Audience cannot understand presentation because there is no sequence of information.

Evaluating Student Presentations 2 3 Audience has difficulty following presentation because student jumps around.

Student presents information in logical sequence which audience can follow.

Subject Knowledge

Student does not have grasp of information; student cannot answer questions about subject.

Student is uncomfortable with information and is able to answer only rudimentary questions.

Student is at ease with expected answers to all questions, but fails to elaborate.

Graphics

Student uses superfluous graphics or no graphics

Student occasionally uses graphics that rarely support text and presentation.

Student's graphics relate to text and presentation.

Mechanics

Student's presentation has four or more spelling errors and/or grammatical errors.

Presentation has three misspellings and/or grammatical errors.

Presentation has no more than two misspellings and/or grammatical errors.

Eye Contact

Student reads all of report with no eye contact.

Student occasionally uses eye contact, but still reads most of report.

Elocution

Student mumbles, incorrectly pronounces terms, and speaks too quietly for students in the back of class to hear.

Student's voice is low. Student incorrectly pronounces terms. Audience members have difficulty hearing presentation.

Organization

Student maintains eye contact most of the time but frequently returns to notes. Student's voice is clear. Student pronounces most words correctly. Most audience members can hear presentation.

4 Student presents information in logical, interesting sequence which audience can follow. Student demonstrates full knowledge (more than required) by answering all class questions with explanations and elaboration. Student's graphics explain and reinforce screen text and presentation.

Total

Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors. Student maintains eye contact with audience, seldom returning to notes. Student uses a clear voice and correct, precise pronunciation of terms so that all audience members can hear presentation. Total Points: 24 = _______% of your grading.

Activity no. 3 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Power point presentation KNOWLEDGE Procedural Describes oral and written information related to the subject in a power point presentation. C

MC

NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:

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Didactic sequence 2. Listening &Oral practice general review. Basic English conversations. Startup activity Activity 1

1a Answer the following questions about personal information. 1.

What's your surname (family name)? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.

What's your first name? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.

Where are you from? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.

What's your job? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.

What's your address? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.

What is your phone number? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.

How old are you? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

8.

Are you married? __________________________________________________________________________________________________

1b. Now practice this dialogue with a partner. A: What's your name? B: I'm Adam. A: Where are you from? B: I'm from Tucson, Arizona. A. Do you have any brothers or sisters? B: Yes, I have one sister. A: What are your hobbies? B: My hobbies are playing baseball and watching movies. 1c. Now in pairs create a dialogue using the questions and the answers given above. Then roll play the dialogue in class. 1d. Listen to the dialogue and compare your dialogue with the one you have listened. How many of the above answers were correct in your dialogue? ______________________________________________.

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1e. Write your mistakes here and correct them if you had any. Example: How old are you? I have 15 years old. (Incorrect) / I am 15 years old. (Correct) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Greetings

Here are a few simple phrases for greeting people in English.

Hi. Hello.

Good morning. Good afternoon.

How are you? How are you doing?

Fine. How about you?

How ya doing? (Informal)

Good evening.

Okay. Thanks.

Practice greeting your teacher and classmates in English. Remember to Smile!

Activity no. 1 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Conversations and sentence correction. KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or hearing segment related with objects, people or places. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:

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Development activities Introducing Other People Here are some phrases for introducing other people in English. 1. Use these options and practice the dialogue.

Dialogue A. This is my friend, Jack. B. Hi Jack. I'm Linda. A. Nice to meet you. B. Nice to meet you too.

•my brother, Bob. •my sister, Cindy. •my father, Mr. Harris. •my mother, Mrs. Harris. •my teacher, Ms. Watson. •my student, Carrie. •my friend, Mary Jones. •my boss, Mr. Ritter. •my co-worker, Penny Pitcher.

Practice

Situations: Introducing others; phrases for these situations These types of introductions involve three people: A: The introducer (who knows both B and C) B: Introduce (knows A but not C) C: Introduce (knows A but not B) Listen to this example, A: Have you two met each other? B: No, we haven't. A: Ben, this is Carol. Carol this is Ben. (B and C smile and shake hands.) B: Nice to meet you Carol. C: Nice to meet you too, Ben. Follow-up: After you have been introduced to someone, it is polite to ask a few general questions to get acquainted. Listen. B: Where are you from, Carol? C: I'm from Connecticut. B: Connecticut, which part? C: Hartford, the capital. How about you, Ben? B: Nebraska--a place called Bellevue. It's near Omaha. C: How do you know Alan (A)? B: He is my friend from college.

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2. Practice introducing your friends to each other. Remember to smile (and use handshakes where appropriate). Ask your friend and write their answer! Name From Brothers/Sisters Hobbies (2)

Remember that *When meeting someone for the first time, it is not appropriate to ask certain types of questions.

Do NOT ask: A person's age

You may ask general questions about the situation.

Birth date

How do you know Alan (the person who introduced us)?

Salary

Are you a student at this university?

Weight

Is this your first time here? What do you do for a living?

Marital status

How long have you been working for (company)?

Introduce your Friend 3. Listen to the dialogue and practice introducing others after that. Use the hints given below. Example: This is Adam. He lives in London in England. He has one sister. His hobbies are playing badminton and watching movies. This is ___. He/she lives in ___. He/she has ___ brothers/sisters. His/her hobbies are ___.

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4. Pretend you are being introduced to someone at a party. The music is very loud, and you can't hear your partner clearly. Example, a) What did you say your name was? b) Cindy Carton. a) Did you say Sidney or Cindy? b) Cindy, like the famous model. 5. Complete the dialogues using the word.

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Activity 2 Shopping for a Sweater 2a. Listen to the dialogue about a real situation in a store. a)

Can I help you?

b)

Yes, I'm looking for a sweater.

a)

What size are you?

b)

I'm an extra-large.

a)

How about this one?

b)

Yes, that's nice. Can I try it on?

a)

Certainly, there’s the fitting room over there.

b)

Thank you.

a)

How does it fit?

b)

It's too large. Do you have a large?

a)

Yes, here you are.

b)

Thank you. I'll take this one, please.

a)

OK, how would you like to pay?

b)

Do you take credit cards?

a)

Yes, we do. Visa, Master Card and American Express.

b)

OK, here's my Visa.

a)

Thank you. Have a nice day!

b)

Thank you, goodbye.

