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Strategies for Disruptive & Aggressive Behaviors Presented By: Becky, DaNay, Matt, & Josh


Ice Breaker яБо

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYU-uQNKQI8


Behavior Definitions 

Disruptive Behaviors: 

 

Verbal talk that was out of content or aloud without permission Throwing object or work material Destroying object Failing to complete instruction

Aggressive Behaviors: 

Hostile or destructive behaviors or actions


Why do disruptive behaviors occur?    

To gain attention (positive or negative) To get the attention or approval of classmates To avoid doing work To gather information Test limits of authority  See if rules will be enforced 

To make a boring class more interesting


Addressing Disruptive Behavior 

Environmentally Mediated Interventions Teacher-Mediated Interventions Peer-Mediated Interventions Self-Mediated Intervention


Environmentally Mediated Interventions 

Rules:  

Rules are too vague and need explanations Either rules are nonexistent or are worded too generally

Mistakes 

#1 mistake teachers make is assuming that students know what is expected of them #2 mistake is to punish students for failure to exhibit a behavior that they do not know how to perform


Guidelines To Making Rules 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Select the fewest possible number of rules Use different rules for different situations Rules should be stated behaviorally and be enforceable Rules should be stated positively Rules should be reasonable There must be consistent consequences for rule fulfillment or infraction


Environmentally Mediated Interventions 

Teacher Movement Pattern: 

Teacher movement around the classroom increases the students’ academic engagement It increases proximity which increases power of both social reinforcement and punishment Helps students to design and use signaling device to show whether teacher assistance is needed


Teacher-Mediated Intervention 

Monitor teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors: Praise can have positive effects on students with EBD yet most teachers do not use it  Teachers that get off topic have less explanation about the lesson which causes less opportunities for students to be able to respond  A great thing for teachers to do is self-monitoring 

Can watch your verbalization and body language


Teacher-Mediated Intervention 

Reprimands: Teachers who self-evaluate have reduced levels of reprimands  Make reprimands privately  Make sure you have the students’ attention  Do not point finger at the student and do not insist on having the last word (especially with teenagers) 


Teacher-Mediated Intervention 

Physical interaction with students:  Physical interaction is never good  Most time it will always be verbal.  Be careful!!!  Interactions by handshakes are normally ok but be careful with other types of "touches"


Teacher-Mediated Intervention ď ś

Praise and ignore approach: 1. Remember that ignoring will not work unless the reason for the students behavior is to gain your attention (found through ABC) 2. Remember that when an ignoring intervention is successful, disruptive behavior will increase before decreasing 3. Develop ways in which other adults can distract you from the student who is being disruptive so that you do not find yourself giving the student attention 4. Be sure to praise the student for appropriate behaviors 5. Consider the peak of the extinction curve before you begin this strategy


Peer-Mediated Interventions 

Peers make good behavior managers Students can model and teach their peers Teach social and academic behavior Students’ peer group to alter problem behavior or to teach new ones


Peer-Mediated Interventions 

Group goal setting and feedback: 

Based on group discussion where peers vote on fellow students behavior

Peer monitoring: 

Teacher tells that students can receive or loss a point for obeying or disobeying each of the rules Class divided into 2 teams (which changes) The peer part comes in when the teacher appoints a team captain who issues and withdraws the points from classmates


Peer-Mediated Interventions 

Peer Management (Peer Confrontation): Teacher directed and peer mediated intervention  Students try to alter one another's problem behaviors.  Teacher calls on the group with questions such as "who can help Sara figure out a different way to be acting right now" 


Peer-Mediated Interventions  

Peer contingencies: Group Reinforcement Dependent group contingency 

Independent group contingency 

Peer performance of certain group members determines the consequence received by the entire group Same consequence is applied to individual group members

Interdependent group contingency 

Each student must read a prescribed level of behavior before the entire group receives a consequence


Peer-Mediated Interventions 

Good behavior game: Teams of students compete on the basis of their behavior in the classroom  Students join a team according to their target behavior (cursing)  Each team has a common goal  Teams create positive peer pressure to help student reach their goals 


Self-Mediated Interventions 

Self-monitoring (Self-recording): record own behavior Self monitoring form in which they use tallying  Once one gets a good idea, move onto behavioral intervention program  Establish contingencies under which the student receives a reinforcer for reducing the number of disruptions per session 


Self-Mediated Interventions 

Self-evaluation 

Self-graphing 

Student assesses the quality of their behavior Student plots their own performance, seeing a graph can improve outcomes

Self-instruction 

Student whispers statements that will help accomplish the task


Aggressive Behavior   

Early intervention is important! One tool to use is the ABC-model Many aggressive acts take place without warning 

Cannot plan to observe and record systematically

To predict aggressive behavior, it helps to have a good grasp of why aggression happens!


