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nomos ……… catalogue april 2009

nomos ……… catalogue april 2009

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auction 1

nomos I

zürich, 6 may 2009

nomos ag, numismatists

zähringerstrasse 27, postfach 2664, ch-8022 zürich, switzerland telephone +41 44 250 51 80, fax +41 44 250 51 89 info@nomosag.com, www.nomosag.com

02_cover_mey09.indd

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nomos ag, numismatists zürich, switzerland

9.3.2009

21:11:24 Uhr


nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

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zürich, switzerland

auction 1

zürich, 6 may 2009 greek, roman, early medieval and early modern coins and medals

Widder Hotel

Rennweg 7, 8001 Zürich, Switzerland Tel. + 41 44 224 25 26 www.widderhotel.ch

nomos ag, numismatists

zähringerstrasse 27, postfach 2664, ch-8022 zürich, switzerland telephone +41 44 250 51 80, fax +41 44 250 51 89, mobile +41 79 701 90 96 info@nomosag.com, www.nomosag.com


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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009


nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

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time table – zeittafel – ordre de vente wednesday, 6 may 2009 14:00 -16:00 lots 1 – 203

viewing – besichtigung – exposition the coins can be viewed mondays through fridays from 10 a.m. until 5 p.m., and at other times by appointment. the coins can also be viewed online at www.nomosag.com and at www.sixbid.com

Die Auktion erfolgt unter Mitwirkung eines Beamten des Stadtammannamtes Zürich 1. Jede Haftung des anwesenden Beamten, der Gemeinde und des Staates für Handlungen des Auktionators entfällt. © 2009 Nomos AG, Zürich


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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

Versteigerungsbedingungen

Conditions de la vente aux enchères

Die Auktion erfolgt gegen Barzahlung in Schweizer Franken mit einem Aufgeld von 18% auf dem Zuschlagspreis. Für Auslieferungen in der Schweiz erhöht sich der Endpreis (Zuschlagspreis, Aufgeld und Versandspesen) für Silber- und Bronzemünzen, und Medaillen um die MwSt von 7.6%. Im Ausland erhobene Gebühren irgendwelcher Art sind vom Käufer zu bezahlen. Der Gesamtpreis ist nach erfolgtem Zuschalg fällig. Das Eigentumsrecht wird erst mit der vollständigen Bezahlung vom Käufer erworben. Für verspätete Zahlungen wird ein Verzugszins vom 1% pro Monat in Rechnung gestellt. Gebote, die 80% des Schätzpreises unterschreiten, können nicht berücksichtigt werden. Schriftliche Gebote haben den Vorrang. Jeder Ersteigerer verpflichtet sich für die durch ihn gestätigte Er- werbung persönlich haftbar. Er kann nicht geltend machen, für Rechnung Dritter gehandelt zu haben. Der Zuschlag verpflichtet zur Abnahme. Die Beschreibung der Stücke und deren Erhaltungsgrade erfolgt nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen. Die Echtheit der Stücke wird garantiert. Berechtigte Reklamationen werden bis 8 Tage nach Erhalt der Stücke berücksichtigt. Der Versand der ersteigerten Stücke erfolgt nach vollständiger Bezahlung der Rechnung auf Kosten und Risiko des Käufers. Im übrigen kommen die ortsüblichen Gantbedingungen zur Anwendung. Gerichtsstand für alle Verfahren ist Zürich 1. Nur der deutsche Text der Auktionsbedingungen ist rechtsgültig. Durch Abgabe eines mündlichen oder schriftlichen Gebotes werden die vorliegenden Auktionsbedingungen anerkannt.

La vente a lieu au comptant en francs suisses et le prix d’adjudication est augmenté d’une taxe de vente de 18%. En cas de livraison en Suisse, la prix total (prix d’adjudication + taxe de vente et frais d’expédition) est augmenté de la TVA Suisse de 7.6% pour les monnaies en argent et en bronze et les médailles. Les droits et taxes dus à l’étranger sont à la charge de l’acheteur. Le paiement est dû au moment de l’adjudication. Un intérêt de 1% par mois sera facturé pour tout retard. Le transfer de propriété n’est effectif qu’au moment où le prix d’achat est payé intégralement. Les orders écrits de moins de 80% de nos estimations ne seront pas prix en consideration. A prix égal, les offers écrites ont la priorité. Chaque participant à la vente s’oblige pour les achats effectués par lui-même; il ne peut pretender avoir agi pour le compte d’un tiers. L’adjudication oblige irrévocablement l’acheteur. La description et l’état de conservation des pieces sont donnés en bonne foi. L’authenticité des monnaies est garantie. Des reclamations justifiées ne peuvent être prises en consideration que dans les huit jours suivant le remise des monnaies. L’envoi des lots adjugés sera effectué, après paiement, aux frais et risques de l’acheteur. Les conditions locales de mise aux enchères seront appliqués. Le for juridque pour toutes procedures est fixé à Zürich 1. Seul le texte allemand des présentes conditions de vente fait foi. Celui qui donne une enchère orale ou écrite reconnait avoir pris connaissance des conditions de vente ci-dessus.


Conditions of Sale All sales will be made through payment in Swiss Francs, with the addition of a buyer’s premium of 18% on the hammer price. For all lots delivered in Switzerland there is an additional Swiss VAT of 7.6% due on the hammer price and on the buyer’s premium for silver and bronze coins, and for medals. The purchaser is responsible for all taxes and fees due for delivery of lots outside of Switzerland. Payment is due immediately following conclusion of the sale. Full title to purchases is only obtained upon full payment. A charge of 1% per month will be assessed for delayed payments. Bids below 80% of the estimated prices will not be accepted. Written bids take preference over room bids. Buyers are personally responsible for their own purchases and cannot claim to act on the account or instructions of a third party. Adjudication occurs on the fall of the hammer and commits the bidder to acceptance of the lot. The lot descriptions, including the degree of preservation, are opinions and made in good faith. The authenticity of all coins is guaranteed. Justified complaints can only be considered if made within eight days of the auction. Upon receipt of full payment, shipment of lots will be arranged for the purchaser at his expense and risk. In general, the usual conditions applied to auctions held in Zürich apply here. Exclusive jurisdiction for any legal proceedings shall be Zürich 1. Although the Conditions of Sale are provided in English, French and German, only the German text is legally valid. The bidder accepts these conditions of sale by the submission of a bid, whether verbal or written.

nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

Foreword Nomos AG is very proud to present its first auction in Zurich. This is a small sale, only 203 lots, but it has some really exciting things in it. The main focus is on Greek coins, but we also have a solid group of Roman, followed by an intriguing selection of early Medieval, Medieval and early modern issues. They have been picked out from a number of private collections, but the guiding principals behind their selection are those that were established by Dr. R. Maly when he founded Nomos AG in 1972: quality, rarity and interest. Dr. Maly loved Greek coins, especially small ones, and there are some fabulous pieces in this sale from all parts of the Greek world, ranging from Magna Graecia to Baktria and Egypt – every reader will find a favorite. Who would not want to have the Naxos tetradrachm, one of the very finest in existence? But this sale also contains some fascinating and unexpected items: the late Archaic Tenedos on the cover, the lovely miniature portrait of Pharnabazos on a unique Hekte of Phokaia, the equally unique Hekte from Mytilene with Nike and a Panathenaic amphora, or the second known drachm from Olympia with its facing head of the eponymous nymph. One of the joys of collecting Greek coins is the discovery of new types, even from the most well-studied mint: someone who delights in rarities will find them here! The Roman series ranges from the late Republic through the fifth century and is especially strong in attractive bronzes, often with excellent pedigrees, and a fine selection of Late Roman gold once in the collection of Guy Lacam. One very unusual item is the brass seal-box cover with a portrait of Titus, once owned by both Jacob Hirsch and Leo Mildenberg. Finally the auction closes with a lovely group of coins that range from the early sixth century to the late seventeenth: gold coins of the Burgundians, a wonderful Byzantine portrait of Christ, a balefully staring William the Conqueror, great rarities from Rhodes and Malta, and some beautiful German, Italian and French medals. One should not forget that modern medals, which go back to the Renaissance, were inspired by ancient coins – Roman sestertii and large Greek silver pieces, like the Syracusan dekadrachm in this sale, which early scholars thought too beautiful to have been used as mere money. They all go terribly well together here.

Dr. Alan S. Walker Nomos AG, www.nomosag.com

Dr. A. Peter Weiss

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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

Bibliography ACG ACGC ACNAC AMNG AMUGS ANSNNM ANSNS Armand Arnold-Biucchi Ash. Ashton Asyut Azz. Babelon Baldwin Barron Basel Bastien, Buste, Baumgarten Bauten BCD Akarnania BCD Boiotia BCD Euboia BCD Olympia BCD Peloponnesos Belfort Bellinger, Philippi Bérend, l’or Biaggi BMC BMFA Bodenstedt Boerhringer “Katan...” Bopearachchi Boudeau Burlington Exhibition Cahn Calicó Caltabiano

C.M. Kraay, The Aes Coinage of Galba. ANSNNM 133 (1956). C. Kraay. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins (London, 1976). Ancient Coins in North American Collections. American Numismatic Society. New York. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenland (Berlin, 1898–1935). Antike Münzen und Geschnittene Steine. Berlin. American Numismatic Society Numismatic Notes and Monographs. American Numismatic Society. New York. American Numismatic Society Numismatic Studies. American Numismatic Society. New York. A. Armand, Les Médailleurs italiens des quinzième et seizième siècles. Second edition (Paris, 1883) C. Arnold-Biucchi, “The Beginnings of Coinage in the West: Archaic Selinus”, FlorNum. D. M. Metcalf, Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. 2nd edition (London, 1995) R. Ashton, “The Coinage of Rhodes 408-c. 190 BC”, Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World (Oxford, 2001). M.J. Price & N. Waggoner, Archaic Greek Silver Coinage: The Asyut Hoard (London, 1975). E. Azzopardi, Malta – The History of the Coinage (Valetta, 2004). E. Babelon, Monnaies de la Republique Romaine (Paris, 1885). A. Baldwin, “Lampsakos: The Gold Staters, Silver and Bronze Coinages”, AJN 53 (1924). J.P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos (London, 1966). H.A. Cahn et al. Griechischen Münzen aus Grossgriechenland und Sizilien (Basel, 1988). P. Bastien, Le buste monétaire des empereurs romains (Wetteren, 1992). J. G. Baumgarten, Historisch-genealogisch- chronologisch-kritisches Verzeichnis aller bekannten ducatenförmigen Goldmünzen der albertinischen Hauptlinie des uralten sächsischen Hauses (Dresden, 1812). H. Küthmann et al., Bauten Roms auf Münzen und Medaillen (Munich, 1973). Münzen & Medaillen GmbH 23, 18 October 2007. Sammlung BCD. Akarnanien und Aetolien. Triton IX, 10 January 2006, The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Boiotia. Lanz 111, 25 November 2002, Münzen von Euboia: Sammlung BCD. Leu 90, 10 May 2004, Coins of Olympia: The BCD Collection. LHS 96, 8 May 2006, Coins of Peloponnesos:The BCD Collection. A. de Belfort, Description générale des monnaies mérovingiennes (Paris, 1895). A. R. Bellinger, “Philippi in Macedonia”, ANSMN 11 (1964). D. Bérend. “De l’or d’Agathocle”, Studies Price. Privately printed photographic record plates of the collection of Roman gold coins and medallions belonging to L. Biaggi, made in the late 1970s. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, 29 Vols. (London, 1873–1927). H. Mattingly et al., Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. 6 Vols. (London, 1932–1962). A.B. Brett Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, 1955). F. Bodenstedt, Die Elektronmünzen von Phokaia und Mytilene (Tübingen, 1981). C. Boehringer, “Kataneische Probleme, Silberne Kleinstmünzen”, Proceedings Berne (1982) O. Bopearachchi, Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques (Paris, 1991). E. Boudeau, Monnaies Françaises Provinciales. Revised ed. (Maastricht, 1970). Burlington Fine Arts Club. Exhibition of Ancient Art (London, 1904) H.A. Cahn, Die Münzen der sizilischen Stadt Naxos (Basel, 1940). X. Calicó, The Roman Aurei. 2 Vols. (Barcelona, 2003). M.C. Caltabiano, La monetazione di Messana con le emissioni di Rhegion dell’etaa’ della Tirannid (Berlin, 1993).


Carradice CNS Cohen Crawford CRI CSE Dav. De Hirsch De la Tour De Luynes Delmonte Depeyrot Desneux Dewing Divo DOC Domanig Egg ESM Essays Robinson F. Fischer-Bossert Fr. Franke/Marathaki Gallatin Gamberini Grandjean Grunauer Gulbenkian Habich Hendin

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I. Carradice, Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires. British Archaeological Reports 343. (Oxford, 1987). R. Calciati, Corpus Nummorum Siculorum: La Monetazione di Bronzo. 3 Vols. (Mortara, 1983–1987). H. Cohen, Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire Romain. 8 Vols. (Paris, 1880–1892). M. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage. 2 Vols. (Cambridge, 1974). D. Sear, The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49–27 BC (London, 1998). A. Houghton, Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton. ACNAC 4. (New York, 1983). J. Davenport, German Talers 1500–1600 (Frankfurt, 1979). P. Naster, La collection Lucien de Hirsch (Bruxelles, 1959). H. de la Tour, Atlas de monnaies Gauloises (Paris, 1892). J. Babelon, Catalogue de la collection de Luynes. 4 vols. (Paris, 1924–1936). A. Delmonte, Le Bénélux d’or (Amsterdam, 1964). G. Depeyrot, Les monnaies d’or. 2 vols. (Wetteren, 1995–1996). J. Desneux, “Les tétradrachmes d’Akanthos”, RBN 95 (1949). L. Mildenberg & S. Hurter, The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985). J.-P. Divo, Catalogue des médailles de Louis XIV (Zurich, 1982). -, Numismatique de Dombes (Monaco, 2004) A. Bellinger, P. Grierson et al., Catalogue of Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and the Whittemore Collection. 5 Vols. (Washington, D.C., 1966–1999). K. Domanig, Porträtmedaillen des Erzhauses Oesterreich von Kaiser Friedrich III bis Kaiser Franz II (Vienna, 1896). E. Egg, Die Münzen Kaiser Maximilians I (Innsbruck, 1971). E.T. Newell & O. Mørkholm, The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III. Revised second edition. ANSNS 1 (1978). C.M. Kraay & G.K. Jenkins, eds., Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson (Oxford, 1968). E. H. Furse, Mémoires numismatiques de l’order souverain de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem (Rome, 1885). W. Fischer-Bossert, Chronologie Der Didrachmenprägung von Tarent 510–280 v.Chr. (Berlin, 1999). A. L. and I. S. Friedberg, Gold Coins of the World. 7th edition (Clifton, N.J., 2003). P. R. Franke and I. Marathaki, Wine and Coins in Ancient Greece (Athens, 1999). A. Gallatin, Syracusan Dekadrachms of the Euainetos Type (Cambridge, MA., 1930). C. Gamberini de Scarfea, Le imitazione e le contraffazioni monetary nel Mondo. Parte Terza (Bologna, 1956) -, Prontuario prezzario delle monete, oselle e bolle di Venezia (Bologna, 1969). C. Grandjean, Les Messéniens de 370/369 au 1er siècle de notre èr: Monnayages et histoire (Paris, 2003). S. Grunauer von Hoerschelmann, Die Münzprägung der Lakedaimonier. AMUGS VII. (Berlin, 1978). E.S.G. Robinson, et al., A Catalogue of the Calouste Gulbenkian Collection of Greek Coins. 2 Parts. (Lisbon, 1971, 1990). G. Habich, Die deutschen Schaumünzen des XVI. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1929–1934). D. Hendin, Guide to Biblical Coins. 4th edition. (New York, 2001).


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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

Herzfelder Hill HN III Holloway Holloway & Jenkins Holt Houghton, Double Hunterian IGCH Ives Jameson Jenkins Jenkins & Lewis Jones Keilitz & Kohl KF KMW Kraay/Hirmer Kress Lacam Lanna Lanz Le Rider Locker-Lampson May, Abdera May, Ainos, May, Damastion McClean MEC Merserberger Milbank MIRB Montenuovo Moser & Tursky NC Nicolet-Pierre Nicolet & Oeconomides Noe, Mende

H. Herzfelder, Les monnaies d’argent de Rhegium (Paris, 1957). P.V. Hill, The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types (London, 1989). -, The Undated Coins of Rome A.D. 98–148 (London, 1970). N.K. Rutter, ed. Historia Numorum. Third edition. Italy. (London, 2001). R. R. Holloway, “The Crown of Naxos“, ANSMN 10 (1962). R.R. Holloway & G.K. Jenkins, Terina (Bellinzona, 1983). F. Holt, Thundering Zeus: The Making of Hellenistic Bactria (Berkeley, 1999). A. Houghton, “The Double Portrait Coins of Alexander I Balas and Cleopatra Thea”, SNR 67 (1988). G. MacDonald, Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. 3 Vols. (Glasgow, 1899–1905). O. Mørkholm & M. Thompson, eds., An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards (New York, 1973). H.E. Ives and P. Grierson, The Venetian Gold Ducat and its Imitations. ANSNNM 128 (1954). R. Jameson, Collection R. Jameson. Monnaies grecques antiques. 4 Vols. (Paris, 1913–1932). G.K. Jenkins, The Coinage of Gela (Berlin, 1970). G.K. Jenkins & R.B. Lewis, Carthaginian Gold and Electrum Coins (London, 1963). M. Jones, A Catalogue of the French Medals in the British Museum (London, 1988). C. Keilitz & C. Kohl, Talerteilstücke des Kurfürstentums Sachsen: Ernestinische Linie 1500–1547 (Leipzig, 1996). Bank Leu & Münzen und Medaillen, 28 May 1974, Griechische Münzen aus der Sammlung eines Kunstfreundes. G. Dembski, Münzen der Kelten. Sammlungskataloge des Kunsthistorischen Museums. Band 1. (Vienna, 1998). C. Kraay & M. Hirmer, Greek Coins (New York 1966). G.F. Hill & G. Pollard, Renaissance Medals from the Samuel H. Kress Collection (London, 1967). G. Lacam, La fin de L’Empire Romain et le monnayage or en Italie (Lucerne, 1983). Lepke, Berlin, 16 May 1911, Sammlung Adalbert von Lanna. M. Kostial, Kelten im Osten. Gold und Silber der Kelten in Mittel und Osteuropa. Sammlung Lanz (München, 1997). G. Le Rider, Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II (Paris, 1977). E.S.G. Robinson, Catalogue of Ancient Greek coins Collected by Godfrey Locker Lampson (London, 1923). J.M.F. May, The Coinage of Abdera, 540–345 BC. (London, 1966). -, Ainos, Its History and Coinage (London, 1950). --, The Coinage of Damastion (London, 1939). S. Grose, Catalogue of the McClean Collection, Fitzwilliam Museum. 3 Vols. (Cambridge, 1923– 1929). P. Grierson & M. Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage. Vol. I (Cambridge, 1986). Sammlung O. Merserberger, Münzen und Medaillen von Sachsen. FPL, Zschiesche und Köder (Leipzig, 1894). S.R. Milbank, The Coinage of Aegina. ANSNNM 24 (1924). W. Hahn, Moneta Imperii Romani-Byzantinii (Vienna, 1989). Sammlung Montenuovo. Oesterreichische Medaillen. FPL Hess, Frankfurt, 1895. H. Moser & H. Tursky, Die Münzstätte Hall in Tyrol (Innsbruck, 1977). The Numismatic Chronicle. Royal Numismatic Society. London. 1838–. H. Nicolet-Pierre, “Naxos (Cyclades) archaique : monnaie et histoire. La frappe des “canthares”, de la fin du VIe siècle”, QT 1997. - & M. Oeconomides, “La circulation monétaire dans le Péloponnèse et la trésor de Zakynthos”, QT 1991. S. Noe, The Mende (Kaliandra) Hoard, ANSNNM 27 (1926).


Nomisma North Paolucci PCG Pegasi Picard Pink Poey d’Avant Price Randazzo Raymond RBN Regling RIC Rizzo Robinson & Clement Rosen RPC RSC Rutter S. SC SCBC Schembri Scher Schlumberger Schnee Schönert-Geiss Schulten Selinus Hoard Seltman, Seltman, Sheedy Simonetta Smolderen SNG Alpha Bank SNG ANS SNG Ashmolean SNG Copenhagen SNG Delepierre SNG France SNG Kayhan

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H. von Fritze & H. Gaebler, eds., Nomisma-Untersuchung auf dem Gebiete der Antiken Münzkunde (Berlin, 1907–1923). J.J. North, English Hammered Coinage (London 1963, 1975). R. Paolucci, e monete dei dogi di venezia (Padua, 1990). G. K. Jenkins, A Guide to the Principal Coins of the Greeks (London, 1959). R. Calciati. Pegasi (Mortara, 1990). O. Picard, Chalcis et la Confédération Eubéenne (Paris, 1979). K. Pink, “Der Aufbau der Römischen münzprägung in der Kaiserzeit: VI/1. Probus”, NZ 73 (1949). F. Poey d’Avant, Monnaies Féodales de France (Paris, 1858). M.J. Price, The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus (London, 1991). C. Arnold-Biucchi, The Randazzo Hoard. ANSNS 18 (1990). D. Raymond, Macedonian Regal Coinages. ANSNNM 126 (1953). Revue belge de numismatique et de sigillographie. Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique. (Brussels, 1875–). K. Regling, Terina (Berlin, 1906). H. Mattingly, et al., The Roman Imperial Coinage. 10 Vols. (London, 1923–2008). G. Rizzo, Monete greche della Sicilia (Rome, 1945). D.M. Robinson & P.A. Clement, The Chalcidic Mint and the Excavation Coins found in 1928– 1934. Excavations at Olynthus IX. (Baltimore, 1938). N. Waggoner, Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen. ACNAC 5. (New York, 1983). A. Burnett, et al., Roman Provincial Coinage (London, Paris, 1992–). D. Sear, et al., Roman Silver Coins. 5 Vols. (London, 1978–1987). N.K. Rutter, Campanian Coinages 475–380 BC (Edinburgh, 1979). D. Sear, et al., Byzantine Coins and Their Values. 2nd edition. (London, 1987). A. Houghton & C. Lorber, Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog (Lancaster, PA., 2002–2008). Spink. Standard Catalogue of British Coins (London, issued annually). H.C. Schembri, Coins and Medals of the Knights of Malta (London, 1910). S. K. Scher, ed., The Currency of Fame (New York, 1994). G. Schlumberger, Numismatique de l’Orient Latin (Paris, 1878). G. Schnee, Sächsische Taler 1500–1800 (Frankfurt 1982). E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Maroneia (Berlin, 1987). W. Schulten, Deutsche Münzen aus der Zeit Karls V. (Frankfurt, 1974). C. Arnold-Biucchi, et al., “A Greek Archaic Silver Hoard from Selinus”, MN 33 (1988). C.T. Seltman, “The Engravers of the Akragantine Decadrachms”, NC 1948. -, The Temple Coins of Olympia (Cambridge, 1921). K. A. Sheedy, The Archaic and Early Classical Coinages of the Cyclades (London, 2006). B. Simonetta, The Coins of the Cappadocian Kings (Fribourg, 1977). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece II. The Alpha Bank Collection. Macedonia I: Alexander I - Perseus (Athens, 2000). -, American Numismatic Society (New York, 1969–). -, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (London, 1962–69). -, Danish National Museum (Copenhagen, 1942–1979). -, Collection Delepierre, Bibliothèque National (Paris, 1983). -, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, 1993–). -, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection (Istanbul, 2002).