2b. Now practice the dialogue with a partner. 2c. Choose a partner, practice the dialogue and make a story board about it. You may use cut outs and drawings.

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Activity no. 2 Factual Recognizes the use of simple sentences applied to practical dialogues in class. Co evaluation

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EVALUATION Story board KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or hearing segment related with objects, people or places. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows creativity making dialogues and creating a storyboard about them. Obtained value:


Passport Control in the Air port 6. Listen to the dialogue below then practice it with a partner. Immigration officer (IO), Traveler or visitor (T) IO) Good morning. Can (May) I see your passport? T) Here you are. IO) Thank you very much. Are you a tourist or on business? T) I'm a tourist. IO) That’s fine. Have a pleasant stay. T) Thank you.

7. In pairs, answer the questions below. 1.

What situation can you imagine? / What is happening around?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

What will the immigration’s officer say to the tourist?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

Why can immigration’s officer deny the permit?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

What would you do in a situation like that?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

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8. Now, create a similar dialogue to create a real situation where you may use Basic English language, but this time there is a challenge; the situation is new. This time the immigration’s officer (IO) denies the permit to the visitor. (Don’t forget that it occurs in an Airport) IO) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ T) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ IO) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ T) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ IO) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ T) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ IO) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ T) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ IO) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ T) ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Checking In at a hotel

9. Listen to the dialogue a) Good morning. Can I have your ticket, please? b) Here you are. a) Thank you. Would you like smoking or non-smoking? b) Non-smoking, please. a) Would you like a window or an aisle seat? b) An aisle seat, please. a) Do you have any baggage? b) Yes, this suitcase and this carry-on bag. a) Here's your boarding pass. Have a nice flight. b) Thank you. 10. Now, create a similar dialogue to produce a real situation where you may use Basic English language, but this time there is a challenge; the situation is that there is no vacancy in the hotel. (This can occur after the Airport arrival) a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 202


Making Suggestions

Here are some phrases and expressions for making suggestions in English. I think you should I don't think you should Why don't you Why don't we (do something together) Let's 11. In pairs practice these suggestions and its answers Suggestion 1. I think you should buy the blue one. 2. I don't think you should sell your car. 3. Let's go bowling tonight. 4. Why don't we go skiing on Saturday? 5. Why don't you come with me to China?

Answer That's a good idea. Thanks for the advice, but I really need the money. Sorry, I can't. I'm meeting a friend for dinner. Sounds like a good idea. Where do you want to go? Thanks, but I've already been there.

Shall we / Why don’t we / Let’s / what shall we + infinitive…? Shall we have a hamburger? Let’s go to the cinema this evening. Why don’t we go to the cinema? What shall we do tonight? What about / How about + ing …? What about going to the cinema? How about coming to my house?

12. Read the questions in exercise 11A and make as many suggestions as possible. Example: Let’s watch TV. / What about hiring a video? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

11A. Write sentences asking for suggestions using shall.

________________________________________ ________________________________________

What / do / tonight? _________________________________________________ Where / go / tomorrow? _________________________________________________ What / give / mum / birthday? _________________________________________________ Who / invite / party? _________________________________________________ Where / spend / summer? _________________________________________________ What / buy / supermarket? _________________________________________________

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 13. With the information in exercise 12 create a dialogue with a partner and act it out in class. Name of your partner

Evaluate your participation by checking the best option Outstanding Good Fair Not very good Poor

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

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Activity 3 Stop Game

Let’s play STOP: STEP 1: Pay attention to the following: category names: NAME

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PLACE

ACTION

ANIMAL

OBJECT

FRUIT/VEGGY

TOTAL


STEP 2: Someone (the teacher or a student) starts saying the alphabet, A, B, C, etc. then someone else interrupts the alphabet-teller shouting STOP! STEP 3: Let us suppose the alphabet-teller was interrupted on letter "K". All the participants in the game would try to find words that start with "K" to fill out the category chart. For example one may write: Kansas for "PLACE", koala for "ANIMAL", key for "OBJECT", kiwi for "FRUIT" and so on. STEP 4:The participant that finishes filling all categories first shouts STOP! And all the others should stop writing. STEP 5:The participants compare words. The words repeated by two players are worth 50 points. The words repeated by three or more are worth 25. The words that are not repeated by anyone are worth 100 points. The empty categories are "0". Each player adds up all the points he got for the letter in turn and puts the result in the "TOTAL" At the end of the game all the subtotals are added and the one who gets the highest score is the winner.

Activity no. 3 Factual Identifies vocabulary and previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Game board filled KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a playful way. Playing a game related with objects, people or places. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work and play with the activity. Obtained value:

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Asking for Favors

Here are some sample phrases and expressions for asking favors in English. Can you Would you (please) Could you (please) Could I . . . (usually used for asking permission) 14. In pairs practice these questions and its answers Favor 1. Can you help me with my math homework? 2. Could you bring me some coffee? 3. Would you open the car door for me? 4. Could I ask you a favor?

Answer Sure. What's the problem? I'd be glad to. How do you like it? No problem. It looks like your hands are full. It depends. What is it?

Speaking Situations: Here are some sample phrases and expressions for asking favors in English. Can you Would you (please) Could you (please) Could I (usually used for asking permission) 15. Use the conversation practice on exercise 14. Choose five different options and create a similar situation with answers you think are proper. Favor Answer 1 Household chores ______________________________________ 2. In the kitchen ______________________________________ 3. Sweep the floor ______________________________________ 4. Vacuum the floor ______________________________________ 5. Mop the floor ______________________________________ 6. Scrub the floor ______________________________________ 7. Set the table ______________________________________ 8. Clear the table ______________________________________ 9. Wipe off the table ______________________________________ 10. Put the food away ______________________________________ 11. Wash the dishes ______________________________________ 12. Rinse the dishes ______________________________________ 13. Dry/wipe the dishes ______________________________________ 14. Clean the sink ______________________________________ 15 Take out the garbage/trash ______________________________________ 16. Conversation. Practice asking your classmates to do favors for you. See the sample phrases below.

Getting someone's attention Excuse me, Pardon me, Sorry to bother you, but‌

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Asking the favor (from least formal to most polite): 1. Can you open the door for me? 2. Will you hand me a pencil? 3. Would you turn on the air conditioner? 4. Could you help me with these boxes? 5. Would you please turn down the music? 6. Could you possibly give me a ride home? 7. Would you mind taking a picture for us? 8. Would you be so kind as to lend me your cell phone?


