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UNIT 1

Art 藝術與創意 ★★★

Questioning Reality with

Wood Sculpture

木雕的異想世界

—Joseph Schier

湯姆.艾克特(Tom Eckert)是美國亞利桑那州州立大學(Arizona State University,簡稱 ASU) 的美術系教授。他利用傳統的木工技術創造了令人讚嘆的寫實雕刻品。最令人驚豔的一系列作品便是用 單塊木頭來表現柔軟布料的質感,造成觀賞者的錯覺。艾克特從年輕時便對視覺上的錯覺深深著迷,因此 打造讓人難辨真假的木雕作品成了他的創作方向。在他的作品中,流動飄逸的物品與堅硬物體有著明顯 反差,帶給觀賞者一種難以言喻的神祕感及想像空間。

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A black silk camisoleu is lying on the

and then paints it with lacquer. u The

ground. On top of it is a shiny black

finished work looks nothing like wood. “At

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leather high-heeled shoe. It looks as if it

first, you’re drawn into a false sense of

could be something left on the floor after

reality, and then you discover it’s not real

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a woman has undressed, but that’s not

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what it is at all. What you are seeing is a

life is all about.”

work of art by Tom Eckert, and no silk or

Some of the works of art Eckert creates

leather was used to make it.

force viewers to ask questions. How can 4

Eckert makes all of his creations out 10

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at all,” Eckert says. “To me, that’s what

of wood. He cuts and carves the wood

an elegant piece of soft white silk cloth 20

float off the ground and suspend5 what 圖片 / Tom Eckert


looks like a shiny marble ball? How might a book be floating in the air while a piece of white silk draped over it spills to the ground? The answer is that the things they are viewing are not what they appear to be; they’re made of wood.

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木雕呈現出懸空白布覆蓋著若隱若現的黑色物體。

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The illusionsu Eckert creates often appear to blend6 materials. In one work, Ascension,u a piece of wood with sharp thorns7 has a piece of white cloth tied around it.

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This piece of wood is suspended above a stone block and, as with many illusions, seems to defy u gravity.8 All of it, however, is a single piece of wood that has

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been expertly crafted.9 Another work Eckert created seems simple enough, as if three objects were placed on a table. First, a piece of paper with folds in it is placed face-down.

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On top of it is a white ceramic10 bowl, and inside the bowl is a round rock. It would be an easy art piece to make if you possessed11 all three of the items. That’s not what it is, though. Once again,

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Eckert created it from a single block of wood. “The wood takes on the form of reality, yet it’s not real because it’s still wooden,” he says. Tom

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Eckert’s works fool our eyes and make us question

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what we are seeing. A true master of the art of

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wood sculpture, he creates timeless pieces that

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頭雕刻出來的。

4 6

are a pleasure to behold.u 2 翻譯請見第 68 頁

1–2. 有折痕的紙、陶瓷碗,以及圓石這三件質感不相 同的物品都是湯姆.艾克特(Tom Eckert)用木

(Ascension)看似一根木頭懸在空中。 5 3. 作品「上升」

4. 用木頭雕成的毛巾完美地呈現出柔軟的質感。 5. 木製「定時炸彈」包含許多細節。 6. 陶瓷食器、金屬水壺與黃橙橙的檸檬都是木雕作品。 11


UNIT 4

Travel 繞著地球玩 ★★★

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After flying into Osaka, my companion1 and I took a train across the Japanese countryside to Kyoto. During the ride, we saw lushu greenery,u and the towns we passed looked very clean. Many of the houses had finely-kept Japanese gardens in front of them, as 5

well as solar panels2 and other clean-energy devices attached to the roofs. Expecting an old city, we were shocked when we arrived in Kyoto. Stepping into the city’s train station was an otherworldlyu experience, as the station is an architectural 3 wonder. Built of massive, 4

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towering5 steel structures and glass, the Kyoto train station took our breath away. The size and beauty of its futuristicu design amazed us, and its roof garden gave beautiful views of the city.

Kyoto

圖片 / Rachel

▲ 京都車站以鋼骨結構和玻璃建築而成, 整體設計充滿未來感。

A Taste of the Real Japan 漫遊 體驗日本懷舊風情 —Joseph Schier

torii [`t7ri%i]

鳥居(文中第

24 行,日本神社外代表神域 入口的建築物,單複數同形)

京都位於日本關西,自西元七九四年起曾多次作為日本首都, 因此得名。這個歷史悠久的城市匯集了包含金閣寺、清水寺在內的 逾千座古寺與不勝枚舉的古蹟,同時也保有日本茶道、藝妓等傳統 文化,因此吸引許多想體驗日本文化的觀光客前來旅遊。京都市內 的道路規劃仿照中國唐代的長安城,如棋盤格般有條不紊,還有電 車、地鐵、公車等便利的大眾運輸系統,是一座相當適 合遊客自助旅行的觀光城市。

圖片 / Melody

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圖片 / Melody

▼ 名列世界文化遺產的清水寺是

京都最具代表性的古蹟之一。


miso soup [`miso]

味噌湯(文中第 43 行)

tempura vegetables [t5m`p8r4] 野菜天婦羅

圖片 / Rachel

kimono [k4`mono] 和服(文中第 48 行)

(文中第 44 行)

Knowing about the history of Kyoto, I was aware that this city was one of the few cities in Japan that had escaped

圖片 / Melody

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Allied6 bombing during World War II. Although the station roof gave us views of a modern Kyoto, I knew there was plenty of history tucked away in small alleys and other areas throughout the city. It was the one place to see what prewar

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圖片 / Melody

Japan looked like.