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SNG Keckman SNG Levante SNG Lloyd SNG Lockett SNG Spaer SNG von Aulock SNR SPNO Sutherland Svoronos Sydenham Thompson, Abydos Thompson Philip Traité Travaux Le Rider Tudeer Vagi Van Loon Vismara Vlasto Vlasto, Alexander Von Fritze Ward Wartenberg WCN Weber Weidauer West Westermark Williams WSM Zervos

nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

-, Finland; The Erkki Keckman Collection (Helsinki, 1994). -, Switzerland; E Levante – Cilicia (Berne, 1986). -, Lloyd Collection (London, 1933–1937). -, Lockett Collection (London, 1938–1949). -, Israel I, The Arnold Spaer Collection of Seleucid Coins (Jerusalem, 1998). -, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock (Berlin, 1957–1968). Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau. Swiss Numismatic Society. (Bern, 1891–). Studia Paulo Naster Oblata I: Numismatica Antiqua. (Louvain, 1982). C.H.V. Sutherland, et al., The Cistophori of Augustus (London, 1970). J. Svoronos, L’hellénisme primitif de la Macédoine, prouvé par la numismatique et l’or du Pangée (Paris and Athens, 1919). -, Numismatique de la Crète ancienne (Paris, 1890). -. Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion (Athens, 1904–08). E. Sydenham, The Coinage of the Roman Republic (London, 1952). M. Thompson, Alexander’s Drachm Mints II: Lampsacus and Abydus. ANSNS 19 (1991). -, “Posthumous Philip II Staters of Asia Minor”, SPNO. E. Babelon, Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines (Paris, 1901–1932). M. Amandry & S. Hurter, eds. Travaux de Numismatique Grecque offerts a Georges Le Rider (London, 1999). L.O. Tudeer, Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Syrakus in der Periode der Signierenden Künstler (Berlin, 1913). D. Vagi, Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. 2 Vols. (Sidney, Ohio, 1999). G. van Loon, Histoire métallique des XVII provinces des Pays-Bas depuis l’abdication de CharlesQuint jusqu’à la paix de Bade en MDCCXVI (The Hague, 1732–1737). N. Vismara, Monetazione Arcaica della Lycia. 3 Vols. (Milan, 1989–1996). O. Ravel, The Collection of Tarentine Coins Formed by M.P. Vlasto (London, 1947). M.P. Vlasto, “Alexander, son of Neoptolemos, of Epirus”, NC 1926. H. Von Fritze, “Die Elektronprägung von Kyzikus,” Nomisma VII (1912). J. Ward and G.F. Hill, Greek Coins and Their Parent Cities (London, 1902). U. Wartenberg, “The Alexander-Eagle Hoard: Thessaly 1992”, NC 1997. D.W. MacDowell, The Western Coinages of Nero. ANSNNM 161 (New York, 1979). L. Forrer, The Weber Collection of Greek Coins. 3 Vols. (London, 1922–1929). L. Weidauer, Probleme de Frühen Elektronprägung (Fribourg, 1975). A.B. West, Fifth and Fourth Century Gold Coins from the Thracian Coast. ANSNNM 40 (1929). U. Westermark, “Himera. The Coins of Akragantine Type. 2.”Travaux Le Rider. R.T. Williams, The Confederate Coinage of the Arcadians in the Fifth Century BC. ANSNNM 155 (1965). -, Silver Coinage of Velia (London, 1992). E.T. Newell & O. Mørkholm, The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III. Revised reprint. ANSNS 4 (1977). O. Zervos, “The Early Tetradrachms of Ptolemy I”, MN 13 (1967).


nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

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nomos Nomos AG, Zähringerstrasse 27, CH-8001 Zürich Tel: +41 44 250 5180, Fax: +41 44 250 5189, Email: info@nomosag.com Please buy the following items on my behalf at your auction sale up to the limits indicated and subject to the conditions of sale. Bitte ersteigern Sie für mich an Ihrer Auktion folgende Stücke bis zu den von mir angegebenen Limiten und den üblichen Auktionsbedingungen. Je vous prie d’acheter à votre vente aux enchères les pièces suivantes jusqu’aux limites indiquées ci-après et aux conditions habituelles. Name Address

Tel

Date Lot No.

Email

Signature CHF. (limit)

Notes


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nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009


nomos ……… auction 1, zürich 6 may 2009

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

CELTIC

1

1. Central Europe. Vindelici. Early 1st century BC. Stater (Gold, 7.49 g 9). Head of eagle to left within wreath with a jeweled closing above Rev. Three pellets within torque with pellet at each end; all within cupshaped incuse. De la Tour 9430. Kellner type IIA. KMW 444. Very rare. Nicely struck and centered. Attractively toned. Surfaces slightly rough, otherwise, extremely fine. 5000 This curious looking coin comes from southern Germany and was surely issued by the Vindelici, a powerful tribe living in that area. They entered German folklore as Regenbogenschüsselchen, which means ‘little rainbow cups’ and refers to the belief that where a rainbow touched the earth, it left a treasure of gold. The strongly convex/concave form of these coins with their odd designs of stars, crosses, birds’ heads, wreaths, coiled serpents or dragons, torques and pellets confirmed their other-worldly strangeness in the eyes of their simple finders. Now we can see how these odd designs have descended from the types on the gold staters of Philip II, so prized by the Celtic mercenaries to whom they were paid hundreds of years before the Vindelici produced their gold pieces.

3:1

2

2. –. Middle Danube. Uncertain tribe. Late 2nd century BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 12.47 g 10), variety of the Reiterstumpf/Kroisbach type. Beardless male head (Apollo) to left, with heavy brows and S-shaped locks of hair Rev. Rider, in the form of a crested head and torso (= “HelmschweifReiterstumpf”), his left hand stroking his chin, on horseback to left; below, two torques connected by a twisted rope. G. Gorini, Le emissioni del Kroisbach Typ, p. 82, 6 examples cited (in Spinei and Munteanu, edd., Miscellanea numismatica antiquitatis in honorem setagenarii magistri Virgilii Mihailescu-Birliba oblata. Bucharest, 2008). KMW 1396 (same reverse die). Lanz -. Very rare, only about a dozen of these coins are known. Attractively toned, well struck and fully centered. Good extremely fine. 5000 This impressive looking coin was basically unknown until relatively recently when a group of them came on the market. It is actually a remarkable example of the Celtic art of the area of what is now Burgenland in Austria and neighboring Slovakia. The whole type is derived from the coins of Philip II; the head on the obverse is clearly a Celticized version of the head of Apollo on his staters, while the rider is an adaptation of the horseman on his tetradrachms. This coin has a strange and compelling beauty, which only the best of Danube Celtic coins have, and it is most impressive.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

GREEK COINS CAMPANIA

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3.

Neapolis. 450-430 BC. Stater (Silver, 7.54 g 11). ΝΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΟΝ (retrograde) Head of Athena to right, wearing Attic helmet adorned with olive wreath Rev. ΝΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΑΣ (retrograde) Man-headed bull, Achelous, standing to left; above, cicada to left. HN III 547. Jameson 42 = Rutter 3 (this coin). Of very great rarity, one of the earliest coins of Neapolis. Toned. A few minor marks, otherwise, good very fine. 10,000 From the collections of Robert Jameson and Sir Arthur Evans. The normal obverse type at Neapolis was a head of Parthenope, daughter of the river god Achelous who appears on the reverse, but this very rare and early issue, with its head of Athena, celebrates the city’s links with Athens. Unlike many other Greek cities in Magna Graecia, Neapolis was founded rather late, only in c. 470, initially with colonists from nearby Cumae. Shortly later they were joined by immigrants from Chalcis and Athens.

4

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4. Suessa Aurunca. Circa 265-240 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 7.24 g 5). Laureate head of Apollo to right, with his hair long and flowing down his neck; behind, spear head Rev. SVESANO Dioscouros, wearing pileus and holding a palm branch tied with a fillet, riding to left with second horse beside him. De Luynes 204 = SNG France 1154. HN III 447. SNG ANS -. A wonderful piece, of the very best Hellenistic style, undoubtedly the finest coin of Suessa Aurunca known. Beautifully toned and perfectly struck, good extremely fine. 40,000 Ex Leu 42, 12 May 1987, 137. Suessa was a Latin colony, founded in 313 and is now the modern Sessa. There are only a few ancient ruins to be seen there, in fact, the most important remains of the ancient city are its coins!


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

CALABRIA

5

5. Tarentum. Circa 290-281 BC. Stater (Silver, 7.83 g 5). Helmeted rider on horse prancing to left, holding, in his left hand, a large shield ornamented with a dolphin and, in his right, two spears; above and to right, ΛIΛ; below, ΑΠΗ Rev. ΤΑΡΑΣ Phalanthos, nude, riding on dolphin to left, holding spindle over his left shoulder; to left CΟΙ; to right, ornamental trident pointed downwards. Fischer-Bossert 1137. HN III, 940. Vlasto 648650. A superb piece in exceptionally fine condition. Bright, lustrous, fresh and perfectly struck in high relief. Good extremely fine. 10,000

This must be one of the finest early 3rd century Tarentine staters in existence. These coins were struck in great numbers to pay for military needs, but they were struck rapidly, which means that most are slightly off-struck with parts off the flan, with flat areas, etc. Absolutely perfect pieces are very, very rare. The engraver really wanted to show the blazon on the shield of this rider, even though doing so would make it difficult to depict him: he succeeded admirably with the large shield realistically covering most of the rider’s torso, just leaving his helmeted head and bare leg visible.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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6

6

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–. Circa 280-228 BC. Multiple lot consisting of a small bronze box, 53 mm by 42 mm and 28 mm high, containing 4 silver diobols of Tarentum. The box seems to date to the late 4th century and imitates the larger wooden boxes used as ossuary urns. The bottom part stands on four legs outlined by vertical lines engraved on the body surface, thus delineating the two ends of the box and its front and back. The sides and back are further decorated by two parallel horizontal engraved lines approximately one third up from the bottom. The lid, detached, has a rolled hinge and a flat top with remains of solder, presumably for attaching a decorative repoussÊ relief now lost. When found the box contained four diobols of Tarentum, all dating circa 280-228 (though probably in the earlier part of that period), and all with a helmeted head of Athena on their obverses and a standing figure of Herakles grappling with the Nemean Lion on their reverses. Their detailed description is as follows: 1. 1.14 g, 12. Athena with plain helmet/club to left and owl between legs of Herakles; 2. 1.26 g, 9. Athena with helmet adorned with hippocamp/owl to left and e between the legs of Herakles; 3. 1.08 g, 5. As last, 4. 1.25 g, 3. Athena with helmet adorned with three pellets and e/ aplustre to left. For the box, cf. M. True and K. Hamma, eds., A Passion for Antiquities. Ancient Art from the Collection of Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman (Malibu, 1994), 29 for a very similar box, slightly larger and with its original repoussÊ decoration intact. For the diobols, cf. HN III 1061 for all and, for 1., SNG ANS 1454-1455. SNG France 2123. Vlasto 1405; 2 & 3, SNG ANS 1450-1451. Vlasto 1399; 4. SNG ANS-. Vlasto 1376-1380. A fascinating object. The box has been professionally cleaned and restored, but is intact, the coins are all lustrous and basically as found - the first and third are slightly off center and the fourth has some die rust on the reverse. The box is in excellent condition, the coins are all about extremely fine. 5000 Acquired through the late Dr. Leo Mildenberg in 2000. According to the information that was supplied by Dr. Mildenberg, this box was found in a river and when the deposits that filled it were cleaned out, these four silver coins were found within it. This is by no means improbable: the box itself is probably slightly earlier than the coins, but idea that it contained them seems perfectly reasonable. Its small size implies it was meant to be used to hold relatively precious items. Given the kind of people who still brought things to Dr. Mildenberg in his later years, and this was brought to him a year or two before he died, it is very unlikely that anyone would have thought it worth while to create a fictitious history for the object (especially since the coins themselves were then of relatively minor value). It was undoubtedly shown to him because it was the kind of curiosity everyone knew he enjoyed seeing. In any event, being able to have the actual container in which the present coins were found is both exciting and romantic. The box is so close in form to the Fleischman example, now Getty 96.AC 87 (dated to 350-310 BC), that one wonders whether it could have been made in the same atelier. While its cataloguers pointed out its resemblance to the cinerary urns used in Macedonian tombs (especially that of Philip II), the fact that this one surely came from Magna Graecia makes one wonder whether the Fleischman piece came from there as well.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

LUCANIA

7

7. Velia. Circa 535-465 BC. Drachm (Silver, 3.71 g). Forepart of lion to right, gnawing on stag’s leg Rev. Irregular incuse square. Dewing 451. HN III 1259. SNG Delepierre 399. Williams 21. Well struck and unusually well centered with all the design visible. Minor flan flaw on the reverse, otherwise, nearly extremely fine. 2750

3:1

Velia was founded by Phokaians in circa 540. Their earliest coins were unlike anything found in contemporary Magna Graecia; rather, they harked back to the issues of Asia Minor with these pieces looking very much like the hektes struck in the mother city. The early drachms were issued in considerable numbers but many are off struck with the lion’s mouth or entire head off the flan; this piece is a pleasing exception to that rule.

BRUTTIUM

8

8. Kroton. Circa 360. Stater (Silver, 7.88 g 8), circa 360. Head of Hera Lakinia three-quarters facing, turned slightly to the right, wearing stephane ornamented with palmettes Rev. ΚΡΟΤΩΝΙΑΤΑΝ Youthful Herakles seated to left on a rock draped with his lionskin, holding a one-handled cup in his right hand and resting his left on his club; below, bow. Basel 198. HN III 2167. SNG ANS 371. SNG Lloyd 616. SNG Oxford 1521-1522. A beautiful and finely detailed coin of the best classical style. Lightly toned. Very minor flan cracks, otherwise, extremely fine. 20,000 From the collection of B. Feirstein, Numismatica Ars Classica 39, 16 May 2007, 7. Kroton was an Achaean foundation that goes back to the late 8th century. It became ever more powerful until, in 510, it destroyed its wealthy neighbor Sybaris and was the dominant city in the area. The foundation of Thurium in 444 weakened Kroton but during the 4th century it was the center of resistance to Syracusan expansion. The present coin bears a head of Hera that is, like so many other facing heads, derived from Kimon’s Arethusa. The figure of Herakles probably is taken from a 5th century statue that was erected in his honor as the mythical founder of the city.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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9.

–. Circa 330-300 BC. Stater (Silver, 7.92 g 5). ΚΡΟΤΩΝΙΑΤΑΝ Eagle with spread wings standing left on olive branch Rev. Tripod with domed cover and fillets hanging from the handles; to right, serpent coiling left; to left, grain ear. Basel 202 (this coin). HN III 2176. SNG ANS 355356. SNG Copenhagen 1798. SNG Lockett 628. A superb example, beautifully struck in high relief and attractively toned. Good extremely fine. 25,000 2:1

From the collection of A. Moretti, Numismatica Ars Classica 13, 8 October 1998, 202. It may seem remarkable how many coins come from the collection of A. Moretti (or ADM as he is often termed) but he was one of the great collectors of the 20th century. He was a Swiss-Italian with close connections to Milan and initially collected all types of ancient coins, except for Celtic, but he soon specialized in the coins of Italy and Sicily. He had a long and close relationship with Leo Mildenberg, as well as with Herbert Cahn, so that throughout the 1950s, 60s and 70s, when so many coins were coming on the market, he always had first choice of whatever appeared. He collected many Italian and Sicilian mints by die, in the manner of his younger contemporary BCD (luckily they did not collect the same area!). The high point of his collecting career came when a careful selection of his coins went on display in the Antikenmuseum in Basel with a wonderful catalogue by H. Cahn, L. Mildenberg, R. Russo and H. Voegtli. His non-Italian Greek coins were mostly sold in a series of Leu sales, his Roman coins appeared in sales of Leu, NAC and NFA, and his wonderful Italian Greek coins have appeared in innumerable NAC sales (a complete sylloge of his collection is promised, and would be of great value). The present piece, far and away better than any other known example of the type, shows the kind of coins this passionate collector was able to acquire - no one else had the chance!

10

10. 2:1

Lokroi Epizephyrioi. Time of Pyrrhos of Epeiros. Circa 275 BC. Stater (Silver, 7.44 g 9). Laureate head of Zeus to left; below neck, monogram of ΝΕ Rev. ΛΟΚΡΩΝ / ΡΩΜΑ ΠΙΣΤΙΣ Roma seated right on low throne, holding short sword in her left hand and resting her right on shield at her side; before to right, Lokroi, as Pistis the personification of Faithfulness, standing left, crowing Roma with a wreath held in her right hand. BMFA 195. Kraay/Hirmer 293. HN III 2347. Jameson 449 (this coin). SNG ANS 531. Very rare, attractively toned, historically important and of fine style. Nearly extremely fine. 25,000 From the collections of W. Niggeler, 1, Bank Leu/Münzen und Medaillen, 3 December 1965, 82, R. Jameson and Sir Arthur Evans, Burlington Exhibition, 1903, pl. 101, 82. This remarkable coin celebrates, in an unusually explicit way, the alliance of Lokroi with Rome after the end of the war against Pyrrhos. Lokroi had initially fought against Rome but later changed sides and was well treated by the Romans in return. Such explicit references to contemporary events on Greek coinage are extremely rare.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

11

11. Rhegion. Circa 420-415/0 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.18 g 19), signed by the engraver Kratesippos on the reverse. Lion’s head seen from above and to the front Rev. ΡΗΓΙΝΟΣ Laureate head of Apollo to right; behind, olive sprig; below chin in two lines of small letters, ΚΡΑΤΕΣΙΠΠΟ. Herzfelder 63. HN III 2494. Jameson 460. SNG Lloyd 696. SNG Lockett 657. An attractive coin, well-centered and sharply struck. Surfaces slightly matte as found, otherwise, extremely fine. 15,000

2:1

Ex Triton V, 15 January 2002, 1142. This is the only die of Rhegion with an engraver’s signature and it is the prototype for all the later Apollo heads that appear on the city’s coinage. This head shows the sober and restrained look favored by 5th century artists - within a few years Apollo’s hair grew longer and more unrestrained, as on the coinage of Olynthos and on the lovely late 4th century tetradrachms of Rhegion itself.

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12. –. Circa 415/0-387 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.12 g 4). Lion’s head facing Rev. ΡΗΓΙΝΟΝ Laureate head of Apollo to right; behind, olive sprig. Herzfelder 81. HN III 2496. SNG ANS 657. Very rare. Well struck in high relief with a beautiful head of Apollo in the finest late 5th century style. Attractively toned and beautifully detailed, extremely fine. 37,500 From the Spina collection, ex Triton VIII, 10 January 2005, 51. The late coinage of Rhegion is really very impressive in its compact monumentality, with flan-filling types that are very well designed. Unlike contemporary Syracusan issues, which were often struck from dies that were larger than the flans - thus resulting in off-struck coins with incomplete designs, the tetradrachms of Rhegion are usually very carefully made. The high relief of the lion’s head on the obverse is truly magnificent, while the head of Apollo is a perfect portrayal of an idealized young aristocrat.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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13.

Terina. Circa 460-440 BC. Stater (Silver, 8.00 g 1). ΤΕΡΣΝΑ Head of the nymph Terina to right, her hair bound with a fillet and tied up at the back Rev. ΝΣΚΑ (retrograde) Nike, wingless, standing right, holding olive branch in her right hand and placing her left on her hip; all within olive wreath. ACGC 707. HN III 2567. Holloway & Jenkins1. Kraay/Hirmer 272. Regling 1. Extremely rare, one of only three known specimens and the only example in private hands (the others are in Berlin and London). Lightly toned, a lovely coin of severe, early Classical style. A few minor marks, otherwise, good very fine. 25,000 From the collection of A. Moretti, Numismatica Ars Classica 33, 5 April 2006, 55. Amazingly enough, despite its well-known coinage, the actual site of the ancient city of Terina seems still to be unknown; it was destroyed by Hannibal and apparently never reoccupied. The standing figure on the reverse can be compared with contemporary sculpture from Athens.

14

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14.

–. Circa 460-440 BC. Stater (Silver, 7.83 g 2). ΤΕΡΕΣ (retrograde) Head of the nymph Terina to right, her hair bound with a thin fillet; around, olive wreath Rev. Nike, with spread wings, standing facing, her head to left, holding wreath with both hands. ACGC 708. HN III 2569. Holloway & Jenkins 4. Regling 3. Extremely rare. Nicely toned, the finest example known. Good very fine. 10,000 This is a fascinating coin because the styles on the two sides are surprisingly different. The nymph on the obverse is rather severe, in some ways like the early heads of Apollo on the coinage of Leontinoi and Katane; yet the head of the Nike on the reverse has a much more developed hairstyle, piled on top of her head and tied up with bands. The Nikes that appear at Terina probably refer to games rather than military victories.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

SICILY

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15. Akragas. Circa 510-500 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 8.88 g 8). ΑΚRΑCΑΝΤΟΣ Eagle with closed wings standing left Rev. Crab. Basel 252. Jenkins, Gela pl. 37, 2. SNG ANS 907 var. SNG Copenhagen 23. Nicely toned and with a bold and very sharply struck eagle. An unusually fine example. Reverse slightly weakly struck, otherwise, good extremely fine. 8500 3:1

From the Spina collection.. Until the sack of the city by the Carthaginians in 406, Akragas, founded c. 582-580 by colonists from Gela, was one of the most prosperous Greek cities of Sicily, as exemplified by the remains of its seven major temples that can be seen today (now, alas, it is also known as a center for the Mafia). The city’s badges were the eagle, an inhabitant of the crags nearby, and the crab, a denizen of the waters below. The stylistic progression from the early representations, as seen on this late Archaic piece, to those of the early and high Classical periods is instructive and attractive.

16 2:1

16.

–. Circa 495-480/78 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 8.88 g 9). ΑΚΡΑ Eagle standing to left, wings closed Rev. CΑΣ (retrograde) Crab within circular incuse. Jenkins, Gela Group III. SNG ANS 949. A splendid piece, bright, lustrous, very well struck and perfectly centered. Good extremely fine. 6000

This is a late example of Jenkins’ Group III. Of interest is the way the legend begins on the obverse and continues on to the reverse - this way of arranging the inscription is rarely found on Greek coins (on Roman coins, of course, the imperial titles commonly move from the obverse to the reverse), though the obverse and reverse types can occasionally form a single scene (as with the early didrachms from Gela). The eagle on the obverse of this coin is particularly nice, especially given its unusually fine condition and perfect centering.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

17.

–. Circa 420. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.01 g 3). ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΟΝ Eagle with spread wings to left, perched on dead hare lying on a rock and tearing at it with its beak; on rock, cockle shell and murex Rev. Crab; to left, cockle shell; to right, sea snail; below, a large fish with open jaws, probably a Mero. Basel 257. Gulbenkian 163-164. Kraay/Hirmer 174. Rizzo pl. I, 16. Seltman pl. I, 1. Extremely rare. Slightly porous surfaces, otherwise, good very fine. 50,000

17

Beginning with this issue in circa 420, the mint of Akragas embarked on an ambitious series of artistically important coins, which continued until the sack of the city by the Carthaginians in 406. The eagles become ever more naturalistic and the traditional crab initially shares the reverse with another type, as with this large grouper or the famous Skylla, but is then relegated to being a mere symbol near a rushing quadriga. This first type must have been both quite popular and issued in small numbers since most surviving specimens are not only rare but often very worn: the present piece is well above average and is most desirable. The late Silvia Hurter, a great expert on Sicilian Greek coins (among other things) always enjoyed this coin: she used to tell me that the selection of sea creatures on the reverse reminded her of a wonderful fish soup she had on one of her visits to the area!

3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

18.

–. Circa 409-406 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.43 g 7). ΑΚΡΑΓ ΑΝΤΙΝΟΝ (second part retrograde) Nike driving galloping quadriga to left, holding the reins of three horses with her left hand (one rein is trailing on the ground in front) and a goad in her left; above, hanging on a nail, a tablet inscribed with the city name but with the spacing misjudged and the last two letters in the field; in exergue, long, thin club Rev. Two eagles standing right on dead hare lying on a rock; the closer eagle has closed wings and his head raised in triumph, while the further has open wings and his head bent to tear at the hare; behind to left, lion’s head with open mouth to left. De Luynes 858 = Kraay/Hirmer 181 = Rizzo pl. III, 4 = Seltman, Engravers 14 . Extremely rare. A coin of great beauty and numismatic importance. Lightly toned. Some minor flatness of strike, otherwise, extremely fine. 100,000 The late coinage of Akragas, struck in the years just before the Carthaginian capture of the city in 406, was the most magnificent in the city’s history. It included the famous dekadrachm, gold pieces and a variety of quadriga/two eagles tetradrachms that are all of superb quality. Seltman suggested that some of the finest engravers in Sicily made the dies for these coin, ascribing the obverse of this piece to Kimon and the reverse, very probably, to Polykrates or one of his followers. Both sides are powerful representations: the pair of eagles are perfectly detailed and the quadriga is excitingly realistic, especially with the rein dangling from the farthest horse.

3:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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19. 2:1

Gela. Circa 490/85-480/75 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 8.48 g 1). Nude rider galloping to right, hurling spear with his raised right hand Rev. CΕΛΑ Forepart of man-headed bull to right. Basel 279. Jenkins, Gela Group 1b, 7. SNG ANS 4. SNG Lloyd 956. A superb example, attractively toned and beautifully struck. Good extremely fine. 7500 The early coins of Gela are remarkable for their lifelike portrayal of the city’s patron river god, shown as a man-headed bull. This representation goes back to that of Acheloos, a river god from northwest Greece, and initially was only of him, but the type became extremely popular and was used for local river gods all over the Greek world. The nude and bearded horseman on the obverse may well be thought to be chasing the god: preventing him from indulging in one of his destructive rages! This is, in fact, why river gods were shown as bulls - so many rivers in Sicily, Magna Graecia and Greece itself were calm during most of the year, but they all could become dangerous, raging torrents after a flash flood or during the Spring run offs.

20

20.