Follow-up Thanks for your help Thank you so much. Thanks, I really appreciate it. Listen to the sample conversation: a) Excuse me; could you do me a favor? b) Sure, what is it? a) Could you help me move these chairs? b) No problem. / I'd be glad to. a) Thanks a lot.

17. Now, create a similar dialogue to produce a real situation where you ask somebody for a favor, use Basic English, and keep your dialogue simple. a)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

a)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

a)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

a)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

a)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

____________________________________________________________________________________________

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Requesting 18. Here are some phrases and expressions for requesting in English. Listen to the dialogues and pay attention to the intention, and then practice the dialogues with a partner. Ask your teacher for help if your need it. (Simple imperative verb): -

Help me.*

Please + verb (more polite) -

Please help me.

Can you? -

Can you help me?

Will you? -

Will you help me?

Could you (please)? -

Could you help me?

Would you (please)? -

Would you please help me?

Would you mind (V+ing)? -

Would you mind helping me?

Could you possibly? -

Could you possibly help me out here?

(very polite) Would you be so kind as to? -

Would you be so kind as to help me (with this)?

*This is also used in commands: Example, Go to your room!

Conversation A a) Give me a paper towel. b) Here you are. a) Please mail this letter for me. b) Okay. I'll stop by the post office on my way home. a) Would you please turn down that music? b) Sorry. Is it bothering you? a) Will you type my term paper for me? b) Sure. When do you need it? a) Would you (Could you)give me a ride home? b) Sorry. I'm not going in that direction.

Conversation B a) Here! Have a cookie. b) Thanks. a) Would you like some pie? b) No thank you. It looks delicious though. a) How about a glass of wine? b) Thanks, but I don't drink (alcohol). a) What will you have (to drink)? b) Orange juice will be fine. a) Would you like some more cake? b) Sure. It's really good. Did you bake it yourself? a) Can I get you some milk or something? b) Well, a glass of water would be okay.

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Asking for Directions

Here are some phrases and expressions for asking directions in English. Where is (the)? How do you get to How do I get to (the)? Can you tell me how to get to (the)? Can you give me directions to (the)? What's the best way to get to (the)?

(This is also used in asking about location.) (the) (from here)?

Conversation C a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b)

Excuse me. Is there a grocery store around here? Yes! There's one right across the street. Can you tell me how to get to Walt Mart? Sorry. I don't live around here. Where's Tanner's Leather Shop? It's on the corner of Holly and Vine, next to the library. How do you get to the bank? Go straight down this street for two blocks. Turn left when you get to Maple Street. Stay on Maple for half a block. It's on the left hand side.

16. In pairs practice dialogues A, B, and C .

Giving Directions Here are some sample phrases and expressions to use in giving directions in English. (First,) go down this street (for ____ blocks). (Then,) turn left/right at the traffic light. (After that,) go straight on _____ Street until you get to the ______. (When you get to the _____,) turn left/right again. (Then,) stay on_______Avenue for about _______ yards/meters. It's on your left, next to the __________. You can't miss it!

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19. Based on the dialogues that you have practice and the information from the box, create a dialogue giving directions to anybody you’ve know. Act out the dialogue in class and write a report to your class. Report Did you work together? Yes _______ No ________ why: __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ In general write a short paragraph about the activity. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Asking about Place/Location

20. Here are some sample phrases and sentences for asking about location. Listen and practice with a partner. a) b)

Where is the bank? It's next to the post office. It's on Serdan Street. It's between the bakery and the barber shop. It's on the corner of Garmendia Street and Sonora (Street).

a) b)

Where's Lagoon? It's in Davis County, near Irvington. It's on I-15, between Farmington and Kaysville. It's ten miles north of Tucson.

Directions: a) How do you get to the sporting goods store? b) (on foot) First, go down State Street until you get to 4th South. Then, turn left. Then, go down 4th South for three blocks. It's on the right side of the street next to Wendy's. (by car) Take State Street to 4th South. At 4th South, turn left. Stay on 4th South for about three blocks. The sporting goods store will be on the right, next to Wendy's. a) b)

How do you get to (your house in) Alamos? Take Interstate-15 south about 20 miles. After you cross the mountain, watch for the signs to Alamos. Take the first Alamos exit. When you get off the interstate, make a right turn at the stop sign. Follow the road (15th East) for five blocks. Make a left turn on Noble Drive. Continue on Noble Drive until you see the big oak tree. My house is on the left hand side. It's a two-story, red brick house with a large front yard. You can't miss it!

Descriptions

What are some good ways to describe people and things? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

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21. Listen to the conversation about descriptions in English, then practice with a partner. a). What does Martha look like? b). She's tall, dark and beautiful. a). What else can you tell me? b). Well, she has long, black hair and blue eyes. She's kind of chubby and wears glasses. a). What is George like? b). He's funny, cute and really rich. He reminds me of that guy on the Morning Show. a). Tell me about your new apartment. b). Well, it's pretty small. It only has two rooms and a bathroom. But it's comfortable enough for me. a) What did you think of the Himalayas? b) Well, the view was gorgeous. Of course, it took two days to get there, and the weather was freezing!

Telephone Talk

22. Here are some sample phrases and expressions for talking on the telephone. In the sample conversations below, R is the "Receiver" and C is the "Caller." Listen to the dialogues then practice conversation 1 with a partner after that practice conversation 2 with a different partner.

Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Rrrrring. R: Hello. C: Hello. Is Esteban there? R: I'm sorry. He's not here right now. C: What time will he be back? R: Around five thirty. C: This afternoon? R: Yes. May I ask who is calling? C: This is his friend, Gregorio. R: Okay. I'll tell him you called. C: Thanks.

Rrrrrring. R: Gomez’s residence. C: Is this Noemi? R: No, this is her sister, Natalia. C: You sure sound like Noemi. R: Oh. Can I take a message? C: Sure. Please tell her that Andres called. R: Okay. I'll give her the message. C: Thanks. R: Bye.

23. With a third different partner create a conversation based on the two dialogues you have heard and practiced.

Rrrrring. R: ________________________________________________________________________________________ C: ________________________________________________________________________________________ R: ________________________________________________________________________________________ C: ________________________________________________________________________________________ R: ________________________________________________________________________________________ C: ________________________________________________________________________________________ R: ________________________________________________________________________________________ C: ________________________________________________________________________________________ R: ________________________________________________________________________________________ C: ________________________________________________________________________________________ 211


Now act out the dialogue you have created in class.