Teacher-Mediated Strategies ď ś

ď ś

To implement the best intervention, one needs a better understanding of the student A one-size fits all is not the right approach


Academic Intervention 

 

Students who struggle academically are at higher risk for antisocial behaviors Academic frustrations Classroom outbursts Some examples of accommodations: Using the computer for mathematics  Working with a peer tutor  Shortening assignments  Self-monitoring 


Verbal De-escalation  

A verbal confrontation can escalate quickly into aggression How can you avoid unnecessary verbal confrontations with students?          

Misbehavior or Mother Nature? Pick your battles. Later! The last work can be lethal. Is anybody listening to me? Sarcasm isn’t funny! Save Face. Don’t sweat the small stuff. Set limits but avoid ultimatums. Take charge of yourself.


Anger Management Training 

The goal: 

 

Help students identify the antecedents to their anger Identify their own reactions Select good behavioral choices

Givin’ it; Takin’ it; Workin’ it out The Anger Thermometer


Social Competence Training 

Lack skills to help them manage difficult interpersonal situations How students view adults handling arguments affects how they resolve conflicts This training helps students through a curricular approach This training is especially effective for students with antisocial behaviors


Contingency Management Strategies 

 

This strategy includes token reinforcements, contingency contracts, and time-out reinforcement First step: Pinpoint the target behavior Aggression may be reinforced and strengthened if adults do not advocate that it is not tolerated 

Example: Bullying


Token Reinforcement and Response Cost 

When using token reinforcement to reduce aggressive behavior, apply a response cost or fine to aggressive acts Applying the response cost to behaviors that predict aggression or destruction of property is also helpful Example of token reinforcement- points earned and points lost for aggressive behavior When students earn points for actions that inhibit aggression the teacher is controlling the events that may set off aggression again


Token Reinforcement and Response Cost cont. 

Some guidelines for implementing response cost:      

  

This system should be carefully explained before applying it Should always be tied to a reinforcement system (points) An appropriate delivery system should be developed Implemented immediately after the target behavior or response occurs Applied each time an instance of a target behavior occurs Students should never be allowed to accumulate negative points (go in the hole) The points earned and points lost should be controlled Subtraction of points should never be punitive or personalized Student’s positive/appropriate behavior should always be PRAISED!


Time-Out from Reinforcement 

Many aggressive students fail to complete academic tasks because of expulsion from the setting These students may develop a “double disability” requiring remediation in both academic and social skills When using this strategy it needs to be applied before the child loses control or becomes assaultive Provide reinforcement for incompatible, acceptable actions once the student returns Another form of time-out is in-school suspension


Crisis Interventions Some situations of aggression may erupt into violence before someone can intervene  Be prepared if violent behavior does occur  There may be students whose aggression is a result of irrational thinking, hallucinations, or other mental health challenges 


Peer Support 

“Powerful Source of Support” – Bloom 

Plus for all students 

Especially those with behavior and learning difficulties

Peers can manage for teachers  Academic and social benefits 

Assisting completion of lab projects  Lunchroom introductions  Pep-rally and assembly accompaniment 

More time for teachers! Class work  Observation time 


Strategies 

 

Peer proximity  Students in need of behavioral support placed with stable students  Plus: Direct intervention  Negative: Other intervention may be needed Peer prompting and reinforcement  Peer Feedback=Behavior and academic improvement  Checklists; Verbal Praise; Point Systems  Study: 5th graders with low academic performance monitor students with behavior difficulties=Behavior Growth for both Peer Mentoring Peer Tutoring


Peer Tutoring  

Academic achievement Increased on-task behavior Social behavior   

Immediate Feedback + Peer Attention Frequent prompting to attend to task (by peers) Less time spent waiting (limbo=behavior)

Reverse tutoring


Reverse Tutoring 

Student with problem behaviors become tutors for other students Responsibility  Competence  Community  Contribution 

New York City Study 

 

Five African American students with emotional, behavioral disorders tutored non-disabled peers 1st Grade classroom Hitting, cursing, pushing, screaming, interrupting behaviors were