2:1

Himera. Circa 480-470 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 8.80 g 4). ΗΙΜΕRΑ Cock standing left Rev. Crab . BMC 24. SNG ANS 155 ff. Westermark, Himera 4. Well struck on a broad flan. Extremely fine. 3750 Himera was in the far west of Sicily and was founded by Zankle c. 648. It was another Sicilian city that was very prosperous but then utterly destroyed by the Carthaginians in the late 5th century (in 408). It had long been an enemy of Carthage, especially since the great battle of Himera in 480, when Theron of Akragas and Gelon of Syracuse defeated a vast host of Carthaginians and their allies. Theron had taken control of Himera from a local tyrant and this coin, with the cock of Himera (the city’s name means ‘day break’ - a crowing rooster is a fine punning type) and the crab of Akragas, is a perfect symbol of the contemporary political reality.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

21

21. Katane. Circa 431-415 BC. Litra (Silver, 0.65 g 6). Head of Silenos to right Rev. KAT-A-NAIΩN Winged thunderbolt, flanked by two shields. Boerhringer “Katan...”, Series III, Li 5; Rizzo pl. XIV 19. SNG ANS 1264. SNG Lloyd 911. Very rare. Attractively toned and exceptionally nice. A superb piece free from the usual crystallization found with these small coins, good extremely fine. 10,000

3:1

Yet another magnificent late 5th century Sicilian fraction designed by a master engraver. The Greeks were often very involved with and very observant of their coinage, far more so than any other people, but especially so in Sicily. They competed to have the finest engravers for their large tetradrachms, but they also insisted on having fractions of superb quality as well. This head of the balding and bearded Silenos has to be viewed as an absolute masterpiece; if it were the size of a stater it would surely be considered one of the greatest coins of later 5th century Sicily.

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22.

Messana. 420-413 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.29 g 8). ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ Biga of mules walking to left, driven by the Nymph Messana, standing left and holding goad in her right hand and reins in both; in exergue, two confronted dolphins Rev. ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ Hare springing to right; below, fly seen from above. Caltabiano 516. SNG ANS 373. Struck from a rusty obverse die and with a minor die break on the reverse, otherwise, one of the best known examples, extremely fine. 10,000 The standard types of the coinage of Messana show a biga of mules, in honor of the Olympic victory won by the tyrant Anaxilas in the mule car races (a short-lived event in the Olympics) and a hare, an animal Anaxilas supposedly introduced to Sicily. The symbol on the reverse, a fly, is particularly realistic, once again testifying to how carefully Greek artists observed the natural world around them.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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23.

2:1

–. 420-413 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.29 g 6). ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ (retrograde) The Nymph Messana standing right, with fluttering gown, driving biga of mules to right, holding the reins and goad with both hands; in exergue, two dolphins swimming towards each other Rev. ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ Hare springing right; below, dolphin swimming to right. Caltabiano 536. SNG ANS 364. Lightly toned, well struck and attractive. Good extremely fine. 5000

24

24.

Mamertinoi. 270-220 BC. Hexas (Bronze, 8.64 g 11). ΑΡΕΟΣ Laureate head of youthful Ares to right; behind head, two pellets Rev. ΜΑΜΕΡΤΙΝΩΝ Athena standing at bay to right, holding transverse spear in her right hand and resting her left on shield set on the ground before her. CNS 21. SNG ANS 420-422. A beautiful piece, with a splendid head of Ares of very fine Hellenistic style, and with a very attractive, dark, olivegreen patina. Extremely fine. 700 2:1

The Mamertines were Campanian mercenaries who had been hired by Agathokles of Syracuse. After his death in 289 they found themselves at loose ends; some returned home but others decided to stay on in Sicily. In an act of base treachery they took the city of Messana in 288, killing the men and dividing the women among themselves. They then began preying on all nearby cities and became serious pests in general, so much so that they were attacked by Hieron II of Syracuse. Hieron defeated them but was forced to withdraw when the Mamertines received aid from Carthage. Tiring of Carthaginian control, the Mamertines appealed to Rome: this action led to the First Punic War (264-241) in which Rome ultimately defeated Carthage and gained both naval superiority and control over most of Sicily. During this period the Mamertines disappeared, most being either killed or assimilated. Their coin types celebrated their martial qualities: on the obverse is Ares/Mars, god of war and on the reverse we have a fighting Athena.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

25. Naxos. Circa 460. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.33 g 1). Bearded head of Dionysos to right, wearing ivy wreath, and with his hair tied in a krobylos at the back; border of dots cut through by the beard, the krobylos and the wreath tips Rev. ΝΑΧΙΟΝ Nude, bearded and ithyphallic Silenos squatting, facing, turning his head to the left toward the two-handled, stemless drinking cup he holds in his right hand, supporting himself with his left hand propped on the ground. Basel 384. Cahn 54. Franke/Marathaki 102/129. Gulbenkian 230-231. Kraay/Hirmer 6. Randazzo 231 (this coin). Rizzo pl. XXIX, 1. SNG ANS 515 (all same dies). A spectacular example of this famous coin, one of the very best specimens in existence. Good extremely fine. 400,000 From the Spina collection and from the collection of Orme Lewis, Triton II, 1 December 1998, 201, ex Bowers & Ruddy, Masterpieces of Ancient Coinage, 4, and from the Randazzo Hoard of 1980. This is one of the greatest and best known of all 5th century Greek coins. It was produced as a special issue, from a single pair of dies, to commemorate the refoundation of the city of Naxos by its original inhabitants in 461, after their return from exile in Leontinoi. The die-engraver, often known as the Master of the Brussels Aitna Tetradrachm after the unique piece in Brussels that is surely by the same hand, was the finest die cutter then working anywhere in the Greek world. This head of Dionysos is unsurpassed in its power and beauty, but the kneeling Silenos on the reverse is even more impressive in its technical mastery, with the successful use of foreshortening of the right leg a triumph for the time. Silenos is managing to balance himself, but the way he is peering at his cup, as if to see if there is anything still in it, indicates that he is probably very drunk, indeed.

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–. Circa 420-403 BC. Hemidrachm (Silver, 2.09 g 6). Head of the youthful river-god Assinos to left, wearing wreath of parsley and with a tiny horn above his forehead Rev. ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Nude and bearded silen kneeling partially to left, holding kantharos in his right hand and branch in his left. Cahn 124. Hunterian 12. Extremely rare. A coin of wonderful style, exceptionally well struck and preserved. Some minor porosity, otherwise, extremely fine. 12,500 From the collection of A. Moretti, Numismatica Ars Classica 33, 6 April 2006, 81. As is well known, the Sicilians were intensely proud of their coinage and during the last quarter of the 5th century the cities of the island actively competed to have the best available artists engrave the dies for their coins. Not only did this result in a flood of magnificent tetradrachms, but this competition extended down to very small denominations as well. This small piece is a perfect example: the head of the young river god is beautifully delineated and the kneeling silen on the reverse is cleverly foreshortened. Given how rare this coin is, it might well be that it, like contemporary fractions from Akragas and elsewhere, was only issued in very small numbers for presentation purposes.

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Selinos. Circa 540-515 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 9.10 g). Wild parsley leaf Rev. Incuse square divided diagonally into ten raised and lowered sections. Arnold-Biucchi 2. Selinus Hoard 20. SNG ANS 670 var. Beautifully struck in high relief on a broad flan. Tiny flan crack, otherwise, good extremely fine. 2750 The city of Selinus used a leaf of wild parsley, selinon in Greek, as its badge - a typical example of the way Greek states used what are known as punning types to identify themselves on their coinages. Another example is the seal, Phoke, on the coinage of Phokaia.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

28. Syracuse. Dionysios I. 405-367 BC. Dekadrachm (Silver, 43.03 g 9), after Euainetos, circa 390. Charioteer, wearing long chiton, holding goad in his right hand and the reins in his left, driving a racing quadriga to left; above, Nike flying right to crown the charioteer; in the exergue on two steps, a panoply of arms Rev. ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Kore-Persephone to left, her hair bound in a wreath of grain leaves, wearing a pearl necklace and a triple-pendant earring; behind her neck, scallop shell; around, four dolphins. Dewing 903-906. Gallatin XI/E 1. SNG ANS 372. A magnificent, lightly toned and beautifully struck coin, perfectly centered and free from all the die rust that usually plagues these coins. An exceptionally attractive specimen. Good extremely fine. 80,000 From the Spina collection.. The dekadrachms of Syracuse are among the most famous coins of the ancient world - they have been prized since the Renaissance, when they were thought to be commemorative medals, until the present day, though now we know they were produced to finance the wars of Dionysios I. We can also prove that those designed by Euainetos were also well-known in antiquity since molds were made from them as decoration for pottery and the head of Kore-Persephone served as the inspiration for heads of goddesses made by coin engravers all over the Greek world. Thanks to its outstanding preservation this piece shows why this coin was so popular: its sculptural quality is readily apparent, especially given its large size (35 mm in diameter). It is easy to understand why early numismatists thought it was a medal since in their own time there were no coins so large and beautiful and they could not conceive of anything like this being solely for commercial use! Holding this piece in the hand is extraordinary in other ways as well: its perfect preservation and the clearly unworn state of the dies that struck it allow us to see and feel true perfection in Greek coinage.

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29. –. Agathokles. 317-289 BC. Dekadrachm or 50 Litrai (Gold, 2.86 g 7), circa 295-289. Laureate head of Apollo to left Rev. Charioteer, holding goad in his right hand and reins in his left, driving biga galloping to right; below horses, triskeles to left; in exergue, Φ. Bérend, l’or pl. 9, 13 = SNG ANS 706. Very rare and of splendid style, a superb coin. Good extremely fine. 12,500

3:1

Ex Tkalec 19 February 2001, 47. The types of this coin, a head of Apollo and a biga, are surely meant to be reminiscent of the gold coinage of Philip II of Macedon: they are virtually straight copies. Agathokles liked to identify himself with the great Macedonian kings and especially liked comparing his victories over the Carthaginians with those of Alexander over the Persians. While Agathokles lived longer than Alexander did, his empire collapsed even faster.

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30. CARTHAGE. Circa 350-320 BC. Stater (Gold, 9.30 g 12). Head of Tanit to left, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring and pendant necklace Rev. Horse standing right; to right, three pellets. Jenkins & Lewis Group IIIh. SNG Copenhagen 974. A splendid, fresh example, sharply struck. Attractively toned and lustrous, good extremely fine. 10,000 Carthage’s chief symbols were the goddess Tanit, sometimes shown in versions closely similar to those of Arethusa on the coinage of Syracuse, or in a more oriental way, as here and in the next lot, the horse and the date palm tree. All the gold and electrum coinages produced by Carthage were designed for military needs: the superb quality of this piece shows that it was buried very shortly after it was issued.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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31. –. Circa 270-264 BC. Trihemistater (Gold, 12.48 g 12). Head of Tanit to right, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring and necklace of pendants Rev. Horse standing right, his head turned back to left. De Luynes 3749. Jenkins & Lewis Group IX, 380-3. An elegant coin, very sharply struck and clear. Bright with some original luster. A few minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 30,000

2:1

This coin was issued at least fifty years after the previous piece, though the traditional design makes them very similar. Almost all known examples of this type come from the Tunis Hoard of 1948.

THRACE

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32. Abdera. Circa 480-473/0 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.60 g), magistrate Dam.... Griffin seated left, with open wings and both forelegs raised; above to left, ΔΑΜ Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG II, 18. May, Abdera 71. Very rare. An exceptional piece, beautifully toned and perfectly struck. Good extremely fine. 20,000 From the Spina collection, ex Triton VII, 12 January 2004, 157. This must be one of the finest late archaic tetradrachms of Abdera in existence. The griffin seems to be rising up on his back legs, raising his clawed forepaws to ward off an enemy. Griffins were a favorite creature in the mythology of the Greeks and their neighbors to the east - as is well known they were said to be the guardians of the sources of gold in central Asia. For a convincing explanation of the origin of the myth of the griffin, see A. Mayor’s The First Fossil Hunters (Princeton, 2000): she identifies the source of the griffin as being fossils of the dinosaur protoceratops, which are found in outcrops in the Gobi and suggests that since sand storms often swallowed up whole caravans, later travelers, seeing the white bones of men, horses and camels in close proximity to the equally white fossils believed them to be contemporary, and thought them to be evidence of a battle between humans and monsters. The use of the griffin on the coinage of Abdera was due to the arrival of most of the population of Ionian Teos in 544 - when they fled from Persian domination they brought their griffin symbol with them.

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Ainos. Circa 412/1-410/09 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.50 g 1). Head of Hermes to right, wearing close-fitting petasos with knob at the top and beads along the edge Rev. ΑΙΝΙ Goat standing to right; to right, kerykeion; all within incuse square. AMNG II, 288. BMC 5. May, Ainos, Group XXXI, 259. SNG Copenhagen 395. Nicely toned and centered; with a fine classical head of Hermes. A few minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 25,000 From the Spina collection.. The heads of Hermes on the coinage of Ainos reflect the tastes of the time they were made. Here we have the head of an elegant youth, aristocratic and, perhaps, rather tough as well. He is reminiscent of the young men who were so often portrayed on Attic Red Figure earlier in the century and of the aristocratic riders on the coins of Tarentum.

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34. –. Circa 408/7-407/6 BC. Drachm (Silver, 2.77 g 7). Head of Hermes wearing petasos to right Rev. ΑΙΝΙ Goat walking right; below his raised right foreleg, crab waving his claws. May, Ainos 288 (A 179/P194). SNG Copenhagen 396. Very rare. Attractively toned and with a lovely head of Hermes. Extremely fine. 4500 2:1

Virtually all the coins of Ainos bear a head of Hermes on their obverses. They range in date from early in the 5th century down into the mid 4th, and as such, can serve as a guide to the progression of Classical style. The earliest heads can be rather severe looking, but they soon soften and become more human and approachable. This head exhibits the full-blown classicism characteristic of the end of the 5th century - Hermes appears here as an elegant young man with no apparent worries or concerns. In many ways this drachm is far more attractive than the larger tetradrachms of the same period; perhaps its small size evoked a greater spirit of delicacy from the master engraver who cut its dies. Yet he was almost certainly the same artist who was responsible for the tetradrachm in the previous lot, which has a quite different expression.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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35. –. Circa 406/5-405/4 BC. Diobol (Silver, 1.41 g 3). Head of Hermes wearing petasos to right Rev. ΑΙΝΙ Goat standing right, his front legs together, eating from a grape vine on the right. May, Ainos314 (A194/P212 ?). SNG Copenhagen 401 var. Lightly toned and with an elegant head of Hermes. Reverse slightly double struck and with traces of corrosion, otherwise, about extremely fine. 1000

2:1

Struck a few years after the previous coin, this also has a very delicate head of Apollo, very well-made despite the small flan.

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36. –. Circa 402/1-400/399 BC. Diobol (Silver, 1.36 g 3). Head of Hermes facing, wearing petasos and with his head turned very slightly to his right Rev. ΑΙΝΙ Goat standing right, his forelegs close together; to right, grain. May, Ainos 334 var. (A209/P227 - a die combination unlisted by May). SNG Copenhagen 416. Rare. Lightly toned and most attractive. Nearly extremely fine. 1500

2:1

As compared to the earlier profile heads of Hermes at Ainos, the facing heads can, when well-executed like this one, show considerably more emotional power. While this Hermes has long curly hair falling down around the sides of his head, he is nevertheless a very masculine looking god. In fact, he is rather reminiscent of the proud aristocrats one sees in 15th century Renaissance paintings from Florence! To have such a fine head on such a small coin shows how masterful the die engravers at Ainos could be.

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37. –. Circa 396/5-394/3 BC. Drachm (Silver, 2.67 g 1). Head of Hermes facing, wearing petasos and with his head turned very slightly to his right Rev. ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Goat standing to right; to right, hydria. May, Ainos 355 var. (A219/P-). SNG Copenhagen 412. Very rare. A superb piece of very fine style. Minor die break on the obverse, otherwise, extremely fine. 8500 Facing heads are one of the most difficult of all coin designs for engravers to make successfully. They were produced all over the Greek world from Archaic through Hellenistic times, but a few mints, Ainos, Amphipolis, Larissa and Rhodes, specialized in them. The best existing survey remains Erhart’s dissertation of 1979. The coins of Ainos all bear heads of Hermes and they are quite varied stylistically, ranging from rather insipid heads to some of great subtlety and power. This piece bears a Hermes head that exhibits a remarkable degree of emotion - he is not just calmly and serenely looking out of the coin; rather, he seems to be deeply concerned about something. The quality of the engraving is outstanding - the goat on the reverse, seemingly holding back with his front legs together, almost seems to be startled by the perfectly detailed hydria that is on the ground before him. Could he be wondering what is inside, or does he know that it contains water but is perplexed at how to go about drinking from it?

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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38. Maroneia. Circa 436/5-411/0 BC. Stater (Silver, 14.25 g 4), magistrate Posideios. ΜΑΡΩΝ Free horse springing to left; above, crested helmet to left; to left, Σ Rev. ΕΠΙ ΠΟΣΙΔΗΙΟ Grape vine with four bunches of grapes and four leaves. Schönert-Geiss 145.2 (this coin, but with incorrect weight). SNG Lockett 1193. West 18 (this coin). Very rare. Toned and struck on a broad flan. About extremely fine. 8500 From the Spina collection, ex Leu 81, 16 My 2001, 133 and Bank Leu 18, 5 May 1977, 98, and from the collections of C. Gillet, 824 and R. Allatini, SWH 9 May 1904 (”Gentleman...relinquishing the pursuit”), 182. 2:1

The legendary founder of Maroneia was Maron, a son of Dionysos. This was quite appropriate, given the fact that Maroneia’s wealth came from wine production. The previous owners of this coin included a number of collectors, famous for their connoisseurship. Roberto Allatini (1856-1927) was a member of the famous ItalianJewish family who were prominent in Thessalonika during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They owned the most important flour mill in the city (Allatini crackers and other baked products are one of the best known names in Greece today) and they were prominent benefactors of the city. As a collector, R. Allatini seems to have sold quite a few coins in 1904, but he kept collecting, not surprisingly with an emphasis on northern Greece, until his death, after which his remaining coins were sold in Ars Classica XIII in 1928. This coin ultimately passed to Charles Gillet, better known as ‘Kunstfreund’ from the famous catalogue of that name, which contained a small selection of his incredible collection and appeared shortly after his death. The present coin was not in the sale but was sold privately to one of Gillet’s close friends, a well known collector with a wonderful eye for style. It was sold after his death and ended up in yet another fine collection.

MACEDON

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39. MACEDON, Akanthos. Circa 490 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.20 g). Lion to left, attacking bull kneeling to right, head lifted; in exergue, flower Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 516. Desneux 2 c (this coin). SNG ANS 1. Lightly toned and beautifully struck in high relief. Good extremely fine. 22,500 Ex Münzhandlung Basel 8, 23 March 1937, 213. 2:1

This is one of the very earliest of all the tetradrachms of Akanthos and it shows a remarkable archaic vigor in its design. The scene of the lion attacking a bull is an age-old Eastern symbol of power, brought to this region by through Persian influence. All the 5th century issues of Akanthos are very attractive, but the earliest ones, in higher relief than those that followed, are by far the most impressive. This piece is one of the finest imaginable examples.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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40. –. Akanthos. Circa 440. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.24 g 7). Lion to right, attacking bull, with head raised, collapsing to left; in exergue, fish swimming to left Rev. ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ Raised quadripartite square surrounded by inscription; all within shallow incuse square. Desneux 96 ff. SNG ANS -. A very rare variety of magnificent Classical style. Well centered and with attractive toning. Extremely fine. 10,000

2:1

The coinage of Akanthos began in the early 5th century and the city’s coin types, while always the same, show a clear development from the late Archaic through early and later Classical periods. Our coin is remarkably lifelike and perfectly modeled. It is, in many ways, reminiscent, in the volumes and relief of the figures, of the animals that appear on the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon in Athens.

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41. Chalkidian League. Circa 410. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.61 g 6), Olynthos. Laureate head of Apollo to left Rev. ΧΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Kithara with seven strings. Robinson & Clement Group H, 18bis. SNG ANS -. Very rare. A particularly nice example of one of the earlier tetradrachms of the Chalkidian League. Extremely fine. 12,500 This fine head of Apollo is a superb example of late 5th century die cutting. Olynthos was the capital of a confederation of Greek cities in the Chalkidike in the second half of the 5th century BC. It was at the height of its power in the late 5th century; in the late 380s the league was defeated by Sparta but soon regained power. Frightened of his expansionism, Olynthos became the enemy of Philip II of Macedon who ultimately destroyed the city in 348. The modern excavations of the site are particularly important both for the history of Greek city planning and for the coin finds that are vital for the chronology of many issues of the 4th century BC. The head of Apollo on this coin should be compared with that on the nearly contemporary issue of Rhegion, lot 12 above: the difference in style and treatment is remarkable.

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42. –. Circa 383-379. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.57 g 6), Olynthos. Laureate head of Apollo to left Rev. ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Kithara with seven strings. Gulbenkian 420 var. Robinson & Clement Group M. With an elegant, boyish head of Apollo. Minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 9000 The series of Chalkidian League tetradrachms in this sale is a particularly attractive one. The heads of Apollo run from the severity of the end of 5th century to a fullblown late Classical handsomeness. Those late Apollo heads are what served as the model for those on the gold staters of Philip II.

2:1

43. –. Circa 358-355. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.46 g 1), Olynthos, under the magistrate Olympichos. Laureate head of Apollo to right, a few locks of his hair falling down the back of his neck Rev. ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ / ΕΠΙ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΧΟΥ Lyre with seven strings; below magistrate’s name. BMFA 581. Kraay/Hirmer 413. Robinson & Clement 115. SNG ANS 508. Well struck on a broad flan and of very fine style. Attractively toned. Reverse slightly off-struck, otherwise, good extremely fine. 12,000 As already mentioned, the head of Apollo on this piece is very close in feeling to those found on the earliest gold staters of Philip II; the same engraver very probably worked on both coinages.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

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44. –. Circa 355-352. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.56 g 6), Olynthos, under the magistrate Ariston. Laureate head of Apollo to right Rev. ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ / ΕΠΙ ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝΟΣ Lyre with six strings; below, magistrate’s name. Gulbenkian 422. Robinson & Clement 134. SNG ANS 497. A lovely coin of splendid style. Minor areas of flatness, otherwise, extremely fine. 8000

2:1

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45. Mende. Circa 425. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.06 g 3). Dionysos, wearing wreath and himation, reclining on the back of a donkey walking to right; he holds a kantharos in his right hand, propping it on his right knee, and rests his left hand on the donkey’s side Rev. ΜΕΝΔΑΙΟΝ Inscription around linear square containing vine with four bunches of grapes and small leaf in the center; all within incuse square. Franke-Marathraki figs. 56 and 118. Gulbenkian 412.Noe, Mende 85. A superb piece, very attractively toned and one of the finest tetradrachms of Mende known. Extremely fine. 30,000 From the Spina collection, ex Leu 77, 11 May 2000,164. The classical coinage of Mende came to an end with the Athenian recapture of the city in 423. This piece, struck shortly before, has a remarkably sculptural quality, comparable to the best contemporary works in marble or bronze. The serene and sober portrayal of Dionysos, the city’s patron, is of surpassing elegance, showing the god completely in control of himself, despite the large drinking vessel he holds in his hand.

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46. Philippoi. Circa 356-345 BC. Stater (Gold, 8.62 g 4). Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress Rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩ[Ν] Tripod with three handles and feet ending in lion’s paws; to right, horse’s head to left. Bellinger, Philippi 16 (this coin cited). Very rare. A fresh and attractive example. Some minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 40,000 3:1

Ex Hamburger 98, 3 April 1933, 494. Philippoi was a city founded by Thasos in 360 under the name Krenides in order to take advantage of the nearby gold mines. The settlers were opposed by the Thracians and, in 357, called on Philip II for protection against them; he came to their aid, added new colonists and renamed the town after himself. The mines were an important addition to his finances and helped the expansion of Macedonian power that was to culminate during the reign of Alexander III. The gold staters of Philippoi are very rare, indeed, with only a handful of all issues in existence today. The most famous event to occur at Philippoi was the great battle of 42 BC when Antony and Octavian destroyed the army of Brutus and Cassius.