Encouraging Words

Here are some phrases for expressing goodwill in various situations Expressing Goodwill

. . .when someone is arriving

. . . when someone is leaving

Encouragement

It's been nice talking with you.

Welcome Welcome back!

Good luck! Good luck on your test. You can do it!Do your best.

Have a good/nice day.

Come in.

Have a nice weekend.

It's good to meet you. (first time only)

Have a nice trip.

It's good to see you again. (after the first time)

Keep in touch.

Do the best you can. Work hard. Keep up the good work.

Have fun.

Reassurance Take it easy. Don't worry. That's okay.

It's going to be all right. Everything will be fine. No problem.

Responses to good news Wow! That's great! That's wonderful. That's really good news.

Responses to bad news.

Martin but you have failed the final exam.

That's too bad. That's really sad.

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I'm glad/happy to hear that. Congratulations! Good for you! Good job!

Example: I'm sorry

That's terrible! (for really bad news) I'm sorry to hear that. (for sad news)


Speaking Situations using Encouraging Words 24. Conversation practice: Make a role play for the following situations with a partner: Arriving 1. Your partner has just arrived at your home. What do you say? 2. You haven't seen your partner for a long time. What do you say when you see him/her again? 3. Your partner just arrived at the airport in your city. Welcome him/her. Leaving 4. After a short conversation, your friend has to leave. What do you say to him/her? 5. You are seeing your friend off at the airport. What do you say? 6. Your partner is leaving a party that you hosted. What do you say? Encouragement 7. Your partner has a big exam this afternoon. What do you say? 8. Your partner has a job interview tomorrow. What do you say? Reassurance 9. Your partner's dog was hit by a car. He / She is worried, but the dog will be okay. What do you say? Good news 10. Your partner's wife just had a healthy baby daughter. What do you say? 11. Your partner just got a huge promotion at work. What do you say? 12. Your partner just won first prize in a cooking contest. What do you say? Bad news 13. Your partner lost $15,000 on the stock market. What do you say? 14. Your partner's grandmother just passed away. What do you say? 15. Your partner's home was destroyed by a tornado. What do you say?

Additional phrases:  It's good to be here. (Guest says)  I hope you had a nice flight. (Host says)

Additional phrases:  Thanks for coming. (host says)  I'm glad you came.  Thanks for inviting me. (guest says)  I really had a good time.

*Note: A typical response to an expression of goodwill is "thank you (for…)" or a reciprocal expression of goodwill. Example, Come in. Welcome to our home. Thanks for inviting us. It's been nice talking to you. Good talking to you too.

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American Numbers and Prices

Here are some phrases and expressions using numbers and American prices. Remember that in English, we divide prices at the decimal point. For example: $4.59 four dollars (and) fifty-nine cents four / fifty nine (shortway)

(longway)

(Time is also divided in a similar way: 12:47 is said "twelve / forty-seven") Americans often say large numbers in "phrases" of two digits. For example: 267 438 two hundred sixty-seven two / sixty seven four thousand three hundred eighty-one forty-three / eighty-one (long way) (short way) Some people also use two-digit phrasing with telephone numbers: 565-8347 five-six-five // eighty-three / forty-seven 25. With the help of a partner, practice the following prices (both long and short ways): That will be____(price)______ That comes to ____(price)____ $59.65 $27.95 $14.40

$1.79* $6.75 $77.17

*Also: a dollar seventy-nine **Also: twenty-nine (dollars) even

214

$29.00** $82.03 $70.50

$425.78 $781.34 $211.54

$231.49 $690.42 $380.18

$3,657.88 $9,405.31 $1,550.15


Making Plans for the Weekend

26. Here are some sample phrases and expressions for making plans for the weekend. Listen to the conversation then practice with a partner. a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b)

What are you doing this Saturday? Not much. Do you want to go see a movie? That sounds good. What's playing at the Cinemark?* "Candlelight in the Window." Should we go see it? I'd rather not. I don't like horror movies. How about "Run of the Mill?" No. I heard that's really boring. Why don't we go to a concert instead? Great idea!

*In English we often say "What's playing at the (name of theater)" to find out what movie is showing at a given location.

Situations: Making Plans for the weekend. For example, when making plans with someone else, it is polite to ask about the other person's time and availability.  Are you free this Friday?  What are you doing this weekend?  Are you busy tonight?  Do you have time after class? Positive responses (interest and availability)  Sure! Do you want to do something?  I'm free all weekend.  I'm open this evening.  I don't have anything scheduled.

27. Practice finding out if your partner is free; then asking him/her to do something with you. 28. Practice giving both positive and negative responses. Include details to make it more interesting.

Negative responses (non-interest or non-availability)  Sorry, I have plans this weekend.  I'm going to (Las Vegas) with (my friends).  Unfortunately not. I have something else scheduled.  Not really. (I'm kind of busy tonight.) To indicate interest, but temporary non-availability  I'm not free on Friday, but I do have time Saturday.  I'm going to be out of town, but I'll be back next weekend.  I have something planned. How about tomorrow?  I'm busy today. How about some other time? Once you have determined that the other person has time and interest, suggest an activity.  Do you want to (wanna) go to a movie?  How about having dinner together?  There's a concert at the Galvan Center. Want to go?  Why don't we go bowling? Possible responses  Sounds good.  Good idea.  That would be fun/great.  When/where should we meet? 215


Asking for Repetition

29. Listen and practice the following dialogue; here are some phrases and expressions asking for repetition or clarification in English.

a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b)

Excuse me? What did you say your name was? It's Cathy Henderson. Could you repeat that? Did you say Andersen or Henderson? Henderson, with an H. Could you say that again? Is "Cathy" spelled with a C or a K? It's C as in Cadillac. What did you say and what was your address again? 72 West Paseo de los Reyes Blvd, Suite 501. What was that (again)? Did you say? I'm sorry. I didn't catch that. Sorry, I didn't catch the last part. I can't hear you very well. Do you want me to repeat it? Maybe you should turn down the radio.

Speaking Situations: Asking for Repetition

Phrases for these situations

Excuse me? (said like a question) Pardon me? (rising intonation) What did you say (your name was)? Did you say? Can you repeat that? Could you say that again please? What was that again? Sorry, I didn't catch that. Could you speak up please? Could you speak a little louder?