Proximity ď ś

What’s most important to students? Sense of belonging Valued class member Community Teacher attitude Social climate Caring atmosphere Ability to problem solve Understanding of expectations Rites Ceremonies Festivals Class meetings Sharing Stories Leadership opportunities Self-review Encouragement Multiple intelligences Chores and responsibilities + organizational and classroom structures


Proximity Matters 

Student academic achievement rises the longer teachers spend with the students 

Peer attention more powerful than adult 

Gunter, Shores, and Susan (1995) Sutherland & Wehby (2001b)

Don’t touch the kid! Developmental uncertainty  Stick to high-fives and hand shakes 

Kerr (2006, p. 198-199)


Research 

Popkin and Skinner (2003)  Grades increase in randomly selected core classes with EBD kids Conroy, et. al. (2004)  Students with autism improve behaviors/grades with adult proximity


Group Support Group Support Plan: Re-teaching group expectations Engaging students in lessons/discussion When behavior is/is not acceptable What behavior is/is not acceptable Give examples Active adult supervision Frequent and positive scanning, praise, corrections Precorrection Reminders of rules and expectations BEFORE behavior occurs


Cooperative Learning Components 

 

 

Group members must work together toward goal Individual accountability Students promoting each other’s work faceto-face Group processing and dynamics Development of small group social skills Sutherland (2000, p. 225-226)


CL Effect 

Sutherland’s review of 8 studies showed negligible behavioral and academic results

However  Students were not instructed on group skills  Teachers tend not to implement CL correctly  Only one teacher used the 5 components from previous slide  Few group guidelines were given by teacher  All teachers confused CL with group work


Peer Interaction ď ś

Research supports: ď ś When teachers spend time creating positive peer grouping, misbehavior is almost eliminated and student achievement and self-worth can be enhanced

Jones (2001, p. 122)


Peer Relations     

Enhance student’s school experiences Develop lifelong social skills Positive self-esteem Required for emotional growth Required for community  Student alienation creates violence and other non-desirable behaviors  Disruptive behavior less likely when students feel nurtured, supported, cared for by their peers  “Only after (positive group support) feelings have been developed can a group of students proceed to respond optimally to the learning goal of the classroom” –Vernon and Louise Jones Jones (2001, p. 122-123)


Peer Mediation 

Peacekeepers (Cherokee Reservation)   

  

Structure represents local tribal counsel Weekly Meetings (monthly position rotation) Students and teachers put compliments and concerns in a box throughout the week Pledge Basket of Acceptance Problem-Solution focus     

Recitation of Pledge Problem solving focusing helping and teaching, not punishing No blame assigned Community Growth Mistakes are learning opportunities


Peer Mediation (Cont.) ď ś

Students taught conflict resolution skills empowerment within classroom/community listen to each others consider other viewpoints how to move from anger and outbreak to solutions

ď ś

Skills questioning violence identifying non-violent solutions developing empathy identifying sources of conflict analyzing conflicts accepting responsibility identifying behavior changes preventing future conflicts


Main Goals  

Create classroom climate of cooperation Teach specific negotiation procedure     

  

Jointly identify conflict Describe wants and feelings Reverse perspectives At least 3 agreements for mutual gain! Reach integrative agreement

Teach specific mediation procedure Implement the program Continue the training 1st-12th grades Bloom (2009, p. 141-142)


Success??? 

Studies show peer mediation reduces challenging behaviors in…

Elementary Students

Junior High Students

Senior High Students 

Gresham, et. al. (2006) 

Social skills training dramatically improved behavior for low-achieving, at-risk students


How do I do it? 1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Mediator introduces self. Asks others name and if they want to a solution If agree: move to appropriate area for talking Go over rules Find solutions, not blame Speak respectfully Be as honest as possible Do not interrupt another Confidentiality Agree to rules Confidentiality Take turns and restate what is said Ask what each person wants and restate Ask what they both can do and restate Consider fairness, feasibility of solution Ask if each person agrees and if the problem is solved Ask what each will do if problem comes up again Ask each to share resolution with friends. Acknowledge and appreciate hard work in peaceably finding solutions Lane and McWhirter (1992), Bloom (2009)


The Youtube Connection

DRS peer mediation. 13 Nov 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zsRKgJx-Dv RHS peer mediation. 15 Nov 2008.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIj_dF8bYG0 Peer Mediation Movie. 15 Nov 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GlxHi78TP


Emotional Disturbances: Five Problem Behaviors Aggressive Behavior  Passive-Aggressive Behavior  ADHD  Isolating Behavior  Nonverbal Learning Disabilities 