THRACO - MACEDONIAN REGION

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Siris. Circa 500-490 BC. Trihemiobol or 1/8 Stater (1.02 g). Nude satyr kneeling right between two pellets Rev. Diagonally divided incuse square. SNG ANS 971-973. Svoronos pl. VIII, 13-17. Attractively toned, boldly struck, well-centered and made from good metal. Extremely fine. 2600 Coins of this type were long attributed to the so-called mint of ‘Lete’ but, thanks to the inscriptions that can be read on some staters, have now been given to Siris. Most of the surviving stater fractions are marred by being poorly struck, overly worn or through corrosion. This piece is exceptionally fine and most impressive with a wonderfully detailed view of the kneeling satyr with his long horse’s tail curling up behind him. Satyrs, and the Maenads and Nymphs they continually tried to interest in themselves, were very appropriate types for coins from northern Greece. These were forest creatures who were the companions of Dionysos, god of wine and of the vines that produced it. Much of this area was, and still is, famous for its wines and the ancient people who lived there were very proud of it, and derived great profit from its export.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

KINGS of MACEDON

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48. Alexander I. 498-454. Oktadrachm (Silver, 28.59 g), circa 492-480/479. Horse standing to the right, its bridle held by a warrior, wearing a petasos and holding two transverse spears, standing to the right behind him Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. Kraay/Hirmer 384. Raymond pl. II, 5. SNG ANS 1. SNG Lockett 1266. Svoronos HPM p. 108, 16 and pl. XII, 6. Traité I, 1496 and pl. XLVII, 1. Very rare. A boldly struck and unusually fine example. Some deposits on the reverse, otherwise, extremely fine. 25,000

2:1

From the Spina collection, ex Leu 81, 16 May 2001, 162 and from the collection of H. de Nanteuil, Hess-Leu 31, 6 December 1966, 237. This coin type has long been ascribed to the Bisaltai, one of the powerful ThracoMacedonian tribes so active in the late 6th and early 5th centuries. The weight of the evidence now points to it being the earliest issue of Alexander I when he was allied with the tribes against the Persians. This coin is of unusually fine quality, in part because it was found no later than the 1930s and, thus, lacks the traces of corrosion and over-cleaning that mar more recently unearthed examples.

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49. Philip II. 359-336 BC. Stater (Gold, 8.64 g 12), Kolophon, 323-317. Laureate head of Apollo to right, with the features of Alexander III Rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Charioteer driving galloping biga to right, holding the reins in his left hand and a goad with his right; below right, tripod. Le Rider pl. 93, 26. SNG Alpha Bank 260. Thompson Philip p. 58 and pl. VI, 12. A splendid coin with a fine portrait; one of the finest known examples of this type. Good extremely fine. 15,000 This issue, struck in Kolophon and in Magnesia from a single obverse die that was used by both mints, was produced during the short reign of Philip III Arrhidaios and is one of the most exciting of all the posthumous staters in the name of Philip II. The head on this coin is clearly that of a real person, not just an ideal version of Apollo. The features are so distinctive, in fact, that it has been identified as a true portrait of Alexander III. Why this should have happened when and where it did is unknown, but the coin’s beauty and importance has made it one of the most desirable of all the gold staters of Philip.

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50. 3:1

Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. Quarter stater (Gold, 2.17 g), ‘Amphipolis’, uncertain mint in Macedonia, c. 330-320. Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet adorned with serpent Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Thunderbolt, bow and club. Price 165. A splendid piece, lustrous and fresh, of lovely style, well struck and perfectly centered. Good extremely fine. 5000 The fractional gold of Alexander III is much rarer than his staters are. Most were produced in his mints in Macedonia and probably did not circulate over a wide area.

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51. –. Drachm (Silver, 4.37 g 12), Kolophon, 323-329. Head of Herakles to right with lionskin headdress Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Zeus seated left on backless throne, holding eagle in his right hand and long scepter with his left; to left, eight-rayed star; to right, lance-head upwards. Price 1759. Lustrous and attractive. Good extremely fine. 600

2:1

Vast numbers of drachms were struck in the name of Alexander III in order to pay his soldiers. Greek mercenaries received two kinds of pay, a daily allowance for food and supplies and a monthly rate paid in a lump sum at the end of their enlistment. Drachms, hemidrachms and obols served to pay the daily rate, while tetradrachms and, above all, gold staters, were used for final payments (thus the great popularity of Philip II’s gold staters among the Celts who copied the originals their soldiers brought back with them after their service in the Macedonian armies). A cavalryman might well receive a drachm a day for sustenance; foot soldiers earned three obols.

52. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. Drachm (Silver, 4.30 g 12), Kolophon. Head of Herakles to right in lionskin headdress Rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Zeus seated left on backless throne, holding eagle in his right hand and long scepter in his left; to left, monogram of ΠΑ; below throne, Α. Price P47. Good extremely fine. 600


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

53

53. –. Stater (Gold, 8.62 g X), Abydos, 318/7 . Head of Athena to right, wearing pendant earring, necklace and crested Corinthian helmet adorned with griffin leaping to right Rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Nike standing left, holding wreath in her right hand and stylis with her left; below her right wing, cornucopiae; to left, monogram and pentagram. Price P36. Thompson, Abydos 171a. Perfectly centered and most attractive. Good extremely fine. 7000

2:1

Philip III Arrhidaios, 359-317, was the half-brother of Alexander III, being the son of Philip II and a dancer from Larissa called Philinna. He was older than Alexander but was never considered fit for succession to the throne because he was mentally unfit. Alexander seems to have liked him and kept him safe during his reign; after his death he was acclaimed joint king with the as yet unborn Alexander IV, son of Alexander and Roxanne. He was controlled by regents and is half-niece Eurydice, whom he had married. Both became allies of Cassander, son of the earlier regent Antipater. In the end they were both captured by Olympias, Alexander’s evil mother, and then eliminated. The following year Cassander returned from his campaigns, captured Olympias and had her executed by the friends and relatives of those people she had herself killed.

ILLYRO-PAEONIAN REGION

54

54. Damastion (Dardania). Circa 365/0-350/45 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 13.57 g 12). Laureate head of Apollo to left Rev. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΟ Tripod with lion’s feet on broad, inscribed base; to left, vertical knife and ΚΗ. May, Damastion 51 (this obverse die). SNG Ashmolean 3320 (same obverse die). Very rare. A beautifully struck and well centered piece; attractively toned. Extremely fine. 6500 The city of Damastion was located somewhere in what is now present day Serbia and was inhabited by people of Illyrian/Dardanian origin; though there were Greek settlers there as well, at least from the 5th century on. The city’s importance lay in its silver mines, the location of which are as unknown as is the site of the city itself. The coinage, with obverses modeled on those of the Chalkidian League, was designed as a way of exporting the city’s mineral riches. The coins themselves are often very attractive, though there are some that are of rather poor style and many are badly struck; they generally very rare today, probably because they were viewed primarily as bullion and melted down in antiquity. The present piece is an exceptionally nice example. After Damastion’s capture by Philip of Macedon the city lapsed into nearly total obscurity.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

KINGS of EPEIROS.

55

3:1

55. Alexander son of Neoptolemos. 350-330 BC. Stater (Silver, 10.94 g 12), Tarentum (?), circa 332. Head of Zeus Dodonaios to right, wearing oak wreath; below neck, Γ. Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / ΤΟΥ ΝΕΟΠΤΟΛΕΜΟΥ Thunderbolt. Dewing 1438. PCG III. B, 28. Vlasto, Alexander Group D, 9c (this coin). Ward 460 (this coin). A particularly attractive example, of lovely style and unusually well preserved. Nicely toned, about extremely fine. 25,000 From the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and John Ward, Sotheby & Co., Zurich, 4 April 1973, 380. Alexander the Molossian was yet another high-born general who came to the aid of the Greeks of Magna Graecia against their native enemies. His greatest legacy was numismatic: gold and silver staters bearing a head of Zeus and a thunderbolt, which were struck on his behalf to pay his troops. They are generally thought to have been minted in Tarentum, and are certainly only found in southern Italy, but HN III ignores them and they tend to be classified under Epirus alone (though they seem not to have circulated there). This piece is one of the finest known examples.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

AKARNANIA

56

3:1

56. AKARNANIA, Federal Coinage (Akarnanian Confederacy). Circa 250 BC. Quarter Stater (Gold, 2.10 g 12), Attic standard. Head of the youthful river-god Acheloos to right; behind, retrograde Ν Rev. ΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΩΝ Apollo, nude but for drapery over his right leg, seated left on throne, holding bow in his right hand and leaning his left on the side of the throne; in field to left, plow. BCD Akarnania -, but cf. 14 for a quarter stater with a different letter and for references to an Attic standard stater and half-stater with the plow symbol. Cf. De Luynes 1916 (quarter stater with a monogram). Extremely rare, probably unique with this letter and symbol combination. Perhaps the finest example known of this coinage. Extremely fine. 30,000 The exceptionally rare gold coinage of the Akarnanian League is only known from a very few specimens, all from a very limited number of issues struck over a very short time. These must have been produced for military needs and must be contemporary with the equally rare silver of Corinthian type, like the one in the following lot.

57 2:1

57. –. Stater (Silver, 7.02 g 11), Thyrreion (?) or Leukas. Pegasos flying left Rev. Head of Athena to left, wearing Corinthian helmet; below chin, Γ; behind head, youthful head of Acheloos to left. BCD Akarnania -. Pegasi 2 var. Extremely rare and apparently unpublished. Lustrous and sharply struck. Extremely fine. 2000 This coin is particularly interesting and belongs to a very small and very rare group of Corinthian-type staters that are issues of the Akarnanian Confederacy. Their symbol is federal in nature and almost certainly has to be related to the rare Akarnanian gold issues, as the one above; as already noted, it is most likely that they were produced for military needs.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

LOKRIS

58

58. 2:1

Lokris Opuntii. Circa 382-356 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.01 g 5). Head of Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves and triple-pendant earring Rev. ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ Ajax, nude but for helmet, moving right, holding short sword in his right hand and, in his left, shield adorned with a serpent on the inside; below, on ground, crested helmet to left with two spears with points to left and right. BMC 18. McClean 5428. Lustrous and attractive with beautifully detailed types. Some striking flatness, otherwise, extremely fine. 10,000 The staters of Lokroi are divided into two basic groups by the way their reverse legends are treated;: those with a break like this one are earlier. Both Persephone and Ajax are masterfully portrayed. Opous was the main city of eastern Lokris, which was located to the north of Boeotia stretching to the coast opposite Euboea; it was separated by Phokis and Doris from western Lokris, which was on the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth. Colonists from both parts of Lokris founded Lokris in Bruttium.

59

59.

2:1

–. Circa 356-338 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.2 g 3). Head of Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace Rev. ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ Ajax, nude but for Corinthian helmet, advancing right, holding short sword in his right hand and, in his left, a shield ornamented with a griffin and a palmette on its interior; below left, eight-pointed star; below, broken spear. Gulbenkian 491. Wartenberg 6. A splendid example, beautifully toned, well-centered and struck in high relief. Extremely fine. 9500 The lovely head of Persephone on the obverse of this coin was, of course, directly inspired by the Syracusan Arethusa heads of Euainetos. The head also is quite similar to those found on some Peloponnesian coinages of the same period (Pheneos and Olympia for example). As for the reverse, which shows the hero Ajax son of Oileus, commander of the Lokrians in the Trojan War, it is not only similar to the Syracusan issue with Leukaspis, but also to the famous stater of Perikle of Lycia. The shield he carries is also remarkable for having its decoration on the inside - though there are sculptural parallels. Why the somewhat obscure town of Opous in Lokris should have produced such a lovely and extensive coinage is uncertain: military expenses seem the most likely reason. Another possibility is that Lokrian mercenaries employed in Sicily could have returned with their salary in Syracusan coins, thus providing the bullion and the models for the coinage of their home city.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

60

60. –: Circa 356-338 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.19 g 6). Head of Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triple-pendant earring and necklace Rev. ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ Ajax, nude but for crested helmet, striding right, holding short sword in his right hand and shield with his right; interior of shield ornamented with griffin running right and palmette; below right, bunch of grapes; on ground, broken spear. McClean 5431 and pl. 198, 7. SNG Copenhagen 45. A particularly lovely example, well centered and of the finest mid 4th century style. Extremely fine. 20,000

3:1

From the Spina collection..

61

61. –. Circa 338-316 BC. Triobol (Silver, 2.80 g 11). Head of Persephone to right, wearing grain wreath and pendant earring Rev. ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ Ajax, nude, advancing to right, holding sword in his right hand and shield with his left; interior of shield adorned with serpent; below, kantharos. BMC 9-12. Nicolet & Oeconomides series 4, 129-134. SNG Copenhagen 50. An attractive coin, nicely toned. Extremely fine. 1500

2:1

51


52

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

BOEOTIA

62

62. Thebes. 525-480 BC. Drachm (Silver, 6.06 g). Boeotian shield Rev. Square incuse with clockwise mill-sail pattern. BCD Boiotia 331 (this coin). BMC 5. Attractively toned and unusually nice. Good very fine. 1200 From the BCD collection, Triton IX 10 January 2006, 331. 2:1

63

63. –. Circa 395 BC. Hemidrachm (Electrum, 3.04 g 4). Head of Dionysos to right, bearded and wearing ivy wreath Rev. ΘΕ The infant Herakles seated facing, strangling two serpents. BCD Boiotia 470. BMC 89. Jameson 2063. Kunstfreund 198 (this coin). SNG Copenhagen 302. Extremely rare. A lovely example with a particularly fine head of Dionysos. Uncleaned with deposits as found, otherwise, good very fine. 60,000 From the collection of C. Gillet, ‘Kunstfreund’, Bank Leu/Münzen und Medaillen, 28 May 1974, 198.

3:1

Dionysos and Herakles were the patron gods of Thebes and this extremely rare coin bears them both. Thebes was the only city in Boeotia to issue coins in electrum: hemidrachms and trihemiobols, both of the same type (the smaller piece is so rare that only a single example has every appeared at public sale).

64 3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

EUBOIA 64. Chalkis. Circa 170 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.94 g 1). Veiled head of Hera to right, wearing stephane, pendant earring and necklace Rev. ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Hera standing right, holding scepter in her right hand and reins in both, driving quadriga with horses walking to right; to left, Μ/Μ; to right, Σ; all within oak wreath tied on the left. BCD Euboia 235 (this coin). Picard - (but see issues 56 and 57). Unique. The only example of this issue known and one of only five Hellenistic tetradrachms of Chalkis in existence, the other four, from two issues, are all in museums (London, New York, Oxford and Paris). A superb piece of the finest style, beautifully struck and perfectly preserved. Uncleaned, with some traces of horn silver as found, otherwise, extremely fine. 75,000 From the Spina collection and from the BCD collection, Lanz 111, 25 November 2002, 235 (illustrated on the front cover). This is unquestionably one of the great rarities of the Hellenistic coinage of Greece, and one of the most beautiful as well. Precisely why the city should have produced three issues of tetradrachms circa 170 is unclear, but since they are stylistically very close their striking could not have lasted very long and all probably relate to a single event. While the BCD cataloguer suggested that this coin was struck circa 180 that seems somewhat early, and it may be better to see these issues as having been struck to help the Romans in the late 170s, in the run up to the war against Perseus of Macedon.

3:1

64

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ISLANDS off ATTICA

65

65. Aegina. Circa 456/45-431 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.40 g). Tortoise seen from above Rev. Incuse square divided into five compartments. ACGC 127. Dewing 1683-1685. Milbank pl. 2, 12-13. An exceptionally well-preserved piece struck in very high relief. Minor bang at the top of the shell, otherwise, good extremely fine. 9000 3:1

The silver issues of Aegina were immense: it was one of the chief trading coinages of the 6th and earlier 5th centuries, especially in the Peloponnesos, the Islands and in Central Greece where its weight standard was dominant. Exactly why turtles or tortoises appear on the coinage of Aegina is not clear: it was not a sacred animal. One suggestion is that early, pre-coinage silver ingots in use in the Aegean area were plano-convex in shape; and that on Aegina they were colloquially known as ‘turtles.’ Thus, when coins were introduced, using the turtle as a coin type was a reference to the older, pure-silver ingots that had previously been used in trade.

SIKYONIA

66

3:1

66. SIKYONIA, Sikyon. Circa 431-400 BC. Hemiobol (Silver, 0.46 g 09). Lion walking to left; below, Σ Rev. Dove flying left; to left, Σ. BCD Peloponnesos -, but see 208 for a similar obverse. BMC 35 var. Extremely rare. Toned and nicely struck. Nearly extremely fine. 500 From the BCD collection. This is a particularly rare variety - it seems to be transitional in nature and ought to be placed in the late 5th century. The lack of a wreath around the dove probably should be explained by the smallness of the flan: putting one in would have made the design too busy. The lion is beautifully made: he is walking very warily to the left, as if approaching an enemy, quite unlike the proudly striding chimaeras on later issues.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

67

67.

–. 335-330 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.24 g 8). ΣΕ Chimaera moving to the left on ground line, right paw raised; above to right, wreath Rev. Dove flying to left with wings open above and below; below dove’s neck, Ι; all within olive wreath tied on the right and with branch ends meeting on the left. BCD Peloponnesos 219. BMC 56. Traité 775, pl. CCXX, 12. Lightly toned and most attractive. Extremely fine. 5000

2:1

This lovely coin comes from an issue of staters produced at Sikyon after Alexander’s appeal for mercenaries in 334: they seemed to have been paid out as a signing bonus and then buried for safe-keeping. Unfortunately, many of these mercenaries never came back; thus, a number of coins from this issue have been found in excellent condition since they never circulated! The chimaera on this coin is a lot less dangerous looking than the tiny lion on the preceding coin: this animal is walking proudly to the left in an almost heraldic way.

68

68. –. Circa 330/20-280 BC. Triobol (Silver, 2.86 g 6). Chimaera, with right forepaw raised, moving to left on ground line; below Chimaera, ΣΙ Rev. Dove flying left. BCD Peloponnesos 284. Nicely toned. Extremely fine. 500 From the BCD collection. The triobols of Sikyon were one of the main fractional silver coinages of the Peloponnesos during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. They circulated widely and since they could equally be thought of as Attic tetrobols their exchange was easy. Their great popularity meant that they were heavily used - the vast majority of surviving specimens are less than very fine in condition; those in extremely fine, as this one, can be considered rare.

2:1

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ELIS

69

69.

3:1

Olympia. 91st Olympiad. 416 BC. Stater (Silver, 11.91 g 2), signed by Da.... Eagle’s head to left; below, large white poplar leaf with the signature ΔΑ below the center vein Rev. F Α Thunderbolt with wings and volutes above, and volutes below; above, uncertain countermark. BCD Olympia -.Gulbenkian 541 (=Seltman 148 i, ex Locker-Lampson and Weber). Seltman, Temple 148 (BS/γπ). SNG Copenhagen 368 (=Seltman 148 e). Very rare. A splendid example of one of the finest of all the eaglehead staters of Olympia. Struck in high relief with exceptional detail. Slightly rough surfaces and minor countermark, otherwise, extremely fine. 10,000 The engraver Da... (Daidalos?) was the first artist who signed the dies he engraved at Olympia. He seems to have been active from the late 420s down to the end of the century and he was responsible for what is possibly the finest eagle head ever to appear on a Greek coin (if not on any coin). The eagle was the bird of Zeus, and the creature on this coin shows the nobility of the god himself. It has what seems to be an all-seeing eye and what can only be termed an expression of great power. The coinage of Olympia is rather notorious for the often poor striking and poor preservation of most surviving coins: this piece is a wonderful exception to that rule.

70

70.

3:1

–. 97th Olympiad. 392 BC. Stater (Silver, 121.01 g 1). Eagle standing left, grasping coiled snake with his talons and tearing at its coils with his beak; all on round shield with raised rim Rev. F Α Thunderbolt, with volutes above and flames below. BCD Olympia -. Seltman, Temple 167 ff. var. (BW/äζ, but this die combination unknown to Seltman). Very rare. Toned and nicely struck. Good very fine. 7500 The oddly incuse partial legend on the reverse was caused by the need to recut the letter because of die wear. The way the obverse is made indicates that it is copying a shield blazon - presumably that used by soldiers protecting the sanctuary. Similar shield blazons are found on coins of various Lykian dynasts; they are also paralleled by the representations of shields on Greek painted pottery.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

71. –. 105th Olympiad. 360 BC. Stater (Silver, 11.90 g 10). Laureate head of Zeus to right Rev. FΑ Eagle, with wings folded, standing right on Ionic column capital. BCD Olympia 119 (this coin). Seltman, Temple 177 var. (CB/-, new reverse). SNG Delepierre 2145. Very rare. Attractively toned and with an impressive head of Zeus. Good very fine. 23,000 From the BCD Collection, Leu 90, 10 May 2004, 119 and ex Bank Leu 2, 25 April 1972, 204.

3:1

71

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

72.

72

–. 105th Olympiad. 360 BC. Drachm (Silver, 5.78 g 9), Hera mint. Head of the eponymous nymph Olympia facing, turned slightly to the left, wearing necklace of pearls, broad ribbon across the top of her forehead and with her hair flowing loose Rev. FΑ Eagle, with closed wings, standing right on Ionic column capital; to left, kerykeion; all within olive wreath. BCD Olympia -. Seltman, Temple pl. XII, 13 (same dies) = Traité III, 1131 and pl. CCXXXIII, 13. Of the highest rarity, the second example known. Good very fine. 15,000 This is one of the very greatest rarities of the coinage of Olympia. The only other example now known is in Paris, but it is in dreadful condition. The type is very clearly taken from the facing head of Arethusa by Kimon on the renowned tetradrachms of Syracuse (as Kraay/Hirmer 122-123, Tudeer 78 and 81), which also influenced the coinage of Larissa. The artist who engraved the dies for this coin was highly accomplished: it was very likely the same D... who signed a the very similar reverse die ζt, which was used for staters that are paired with the famous obverse die EW (cf. BCD Olympia 123 for the reverse die and 122 for a superb example of the obverse). The quality of the facing head obverse is exceptional and is by no means just a copy of Kimon’s Arethusa like so many others are. Here, just as with the profile head from die EW on the staters, we have a nymph who is no easy person; she is, rather, a woman of power and importance. In his introduction to my Olympia catalogue, BCD wrote of his passion and of “...the endless - and thankless - task of searching for the real rarities, which one never finds.” Well, here is a great rarity that escaped BCD’s obsessive search. No doubt after he sees this coin he will wish that he had delayed his Olympia auction until the London Olympics!

3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

73 2:1

73. –. 106th Olympiad. 356 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.01 g 6). Laureate head of Zeus to left Rev. FΑ Eagle, with closed wings, standing right on Ionic column. BCD Olympia -. BMFA 1212 (=Seltman 181b). Seltman, Temple 181 (CD/äρ). SNG Copenhagen 385 (=Seltman 181c). A particularly nice example with a wonderful head of Zeus, free from the die rust usually found on coins struck from this die. Lightly toned. Nearly extremely fine. 12,500 This coin bears a remarkable head of Zeus. It is both severe and serene in feeling, most appropriate for the king of the gods. Soon after this coin was struck the style changed; Zeus was portrayed with a head that had a much less mannered beard and much longer hair.

74

2:1

74. –. 106th Olympiad. 356 BC. Stater (Silver, 121.18 g 6). FA Head of Hera to right, wearing narrow stephane ornamented with a palmette and a lily Rev. Eagle standing right with closed wings and head turned back to left; all within olive wreath. BCD Peloponnesos 644. BCD Olympia -. Seltman 309 ff. var. (EX/θν, but this die combination was unknown to Seltman). A lovely example, the finest known of this die pair. Lightly and attractively toned. Some flatness, otherwise, nearly extremely fine. 10,000

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

MESSENIA

75 3:1

75. Korone. Circa 100-50 BC. Hemidrachm (Silver, 2.35 g 11). Helmeted head of Athena to right Rev. ΚΟΡ Bunch of grapes; all within ivy wreath. BCD Peloponnesos 788. BMC 5. Grandjean pl. XXVI, 8. Toned. Good very fine. 1000 From the BCD Collection, ex Auctiones 7, 7 June 1977, 210.