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Conversation Practice

30. Pretend your partner is applying for a passport. Ask him/her for personal information* (name, birth date, address, telephone number, etc.) Then practice asking for repetition. For example, a)

What is your date of birth?

b)

August 15, 1981.

a)

Did you say August 16th?

b)

No, August 15th.

*Since this is a "role play," you don't have to use actual (real) information. You may "make up" dates, numbers, etc.

Inviting

Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Do you want to? Do you wanna? (informal) Would you like to?. (more polite) How about (V+ing)? How would you like to? 31. Now listen to the dialogue then practice it in class. a) Do you want to dance? b) No thanks. I'm kind of tired right now a) Would you like to go hiking this weekend? b) Sure, I'd love to. What time should we meet? a) How about going swimming on Friday? b) Ah. Can I get back to you on that? a) How would you like to play golf tomorrow? b) Sounds like a great idea. Where do you want to go? 31a. choose a partner and practice the dialogue in class.

217


Talking about Locations

After a brief review from your teacher about the usage of some adverbs, use them and prepositional phrases to indicate locations in English. Adverbs: I'm over here. Aldo's not there. Prepositional Phrases: She's in the kitchen. It's in the bathroom, under the sink. 32. Listen to the following conversation then practice the dialogue with a partner. a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b)

Where are the magazines? They're in the living room, on the coffee table. Where is the remote control? It's probably on the sofa, between the pillows. Where did you put the keys? I think they're in the bedroom, in the top drawer. Where's the spider? It's in the bathroom, next to the bathtub. Where's Fluffy? He's probably hiding under the rocking chair. Where's Troy's toy truck? It's outside by the big brick bridge. Where did you find the book? It was on top of the refrigerator. 31. Now in pairs create your own dialogue based on the one above and finally act it out in class. a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ a). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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Prepositions of Location

The most common prepositions of location are in up down around through nearby

on inside outside (of) between beside above

at beyond in front of in back of behind below

by next to on top of within beneath over

near underneath among along against under

These prepositions are most commonly followed by "the" and a noun. Both the speaker and the listener likely know which object is being referred to. Examples: The keys are on the table. (We both know which table.) The post office is next to the bakery. (Not: next to bakery) Occasionally, prepositions can be used with "a/an." This usually indicates that the speaker knows of the place, but the listener does not. For example: I live by a river. (You probably don't know which one.) I live by the river. (You know the river I'm talking about.) 33. Now listen to the following dialogues. Identify the use of the prepositions and underline them with a Red ink pen or color. After that, practice in teams of four the dialogues you have just listened. A

C

a). What's your address?

a). Excuse me, where is the post office?

b). I live at 34, East 39th Street, New York.

b). Go straight, and it's next to the bank.

a). And what's your zip code?

a). Thank you!

b). My zip code is NY 10061-2134 a). Thank you. D

B a). Where do you work?

a). Hi Sylvia, where's the fruit juice?

b). I work in a bank, I'm a secretary. How

b). It's in the refrigerator!

about you?

a). No, it's not. It's not there.

a). I'm a shop assistant. I work at the

b). Oh, sorry, it's in the cupboard next to

local store.

the soda.

b). Where's that?

a). Thanks. And where is the cereal?

a). It's the yellow building on Green

b). Um, on the shelf, I think.

Street, next to the clothes store.

a). Great! Let's have some breakfast!

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Asking for Directions

Here are some phrases and expressions for asking directions in English. Where is (the) _____? (This is also used in asking about location.) How do you get to (the) _____(from here)? How do I get to (the) ______? Can you tell me how to get to (the) _____? Can you give me directions to (the) _____? What's the best way to get to (the) _____? 34. Listen attentively the following dialogues. Then practice them with a partner.

A

a). Excuse me!. Is there a grocery store around here? b) Yeah! There's one right across the street. a) Oh my god! I didn’t see it. Thank you. b). your welcome, I’m glad to help.

B

C

a). Where's Butcher´s Shop? b). It's on the corner of Holly and Vine. Next to the library. a). well! Thank you Mr. Torres would you like to join us in our party tonight? b). Oh! Mary Thanks a lot but I can’t, my wife and I have a dinner at her parent’s house. a). ok Mr. Torres see you next time. And thank you again for your help. b). your welcome Mary. Enjoy your party.

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D

a). How do you get to the bank? b). Go straight down this street for two blocks. Turn left when you get to Sonora Street. Stay on Sonora for half a block. It's on the left hand side. a). Thank you madam. b). your welcome. Have a nice day.

a). Can you tell me how to get to Walt Mart? b). Sorry! I don't live around here. a). oh! Well that’s ok.


Activity 4 Conversation Activities

4 a) Pair work. Have you given directions to anyone lately? Tell your partner about it using some of the ideas for discussion below. Your partner should ask questions to get more information. * Who did you give directions to ___________________________________________________________________________ Where did you give directions to __________________________________________________________________________ How often do you give directions _________________________________________________________________________ Have you ever not known the directions to a place asked about ___________________________________________ What did you do to help when you didn’t know the direction ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4b) Pair discussion. Work with a partner and ask him or her for and give directions to the following places in your own town. Decide between you on a starting point. Use some of the expressions for asking directions and the prepositions of- location. Write the indication on the lines. The city hall or closest Movie Theater:__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Bus station: __________________________________ _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ City Hall: (City hall: municipio or Oficinas de Gobierno) __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Park: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hospital: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Bus station: _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

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4c) Draw a map or print it from internet. Locate on it at least three of the directions given by your partner. Then fold your map and attach it in the space. Attach map here.

4d) create dialogue where you give directions to someone to the three places located in the map; roll play the conversation in class. 222


Rubric Criteria

Poor 1 pts.

Fair 2 pts.

Good 3 pts.

Creativity/Logic The dialogue should be creative, of proper length and with a logical flow.

Poor The dialogue is too short and/or does not flow.

Fair The dialogue is of mediocre length and/or flows with some difficulty.

Good The dialogue is of proper length and flows logically.

Presentation/Clarity Student should role play so that everyone can hear clearly; good pronunciation.

Poor Student could hardly be heard and/or did not pronunciate many words properly.

Fair Student could generally be heard and/or pronunciate most words properly.

Good Student could be heard clearly and pronunciated words properly, with the exception of one or two.

New vocabulary Student should use as much new or relevant vocabulary as possible in dialogue.