Aggressive Behaviors 

Aggressive behavior often leads to a special education referral Along with the referral there is also a diagnosis of ODD or CD Teachers who are most effective do not allow themselves to be hooked by the behavior Teachers also do not allow students to push their buttons Emotional objectivity + a studied choice of behavioral intervention techniques = a reduction in the possibility that the student’s behavior will lure the teacher into counter-aggressive behavior


Managing Aggressive Behavior     

      

Teach students self-management strategies Conduct an FBA to find the triggers for the behavior Increase positive feedback/decrease reprimands Look at the peer interaction When necessary, use logical consequences rather than threats or punishment Teach social skills Use exclusion procedures Avoid power struggles Keep rules to a minimum and use plain language Model wanted behaviors Collaborate with others Provide consistent routines, schedules, and classroom activities


Passive-Aggressive Behavior  

This behavior can lead teachers to their “wit’s end” Students with passive-aggressive behavior are topnotch manipulators These are behaviors that are learned and can be changed Examples of Passive-Aggressive Behavior:    

I can’t hear you. I can’t find it. See what you made me do. It’s not my problem.


Managing PassiveAggressive Behavior     

  

Learn the characteristics of this behavior, gain knowledge Acknowledge your own angry feelings Use “I” messages when talking to students Use benign confrontation Promote student reflection by asking the question, “Guess what I am going to say about your behavior?” Provide logical consequences without anger or hostility Make a list of annoying behaviors Give students an opportunity to express feelings of frustration


Case Study Miss Perrone, a young and inexperienced teachers, is concerned about the behaviors with the boys in her third grade class, especially a young boy named Thomas. Thomas and his friends usually run into the classroom talking loudly about the game they were just playing. The teachers, Miss Perrone included, usually yell at the kids to “Slow down! Don’t you know how you are supposed to act when you’re inside?!” During class time, Miss Perrone spends most of her time talking to the class in the front of the room. She does walk around helping students when they ask. When Mrs. Perrone is helping other students do work, Thomas usually is out of his seat talking to other students. Miss Perrone usually asks Thomas to do his work by himself two or three times before he stops talking to other students. In some extreme cases, Thomas argues with Miss Perrone that he wasn’t talking to other students. Miss Perrone threatens to send Thomas to the office when he keeps arguing with her and does not sit back down. During recess, Thomas plays football with his friends. The playground supervising teachers notice that Thomas usually tackles the other kids who are playing with him. They tell Thomas that tackling is not ok; however, the other kids keep playing with Thomas, and he continues to tackle. Confronted with these behaviors, Miss Perrone reacts emotionally and uses ineffective approaches which are not working. Why do you believe that Thomas is acting with way and what strategies would you implore? What role does Miss Perrone play in her student' misbehavior?


References Bloom, L. A. (2009). Classroom management: Creating positive outcomes for all students. Columbus, Ohio: Pearson. Conroy, M. A., Asmus, J. M., Ladwig, C. N., Sellers, J. A., & Valcante, G. (2004). The effects of proximity on the classroom behaviors of students with autism in general education settings. Behavioral Disorders, 29(2), 29(2), 119-129. Dion, E., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2005, August 1). Differential Effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies on Students' Social Preference and Friendship Making. Behavioral Disorders. Disorders. 30 (4), (4), 421-429. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from ERIC database Gresham, F. M., Van, M. B., & Cook, C. R. (2006). Social skills training for teaching replacement behaviors: Remediating acquisition deficits in at-risk students. Behavioral Disorders, 31(4), 31(4), 363-377. Henley, Martin (2006). Classroom Management: A Proactive Approach. Approach. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Jones, V. F., and Jones, L. S. (2001) Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (6th Ed.). Boston: Pearson. Kellner, M., Bry, B., & Colletti, L. (2002, August). Teaching Anger Management Skills to Students with Severe Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 27(4), 400-407. Retrieved November 11, 2008 from PsychINFO database Kerr, Mary M., & C. M. Nelson (2006). Strategies For Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom. Classroom. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Popkin, J., & Skinner, C. H. (2003). Enhancing academic performance in a classroom serving students with serious emotional disturbance: Interdependent group contingencies with randomly selected components. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 32(2), 282295. Southerland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Gunter, P. A. (2000). The effectiveness of cooperative learning with students with emotional and behavioral disorders: A literature review. Behavioral Disorders, 25(3), 25(3), 225-236.


Behavior Strategies