76

76. Messene. Circa 35 BC. Hemidrachm (Silver, 2.40 g 11), Polykles. Diademed head of Zeus to right Rev. ΜΕΣ / ΠΟΛΥΚΛΗΣ Tripod within inscription; all surrounded by an olive wreath. BCD Peloponnesos 753. Grandjean 203. SNG Copenhagen 507. Rare. Attractively toned. Extremely fine. 1000 3:1

From the BCD collection, ex Auctiones 18, 21 September 1989, 709. There has been a great deal of controversy over the date for the late silver coinages of the Peloponnesos. For a long time it was thought that the Roman sack of Corinth in 146 BC, and the defeat of the Achaean League resulted in a complete cessation of all silver issues. However, thanks to a number of hoards and the pioneering research of C. Boehringer and J. Warren, we now can be sure that a considerable amount of silver was produced, especially in the early 1st century around the time of Sulla and later during the Roman Civil Wars (there are some scholars who prefer the earlier chronology but they are in a minority). This coin is one of those late issues, produced in the years just before Actium when Antony and Cleopatra held Greece against Octavian.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

LAKONIA 77. Lakedaimon (Sparta). Areus I. 309-265 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.91 g 6), struck circa 267-265. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion’s skin headdress Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΕΟΣ Zeus seated left on high-backed throne, holding eagle with closed wings standing right on his right hand and long scepter in his left; below throne, Η; in exergue, club to right. BCD Peloponnesos -. Grunauer 1 var. A unique variety of a series that is itself of the highest rarity. One of only four tetradrachms of Areus I known, and the only example not in a museum. Reverse very slightly doublestruck, otherwise, about extremely fine. 70,000

Areus was the first Spartan king to have an elaborate court of his own, following the models of the Macedonians, and was the first to issue a coinage. It was produced in order to pay mercenaries during the Chremonidean War (268/7-262/1; an antiMacedonian alliance between Athens and Sparta that ultimately failed - it was named after Chremonides, an Athenian politician who was later forced to flee to the Ptolemies). The coins of Areus were modeled on those of Alexander and his successors, which were the most acceptable currency of the time. The head of Herakles, who was the ancestor of both of the Spartan royal houses (the Agiad of Areus I and Eurypontid, represented by Eudamidas II - circa 275-244 - who is ignored by the coinage) was used here, however, to symbolize the nearly sole power of Areus himself, instead of the Dioscouri who were symbols of the traditional Spartan dyarchy. The club on the reverse of this coin also became a type in its own right on the coinage of Lakedaimon. Areus was killed in battle in 265 on the outskirts of Corinth, then held by the Macedonians. Only three other tetradrachms of Areus I are known: one, with an ΗΡ monogram, in Paris (Grunauer 1), and two, with a differing monogram, in Berlin and New York (Grunauer 2-3). This piece is, therefore, the rarest coin of Sparta, and surely the most historically significant.

3:1

77

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ARGOLIS

78 2:1

78. Argos. Circa 420/10 BC. Diobol (Silver, 2.00 g 4). Corinthian helmet to right Rev. Corinthian helmet facing with Α to right; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1036. BMC 29. SNG Copenhagen 20 var. Very rare. Toned. Some minor marks, otherwise, about extremely fine. 1000 From the BCD collection, ex Bank Leu 45, 26 May 1988, 170. This is a very rare issue with types that are quite unusual for Argos. Babelon, Traité III, 455-456, suggested that it may refer to a short-lived alliance between Corinth and Argos and this could well be right.

79

79. 2:1

–. Circa 330-270 BC. Triobol (Silver, 2.91 g 10). Forepart of wolf at bay to left Rev. Large Α with Π Ρ to left and right; below, dolphin left over club left; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1087. BMC 75. An attractive example, lightly toned. Extremely fine. 500 From the BCD collection. This coin bears the standard, famous types of the Argive triobol, the forepart of a wolf on the obverse and a large A on the reverse. The first issues of this type go back to the early 5th century and merely have the letter in an incuse; as time went on other letters or symbols were included and, finally, in the latest issues of the 1st century, as lot 82 below, magistrates’ names were given in full.

80

80.

2:1

–.– Obol (Silver, 0.84 g 6). Σ (retrograde) Head of wolf to left Rev. Large Α with Π Ρ to left and right; below, club left; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1090. BMC 94. Toned and attractive. About extremely fine. 500 From the BCD collection, ex Glendining & Co., 21 June 1972, 216.

The beauty of this little wolf’s head explains why the Comte du Chastel, a great connoisseur whose collection is now in Brussels but who seemingly disliked small coins, had one of them. For simplicity of design and gem-like quality, few ancient silver coins are as expressive as this.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

81 2:1

81. –. Circa 270-260/50 BC. Trihemiobol (Silver, 1.14 g 7). Wolf at bay to left; above, Θ Rev. Laureate and crested Corinthian helmet to left between Π Υ. BCD Peloponnesos 1114. BMC 86-87. Attractive and well-centered. Lightly toned, extremely fine. 500 From the BCD collection.

82

82. –. Circa 90-50 BC. Triobol (Silver, 2.32 g 7), Epikrates. Forepart of wolf at bay to right Rev. Large Α with star of eight rays below and ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΕΟΣ around; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1171. BMC 113. Nicely toned. Reverse slightly double-struck, otherwise, extremely fine. 500

2:1

Ex Rasmussen 611, 28 March 1995, 532 (part).

ARKADIA

83

83. Kleitor. Circa 300-270/60 BC. Triobol (Silver, 2.78 g 5). Rayed head of Helios facing, cloak tied around his neck Rev. ΚΛΗ Bull butting to right. BCD Peloponnesos 1429 (this coin). BMC 3. Traité III, 920. Rare. Nicely toned and very attractive. About extremely fine. 3500 From the collections of BCD, LHS 96, 8 May 2006, 1429 and A. Moretti, Bank Leu 30, 28 April 1982, 142, ex Schulman 232, 9 March 1959, 1350. This coin comes from the first issue of Kleitor’s Hellenistic triobols: later ones, as BCD 1430-1433, have magistrates’ names or symbols.

2:1

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84

84. Arkadian League. Circa 460-450 BC. Hemidrachm (Silver, 2.72 g 7), Mantinea. Zeus Lykaios seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and with eagle flying left above his right Rev. ARKA Head of Kallisto to left, wearing a taenia, a simple necklace with a pendant and with her hair bound in a queue at the back; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1457/8 var. Williams III, 2, 237. Very rare. Toned and with a beautiful head of Kallisto. Crystallized surfaces and with a minor flaw on the reverse, otherwise, good very fine. 2000 3:1

From the BCD collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 129, 8 March 2004, 127.

85

85. Psophis. Circa 460s-440s BC. Obol (Silver, 1.03 g 1). Protome of the Keryneian Hind to right Rev. Fish swimming transversely to right between X and O; all within incuse square bordered by rays. BCD Peloponnesos -, but cf. 1669 ff.. Extremely rare. Slightly crystallized surfaces, otherwise, about extremely fine. 750 3:1

From the BCD collection. While one of the more minor mints of the Peloponnesos, Psophis seems to have produced an enormous number of minor varieties within its 5th century coinage of silver fractions. This one is a particularly boldly struck example.

86

86. Stymphalos. Circa 370-350 BC. Obol (Silver, 0.88 g 5), Circa 350s-340s. Head of Herakles in lionskin headdress to right Rev. ΣΤΥΜΦΑΛΙΟΝ Head of water-bird with one crest feather to right. BCD Peloponnesos 1697-1698 var. Very rare. Nicely toned and clearly struck. About extremely fine. 2000

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The sixth labor of Herakles was devoted to driving away a vast number of annoying birds who infested the lake near Stymphalos. These birds were reputed to be very dangerous, able to attack, kill and eat human beings. To help Herakles with his task, Athena gave him a pair of bronze krotala, noisemakers like castanets that had been forged by Hephaistos. Herakles then clapped them together, making a huge racket, which frightened and annoyed the birds so much that they flew up into the air, where Herakles shot arrows at them, killing some and convincing the remainder to depart. On this coin we see the head of Herakles paired with the head of a fairly innocuous looking water bird, reliably identified as the Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus. While this bird does eat fish, crayfish, insects and frogs, it is not known to attack humans, though large flocks of them might prove annoying because of their cackling cries: it seems likely that these water birds were used as a symbol of Stymphalos because they lived in the lake and the swamps that surrounded the city. On a famous Attic black figure pot dating to c.545, now London B 163, we see Herakles using a sling to disperse what looks like a flock of geese - the painter of Group E responsible for the decoration of this vase did not, obviously, conceive of them as being monsters.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

87

87. Arkadian League. Circa 460-450 BC. Hemidrachm (Silver, 2.84 g 7), Tegea. Zeus Lykaios, seen partially from behind, seated right on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and with eagle flying right over his right Rev. APKADIK (retrograde) Head of Kallisto, three-quarter facing to right, her hair bound in a bun at the back; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos -, but cf. 1715. Williams 207. Very rare. Toned. Some edge cracks, two minor digs on the reverse and with a lightly struck obverse, otherwise, good very fine. 2000 From the BCD collection. The mint of Tegea produced some rather extraordinary facing heads during the mid 5th century. This one shows the nymph Kallisto in the process of turning her head from the side to the front. It is not wholly successful, but it shows amazing technical prowess.

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CYCLADES

88

88. Naxos. Circa 520/15-490 BC. Stater (Silver, 12.48 g). Kantharos with ivy leaf above and bunch of grapes hanging from each handle Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. Burlington Exhibition 1903, 376 = Holloway 6a = Nicolet-Pierre, Naxos I 27b = Sheedy 23b = Weber 4679 (this coin). Rare. Attractively toned and well struck. About extremely fine. 40,000 From the Spina collection, ex Leu 72, 12 May 1998, 224, Hess 253, 8 March 1983, 212, Schulman, 5 June 1930, 108, R. Ratto, Lugano, 4 April 1927, 1646, Schulman, 10 May 1926, 609, from the collection of Sir H. Weber and from the Santorini Hoard of 1821 (IGCH 7). In antiquity Naxos was the wealthiest and most populous of all the Cycladic islands (it seems to have had more inhabitants in the late 6th century than it did in any succeeding period). It was a center of the marble trade and was famous for its sculptures; the Persian attack in 500 and their later sack of the island in 490 put an end to the early prosperity of Naxos and it never really fully recovered. The archaic coinage of Naxos was the most important of all island coinages. The kantharos was the city’s badge and refers to the cult of Dionysos; understandably so since Naxos was famous for its vineyards.

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CRETE

89. CRETE, Gortyna. Circa 330-270 BC. Stater (Silver, 11.22 g 10), circa 280. Europa, semi-nude, seated facing in plane tree, raising her veil with her right hand and, with her left, holding eagle with spread wings in her lap Rev. Bull standing to left, head turned back to right to ward off a fly from his left rear hoof. BMC 27 var. Kunstfreund 206 (this coin). Le Rider pl. XVIII, 22 var. Svoronos, Numismatique 74 var. One of the finest existing coins of Gortyna - extremely well-designed, beautifully struck and with an attractive patina. Good very fine. 75,000 From the collections of R. Maly, LHS 100, 23 April 2007, 276 and C. Gillet, Bank Leu und M端nzen und Medaillen, 28 May 1974, 206.. 89

The obverse , which shows Europa being visited by Zeus in the form of an eagle, is extremely well-done; the maddened bull on the reverse, tormented by a biting fly, is surely observed from nature. Both scenes are taken from local myths. Cretan coinage in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries is quite varied and is usually very interesting iconographically with types taken from paintings, local traditions and foreign coins. Unfortunately, since most of the coins are over-struck and badly struck as well, they tend not to be particularly attractive. This piece is a glorious exception to that rule and shows how nice Cretan coins can be when the mint workers took a bit more effort over the striking process. The reason why Cretan coins were over-struck is that the bullion used to make them came from the pay Cretan mercenaries brought back to their island, and instead of melting the foreign coins down to make new flans, they were simply heated and restruck ( some of the undertypes can be identified as issues from the Peloponnesos and Kyrene).

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

MYSIA

90

90. MYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 550-500 BC. Stater (Electrum, 16.05 g). Head of a goat with long beard to left; behind truncation, tunny fish swimming upwards Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 1421. Rosen 438 (this coin). SNG France 186. Von Fritze I; 48 (this coin). Very rare. Nicely centered. Slightly porous surfaces, otherwise, about extremely fine. 7500 From the Spina collection and from the collections of Marian A. Sinton, Triton III, 30 November 1999, 487, J. P. Rosen, Monnaies et Médailles 72, 6 October 1987, 184, the Vicomte de Sartiges and G. Philipsen, Hirsch XXV, 29 November 1909, 1751. Male goats were associated with Dionysos and Pan and with the all of the woodland and pastoral spirits of the world of Greek mythology. In fact, the word ‘tragedy’ comes from the Greek for ‘goat song’ and refers to the fact that sacrificial goats were prizes in the dramatic contests that were part of the Athenian festival in honor of Dionysos. They were also admired for their potency and exuberance. Kyzikos was famous for its extensive electrum coinage, which began in the 6th century and continued down until the time of Alexander. It was particularly important for trade with the cities and peoples along the Black Sea. Unlike most other coinages that utilized a single type to make their products easily recognizable, the staters and fractions of Kyzikos used a small city-badge, the tunny fish (sometimes just the head or part of the fish on small denominations) combined with a much larger type that varied from issue to issue and was the blazon of the magistrate responsible for the issue itself. There are, thus, hundreds of individual types on the Kyzikene coinage: some are taken from well known works of art, others are more personal in nature, in some cases it looks as if the engraver involved specialized in certain kinds of representations (such as mythological creatures) and a number of what may be consecutive issues bear related scenes. Whether the issues were produced yearly or more often is unknown. The same goat head appears on a somewhat later hekte from Phokaia, Bodenstedt 51.

3:1

91

91. –. Circa 480. Hekte (Electrum, 2.75 g). Lion, with right forepaw raised and open jaws, seated left on tunny to left Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 1452. SNG France 216-218. SNG con Aulock 7297. Von Fritze I, 85. Rare. Sharply struck and well-centered. Good extremely fine. 6000 Most known examples of this type are off-struck in some way, but this piece is nicely centered and extremely sharp with lovely surfaces. The lion on the obverse harks back to more archaic ancestors: it should remind those who have visited Delos of the late 6th century marble lions the Naxians donated to the sanctuary as guardians for the Sacred Way.

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92

92. 3:1

–. Circa 480-450 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.71 g). Sphinx, with ornamental tendril on her head and with her right forepaw raised, standing left on tunny fish Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 1451. SNG France 278-279. SNG von Aulock 1200. Von Fritze I 127. Extremely fine. 5750 Ex Hirsch 233, 22 February 2004, 1415. The sphinx on this coin is depicted as a human-headed winged lion, just as we find on many archaic Greek vases; as, for example, 7th century Rhodian (which also show sphinxes with tendrils coming out of their heads). On this coin not only do we have a very well struck sphinx, we also have a very detailed tunny fish, who seems to be content to have this dangerous creature standing on top of him!

93

93. –. 5th-4th century BC. Stater (Electrum, 16.08 g). Head of Attis to right, wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars; below, tunny to right Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. SNG France 291. Von Fritze I, 142. A superb coin with a splendid head of Attis, beautifully preserved and perfectly struck in high relief. Surely the finest known example of this engaging type. Extremely fine. 50,000 Ex The New York Sale IV, 17 January 2002, 191. 3:1

Attis was the consort of Cybele and made himself into a eunuch to proclaim his eternal faithfulness to her. He was, however, killed by a boar. He seems to be of Phrygian origin and is, thus, always represented wearing Phrygian costume, such as the elaborate cap he wears here. He and Adonis were prototypes for Antinoos, the lover of Hadrian. Interestingly enough, Attis began to develop a cult of his own and became quite popular during the 2nd century AD.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

94. Lampsakos. Circa 360. Stater (Gold, 8.41 g 12). Veiled head of Demeter to left, wearing a wreath of lotus flowers, pendant earring and a pearl necklace Rev. Forepart of winged horse to right. Baldwin, Lampsakos 16. BMC 27. SNG France 1157 = TraitĂŠ II, 2544. Extremely rare and with a splendid and serene head of the goddess. Some minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 52,500 This is one of the rarest of all the gold staters of Lampsakos - Paris is the only major collection to have an example (the one in London is plated). While Demeter appears on coins from many ancient Greek mints, the lotus crown she wears on this one is not what she usually wears. This probably means that this exceptionally beautiful head was copied from a specific cult statue that would have been known to the ancient viewer. Demeter was, of course, the goddess of grain and fertility, the Roman Ceres.

3:1

94

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ISLANDS off TROAS

95

95. Tenedos. Circa 550-470 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 8.94 g 9), c. 490-480. Janiform head: on the left, bearded male face to left; on the right, female face to right; both have archaic, almond-shaped facing eyes, both wear a stephane, both share a disc earring with a rosette pattern and a doublecurved pendant; and there is a necklace of pearls Rev. T5N5 (retrograde) Helmeted and bearded male head to left, wearing pearl necklace; above to left, inscription; all within incuse square. BMC 8 = Traité I, 630, pl. XIV, 9 var. Extremely rare. Lightly toned and of superb late Archaic-early Classical style; a magnificent coin of great beauty. Slightly porous surfaces, otherwise, nearly extremely fine. 80,000

3:1

The early coinage of Tenedos is quite complex. It seems to begin in the last quarter of the 6th century with didrachms that bear a male/female janiform head, very similar to the one on this coin, but, on the reverse, a double axe, a pelekys, and a retrograde inscription giving the city’s name (as BMC pl. XVII, 2 = Traité I, 622, pl. XVI 2 = ACGC 109). The identity of the two faces on the obverse is rather controversial: it might be the mythical couple of Tenes, son of Cycnus the king of Colone, and his young step-mother Philonome, who had an affair and were condemned to be enclosed in a chest and thrown into the sea. They landed on the island of Leucophrys and Tenes became its ruler; the island’s name was then changed in his honor. However, other versions suggest that the two people in the box were Tenes and his sister Hemithea. The ancients were puzzled by the coin types as well: another story suggests that the types refer to an archaic law that condemned adulterous couples to be executed using a double axe! Elsewhere it is proposed that the double axe refers to a pattern found on the shell of a crab that lived in the waters off Tenedos! It is more likely that what we have is probably related to a local cult about which no record survives: by the end of the 5th century, and from then on, the male head wears a laurel wreath, thus, almost certainly indicating that the heads then represented Zeus and Hera. In any case, this early coinage, with the double-axe on the reverse, seems to have been replaced by a much rarer second coinage, of which the present piece is the finest known. The simple retrograde legend was retained but the axe was replaced by the helmeted head of a warrior (assuming the heads on the obverse are divinities, this could be Tenes; Wroth actually thought that the head on the heavily worn BM example was that of Athena, on the analogy of the contemporary and very similar silver coinage of Lampsakos, which bore a Janiform female head and a helmeted head of Athena). Quite probably the great similarity between the silver issues of Tenedos and Lampsakos is what seems to have convinced the authorities on Tenedos to return to their earlier double axe reverse type, along with a more complete legend, in order to avoid any confusion. The style of this coin is particularly fine. The heads have fully frontal eyes and the so-called archaic smile is most apparent; yet this coin was clearly produced at the end of the Archaic period, with the female head being very reminiscent of those of Athena found on the Starr Group I issues of Athens, thus dating it to the 490s or 480s BC.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

LESBOS

96

96. Mytilene. Circa 521-478 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.57 g 11). Forepart of a bull to left with a beaded wreath decorating the truncation Rev. Lion’s head with open jaws to right, all incuse; behind, irregular incuse rectangle. Bodenstedt 2 var. SNG von Aulock 1683. Very rare. Lightly toned. Extremely fine. 3750

3:1

This is a fine example of one of the earliest regular emissions of hekte from Mytilene. In Bodenstedt’s corpus of the coins he cites most of this issue as having the letter M below the bull’s mouth, thus clearly identifying the mint. It is also interesting to note that the rectangular shape behind the lion’s head on the reverse is actually a miniature version of a normal irregular incuse punch as found on the reverses of all other early electrum. It thus forms a bridge between the ‘new’ incuse reverse types used at Mytilene and their earlier forebears. Kyzikos, Mytilene and Phokaia were the three ancient Greek mints that produced extensive electrum issues, though the latter two only struck hektes, rather than a complete series of denominations as at Kyzikos. Somewhat curiously, with the exception of the earliest issues mentioned above, none of Mytilene’s hektes had their mint clearly identified with either a letter or a symbol (as the tunny fish of Kyzikos or the seal of Phokaia); perhaps the authorities felt that their coins were so well known that identifying them was unnecessary. Mytilene also was the only one of the mints to have a reverse type rather than a simple incuse: of interest is the fact that the obverse and reverse types are usually related (though we sometimes no longer know what that relationship means). On this piece the bull and lion would immediately remind the user of the slightly earlier issues of Lydia (as below, lot 109).

97 3:1

97. –. Circa 521-478 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.57 g 4). Forepart of a winged boar flying to right, with one wing above and the other below his body Rev. Lion’s head with open jaws to left, all incuse; behind, irregular incuse rectangle. BMFA 1678. Bodenstedt 10. Very rare. Attractively toned. Good extremely fine. 3750 This is one of the rarest of all the early issues of Mytilene (those with the reverse type to right are much more common). The winged boar is a particularly intriguing animal: he appears on coins from other mints in Asia Minor as well.

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98

98.

3:1

–. Circa 521-478 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.60 g 12), circa 480. Ram’s head to right; below, cock walking to right, pecking at the ground Rev. Incuse head of a bull to left, the neck truncation formed by a rough incuse rectangle. Bodenstedt 22. Very rare. An unusually sharp and beautiful example. Minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 8000 This is one of the last of the early Mytilene hektai with the incuse-type reverse. What is interesting is that the authorities seem to have insisted on keeping a trace of the nearly formless incuse rectangle or square that appeared on the very earliest electrum cons, despite the advanced design of the reverse die they then used. Thus, they required that a miniature incuse square or rectangle be attached to the neck or the head of whatever animal or god appeared as an incuse type on the reverse.

99

99. –. Circa 377-326 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.57 g 1). Female head to right, her hair bound up with criss-crossing ribbons Rev. Panathenaic amphora with pointed lid; to left, palm branch; all within linear frame. Bodenstedt -. Apparently unpublished and unique. An important and exciting coin of lovely late classical style. Nearly extremely fine. 6500

3:1

The world of ancient numismatics never ceases to provide us with surprises! This piece, apparently completely unknown and certainly unrecorded by Bodenstedt, presents us with a fascinating new pair of types for Mytilene. The reverse bears a large amphora with a lid: its shape is that of a ‘Panathenaic’, so-called from its use to store the olive oil given to winners at the Panathenaic Games in Athens. So, we must be looking at a prize amphora here, a conclusion that is confirmed by the palm of victory that stands nearby. This almost certainly means that the person depicted on the obverse of this coin must be Nike, goddess of victory. The rather sober hairstyle she has is also found on figures of Nike from Terina, Olympia, Kyzikos, Lampsakos and elsewhere. The very specific nature of the types on this coin implies that it was struck to commemorate the victory of someone from Mytilene in the Panathenaic Games at Athens, probably around 350 BC. If this is the case, it may well be that the issue was a very small one, thus explaining its great rarity today. These games took place every four years as part of what was known as the Greater Panathenaia, a festival that began in 566 BC and were, in part, open to Greeks from all over (it was designed to compete in prestige with the festivals in Olympia, Nemea, Isthmia and Delphi). Panathenaic Amphorae are known from c. 566 BC until Hellenistic times, with many 4th century examples being exactly datable since they bear the name of the presiding archon. The only even vaguely comparable piece from Mytilene is Bodenstedt 84, which was certainly struck around the time our coin was. That piece has the head of a nymph on the obverse and a volute krater between two ivy leaves on the reverse; it is also very rare.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

100

3:1

100. –. Circa 377-326 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.60 g 12). Head of Athena to right, wearing Attic helmet with crest Rev. Owl standing to right, head turned to face the viewer; all within linear square. Bodenstedt 105. SNG Copenhagen 315. Rare. Nearly extremely fine. 3000 Bodenstedt believed this was the last issue of Mytilene, struck in the early 320s. The types are clearly those of Athens, though Athena’s helmet lacks the olive leaves and other decoration that appear on Athenian issues. Curiously enough, this issue is usually found struck rather shoddily, often from rusty dies. The present coin is one of the nicest known.

IONIA

101

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101. Ephesos. Circa 133-88 BC. Stater (Gold, 8.60 g 12), 133/132. Draped bust of Artemis to right, wearing stephane, necklace of pearls and with her bow and quiver over her shoulder Rev. ΕΦ Statue of the Artemis of Ephesos facing; to left, crested helmet; to right, Β (= year 2 = 133/2 ?). Apparently unpublished. Extremely rare. Extremely fine. 52,500 The Hellenistic gold coinage of Ephesos is uniformly very rare; the sole publication on them is by G. K. Jenkins and appears in Anadolu 21 (1978-1980 - the Festschrift for E. Akurgal - published in 1987 and notoriously obscure). It had been previously thought that all the staters were struck during the Mithridatic wars but this seems not to be the case. Some appear to be dated by the era of the Province of Asia and the dates they bear are too early (like this one, assuming that the Π is a date, year 2, as seems likely; for another example of year 2, but with a tripod symbol, see Callataÿ pl. LI, k).

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102

102.

3:1

Erythrai. Circa 550-500 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.56 g). Head of Herakles to left, wearing lion’s skin headdress Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMC 7. BMFA 1805 ff. SNG von Aulock 1942. A bold and well-centered example. Extremely fine. 2000 Erythrai had an extensive coinage of hektai during the second half of the 6th century. All of them have a head of Herakles on the obverse and a simple incuse square on the reverse. The series starts with early heads that can be rather rude in style paired with rather rough incuses; then more carefully done heads (like this one, which probably should be dated during the last quarter of the 6th century) paired with quadripartite incuse squares; finally, the same reverse is paired with more refined, late Archaic heads of Herakles. Erythrai was famous for its Herakleion, a sanctuary dedicated to the Tyrian Herakles and adorned with a cult statue of Egyptian type that, according to Pausanias (7.5.5-8 ), appeared off the shore of the city, carried on a wooden raft. As the story goes, both the Erythraians and the Chians (the island of Chios is off the coast, opposite Erythrai) tried to take the raft but were unable to do so. Finally an Erythraian fisherman had a dream in which he was told that only a rope made from women’s hair could be used to tow the raft in to shore. The women of Erythrai refused to cut off all their hair, but the Thracian women who lived there, both free and slaves, agreed to do so; the rope was then made and the raft and its precious cargo brought to shore (the rope was still preserved in the sanctuary in the time of Pausanias). In addition, only Thracian women were allowed to enter the sanctuary.