Poor Student did not use new or relevant vocabulary.

Fair Student used some new or relevant vocabulary.

Good Student incorporated as much new and relevant vocabulary as possible.

Grammar Student must use proper grammar when writing and role playing dialogue.

Poor Student did not use proper grammar when writing or role playing dialogue.

Fair Student generally used proper grammar when writing or role playing dialogue.

Good Student used proper grammar when writing and role playing dialogue.

Activity no. 4 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Dialogue and exercises KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or hearing segment related with objects, people or places. C MC NYC

Total

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:

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Talking about Travel

Here are some sample phrases and sentences for talking about travel and transportation. How do you (usually) get to work/school? I usually take the subway. How long does it take (to get there)? It takes about ______ minutes/hours. What's the best way to get to _____? By train/bus. Do you take public transportation? I walk or ride my bike. 35. Listen to the following dialogue, practice the conversation with a partner in class. a) How do you get to Kino bay? b) I usually go in my bus. a) How long does it take? b) It takes one and a half hour. a) How often do you ride the bus? b) Not too much only once in a while. a) Do you ever go walking to Kino bay? b) No, that would take forever. a) Are you going anywhere this summer? b) I’m not sure yet. Probable to Puerto Peùasco Sonora. a) How are you going to get there? b) By bus. a) Why don't you fly? b) Airplane tickets are too expensive.

36. Create a dialogue like the one above but now they have to travel to a different place. a). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ____________________________________________________________________________________________

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37. Draw a picture from the place you talk about on the dialogue. Attach a cut out from a magazine or newspaper.

225


Using Measure Words

Here are some sample phrases and sentences using measure words. These words can be used to practice Count and Non-count nouns in context. When talking about non-count items (such as sugar, water, toothpaste, etc.), it is common to use measure words to indicate how much of the substance you are referring to. Here are a few examples of measure words used in English.

Food

Liquid

Sewing items

A bowl of rice

A teaspoon of medicine

A spool of thread

A dish of spaghetti

A tablespoon of vinegar

A skein of yarn

A pound of meat/cheese

A glass of water

A yard/meter of ribbon

A piece of cake/pie

A cup of coffee

A (square) foot/meter of

A can of soup

A pint of blood

fabric/cloth

A box of cereal

A quart of milk

Stationery

A bag of flour

A half-gallon of juice

A piece of paper

A carton of ice cream

A gallon of punch

A pad of paper

A jar of peanut butter

A tank of gas

A roll of tape

A loaf of bread

A jug of lemonade

A stick/piece of chalk

A slice of bread/pizza

A bottle of wine

A bottle/tube of glue

A package of pasta

A keg of beer

A jar of paste

A dash of salt

A shot of vodka

A pair of scissors

A cube of ice

A drop of rain

A pack of gum

Personal items

A head of lettuce/cabbage

A bar of soap

An ear of corn

A tube of toothpaste

A kernel of corn

A container of shampoo

A grain of wheat/salt

A stick of deodorant

A stalk of celery

A bottle of

A spear of asparagus

perfume/cologne

A clove of garlic

A roll of toilet paper A ball of cotton

Notes: 1. Measure words can also be counted: One slice of toast, two slices of toast, etc. 2. Some items can be either count or non-count, depending on composition or arrangement. For example, A bar of chocolate (non-count [perceived as one solid item]) A box of chocolates (count [perceived as several individual items]) 226


Containers and Quantifiers Containers

Measurements

Other Quantifiers

Bag

pound

bunch

box

ounce

piece

bottle

gram

loaf

can

kilo(gram)

slice

pack

ton

stick

roll

cup

handful

package

pint

carton

quart

jar

half gallon

jug

gallon

container

liter

Grammar note: These come in handy when talking about non-count items. For example, A box of cereal Two pounds of ground beef Three gallons of ice cream Five packs of gum

38. In teams of three or pairs create a dialogue where you have to imagine a situation in a kitchen. You need to prepare a recipe and you will need some stuff. Use as many measure words as you can in the conversation. You may ask your partner to go and buy them to the store or search the kitchen for them. Ask your teacher for help if you need it. a). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ c). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ c). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ c). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ a). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ b). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ c). ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 39. Now act out the dialogue in class.

227


Classroom Language and Questions 40. Here are some questions, phrases, and sentences for use in the classroom. Listen to the dialogues.

A

C

B

1

2

5 4

228

3

6

7


Classroom English Expressions The following is a list of classroom English expressions. These expressions are: (1) to understand many of the instructor’s common commands, directions, questions, and requests in English, (2) to encourage the use of situational English. (3) to aid in classroom management .Furthermore, the expressions could serve as a facilitator for various teaching activities such as involving classroom signs, flashcards, games, quizzes, dictation, matching, and Q & A. Commands • Respect others. • Pay attention. • Participate. • Bring your books, notebooks, and pencils to class. • Get out your books, notebooks, and pencils. • Put that away. • Raise your hand. • Don't shout. • Don't talk/chat. • Don't start. • Don't cheat. • Don't do it. • Open your book. • Close your book. • Put your pencil down. • Continue.

Questions • Did you do your homework? —Yes, I did. / No, I didn't. • Do you understand? —Yes, I understand. / No, I don't understand. • Do you have your book? —Yes, I have my book. / No, I don't have my book. • What page are you on? —We're on page ___. • Are you ready? —Yes, I am. / No, I'm not. • Are you finished? • What did you say? —I said, "_____________." • May I ask you a question? —Yes, you may. / No, you may not. • Do you have a question? —Yes, I have a question. / No, I don't have a question. • What is the answer to question number __? • Is this the right answer? —Yes, it's the right answer. / No, it's the wrong answer. • What do you think? • What is this about? • Can you guess? • What happened? • Can you help me? • Can I help him/her? • Could you repeat that, please? • How do you say this in English? • What should I do? • How do I do this? • Is this correct? • Is it okay? • What does this mean? What is our homework? • Do we have a test? • When is our test? • How many points do you have? • Teacher, can we do this? • May I borrow your pencil? —Yes, you may. / No, you may not. • May I sit next to _____? • May I go to the bathroom? • May I get a drink of water? • May I leave now?

Student Responses • Sorry, I'm late. • Sorry, I couldn't do my homework. • I forgot. • I don't remember. • This is easy/difficult. • This is fun/boring. • I like/don't like this story. • Let's do this now/later. • Teacher, I'm sick. • I have a headache. • Teacher, please slow down/hurry up. • Teacher, I can't see. • I can't hear you. • I don't understand. • Please explain.