▲ (上、中圖)祇園地區的「花見小路」上有許多兩

層樓的木造老房子。 (下圖)京都塔是京都地標。

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Religion plays a big part in Japan, and Kyoto is filled with temples. The Fushimi Inari shrine, 7 with its bright orange

圖片 / Wikipedia: Butszo

torii, made us feel like we were entering 25

京都御所」是天皇以前的住所,木造建築氣勢恢弘。 ▲「

another world. At the Kinkaku Temple, we were dazzled8 by the gold-leafu covered

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the Gion area, with its two-story wooden

walls of its second and third stories. As the

teahouses and restaurants. W e a t e

sun shone on the gold, a mirror image

traditional Japanese dishes including miso

of the amazing building reflected9 in the 30

soup, tempura vegetables, and various

water in the pond below. 45

Once the capital of Japan, Kyoto holds the emperor’s former residence, Imperial

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clothes walk by, looking elegant in kimonos and clackingu wooden shoes.

u

that seem to go on forever surround 35

Kyoto without a doubt gives the

the high walls of the palace. The large wooden structures inside the grounds are impressive, and I imagined ancient Japanese warriors 12 guarding them against invaders.13

rice dishes. While we were eating, we saw women dressed in beautiful traditional

Kyoto

Palace. Gravel walkways u

In the evening, we walked through

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taste of old Japan. Like being in a time machine, we were able to see what life in Japan was like long ago. 2 翻譯請見第 70 頁 21


UNIT 10

Literature 文學花園 ★★★

Virginia Woolf: Mother of Modernism

維吉尼亞.吳爾芙:現代主義文學之母 —Treva Adams

維吉尼亞.吳爾芙( Virginia Woolf, 1882 – 1941 )是二十世紀 現代主義文學(modernism [`m3d0%n6z4m] )的先鋒,並提倡女性主義 ( feminism [`f5m4%n6z4m ] ),為文壇開創了嶄新的一頁。現代主義文學 強調人與人之間普遍存在著「疏離感」、「陌生感」與「孤獨感」,以關注「自我反思」作為創作 基礎。吳爾芙從小雖未受過正規教育,但因父親的文學背景,家中常有名作家造訪,加上她 善於觀察、極富想像力,終究走上文學之路。一九○四年,吳爾芙在父親去世後遷居到布盧 姆斯伯里( Bloomsbury),並成立了布盧姆斯伯里派文人團體。吳爾芙於一九一二年與政治 理論家雷納德.吳爾芙(Leonard Woolf)結婚並合開了霍格思出版社(Hogarth Press), 其後出版吳爾芙著名的作品包括《戴洛維夫人》 ( Mrs. Dalloway )、《燈塔行》 ( To the (Jacob’s Room)等。 Lighthouse)、《雅各的房間》 插畫 / 詹廸薾

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“A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction,” Virginia Woolf wrote in her collection of essays,1 A Room of One’s Own. This may be true, but to write great fiction, a person must also have sharp observation2 5

skills, courage to push artistic3 boundaries,4 and the strength to fight against social and personal difficulties. With these characteristics and talent, Virginia Woolf became one of the 20th century’s leading writers. Virginia Woolf was born into a literary 5 family as

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Virginia Stephen in 1882. Her father was an editor and biographer,u and their home was a meeting place for famous authors. By the age of 18, she was writing

professionally. 6 However, she suffered nervous breakdownsu after the early deaths of her mother 15

and a sister, and she became terribly depressed when her father died. These mental problems would follow her for the rest of her life. It wasn’t until she moved to a new house in Bloomsbury that the most 20

well-known chapter of her life began. Around her formed the fa m o u s Bloomsbury group, a circle of writers and artists who were instrumental in creating a new voice in art. 翻譯請見第 73–74 頁

A Room of One’s Own 《自己的房間》 《自己的房間》 (1929)是吳爾芙所有兩性論述著作中評價最高的 一篇。文中她探討女性作家所受到的社會束縛,她們想從事創作 必須面臨重重阻力,在父權社會中尤其缺乏自信。她表示要成為 女作家,首先必須要有自己的書房且經濟自主,如此一來,才有 時間及空間寫作而不受干擾。當中引用了許多具體的例子來鼓勵 女性從事創作。

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