103

3:1

103. –. Circa 500-480 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 7.06 g). Nude rider galloping to right Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. BMC 13. BMFA 1836. Jameson 2269. Kraay/Hirmer 603. SNG Copenhagen 554. Rare. Nicely toned. Extremely fine. 6000 From the Spina collection, ex Triton VI, 13 January 2003, 350. The horseman on this coin is similar to those on contemporary didrachms from Syracuse, but unlike the rather delicate and refined horses in Sicily, which have very carefully trimmed manes, the horse here is much more vigorously portrayed.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

104

104. Miletos. Circa 560-545 BC. Stater (Electrum, 13.87 g). Lion seated left, his head turned back to right; all within ornamental rectangular frame Rev. Three ornamental incuses; 1) on the left, a square punch containing a star of five pellets connected by lines; 2) at the center, a rectangular punch containing a fox running to left (here upwards) and an ornament; 3) on the right, a square punch, containing a stag’s head to right. SNG Kayhan 440 var. Weidauer 126 var. Very rare. An excellent example, unusually wellstruck. Extremely fine. 15,000

3:1

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 33, 5 April 2006, 158. These early staters of Miletos go with the vast silver coinage of diobols bearing the protome of a lion looking back. The reverses are technically very old fashioned: instead of using a single punch, the minters used three separate ones, separately struck. This must have been a rather finicky operation and surely resulted in a plethora of varieties since it would be easy to move the punches so that they would have different orientations. Since this technique was also found on older electrum, it might be that each reverse punch was the control mark of a different magistrate and all of them had to be present when the coin was struck to guarantee its fineness.

105

105. Phokaia. Circa 525. Hekte (Electrum, 2.57 g). Head of eagle to left with frontal eye and hooked beak; dotted neck truncation; below, seal swimming to left Rev. Irregular incuse square. Bodenstedt -. Unpublished. Of great rarity, with a magnificent archaic eagle’s head of great vigor and a beautifully detailed seal. The finest of the three examples known. Good extremely fine. 18,500 This exceptional piece, which was unknown to Bodenstedt, should date to the late 6th century (Bodenstedt’s dates are generally thought to be somewhat high). For a similar but slightly later eagle head, see the later issues of Cypriot Paphos (as ACGC 1088 and Traité II, 1278 ff.) but these are somewhat more fussily done and lack the piercing look this eagle has. The only eagle heads that can compare with this one in power were those engraved over a century later by the artist Da... and his followers at Olympia.

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106

106. –. Circa 521-478 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.61 g). Helmeted male head to left, with frontal eye and tendril ornament on bowl of helmet; below, seal swimming to left Rev. Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 50. Very rare. Nicely centered and attractive. Nearly extremely fine. 3750 This helmeted head, which must be that of a hero-warrior, is struck in high relief and is quite monumental in a subdued way. The whole idea of using just a helmeted head with no individuality as a type is quite interesting; that there is a head inside the helmet is clear from the eye that peeks out above the side piece. 3:1

107

107. –. Circa 478-387 BC. Hekte (Electrum, 2.50 g), circa 410. Head of a bearded Persian satrap, undoubtedly Pharnabazos, to left, wearing a Persian tiara bound with an elaborate diadem; behind, seal swimming downwards to left Rev. Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt -. Unique and apparently unpublished, a coin with a superb portrait of the very greatest interest and historical importance. About extremely fine. 28,000

3:1

This spectacular coin bears what is surely a portrait of the famous Persian satrap Pharnabazos, who was active in the area of the Hellespont during the last years of the 5th century. He first allied himself with Sparta against the Athenians, but later switched sides in the early 4th century. He based himself in the city of Daskyleion, which had been a possession of his family since the 470s. His family was related to the Achaemenid royal house and, interestingly enough, his granddaughter Apama married Seleukos I. We can confidently identify the portrait as being Pharnabazos since it is exactly the same as the one on named silver staters that were issued circa 410, probably in Kyzikos but possibly in Ionia (as BMC, Ionia, p. 352, 12, Kraay/Hirmer 618 and SNG von Aulock 1216). It is fascinating that his portrait should appear on a hekte from Phokaia: the fact that it was hitherto unknown implies that it was originally issued in very small numbers, perhaps as a donative of some kind. In any event, the die engraver who made the die for this coin must have seen the silver staters since he had to have used them as his model. It has been suggested that this head actually portrays a Persian hero, one of the seven companions of Darius, rather than a specific individual, because the headdress is not quite like that worn by a normal Persian satrap. If this were the case the only hero who would be likely to appear on a coin of Pharnabazos would be his own ancestor, Otanes, who was one of the famous seven. However, the great individuality of the portrait argues that it portrays a specific individual: what could be more likely than that what we have is the head of Pharnabazos wearing the tiara of his ancestor? It would both emphasize his family’s role in the great events of the past and show his own present importance.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ISLANDS off IONIA 108. Samos. Circa 408/4-380/66 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 15.29 g 6), circa 390. Lion’s mask facing Rev. ΗΓΗΣΙΑΝΑΞ / ΣΑ Forepart of an ox to right, wearing an ornamental collar and with dotted truncation; to left olive branch; below right, monogram within circle. Barron 118a (this coin). De Hirsch 1531. KF 222 (this coin). A superb example, attractively toned and very well struck. Extremely fine. 30,000 From the Spina collection, ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, 163 and from the collections of D. Féret, Vinchon, 24 November 1994, 252, C. Gillet, Kunstfreund, Bank Leu/Münzen und Medaillen, 28 May 1974, 222, and H. Otto, Hess 207, 1 December 1931, 578, and ex Naville X, 15 June 1925, 698. The types on the coins of Samos relate to the cult of Hera, whose great temple on the island was one of the most famous in the ancient world. The lion’s mask is that of a skin that served to adorn the cult statue of Hera; on the reverse is one of the two perfectly white oxen that drew the sacred cart carrying the goddess’s statue during her festival.

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108

77


78

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

KINGS of LYDIA 109

109.

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Kroisos. Circa 560-546 BC. Light Hekte or one-sixth stater (Gold, 1.33 g), Sardes. On the left, forepart of lion with open mouth to right confronting, on the right, forepart of bull to left Rev. Two irregular incuse squares forming an incuse rectangle. H. J. Berk, “The Coinage of Croesus: Another Look,” SAN XX, 1 (1997), fig. 8. Traité I, 406 = pl. X, 8. A splendid, beautifully struck example of exceptional quality. Good extremely fine. 3000 While the light gold staters of Kroisos are relatively easy to come by, the fractions are much rarer, especially the sixths. This piece is in every way extraordinary - both well struck and very well preserved. The confronted lion and bull on this coin are age old eastern symbols of power, with the lion being the emblem of the Lydian royal family.

ISLANDS off CARIA

110

110.

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Rhodos. Rhodes. Circa 250-229 BC. Didrachm (Silver, 6.66 g 12), Agesidamos. Radiate head of Helios facing, turned slightly to the right Rev. ΑΓΗΣΙΔΑΜΟΣ Rose with bud to left; below, Ρ Ο; to left, Artemis running to left. Ashton 206. SNG Keckman 534-5. A lustrous and most attractive example, beautifully toned. Reverse lightly struck, otherwise, good extremely fine. 1500


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

111

111. –.– Circa 229-205 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 13.71 g 12), Ameinias. Radiate head of Helios facing, turned slightly to right Rev. ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose with bud to right; to left, prow of galley to right; below, ΑΜΕΙΝΙΑΣ. Ashton 212. SNG Copenhagen 759. SNG Keckman 542. SNG von Aulock 2799. Beautifully toned and very sharply struck, a remarkably nice piece. Good extremely fine. 3750

2:1

The facing heads of Helios on the silver tetradrachms of Rhodes go through quite a stylistic progression over the slightly more than two centuries of their existence. The earlier heads of the late 5th and 4th centuries are fully in the Classical tradition and range from the noble, serene and, often, eerily powerful to insipid and banal. However, the tradition changes when tetradrachms resume in the later 3rd century. On those coins the Helios heads are truly Hellenistic in a very florid and baroque way, with some of the earliest, like this one, being most impressive.

LYCIA

112

112. Teththiveibi. 440-430. Stater (Silver, 9.84 g 12). Head of a goddess, perhaps Aphrodite, to left, wearing pearl necklace and spiral earring, her hair tied with bands and bound up at the back Rev. Lycian inscription Tetraskeles surrounded by inscription; all within incuse square bordered by dots. Gulbenkian 790. Kraay/Hirmer 651. SNG von Aulock 4161. Traité II 330, pl. XCVIII, 17. Very rare. Beautifully toned and perfectly struck, the finest known example. Good extremely fine. 18,500 Ex Leu 81, 16 May 2001, 310, Bank Leu 7, 9 May 1973, 251 and from the collection of J. Desneux. The coinage of Lycia is characterized by the large number of eclectic designs found on it. The area’s general symbol, the tri- or tetraskeles, appeared on many reverses, but there were an infinite number of obverse types used. A good number were copied from or based on types used in other Greek cities - this one finds parallels in earlier issues from Syracuse! It is one of the prettiest female heads to be found in all of Lycian coinage, and certainly one of the best preserved.

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79


80

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

113

113.

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Vekhssere II. Circa 410-390/80 BC. Tetrobol (Silver, 2.71 g 11). Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet propped on top of her head Rev. FΛZ Triskeles to left; on the left, vertical diskeles; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Vismara I, 38. Rare. Struck on a broad flan and attractively toned. Extremely fine. 3000

PAMPHYLIA

114

114. 2:1

Aspendos. Circa 380/75-330/25 BC. Stater (Silver, 10.94 g 12). Two wrestlers beginning to grapple with each other; between them, ΔΡ Rev. ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ Slinger striding right, preparing to launch sling-bolt; to right, triskeles to left. SNG Copenhagen 223. SNG France 89-90. SNG von Aulock 4552 (this coin). A lovely example. Attractively toned. Reverse very slightly double-struck, otherwise, good extremely fine. 5000 From the collection of H. S. von Aulock. It is remarkable how poorly struck so many staters of Aspendos are. Die wear, offcentering, countermarks, and poor engraving are all factors that mar most existing coins. Thus, coins like the present one are really quite uncommon, and help to explain why Hans von Aulock picked it from the many hundreds he was offered during his lifetime. The wrestlers refer to the local games; the slinger would remind the user that the Pamphylians were famous as slingers and were employed as mercenaries in many ancient armies.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

CILICIA 115. Soloi. 425-400. Stater (Silver, 10.68 g 10). Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow; wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr; in exergue, monogram Rev. ΣΟΛΕΩΝ Large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3. SNG France 128. SNG Levante 40. SNG von Aulock 5858. A spectacular example of the Amazon coinage of Soloi, probably the finest known. Toned and perfectly struck, good extremely fine. 18,000 From the Spina collection, ex Triton VIII, 10 January 2005, 506. The word solecism, meaning a grammatical mistake or absurdity, was invented by the ancient Athenians to describe the Greek dialect spoken in Soloi, which they thought was a corrupt version of Attic. Perhaps the beautiful bunch of grapes on this coin gives us a hint as to why the people of Soloi made so many mistakes in speaking: Pliny records that much wine was produced in Cilicia and Soloi’s standard type of a bunch of grapes implies that some of it was certainly made here! The Amazons were a tribe of female warriors who supposedly originated in northern Asia Minor. They appear in a great number of Greek legends and were a favorite subject for ancient painting and sculpture (they supposedly removed their right breasts in order to be better able to throw javelins and draw their bows, but this is never shown in works of art and it seems prima facie unlikely). The engraver of this coin got out of the problem by showing the Amazon from behind, with only her left breast visible under her arm. Precisely why she appears on the coinage of Soloi is unknown and probably relates to a local myth.

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115

81


82

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

KINGS of CAPPADOCIA 116. Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator. 101-85. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.45 g 1), regnal year Β = 2 = 99/98 BC. Diademed head of Ariarathes IX to right, hair long Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ Athena standing left, holding Nike on her extended right hand and spear and shield with her left; in exergue, Β. De Callataÿ p. 201, 1968, 5 = O. Mørkholm “The Coinages of Ariarathes VIII and Ariarathes IX of Cappadocia,” Essays Robinson, p. 247, A 1-P 9 = Jameson 1634 (this coin cited). Simonetta 5 (Ariarathes V). SNG Copenhagen 136 (Ariarathes V). Attractively toned and with a fine, ‘Cappadocian’ portrait of the youthful king. Good very fine. 3750 116

From the collection of R. Jameson. There has been a great deal of controversy over the identification of the Ariarathes who struck this coin, but Mørkholm simply must be correct in seeing it as an early issue of Ariarathes IX. He had been placed on the throne of Cappadocia by his father, the mighty Mithridates VI of Pontus who had previously assassinated his own nephew, Ariarathes VII, a son of Ariarathes VI (he also disposed of another son of Ariarathes VI, the unimaginatively named Ariarathes VIII). This early portrait shows the young king with rather idealized features that are somewhat reminiscent of those of earlier Cappadocian kings. However, soon after these early tetradrachms were issued, drachms and, later, tetradrachms were struck bearing a portrait that was much closer in features to that of Mithridates VI, thus making their relationship perfectly clear to all beholders. Ariarathes IX was killed while serving as a commander of his father’s troops in northern Greece.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA 117. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Tetradrachm (17.06 g 3), Susa, circa 304-298/7. Bust of Alexander the Great as Dionysos to right, wearing helmet covered with a panther skin and adorned with a bull’s horn and ear, and with a panther skin tied around his shoulders Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ Nike walking to right, placing wreath on trophy of arms to right; to left and right of Nike, monogram. CSE 1023. ESM 426. Kraay/Hirmer 740. SC 173.4. A magnificent example, beautifully toned and one of the finest examples of this coinage known. Virtually as struck. 50,000 From the Spina collection, ex Leu 81, 16 May 2001, 323. Alexander the Great appears on this coin with some of the attributes of Dionysos, as part of a complex program of imagery that served to identify the conquests of Alexander in India with the god’s own legendary conquests there. The portrait also was meant to remind users of the coin that Seleukos had repeated Alexander’s conquests through his defeat of Chandragupta in 304.

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117

83


84

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

118

118. –. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.08 g 7), Seleucia, circa 296/5 and later. Laureate head of Zeus to right Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ Athena, hurling spear with her right hand and holding shield with her left, standing right in quadriga of elephants moving to right; behind, B; above and to right, anchor right and ΔΙ. ESM 29. SC130.1b. A superb coin, well struck and unusually well preserved. Attractively toned, good extremely fine. 12,500 The elephant quadriga serves as a reminder of the 500 elephants Seleukos received from Chandragupta as part of the peace settlement in 303. 2:1

119

119. –. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.07 g 6), Ecbatana, circa 295. Head of Herakles in lionskin headdress to right Rev. ΒAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ Alexander the Great, his cloak billowing out behind him, riding horse with horns on his head charging to right; he holds a spear in his right hand and wears a helmet adorned with a bull’s ear and horns, and a cuirass; below and behind horse, ΣΩ and two monograms. SC 203 = A. Houghton and A. Stewart, “The equestrian portrait of Alexander the Great on a new tetradrachm of Seleukos I,” SNR 1999, pp. 1-7. Extremely rare, the second example known. Some minor marks in the reverse field and small flan fault on the horse, otherwise, about extremely fine. 50,000 This extraordinary coin comes from a series that also includes some very rare drachms and hemidrachms of the same type. The identification of the figure on the reverse is controversial: is it Dionysos the Conqueror? Is it Alexander with attributes of Dionysos? Is it Seleukos with attributes of Alexander and Dionysos? Or is it a general hero with attributes of all of them? Houghton and Stewart made a very good case for it being Alexander, based on the Dionysiac symbolism used for the portrait of Alexander on the victory coinage struck in Susa ten years earlier (see, above, lot 117). On this coin we can see that the saddle cloth is an animal skin (the tail can be made out waving behind the rider); presumably that of a panther. The horns of the horse immediately recall Alexander’s mount, the famous Bucephalus, thus, seemingly making the identification of the rider certain. Since the publication of 1999, however, Houghton seems to have had second thoughts, and wonders that the rider may well be Seleukos. This is unlikely. The fact that this issue was so limited in size argues against it being the introduction of a new iconographic representation of Seleukos, rather than a reprise of that of Alexander. After all, if it was meant to be Seleukos, why is it never used again? The suggestion that the horned horse is not Alexander’s mount, but the swift horse that carried Seleukos away from Babylon in 315, is equally unlikely because that horse is never said to have had horns and the fact that horned horse heads are often found on some eastern silver and bronze coins of Seleukos I and a few of his successors does not support that attribution. Those heads are surely of Bucephalus, especially since he died and was buried in the east. Clearly, horseman on this coin is Alexander, conqueror of the East, in a pose very similar to that found on the so-called Poros Dekadrachms. He appears on this special issue for the same reasons he appeared on the series from Susa: to recall the deeds of Alexander in the past and associate them with those of Seleukos in the present. This is not only one of the most exciting and historically significant coins minted by the Seleukids, but it also a particularly striking depiction of Alexander.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

3:1

85


86

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

120. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.1X g 12), Smyrna. Diademed head of Antiochos I to right Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding three arrows in his right hand and resting his left on a bow leaning against the omphalos behind him; to right, monogram of ΘΕ; in exergue, monogram of ΑΤΡ. SC 311.2. WSM 1494. A superb coin with a wonderful, idealized portrait of unusually fine style, struck in high relief. Beautifully centered and one of the finest known coins of this ruler. Good extremely fine. 15,000 120

Antiochos I Soter was eldest son of Seleukos I and Apama, granddaughter of Pharnabazos. He was a consolidator and managed to keep almost all of the vast empire founded by his father together, despite revolts and the declarations of independence by the local rulers of Bithynia and Pontus. He founded many cities and sent out colonists throughout his realm. The portrait on this coin, engraved by an artist of great talent in the old Ionian city of Smyrna, shows Antiochos I as an elegant, powerful, and relatively youthful man - an idealized king - despite the fact that by the time it was struck he had to be at least forty-five years old. This type has long been sought after - the inferior piece from the Houghton Collection (NFA XVIII, 1987, lot 289) sold for the then astounding price of $21,000.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

121. Alexander I Balas, with Cleopatra Thea. 152-145 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.81 g 12), Ake-Ptolemais, 150 BC. Diademed and veiled bust of Cleopatra Thea, as Tyche, wearing pendant earring, pearl necklace, kalathos and with cornucopiae over her shoulder, jugate to right with the diademed head of Alexander Balas; behind their heads, Α Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Zeus seated left on throne, holding long scepter with his left hand and, in his right, a facing figure of Nike holding a thunderbolt. Houghton, Double 16-20 var. (reverse die unlisted). Jameson 1715. SC 1841. SNG Spaer 1483. Very rare. Slightly rough surfaces, otherwise, extremely fine. 20,000 Ex Triton IX, 10 January 2006, 1033. Alexander I Balas was a usurper who was backed by the Attalids and the Ptolemies against the legitimate Seleukid king, Demetrius I. Balas prevailed and to seal his alliances, received the hand of Cleopatra Thea (c. 164-121), the eldest daughter of Ptolemy VI. The wedding took place in Ptolemais in 150: rare tetradrachms and even rarer gold staters were struck to commemorate the event. Interestingly enough, while Balas wears the royal diadem, his spouse not only has a diadem but the attributes of a goddess, thus showing quite how much higher she ranked over him; and she knew it. Cleopatra Thea had quite a career. After marrying Balas, and producing a son, Antiochos VI, she repudiated him; following his defeat and murder by an Arab sheik she married the young Demetrius II, son of Demetrius I. With him she had Seleukos V and Antiochos VIII. After some interminable infighting, Demetrius II was captured by the Parthians and Cleopatra proceeded to marry his younger brother, Antiochos VII, with whom she had Antiochos IX. After Antiochos VII was killed in battle, Demetrius II returned to Cleopatra; by 125 she was fed up with him and had him murdered. He was succeeded by his son Seleukos V, but as he proved to be rather independent his mother had him murdered as well. She then decided to become sole ruler of Syria, legitimizing her position by associating herself with her younger son (by Demetrius II), Antiochos VIII. Tiring of him as well, she made several attempts at eliminating him but, in the end, was forced to drink a cup of poisoned wine she had herself prepared for him and died in 121. The portrait on this coin shows Cleopatra Thea as a young woman of 16, though she must have been hard as nails even then - if she had more time or power she probably could have single-handedly wiped out the entire Seleukid royal house!

2:1

121

87


88

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

PERSIA

122

122.

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Achaemenid Empire. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II. Circa 485-420 BC. Daric (Gold, 8.33 g). Persian king in the running-kneeling position to right, holding transverse spear in his right hand and bow in his left; quiver over his shoulder Rev. Oblong irregular incuse. BMC Arabia pl. XXIV, 26. Carradice Type IIIb A/B and pl. XIII, 27. An unusually nice example. Good extremely fine. 3500 The Daric was the first ancient gold that went into widespread use. The Great Kings of Persia needed them to pay mercenary soldiers and for the bribes they used to influence politicians and rulers all over the Greek world. The way the Persian King is portrayed, in the so-called ‘running kneeling’ position, was the way early artists attempted to show motion. Its appearance here emphasizes the conservative nature of this coinage.

BAKTRIA

123

2:1

123. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Diodotos II. Circa 246-230. (Silver, 16.66 g 6), Mint B, circa 235-230. Diademed head of Diodotos II to right Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ Zeus striding left, hurling thunderbolt from his upraised right hand and with aegis over his outstretched left arm; to left, before his left foot, eagle standing left with wreath above; behind, Β. Bopearachchi 6B. Holt D/7, 24-25. SNG ANS 88. A superb coin struck in high relief with a magnificent portrait; exceptionally well preserved, perhaps the finest example known. Some minor flatness and marks on the reverse, otherwise, good extremely fine. 12,500 The Baktrian kingdom was founded by Diodotos I who had been appointed satrap of Baktria by Antiochos II but who then revolted in 255. He seems to have ruled jointly with his son Diodotos II from 246 until his death in 239. The revolt was, however, rather gradual since the coinage produced by Diodotos I first bore the portrait and name of Antiochos II and then continued in the name of the Seleukid king but with his own somewhat elderly looking portrait. Diodotos II’s coinage also initially was struck in the name of the Seleukid king, but bore his own young and handsome head. The final issues bore his name as well. The present coin has one of the most beautiful of all the known portraits of Diodotos II. He was apparently overthrown by Euthydemos I, who formed another dynasty of Baktrian rulers.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

124

124. Eukratides I. Circa 170-145 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 16.95 g 12), circa 170-164/3. Diademed and draped bust of Eukratides to right Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ The Dioskouri galloping to right, each holding spear and palm branch; to left, Δ; below right, monogram. Bopearachchi Series 1, F. SNG ANS 434-435. With an enormous and very fine portrait, beautifully centered on a broad flan. Some minor marks, otherwise, about extremely fine. 2500 The coinage of Eukratides I can be divided into two main series: the first bears a simple diademed bust on the obverse and the legend, ‘king Eukratides’; the second and far more extensive group bears a helmeted bust with the legend ‘Great King Eukratides’. Since the second type was already copied by a Seleucid usurper in 162 it must have been in existence by then (it surely had to have started at least a year before that); thus, we can date Eukratides’ initial type to the early 160s. The earlier type is by far the finer: the bust on this piece shows a mature man with strong, individual features and is a very life-like portrait.

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125

125. Agathokleia & Strato I. Circa 135-125 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 9.73 g 12). ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΙΑΣ Cojoined diademed and draped busts of Strato I and his mother Agathokleia to right Rev. Kharosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa dhramikasa Stratasa Athena striding left, holding shield with gorgoneion over her left arm and hurling thunderbolt with her right hand; below left, monogram. Bopearachchi Series 6, A. SNG ANS 987. Very rare. Nearly extremely fine. 8500 Baktrian and Indo-Greek coins are particularly fascinating today because, among other things, they record the names of rulers who are otherwise unknown to history. They are also mementos of the incredible reach of Greek civilization, which established itself in the wake of Alexander’s conquests far to the east. One of the few Greek kings to be mentioned in contemporary literature was Menander (c. 165/155-130) who converted to Buddhism. According to one reconstruction, after his death his widow Agathokleia ruled as Queen-regent for their young son Strato, but only in the Punjab and Gandhara; with other areas taken over by Zoilos I, perhaps in reaction to rule by a queen (given the times, having a warrior ruler was a vital necessity). It is, however, also possible that Agathokleia and Strato I were descendents of Menander who only came to power c. 110 (in that case she would have been the widow of either Nikias or Theophilos).