229


Directions • Listen to the directions. • Repeat after me. • Say the question. • Answer the question. • Work together. • Work alone. • Do it now. • Check now. • Fix the answers. • Everybody read together. • Each student reads 2 sentences. • Copy this. • Take notes. • Draw a picture. • Make a sentence. • Write the English sentence and draw a picture. • Read the question and answer in English. • Choose an answer and fill in the blanks. • Draw a line and match. • Circle the answer. • Underline this word/sentence. • Count the points.

230

Requests • Please speak more slowly/faster. • Please speak louder/softly. • Please speak in English. • Please write neatly. • Please wait. • Please help the other students. • Please go downstairs and make a copy. • Please share the book. • Please change seats. • Please make the classroom neat. • Please open/close the door. • Please turn on/turn off the light. • Please say it again. • Please give us an example.

Miscellaneous • Let's review. • Pair work. • Role-play. • Dictation. • Homework: listen and read, sign. • Write this ___ time(s). • Do up to page ___. • Find the words in the dictionary. • Look at the sentence model and make a sentence. • Preview this. • Memorize this. • Finish this.


41. Look at the pictures. Everything is happening inside the classroom of a high school as Cobach. What do you think the teacher is saying? What about the student? Create a dialogue for each cartoon’s conversation. Use classroom expressions. Conversation 1

Conversation 2

Conversation 3

Conversation 4

42. Using expressions from the columns on previous pages create a dialogue with a partner about a class situation and make a roll play in class. Write your roll play here. a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ a) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) _______________________________________________________________________________________________

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43. Write under each picture the classroom language it refers to. Pay attention to the details of the image.

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Reading Obesity epidemic

The BBC News, 20 February, 2008 - Published 12:25 GMT

'We need political leadership to stop making the world fat' the world needs to tackle the growing epidemic of obesity with the same sense of global urgency as climate change. The head of the international obesity taskforce, Professor Philip James, said that we needed greater political leadership at the international level. This report from Matt McGrath: The scale of the obesity epidemic is such that the world needs a global pact on the best ways to tackle it. At present, according to Professor Philip James, an expert on nutrition, obese children outnumber the malnourished by two to one. This worldwide weight gain is sparking a marked rise in some diseases, the number of people with type two diabetes is expected to double to 366 million by 2030. According to Professor James, there is no point in blaming individuals for being overweight; we need real political leadership to change the environment that is rapidly making the world fat. The fat content of food needs to be labeled clearly, advertisers must be prevented from targeting children and governments must encourage people to get out of their cars. Professor James also said that new data from Scandinavia indicates that the weight of a child at the age of 7 to12 predicts whether or not they are going to die early from heart disease or other problems. Matt McGrath, BBC News, Boston, Massachusetts

Comprehension questions Are the following sentences true or false?

True

False

1. There needs to be a worldwide answer to the current problems of fatness. 2. There are more children in the world who don't have enough to eat than there are those who eat too much. 3. There has been a sharp increase recently in the number of people affected by illnesses associated with being overweight. 4. Professor James says it's important that people take responsibility themselves if they are fat. 5. Professor James says governments should encourage people to exercise more. 6. Professor James said that Scandinavian research shows that you can tell from children's weight if they will have heart problems when they are older. 233


44. Match these words and phrases to their definitions. 1

obesity epidemic

(A)

2

a global pact

(B)

3

Nutrition

(C)

4

obese children outnumber the malnourished by two to one

(D)

5

sparking a marked rise

(E)

6

Diabetes there is no point in blaming individuals

(F)

it is useless saying that people are at fault or are responsible for Making a sharp increase happen an agreement by all the governments in the world to use their cars less (for example, to walk or cycle more) a disease in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood scientific study of food

(G)

written in plain, simple clear language

7 8

labeled clearly

(H)

9

to get out of their cars

(I)

10

predicts whether or not

(J)

tells if in the future something will happen or not fatness problem that seriously affects a lot of people at the same time for every one child who doesn't have enough to eat in the world, there are two fat ones

Important Vocabulary words Obesity epidemic: Fatness: problem that seriously affects a lot of people at the same time. A global pact: An agreement by all the governments in the world Nutrition: Scientific study of food Obese: Children outnumber the malnourished by two to one: For every one child who doesn't have enough to eat in the world, there are two fat ones Sparking: A marked rise Making a sharp increase happen Diabetes : A disease in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood. There is no point in blaming individuals It is useless saying that people are at fault or are responsible for Labeled clearly: Written in plain, simple clear language. To get out of their cars : To use their cars less (for example, to walk or cycle more) Predicts whether or not: Tells if in the future something will happen or not

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45. Match these 'fat' words and expressions with their meanings. Write the letter in the parenthesis.

H

1

Collocations fat-free / non-fat

(A)

2

low-fat

(B)

3

saturated fat

(C)

4

puppy fat

(D)

5

fat cat

(E)

6

chew the fat

(F)

7

live off the fat of the land

(G)

8

The fat is in the fire

(H)

9

fat chance

(I)

10

a fat lot of good/use/help

(J)

Meanings food that has only a small amount of fat said when you think that something definitely will not happen chat with someone in an informal, friendly way a person who is very rich, especially someone in charge of a company and who is able to award themselves a big increase in their own pay said when something has been said or done that will cause a lot of trouble nothing, or not very much good/use/help at all a type of fat found in meat, eggs, milk, cheese, etc, which scientists say can be bad for your health food that has no fat fat which a child sometimes has but which disappears as s/he grows older be rich and enjoy the best of everything

46. Now, complete the sentences using one of the words or expressions above. 1. He never does any work. He just sits there ____________________ with everyone who comes into the office. 2. Did the boss say she'd give you a pay rise?____________________ ! She said profits were down this year and there was no extra cash around. 3. She's only 12 years old. She doesn't need to go on a diet. Of course she's got a bit of____________________ but that's only natural at her age. 4. I thought he didn't deserve the prize and I told her it was unfair to give it to him. So____________________ now! 5. I don't mind ____________________ milk in my coffee but ____________________milk just has no taste at all!