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89


90

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT 126.

126

Ptolemy I Soter. As satrap, 323-305 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 17.11 g 12), Alexandria, circa 313/312. Head of the deified Alexander III to right, wearing mitra of Dionysos and elephant skin headdress, with aegis around his neck, and with horn of Ammon on his forehead Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Athena Alkidemos advancing right, hurling spear with her right hand and with shield over her extended left arm; to right, eagle with closed wings standing on thunderbolt to right with ΔΙ below. SNG Copenhagen 14. Svoronos 33. Zervos Issue XIII. Very rare. A superb piece of the very finest style. Attractively toned. Good extremely fine. 10,000 The coinage of Ptolemy I developed in a fairly complex way. He first issued normal issues in the name of Alexander, then changed them by inaugurating a new obverse type showing Alexander wearing an elephant’s skin headdress in circa 321. In 314 this was changed by replacing the seated Zeus on the reverse by an archaizing fighting Athena - Athena Alkidemos. These coins were of Attic weight.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

127. –. Tetradrachm (Silver, 15.59 g 12), Alexandria, 310-305. Head of the deified Alexander III to right, wearing diadem and elephant skin headdress, with aegis around his neck, and with horn of Ammon on his forehead Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Athena Alkidemos advancing right, hurling spear with her right hand and with shield over her extended left arm; to right, monogram above eagle with closed wings standing on thunderbolt to right. SNG Copenhagen 25. Svoronos 107. Rare. Very attractively toned and with a remarkably individualistic portrait of Alexander III. Minor graffiti on the reverse, otherwise, extremely fine. 6500 As noted with lot 126, Ptolemy I produced his own variant of the traditional coinage of Alexander in 321, then changed the reverse as well in 314. A few years later, c. 310, he embarked on an even greater change by lowering the weight standard by some 9%. This was done in order to create a closed currency area out of Egypt: foreign coins were banned from circulation and any brought by travelers had to be exchanged on a one for one basis against lower weight local issues, thus providing an instant profit for the government.

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127

91


92

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

128

128.

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Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt. 305-283. Tetradrachm (Silver, 14.88 g 12), 305-283. Diademed head of Ptolemy I to right, wearing aegis around his neck; within his hair behind his ear, tiny letter Δ Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ Eagle, with closed wings, standing left on thunderbolt; to left, monogram of ΔΑ. Svoronos 190, pl. VII, 19 = BMC 85. Toned and most attractive. Very minor flan crack, otherwise, good extremely fine. 2750 The Ptolemaic currency reform culminated c. 305/300 by Ptolemy I’s replacement of his tetradrachms bearing a portrait of Alexander with those displaying his own head. This was the first true portrait of one of Alexander’s successors and was startlingly realistic. The tiny letter Δ found in his hair behind the ear is the initial of the master-engraver who designed the coin.

129 2:1

129. Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I. 285246 BC. Mnaeion or Octodrachm (Gold, 27.84 g 12), after 265. ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ Diademed jugate busts of Ptolemy II, draped, and Arsinoe II, veiled, to right; behind, Gallic shield Rev. ΘΕΩΝ Diademed jugate busts of Ptolemy I, draped, and Berenike I, veiled, to right. SNG Copenhagen 132. Svoronos 603. A fine, lustrous example struck on a broad flan. Minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 15,000 This coin was designed to display the dynastic continuity of the Ptolemies, with the present rulers, Ptolemy II and his sister-wife Arsinoe II, on the obverse and the deified parents, Ptolemy I and Berenike I, on the reverse. The Gallic shield on the obverse was Ptolemy II’s personal badge.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

130. Berenike II, wife of Ptolemy III. Circa 244/3-221 BC. Pentadrachm (Gold, 21.49 g 12), after c. 241. Veiled bust of Berenike II to right, wearing ornate necklace Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΒΕΡΕΝΙΚΗΣ Cornucopiae tied with royal diadem between two six-pointed stars; to left, Ε.. BMFA 2278. Svoronos 973. Extremely rare. A lovely, lustrous coin, struck on a full flan and with a splendid portrait. A few minor marks as usual, otherwise, good extremely fine. 55,000 Berenike II was the daughter of Magas of Cyrene and wife of Ptolemy III. She was first married to Demetrios the Fair, son of Demetrios Poliorketes, but when she caught him in bed with her mother Apama she had him killed. She then married Ptolemy III and had several children, including Ptolemy IV who had her murdered in 221.

3:1

130

93


94

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

131

131. 1,5:1

Berenike II, wife of Ptolemy III. Circa 244/3-221 BC. Pentakaidekadrachm (Silver, 52.55 g 12), Alexandria. Diademed and veiled bust of Berenike II to right Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΒΕΡΕΝΙΚΗΣ Cornucopiae bound with fillet between two laureate pilei. Hazard c1052 (dodekadrachm). Svoronos 988. D. Vagi, “The Ptolemaic Pentakaidekadrachm,” SAN XX. 1 (1997), pp. 5-10. Nicely toned and attractive. Minor flan crack, otherwise, extremely fine. 22,500 From the Spina collection.. For a long time these large and impressive coins were only known from the single broken specimen published by Svoronos, which he identified as an Attic dodekadrachm. This caused no end of debate and theorizing because, of course, the Ptolemies did not normally use the Attic standard. However, when a group of wellpreserved examples of this type came on the market several years ago, it was realized that their weight was simply too low to be Attic and, as D. Vagi pointed out in an important article, they worked much better as 15-drachma pieces following the Ptolemaic standard. They are, aside from the lost 20 drachm pieces of Amyntas once in the museum in Qunduz, the largest Greek silver coins ever made.

132

132.

3:1

Ptolemy IV Philopator. 225-205 BC. Octodrachm (Gold, 27.19 g 12), Alexandria. Radiate and diademed bust of the deified Ptolemy III to right, wearing aegis and with trident over his left shoulder Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ Radiate cornucopiae bound with royal diadem; below, ΔΙ. BMC 103. Kraay/Hirmer 803. SNG Copenhagen 196. Svoronos 1117. A lustrous, attractive coin. Minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 20,000 Ptolemy IV was a relatively unpleasant character who was infamous for the murder of his mother Berenike II. The portrait on this coin is of his far more popular father, Ptolemy III.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

28 3:1

45 3:1

95


96

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ROMAN COINS

155 3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

133

133. Q. Pomponius Rufus. 70 BC. Denarius (Silver, 3.76 g 9). RVFVS S C Laureate head of Jupiter to right Rev. Q.POMPONI Eagle, with spread wings, standing left, head turned back to right; his left on scepter and his right holding a wreath; below right foot, VII; to right, scorpion. Babelon (Pomponia) 23. Crawford 398/1. Sydenham 793. Very rare. An unusually nice example, with an attractive dark patina as found. Some minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 8000

2:1

From the collection of a Gentleman. Denarii of Q. Pomponius Rufus are among the rarest of all Roman Republican denarii - Crawford only records 10 obverse and 7 reverse dies (though since the reverse dies are numbered from 1 to 8 and no specimen of 2 is yet known, there were probably at least 8 reverses). Virtually nothing is known about the moneyer who struck this issue.

134

134. L. Marcius Philippus. 57 BC. Denarius (Silver, 4.32 g 2), Rome. ANCVS Head of Ancus Marcus to right, wearing diadem; behind, lituus Rev. PHILIPPVS Equestrian statue to right, on aqueduct; within the arches of the aqueduct, A-Q-V-A-MAR. Babelon (Marcia) 28. Crawford 425/1. Sydenham 919. Beautifully stuck, well-centered, lightly toned and lustrous. Good extremely fine. 650 The reverse commemorates the building of the Aqua Marcia, begun by the praetor Q. Marcius Rex in 144 and finished in 140. Its total cost was 180,000,000 sesterces, much of this coming from the vast spoils Rome received from the destruction of Corinth and Carthage, which both took place in 146. Water from this aqueduct still supplies Rome (it was restored by Agrippa, Hadrian, Septimius Severus, Arcadius, and Honorius, among others). The statue depicted on the coin was erected in his honor atop the collecting basin that was built across from the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The head on the obverse is of the fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcus, from whom the gens Marcia descended.

2:1

97


98

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

135.

135

P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus. 50 BC. Denarius (Silver, 3.98 g 7). MARCELLINVS Bare head to right of M. Claudius Marcellus, consul in 222; behind, triskeles Rev. MARCELLVS COS.QVINQ M. Claudius Marcelllus, togate and wearing wreath, walking right, carrying Gallic trophy into the tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Feretrius. Babelon (Cornelia) 69. Bauten 96. Crawford 439/1. Hill 34. RSC 409. Sydenham 1147. A superb coin, beautifully centered and with a splendid portrait struck in high relief. Good extremely fine. 2500 This coin bears a portrait of one of the great Roman heros of the second Punic War, M. Claudius Marcellus, the general who conquered Syracuse in 211 (thus the triskeles, symbol of Sicily, on the obverse). As the reverse legend tells us, he was consul five times. In 222, during his first consulate, he defeated the Celtic Insubres under their king Britomartis; the reverse of this coin shows him bringing a trophy from that victory into the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, traditionally the first temple to have been built in Rome. The portrait itself could well go back to an image made in the general’s lifetime; there was also a statue erected in his honor in the first half of the 2nd century on which the head on the coin could have been based.

3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

136. L. Flaminius Chilo and Julius Caesar. 43 BC. Denarius (Silver, 3.57 g 1), Rome. Laureate head of Julius Caesar to right Rev. L.FLAMINIVS IIII.VIR Goddess, Venus or Pax, standing to left, holding caduceus in her right hand and long scepter in her left. Babelon (Flaminia) 2, (Julia) 44. Crawford 485/1. CRI 113. RSC 1423. Sydenham 1089. A wonderful, lustrous piece with a spectacular head of Caesar. Some minor striking flatness but, otherwise, virtually as struck. 40,000 This is a particularly dramatic head of Caesar, struck probably in August 43 after Octavian regained the city. The very prominent and detailed laurel wreath he wears (mixed with leaves and laurel berries) hints at the Senate’s forthcoming proclamation of Caesar as a god, which took place on 1 January 42.

3:1

136

99


100

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

137

137.

3:1

Mark Antony. 43 BC. Denarius (Silver, 3.81 g 6), Transalpine or Cisalpine Gaul. M.ANTON.IMP Bare head of Marc Antony to right, with slight beard; behind, lituus to left Rev. CAESAR DIC Laureate head of Caesar to right; behind, jug. Babelon (Antonia) 4. Crawford 488/1. Sear 118. Sydenham 1165. An unusually nice example, struck from dies of exceptionally fine style. Attractively toned and very well struck, extremely fine. 4500 This Gallic issue is notorious for being badly struck and for bearing portraits that range from crude to caricatural. This piece, however, has two heads of remarkable quality - it is, in fact, very probably the first die pair, made by a skilled engraver as the prototype for the series. His copiers simply lacked his abilities.

138

138. L. Mussidius Longus and Julius Caesar. 42 BC. Denarius (Silver, 4.00 g 7), Rome. Laureate head of Julius Caesar to right Rev. L.MVSSIDIVS. LONGVS Cornucopiae on globe; to left, rudder; to right, caduceus and apex. Crawford 494/39a. CRI 116. Sydenham 1096a. Nicely toned and with an excellent portrait. Extremely fine. 10,000

3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

139

139. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Cistophorus (Silver, 11.90 g 12), Pergamum, 1918. IMP IX TR PO V Head of Augustus to right Rev. COM ASIAE Hexastyle temple with architrave inscribed ROM ET AVGVST. BMC 705. Cohen 86. RIC 506. RPC 2217. Sutherland -, Group VII, obverse die 12/ reverse unpublished. A new die combination. Attractively toned. Good very fine. 4500

2:1

From the collection of a Gentleman. The Greeks of Asia had long been accustomed to dedicating sacred precincts to their rulers or to other notables, a practice the Romans found unacceptable in the case of living people. Yet the people of Asia had petitioned Augustus to allow them to consecrate a temple in his honor and he ultimately acceded to their request, requiring it to be built in Pergamon, which had been the capital of the old Hellenistic kingdom. The building was jointly dedicated to Roma and Augustus; it was already under construction by 27 BC and we can assume that it was complete by 19 BC when this coin was minted. The reverse gives us an accurate view of what the temple looked like, later representations reduce the number of columns to enable the statues of Roma and Augustus that were inside to be seen as well.

140

140. Nero. 54-68. Dupondius (Orichalcum, 14.82 g 6), Rome, 67. IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P XIII P P Radiate head of Nero to right with slight beard Rev. PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT / S C View of the Temple of Janus with closed double doors to left. BMC p. 217 note. Cohen 169. RIC 362. WCN 238. An exceptional coin with a lovely dark green patina, sharply struck and with a portrait in high relief. Some uncleaned encrustations and reverse legend partially very slightly double struck, otherwise, good extremely fine. 8000 From the collection of Ph. S., ex The Numismatic Auction 3, 1 December 1985, 216. This is one of the finest Temple of Janus dupondii in existence, with a sharp portrait and a very detailed view of the temple with its closed doors. As is well known, the temple doors were only closed when there was peace all over the Roman world: that did not happen very often. We know that they were closed twice during the reign of Augustus and, of course, in 66 after Corbulo’s defeat of the Parthians; Nero was the only emperor to show the temple on his coins and it seem s likely that, for political reasons, the doors were mostly kept shut even in times of war.

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101


102

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

141

141. Galba. 68-69. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 24.87 g 6), Rome, circa October 68. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P Laureate and draped bust of Galba to right Rev. S P Q R / OB / CIV SER Legend in three lines within oak wreath. ACG 152. BMC 112. Cohen 295. RIC 405. A lovely coin with a fine portrait and an attractive, golden-brown ‘Tiber’ patina. Nearly extremely fine. 8000 2:1

From the collection of Ph. S., ex Bank Leu 18, 5 May 1977, 303. Servius Sulpicius Galba came from a high-ranking family and considerable wealth; he was well regarded by Augustus and Tiberius and was favored by Livia. He was consul in 33 and held military commands in Gaul, Germany, Africa and Spain; under Nero he came out of retirement to govern Hispania Tarraconensis. In 68 he rose against Nero and was ultimately successful, becoming emperor in June. While he seemed to have all the old-fashioned Roman virtues, he soon became widely unpopular because of the harsh measures he took to restore the state and the influence his equally unpopular favorites had over his policies. As a result the legions in Germany revolted under Vitellius and, at approximately the same time, M. Salvius Otho was chosen emperor by the Praetorians; Galba was murdered by soldiers on 15 January 69. The most damning description of him was given by Tacitus: “omnium consensu capax imperii nisi imperasset” “everyone thought him capable of ruling the empire until he did.”

142

142. 3:1

Vitellius. 69. Denarius (Silver, 3.48 g 6), Rome, April-December 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P Laureate head of Vitellius to right Rev. XV VIR SACR FAC Tripod with covered vessel; below, raven standing right; above, dolphin to right. BMC 17. Cohen 112 var. RIC 86. Beautifully toned and with a lovely portrait struck in high relief. Some minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 8000 From the collection of a Gentleman, ex Bank Leu 30, 28 April 1982, 320. Aulus Vitellius was born in AD 15 and was the son of the distinguished consul, Lucius Vitellius. He had a number of governmental positions but was, somewhat unexpectedly appointed governor of Lower Germany by Galba in late 68. Due to Galba’s parsimony about donatives, the legions in Germany revolted and acclaimed Vitellius emperor. His army was successful against Otho, who had by then replaced Galba, and soon entered Rome. His intentions were basically good but his insatiable gluttony and his lack of control over his own troops led to the revolt of Vespasian and the legions of the East. These disciplined forces soon routed those of Vitellius and he himself was found hiding, killed and his body tossed into the Tiber. His portraits reveal someone who was certainly fond of food, but whose personality was merely weak rather than evil (his replacement of imperial freedmen by members of the equites was a change of lasting utility that led to better government).


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

143

143. Vespasian. 69-79. Denarius (Silver, 3.01 g 6), Rome, circa 21 December 69 - early 70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG Laureate head of Vespasian to right Rev. IVDAEA Judaea seated in attitude of mourning to right, her head resting on her hand; behind her, trophy. BMC 35. Hendin 759. RIC 2. An attractive and lightly toned piece, struck on a broad flan. Nearly extremely fine. 1500

2:1

The Roman victories in the Jewish War, which went on until 73, were commemorated with a great outpouring of coinage minted in Rome and elsewhere. The Flavians could not issue coins referring to their victory over Vitellius since these were victories in a civil war, in which Romans killed Romans. Thus, the conquest of a rebellious province, which in some ways could be equated with an external enemy, could be portrayed as a glorious event that would unite all Roman citizens.

144

144. Titus. 79-81. Seal box cover (Orichalcum, 25 x 10mm, ), One sided, leafshaped and hollow-backed, with the original hinge at the top. Laureate head of Titus to right Rev. Plain, with the design of the obverse incuse. Apparently unpublished, but for the general type, see R. Hattatt, Ancient Brooches and other Artefacts (Oxford, 1989), pp. 461 ff., a general survey of Romano-British examples can be found at http://www.ukdfd.co.uk/pages/ roman-seal-boxes.html. An extraordinary item, clearly related to coinage and finance. With a fine portrait of Titus in high relief and an attractive golden, ‘Tiber’ patina. With some deposits and two minor splits, otherwise, about as made. 5000 Acquired from the late Dr. Leo Mildenberg who inherited it as part of the stock of Jacob Hirsch (1874-1955). Now mounted, using a removable wax fixative, on a custom made acrylic stand. This is a particularly fascinating item. When the Romans sent important small packages by courier, such as documents or valuables, they were apparently put in containers that were placed in strong leather or cloth bags, which were then fastened and sealed. The sealing process utilized a stout cord with its knot covered in wax that was impressed with the sender’s signet. To protect this wax seal, it and the knot were encased in a small, ornamental metal box composed of a concave back with two holes for the cord, and a hinged lid to protect the contents. In addition, the lid could be kept closed by further cords sewn to the package and tied around it. Hinged boxes used for this purpose have been found in Britain, where they tend to date to the 2nd and 3rd centuries and are mostly of enameled bronze. However, they certainly started earlier. Hattatt illustrated an example found in Ostia bearing the portraits of Hadrian and Sabina (p. 464, 151) and seal boxes with portraits of Vespasian and Domitian have been found in London and must have been used by high officials (P. Salway, A History of Roman Britain, Oxford 2001, p. 381). This was certainly the case with this piece, especially given it’s splendid portrait of Titus, which was surely made by workers in the Imperial mint in Rome and then sent out for official use in the provinces.

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103


104

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

145

2:1

145. Domitian. As Caesar, 69-81. Aureus (Gold, 7.33 g 6), 73-early 75. CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II Laureate head of Domitian to right Rev. Domitian riding prancing horse to right, raising right hand in salutation and holding scepter in his left. Biaggi 439. BMC 124. BN 100. Calicó 812a. Cohen 663. RIC 679 (232). An attractive, lustrous example. Minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 15,000 Ex Auctiones 23, 17 June 1993, 498.

146

146.

2:1

Julia Titi. Augusta, 79-90/1. Dupondius (Orichalcum, 11.33 g 4), Rome, 80-81. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA Draped bust of Julia Titi to right, her hair tied up in a bun at the top of her head Rev. VESTA / S C Vesta seated left, holding Palladium in her right hand and long scepter in her left. BMC 257-258 (Titus). BN 271-4. Cohen 18. RIC 398. Rare. A splendid piece with an exceptionally fine portrait and a lovely dark green patina. Nearly extremely fine. 8000 From the collection of J. P., ex Tradart, 16 November 1995, 161. Julia Titi was the only child of the emperor Titus, born to his second wife, Marcia Furnilla in 64. He divorced her the following year but Titus kept custody of Julia. While she was married to a cousin, T. Flavius Sabinus, she nevertheless became the mistress of her father’s brother, Domitian. After the death of both her father and her husband, she openly lived with Domitian for a time when his official wife Domitia was out of favor. She died in 91 of what may have been complications following a miscarriage. This coin, issued by her father Titus, shows her as a beautiful girl of seventeen.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

147

147. Trajan. 98-117. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 25.79 g 5), Rome, 107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P Laureate bust of Trajan to right, slight drapery on far shoulder Rev. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI / S C Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. BMC 797. Cohen 477. Hill 360. RIC 500. A lovely coin with a refined portrait and an excellent, olive-green patina. Extremely fine. 10,000 From the collection of Ph. S., ex The Numismatic Auction 2, 12 December 1983, 300. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was one of the greatest of all Roman emperors and came from a family that had long been settled in Italica, Spain. His father had a distinguished senatorial career, becoming consul in 70 and proconsul of Asia in 79/80. His son was born in Italica on 18 September 53 and followed a military career, rising to high rank under Domitian. After Domitian’s assassination the elderly emperor Nerva realized his position was insecure and adopted Trajan as his successor in Fall 97 to preclude any military moves against him. When Nerva died on 27 January 98, Trajan became emperor without any opposition (interestingly enough, thanks to his adoption and the ultimate deification of both his actual father and his adoptive one, Trajan was the only Roman emperor to officially have two fathers). One of the greatest challenges to Roman rule in the Balkans came from the Dacian kingdom ruled by Decebalus - Domitian had paid him off but Trajan decided to end the threat. Roman troops invaded in 101 and by 102 Decebalus sued for peace. After the Roman withdrawal, Decebalus once again began raiding Roman territory and in 106 Trajan moved in with eleven legions and virtually wiped out or enslaved all the Dacians. The booty gained by Rome from this conquest was enormous, allowing the emperor to embark on vast building projects all over the empire (perhaps the most famous monument being Trajan’s column in Rome with its astounding sculptural frieze). In has last years he was tempted to emulate Alexander by attacking the Parthians: he was successful in regulating affairs in Armenia and taking Mesopotamia, but these conquests were given up by his successor Hadrian, being too difficult to control. The Romans themselves remembered Trajan as a paragon of civil and military virtue.

2:1

105


106

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

148

2:1

148. –. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 25.47 g 6), Rome, 107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P Laureate bust of Trajan to right, with aegis on shoulder Rev. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI / S C Victory standing right, inscribing VIC DAC on shield supported by palm tree. BMC 813. Cohen 454. Hill 335. RIC 528. With a superb portrait and an attractive, smooth dark brown patina. Good extremely fine. 10,000 From the collection of Ph. S., ex Bank Leu 30., 28 April 1982, 352. The reverse of this coin refers to Trajan’s conquest of Dacia and its resettlement by colonists brought from all over the empire. The triumph celebrated in Rome lasted 123 days and included gladiatorial exhibitions that seemingly took the lives of over 11,000 people, primarily slaves and criminals (many probably Dacian prisoners).


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

149 2:1

149. –. Aureus (Gold, 7.35 g 7), Rome, 115. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Trajan to right Rev. PROFECTIO AVGVSTI Trajan, in military dress and hold spear, on horse walking to right; before him, soldier walking right, head turned back to left; behind, three soldiers walking right. BMC 512 var. Calicó 986a. Cohen 40 var. Hill 690. RIC 297 var. Very rare. Good very fine. 8500 From the collection of a Gentleman. Hill suggests that this coin records Trajan’s departure from Antioch for the East in 115.

150

150. –. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 22.00 g 6), 116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P Laureate and draped bust of Trajan to right Rev. REX PARTHIS DATVS / S C Trajan, with officer standing behind him, seated left on platform, placing diadem on the head of Parthamaspates, standing left on the ground before him, who raises his right hand in salutation to a figure of Parthia, kneeling right before him. BMC 1046. Cohen 328. Hill 735. RIC 667. A beautifully detailed and historically important coin. Attractive dark green patina, good extremely fine. 5000 The previous coin showed Trajan leaving Antioch with the army to continue his campaign against Parthia. Here we see the result: in 116 he deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and replaced him with the pro-Roman Parthamaspates in the scene shown on this coin. After Trajan’s death Parthamaspates was himself deposed by Osroes and fled to the Romans, who established him as their client-king of Osroene, where he lasted until 123.

2:1

107


108

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

151

151.