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The Ten Top Tips

The tips are simple habits that everyone can permanently fit into their daily routines. Keeping up all ten tips in the long term will help you lose weight and keep it off. 1. Keep to your meal routine. Try to eat at roughly the same times each day, whether this is two or five times a day. For more information, go to our Eating Habits section.

2. Go reduced fat. Choose reduced fat versions of foods such as dairy products, spreads and salad dressings where you can. Use them sparingly as some can still be high in fat. For more information, go to our Hidden Calories section.

3. Walk off the weight. Walk 10,000 steps (about 60-90 minutes of moderate activity) each day. You can use a pedometer to help count the steps. You can break up your walking over the day. For more information, go to our Walking section.

The Ten Top Tips program helps you incorporate the lifestyle changes into your daily routine so that they become automatic. Keeping track of whether you have successfully completed the tips on a daily basis is important for sticking to them.

4. Pack a healthy snack. If you snack, choose a healthy option such as fresh fruit or low calorie yogurts instead of chocolate or crisps. For more information, go to our Healthy Meal Ideas section.

5. Look at the labels. Be careful about food claims. Check the fat and sugar content on food labels when shopping and preparing food. For more information, go to our Look at the Labels section.

6. Caution with your portions. Don’t heap food on your plate (except vegetables). Think twice before having second helpings. For more information, go to our Portion Caution section.

7. Up on your feet. Break up your sitting time. Stand up for ten minutes out of every hour. For more information, go to our Keep on Moving section.

8. Think about your drinks. Choose water or sugar-free squashes. Unsweetened fruit juice contains natural sugar so limit it to 1 glass per day (200ml / 1/3 pint). Alcohol is high in calories; try to limit the amount you drink. For more information, go to our Hidden Calories section.

9. Focus on your food. Slow down. Don’t eat on the go or while watching TV. Eat at a table if possible. For more information, go to our Eating Habits section.

10. Don’t forget your 5 a day. Eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day (400g in total). For more information, go to our Five a Day section.

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Healthy living circle


47. In teams of 4 discuss and answer the following questions about healthy living. 1. What can you do to stay healthy? ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Eating the right foods and the right amounts of foods can help you live a longer,

what

can

you

give

examples

of

this

statement?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Weighing too much or too little can lead to health problems. Do you agree with this statement? ___________________________ 4. What are some ways you can control your weight? _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If you keep portion sizes reasonable, it's easier to eat all the foods you enjoy without having to eliminate any. For example, some reasonable serving sizes are: 100g of meat; one medium piece of fruit, half a cup of raw pasta and 50ml of icecream. 6. Do you keep your portions sizes reasonable _________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 7. Write a list of your team´s favorite food. That will give you an Idea for the final activity. Keep in mind that the idea is to talk about healthy food. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Closing activity Activity 5

Recipes and Their Stories To finish your course and after studying a little about the problem of obesity and healthy habits, the group will make a healthy suggestion to COBACH students. Your class will land the knowledge and prepare a CLASS COOKBOOK.

1. Join in teams of 6 or 7 members, to produce the cookbook. The book must be about a healthy dish, which you and your classmates associate with particular, holidays, or just special times. Recipes may be as simple or as complicated as you want 2. The recipe MUST be accompanied by the story or description that will tell about the people, places, or occasion that make it special. Day of presentation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Dress up for the presentation. Present the recipe to the class with the written story. If desire by the team bring an example of the dish to the class. The team has to present the recipe and the dish to the class. Explain to the class the benefits of this recipe and what makes this recipe special for the team. Keep in mind that the recipe must be a healthy option.

At the end all the teams must gather the Recipes, prepare and name “The cookbook” of your class, which will be presented in an exposition of all forth semesters at school, you may even bring an example of the dish the day of the exhibit. Now to make this project more interesting each group should create a blog on internet at https://www.blogger.com/start an upload your class cookbook to the worldwide web, that way the cookbook with be shared with other COBACH students and affiliated schools from Sonora and beyond. Don´t forget to give the address to your teacher so he can share them with other teacher at Cobach.

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Oral Presentation Rubric Rates nonverbal skills, vocal skills, and content. Criteria

0

1

2

3

Eye Contact

Does not attempt to look at audience at all, reads notes the entire time

Nonverbal Skills Only focuses attention to one particular part of the class, does not scan audience

Occasionally looks at someone or some groups during presentation

Constantly looks at someone or some groups at all times

Facial Expressions

Has either a deadpan expression of shows a conflicting expression during entire presentation

Occasionally demonstrates either a deadpan OR conflicting expression during presentation

Gives audience clues to what the content of speech is about; Appropriate expression, never notice a deadpan or conflicting expression

Gestures

No gestures are notices

Posture

Sits during presentation or slumps

Occasionally displays both a deadpan and conflicting expression during presentation

Occasionally slums during presentation

Natural hand gestures are demonstrated Stands up straight with both feet on the ground

Vocal Skills Enthusiasm

Shows absolutely no interest in topic presented

Shows some negativity toward topic presented

Occasionally shows positive feelings about topic

Vocalized Pauses (uh, well uh, um)

10 or more are noticed

6-9 are noticed

1-5 are noticed

Demonstrates a strong positive feeling about topic during entire presentation No vocalized pauses noticed

Content Topic Announced Time frame

Audience has no idea what the report is on Presentation is less than minimum time

Vaguely tells audience what report is over Presentation is more than maximum time

Clearly explains what the report is covering Presentation falls within required time frame Visual aid enhances presentation, all thoughts articulated and keeps interest

Visual Aid

Poor, distracts audience and is hard to read

Adds nothing to presentation

Thoughts articulated clearly, but not engaging

Completeness of Content

One or more points left out

Majority of points glossed over

Majority of points covered in depth, some points glossed over

Thoroughly explains all points

Professionalism of Presentation

Mumbles, audience has difficulty hearing, confusing

Thoughts don't flow, not clear, does not engage audience

Thoughts articulated clearly, though does not engage audience

Presentation is organized and the interest level of the audience is maintained

Total points.

Activity no. 5 Factual Identifies previous knowledge to be used in the activity. Co evaluation

EVALUATION Cook book KNOWLEDGE Procedural Acknowledges information in a conversation or hearing segment related with objects, people or places. C MC NYC

Value: Attitude Shows disposition to work in the activity. Obtained value:

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COMISIÓN ELABORADORA: Director General Mtro. Jorge Luis Ibarra Mendívil Esta publicación se terminó de imprimir durante el mes de diciembre...

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