2:1

Hadrian. 117-138. Aureus (Gold, 7.47 g 7), Rome, 138. HADRIANVS AVG COSS III P P Bare head of Hadrian to right Rev. VICTORIA AVG Victory standing left, holding eagle with wreath in its beak in her right hand and palm branch in her left. BMC 767. Calicó 1397. Cohen 1459. Hill 908. RIC 284a. Rare. With an attractive and bold portrait. Extremely fine. 15,000 When Hadrian’s father died in 85/6 (Hadrian was then around 10), his cousin Trajan became his guardian. He was brought up in public service and, as the emperor’s only male blood relative was the de facto successor. As emperor he was a very conscientious administrator who insisted on traveling all over the empire to ensure it was all governed and organized properly. He also wanted to ensure that the empire was protected by either natural or man-made frontiers (Hadrian’s Wall in Britain is a perfect example), thus making his abandonment of Trajan’s last conquests an obvious decision. Hadrian was surely the most cultured of all the Roman emperors, being passionately interested in architecture, art, and literature. His coinage reflect those interests and bear portraits that are among the finest in the entire Roman series. The early ones, designed when he first came to the throne, are very realistic, showing a still thin and youngish man (even though he was then over 40). The late portraits of Hadrian have an increasingly noble character about them and appear to avoid any real depiction of aging. This is in contrast to the coinage of Marcus Aurelius, which conscientiously shows the emperor changing from a handsome youth into an elderly man, worn down with the cares of empire. It is possible that no other emperor insisted on having such an elegant series of portraits as did Hadrian, though this is not so surprising given his philhellene tendencies and the obvious interest he took in the way he was portrayed. Even the figure of Victory on this coin is unusually soigné: the eagle on her hand is an unexpected touch.

152

2:1

152. Faustina Junior. Augusta, 147-175. Denarius (Silver, 3.56 g 6), Rome, 147-150. FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL Draped bust of Faustina II to right, her hair bound with pearls Rev. VENVS Venus standing left, holding apple in her right hand and rudder entwined with dolphin in her left. BMC 1067. Cohen 266. RIC 517a. Attractively toned and with a very fine youthful portrait. Extremely fine. 500 From the collection of a Gentleman, ex Tradart, 12 December 1991, 323. Faustina II was the daughter of Antoninus Pius and was married to the young Marcus Aurelius in 145, when she was 17. She was a great beauty as the portrait on this lovely denarius makes clear. Despite malicious rumors to the contrary, their marriage was a very happy one, lasting for thirty years (they had 13 children, most dying young).


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

153

153. Marcus Aurelius. 161-180. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 29.14 g 12), Rome, 172-173. M ANTONINVS AVG PR P XXVII Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius to right Rev. VICT / GERMA / IMP.VI / COS III / S C Inscription within laurel wreath. BMC 1455. Cohen 995. RIC 1090. A bold coin with a fine dark greenish brown patina. Extremely fine. 6000

2:1

From the collection of Ph. S., ex Tkalec & Rauch, 14 April 1986, 328. The reign of Marcus Aurelius marked the end of the period of peace and good government that began with Nerva. He had been picked out as a young boy as a possible successor by Hadrian, who had his actual successor, Antoninus Pius who had no male issue, adopt him and the younger Lucius Verus. Marcus was extremely well-educated and relatively well-prepared for rule when his adoptive father died in 161 and he and his ‘brother’ Lucius became co-emperors. The Parthians took the opportunity to attack Roman interests and Verus was sent with an army to throw them back, which he did with the help of a competent corps of generals. More troublesome were the Germans who attacked across the Danube frontier in 166. In 169 the Marcomanni and Quadi got as far as Aquileia and Marcus was forced to move north to defeat them. The campaign was a long one designed to defeat each of the German tribes individually - by his death in 180 it was almost completely successful and only his son and successor Commodus’ rash offer of a peace treaty prevented the complete stabilization of the Roman frontier, a mistake that would ultimately prove disastrous. This coin celebrates one of the early victories in the Roman counterattack.

2:1 154

154. Commodus. 177-192. Aureus (Gold, 7.22 g 7), Rome, 178. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Commodus to right Rev. TR P III IMP II COS P P Castor standing left, holding spear and bridle of a horse that stands behind him to left. BMC 774. Calicó 2337b. Cohen 760. RIC 648. A splendid coin, nicely toned and with an appealing, youthful portrait. Good extremely fine. 25,000 When this coin was struck Commodus was only 17 years old and had been coemperor with his father Marcus Aurelius for about a year. The portrait gives no sign of the psychotic personality he was to develop, which can clearly be seen on his portraits of the late 180s and early 190s. Castor was one of the Dioscouri and symbolizes Commodus in his role as princeps iuventutis.

109


110

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

155

155. Septimius Severus. 193-211. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 26.32 g 6), Rome, 194. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III Laureate head of Septimius Severus to right Rev. VIRT AVG TR P II COS II P P / S C Virtus standing left, holding spear in his left hand and Victory in his right. BMC 511. Cohen 756. Hill 73. RIC 673. Rare. A wonderful coin with a superb portrait and a very attractive dark green patina. Extremely fine. 10,000 2:1

From the collections of a Gentleman and of Dr. E. P. Nicolas, Kampmann, 9 March 1982, 580. This coin bears one of the most attractive of all the early portraits of Septimius Severus, produced shortly after he became emperor. Dr. E. P. Nicolas was a wellknown French collector of Roman coins, who was renowned for his very good taste. His collection was sold in a number of sales, mostly anonymous (as was his immense collection of Republican silver that appeared as Leu 17, 3 May 1977), but the bulk of his imperial coins appeared in Kampmann’s 1982 named sale, which took place shortly after he died. This sale was famous for the great quality of many of the pieces, and for the often bargain prices at which they sold! The Nicolas pedigree is a very much appreciated one for Roman bronzes.

156

156. 2:1

Caracalla. 198-217. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 23.66 g 1), Rome, 214. M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla to right Rev. P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P / S C Caracalla, accompanied by two officers, standing right on platform, addressing officer and two soldiers standing before him on the ground below; behind them, aquila and two standards. BMC 264. Cohen 275. Hill 1423. RIC 525a. Very rare. With a lovely, emerald-green patina. Nearly extremely fine. 8000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of Dr. E. P. Nicolas, Kampmann, 9 March 1982, 596. The elder son of Septimius Severus was officially known as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and some cataloguers list him as Antoninus II, but he is usually known as Caracalla, a nickname taken from a type of Gallic cloak he liked to wear. He had been made co-emperor with his father when he was still a child in 198 and his hated younger brother Geta was made co-emperor only in 209; both ruled together after the death of Septimius in February 211, but only until late December when Caracalla had Geta murdered. Caracalla has a very bad reputation thanks to his very unpleasant character, but he was responsible for significant reforms in the coinage, for making all free residents of the empire citizens, and for raising army pay.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

157

157. Severus Alexander. 222-235. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 20.47 g 12), Rome, 232. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG Laureate head of Severus Alexander to right, drapery on far shoulder Rev. PROVIDENTIA AVG / S C Providentia standing to left, holding grain ears over modius in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left. BMC 881. Cohen 503. RIC 642. Sharply struck and with a lovely pale green patina. Extremely fine. 1500

2:1

From the collection of a Gentleman. Severus Alexander’s mother was the niece of Julia Domna and in 222, with the murder of his cousin, the odious Elagabalus, he became, at around thirteen, the youngest emperor in Roman history. He was an intelligent and decent person but he was first dominated by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, Domna’s sister, and then, for the rest of his life, by his powerful mother Julia Mamaea; this ultimately led to his murder by angry soldiers in 235 since he had no military experience.

158

158. Julia Mamaea. Augusta, 222-235. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 18.61 g 12), 224. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA Diademed and draped bust of Julia Mamaea to right Rev. VENVS FELIX S C Venus seated left on high backed throne, holding Cupid in her right hand and long scepter in her left. BMC 197. Cohen 69. RIC 701. A splendid coin with a superb, emerald-green patina. Good extremely fine. 7500 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 10, 9 April 1997, 666.

2:1

111


112

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

159. Maximinus I. 235-238. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 20.18 g 12), Rome, 236237. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus to right Rev. SALVS AVGVSTI / S C Salus seated left on throne, feeding, with her right hand, snake rising right from altar to left. BMC 175. Cohen 92. RIC 85. An excellent piece with a splendid portrait, sharply struck, and with a fine greenish brown patina. Extremely fine. 2000 From the collection of Ph. S., ex Bank Leu 18, 5 May 1977, 368. 159

Unlike earlier generals who became emperor and who came from noble backgrounds, Maximinus came from a peasant family and probably only gained Roman citizenship after 208. He was apparently a very tough soldier and when Severus Alexander sought a peace treaty rather than battle against the fractious Germans, the soldiers mutinied, killing the emperor and his mother and elevating Maximinus to the throne. His reign was spent campaigning against the barbarian tribes to the north but the ever increasing taxes needed to finance the army led to a revolt that was supported by the Senate, which hated Maximinus as an upstart; he and his son Maximus were soon murdered by their own soldiers. Sestertii of Maximinus are relatively common, but ones of this quality are extremely hard to come by. The artistry of the portrait on this coin is exceptional. The sestertii issued in the 230s and 240s were in constant use until the great inflation of the 260s drove them out of circulation and into the melting pot: there are hoards from Gaul, where sestertii lasted a bit longer than they did elsewhere thanks to the issues produced by Postumus, that contain large numbers of nearly worn-flat sestertii of the 2nd century, combined with sestertii, also very worn, of the first half of the 3rd.

3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

160. Gordian II. 238. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 21.96 g 12), Rome, April 238. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II to right Rev. ROMAE AETERNAE / S C Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory in her right hand and long scepter in her left. BMC 23. Cohen 9. RIC 5. Very rare. A remarkably nice piece with a splendid portrait and a fine, dark green patina. Extremely fine. 25,000 From the collection of Ph. S. , purchased privately from Tradart SA, and from the collection of A. Trampitsch, Vinchon, Monaco, 13 November 1986, 799. The coinage of the Gordiani is one of the more intriguing of all Roman issues. Their revolt in Africa seems only to have lasted only just more than a month before being put down by supporters of Maximinus I, but during this time the mint of Rome managed to produce a very attractive coinage of silver and bronze (and undoubtedly gold as well). How did this occur in such a short time? The most likely explanation is that their revolt was part of a wide-ranging conspiracy and that designs for a coinage had been secretly prepared far in advance of the rising. Thus, coins were struck immediately at a given signal so that money would be available to buy support against the hated Maximinus. Upon their defeat this coinage was probably recalled and used for issues of their successors. The present coin, from the collection of another French connoisseur, A. Trampitsch (1893-1970), shows the younger Gordian and is a particularly fine example.

3:1

160

113


114

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

161

161.

2:1

Philip I. 244-249. Antoninianus (Silver, 3.55 g 7), Rome, 248. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip to right Rev. SAECVLARES AVGG / II She-wolf to left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Cohen 178. RIC 15. Lightly toned and well centered. Extremely fine. 1000 From the collection of a Gentleman. The Secular Games were held in honor of the 1000th anniversary of the foundation of Rome; the included some of the greatest spectacles seen in Rome for generations. They were also commemorated by an extensive series of coins showing the animals that were displayed in the arena, monuments and the founding Twins, Romulus and Remus.

162

2:1

162. Hostilian. As Caesar, 250-251. Sestertius (Orichalcum, 18.28 g 12). C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C Bare-headed and draped bust of Hostilian to right Rev. PRINCIPI IVVENTVVTIS S C Hostilian standing left in military dress, holding standard in his right hand and reversed spear in his left. Cohen 35. RIC 216a. Rare. Struck on a full, round flan and with an attractive dark green patina with earthen highlights. Nearly extremely fine. 3750 Hostilian was the younger son of Trajan Decius and stayed in Rome when his father and older brother went off on their ill-fated expedition against the Goths. After their deaths the field army acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus as emperor, but in a laudable attempt to avoid civil strife he immediately recognized Hostilian as his co-emperor. However, later in the year Hostilian fell ill and died from the plague. The coin was struck earlier, while he was only Caesar under his father, and is an unusually nice example.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

163

163. Probus. 276-282. Heavy Aureus (Gold, 6.89 g 12), Siscia, 277. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Probus to right Rev. SECVRITAS SAECVLI / SIS Securitas seated to left on throne, holding long scepter in her right hand and resting her left on her head. Calicó 4195. Pink VI/1, p. 49, 1st issue. RIC 593. Rare. A superb piece with some dark toning as found. Very well struck and centered. Good extremely fine. 15,000

2:1

Ex Triton VII, 13 January 2004, 1028. Probus issued a goodly number of what can be termed ‘heavy aurei’ (similar in weight to the old standard issues of the earlier 3rd and 2nd centuries but one and a half times that of the usual pieces struck by Probus himself). These were surely designed for donatives: this one celebrates the emperor’s arrival in Rome in 277. The attractive toning on this coin is similar to that found on coins from a number of hoards, such as Bosco Reale near Naples and the Getrudenstrasse Hoard from Cologne, and derives from the decomposition of the container in which the coins were originally buried.

164.

164

–. Medallion (Billon, 22.85 g 12), Rome, 281-282. IMP PROBVS P F AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Probus to left, holding spear in his right hand and with, over his left shoulder, shield ornamented with Victory moving to left,leading the emperor, who is on horseback to left, his right hand raised in salutation, followed by a soldier marching left Rev. MONETA AVG The Three Monetae standing facing, their heads to left; each holds a cornucopiae in her left hand and, in her right, a pair of scales, suspended over a pile of coins at her feet. Bastien, Buste, pl. 119, 2 (same obverse die). Cohen 376. Pink VI/1 p. 47. Very rare. With considerable traces of the original silvery, billon surface as well as possible traces of ancient gilding. Nearly extremely fine. 30,000 From the collections of Erich von Schulthess-Rechberg, ‘ESR’, Hess-Leu [17], 23 March 1961, 374 and Apostolo Zeno, I, Dorotheum 975, 13 June 1955, 2104. The coinage of Probus is renowned for the remarkable bust types used on its obverses. This piece is no exception. We not only have a military bust, but one protected by a highly ornamental shield bearing a scene of triumph. The emperor is riding to the left, his hand raised to acknowledge the cheers of the onlookers we must imagine to have been there; he is preceded by Victory and followed by a soldier who strides along, his right hand raised and holding a wreath in the emperor’s honor. This medallion has the added interest of coming from two great collections: E. von Schulthess was a cultured Swiss banker whose family had collected coins and other things for generations, but whose Roman coins were all acquired with the help of Leo Mildenberg during the 1950s. The other attested owner of this piece was Apostolo Zeno (1668-1750), a Venetian nobleman who was a famous poet and librettist (he wrote the texts for 36 operas). He served as poet laureate to the Habsburg emperor in Vienna in 1718, but when he retired to Venice in 1729 he seems to have devoted the rest of his life to coin collecting. His collections, bought by the Abbey of St. Florian in Austria in 1747, were sold beginning in 1955. Obviously, all the coins in this collection were acquired primarily during the second quarter of the 18th century, though many of them may well have been found in the 17th century or earlier.

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115


116

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

165. Maximianus. First reign, 286-305. Aureus (Gold, 5.30 g 7), Rome, 286. IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximianus to right Rev. IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt in his right hand and scepter in his left. Calicó 4688. Cohen 348. Depeyrot 2D/3. RIC 492 . Lustrous, well centered and nicely struck. Good extremely fine. 15,000 165

From the collection of a Gentleman. Maximianus was an old comrade of Diocletian’s and was one of his main supporters when he took over the throne in 284. Diocletian realized that the many problems the Empire faced needed more than a single ruler and appointed Maximianus Caesar and co-ruler in 285 and co-Augustus in 286. He believed, rightly, that Maximianus’ superior military ability would prove complimentary to his own undoubted administrative talents. This proved true; to share the burden of rule more efficiently a further two Caesars were appointed in 293, forming what came to be known as the First Tetrarchy. This coin was struck in Rome as part of the celebratory donative on the occasion of Maximianus’ elevation as Augustus.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

166. Constantine I. 307/310-337. Solidus (Gold, 4.46 g 5), Antioch, 335-336. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine to right Rev. VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG / VOT/ XXX / SMAN Victory moving left, holding trophy and palm branch. Bastien, Donative, p. 81, g. Cohen 604. Depeyrot 46/1. G. Giacosa, Ritrati di Auguste (Milan, 1974), pl. 61 (this coin). RIC 96. Very rare. An exceptionally fine and lustrous piece of great beauty. Virtually as struck. 9500 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 7 and ex Bank Leu 13, 29 April 1975, 496. Augustus, Trajan and Constantine I were the three most important and influential emperors of Rome, with Constantine leaving the most lasting legacy. His support of Christianity and his foundation of Constantinople were decisive events in world history. He was born circa 272 in Naissus, modern Nish in Serbia, the son of Constantius and Helena. After his father became Caesar in 293 he served in a variety of positions under Diocletian and Galerius, before returning to his father when he became Augustus in 305. When Constantius died the following year Constantine was acclaimed Augustus by the troops, thus, fracturing Diocletian’s tetrarchic system. This event ushered in a period of Civil Wars and unrest lasting for eighteen years, until the final defeat of Licinius I in 324. One of Constantine I’s lasting reforms was his introduction of the gold solidus, struck at 72 to the Roman pound rather than 60 to the pound aureus that had been the norm during the Tetrarchy and before. This coin lasted, undiminished in purity or weight until the 10th century.

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166

117


118

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

167

167.

2:1

Constantine II Caesar. 316-337. Solidus (Gold, 4.45 g 12), Nicomedia, 324-325. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine II Caesar to right Rev. VIRTVS CAESARI N / SMNH Constantine II, in military dress, on horseback to right, hurling spear at enemy kneeling before him; under horse, fallen enemy. Depeyrot 35/7 (this coin). G. Lacam, Civilisation et monnaies byzantines (Paris, 1974), pl. XXIV (this coin). RIC -, but cf. 84, the comparable piece for Crispus. Unique. Minor bang on the obverse, otherwise, good extremely fine. 11,000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 8 and ex Finarte, 25 March 1971, 358. Constantine II was the eldest son of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta and was born during the summer of 316. He was made Caesar as an infant in 317, along with his elder half-brother Crispus and Licinius II, and was involved with the army from an early age. At the death of his father he and his two brothers organized the destruction of a great number of relatives from the other side of their family, and then divided the empire among themselves. While he was the senior Augustus Constantine II only received Gaul, Spain and Britain; dissatisfied, he invaded Italy, the realm of his brother Constans, and was killed in an ambush in 340. This extremely rare coin was struck to commemorate the fall of the Licinii and portrays Constantine II Caesar as a successful warrior, which, at 8 or 9 years of age, was somewhat unlikely!

168

168. 2:1

Constantius II. 337-361. Solidus (Gold, 4.55 g 7), Siscia, 337-340. CONSTANTIVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II to right Rev. GLORIA CONSTANTI AVG / .SIS. Emperor, in military dress, standing left, holding labarum inscribed VOT/XX in his right hand and scepter in his left; at his feet to right, bound captive. RIC 7. Very rare. A few very minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 4000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 17, ex Bank Leu 22, 8 May 1979, 391 and from the collection of J. C. S. Rashleigh, Glendining & Co., 14 January 1953, 115. Constantius II was the craftiest and most dangerous of the sons of Constantine. He was the moving force behind the slaughter of his relatives after his father’s death and managed to out-maneuver all his opponents; he was marching against his cousin Julian when he died of illness in 361 - to avoid civil war he named him as his successor.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

169

2:1

169. –. Solidus (Gold, 4.50 g 6), Thessalonica, 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II to right Rev. VIRTVS EXERCITVM / TES Emperor, in military dress, standing left, holding trophy with his right hand and resting left on his shield; to left and right, bound captive at his feet. Depeyrot 4/2. Lacam, Byzance, pl. X (this coin). RIC-, 32 var. Very rare. Good extremely fine. 2000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 18.

170

170. –. Solidus (Gold, 4.58 g 6), Aquileia, 340-350. CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II to right; all within laurel wreath Rev. VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG / SMAQ Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX on shield held by winged genius to right, standing left; all within laurel wreath. Lacam, Byzance, pl. X (this coin). RIC 44. A beautiful coin, perfectly struck. Very minor mark on the obverse, otherwise, nearly as struck. 5000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 20.

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119


120

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

171

171.

2:1

Constans. 337-350. Solidus (Gold, 4.48 g 12), Siscia, 337-340. CON STANS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constans to right Rev. SPES REIPVBLICAE / .SIS. Constans, in military dress, standing left, holding scepter in his left hand and labarum with Christogram in his right; behind him to right, Victory standing left, holding palm in her left hand and crowning the emperor with wreath held in her right. RIC 10. Rare. Good extremely fine. 4250 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 12 and ex Bank Leu 22, 8 May 1979, 389. Constans was Constantine I’s youngest son with Fausta; born at some point between 320 and 323 he became Caesar in 333. In 337 he received Italy, Africa, Illyria, Macedonia and Achaea as his portion as Augustus. After the death of his brother Constantine II in 340, he gained all his territories. As a ruler he became increasingly unpopular and was finally murdered in 350 at the orders of the usurper Magnentius.

172

172. Julian II. As Caesar, 355-360. Solidus (Gold, 4.54 g 6), Sirmium, 355360. D N IVLIANVS NOB CAESAR Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian to right Rev. GLORIA REIPVBLICAE /.SIRMC Roma and Constantinopolis seated facing each other and holding between them a shield inscribed VOT / V / MVLT / X. Depeyrot 5 -. RIC -. Extremely rare, apparently the only known solidus of Julian Caesar from Sirmium. Extremely fine. 4250 2:1

From the collections of a Gentleman and of Victor Adda, Christie’s, 8 October 1985 “Property of a Lady”, 226. Julian II was the last descendent of Constantine I to rule the empire and, at the same time, the last pagan emperor (the latter factor contributing to the ‘bad press’ he received from the writings of Church commentators). His basic interest was in restoring the glories of the past. Born in 331, he was the son of Constantine I’s halfbrother Julius Constantius and his early years were happy ones. However, most of his family was destroyed in the massacres of 337 that were planned by Constantius II. He was spared because of his age and moved to Nicomedia where he received a first-rate education, especially in Neo-Platonic philosophy. Since there were no suitable male relatives left alive, Constantius II appointed Julian Caesar in 355 with responsibility for the western provinces. He proved to be an able general and administrator, but his successes aroused Constantius’ jealousy, ultimately leading to Julian’s soldiers proclaiming him Augustus in 360.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

173

173. Valentinian II. 375-392. Solidus (Gold, 4.46 g 12), Constantinople, 380. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II to right Rev. CONCORDIA AVGGG. / CONOB Turreted figure of Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, her head turned to right and right foot on prow, holding globe in her right hand and scepter with her left. Depeyrot 30, note. N. Dürr and P. Bastien, “Trésor de Solidi (353388),” SNG 63, p. 225, 92. RIC -. Extremely rare, the second example known. Good extremely fine. 5000

2:1

Ex Leu 72, 12 May 1998, 558. The unbroken legend on this coin was a convention that indicated the junior status of the person portrayed: Valentinian II was only 9 years old in 380 and thus was not accorded the same respect (with a broken legend) that a more senior emperor received.

174

174. Aelia Eudoxia. Augusta, 400-404. Semissis (Gold, 2.22 g 6), Constantinople, 400-402. AEL EVDOXIA AVG Diademed and draped bust of Eudoxia to right Rev. Christogram within wreath; below, CONOB. RIC 18. Extremely rare. Extremely fine. 5750 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 173. Eudoxia was the daughter of Bauto the Frank who was consul in 385. She had a comfortable upbringing and was in close touch with the imperial family; she came in contact with Arcadius who married her on 27 April 395. They had seven children of whom four daughters and one son, Theodosius II, survived infancy; Eudoxia was proclaimed Augusta on 9 January 400 and unexpectedly died in childbirth in 404. She was a powerful personality who was much involved in church affairs, leading to a serious conflict with the outspoken and opinionated Archbishop of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, which led to his banishment.

3:1

121


122

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

175

2:1

175. Honorius. 393-423. Solidus (Gold, 4.48 g 1), Ravenna, 408-423. D N HONORIVS P F AVG Bearded, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius to right, wearing diademed helmet ornamented with stars Rev. VICTORIA AVGGG / COB / R V Emperor standing facing, crowned by hand of God, holding long, Christogram-tipped scepter with lower point on monster lying at his feet. Depeyrot 3/1. Lacam Byzance pl. XXIII, 1 (this coin). RIC 1310. Very rare. Extremely fine. 3750 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 106. Honorius was the younger son of the great Theodosius I and was a passive, ineffective ruler who only survived because he still had a few good generals and an able bureaucracy. Out of fear he withdrew his capital from Milan and Rome to the better defended and more inaccessible Ravenna, doing virtually nothing to prevent the Visigothic sack of Rome in 410. His hobby was raising chickens. This helmeted bust gives Honorius a very martial air, which was, of course, undeserved.

176

176. 3:1

Aelia Pulcheria. Augusta, 414-453. Solidus (Gold, 4.46 g 6), Constantinople, 423-425. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG Draped and diademed bust of Pulcheria to right, crowned by Hand of God above, wearing pearl necklace, earrings and with a cross on her shoulder Rev. VOT XX MVLT XXX / CONOB Angel standing left, holding long, jeweled cross. Depeyrot 75/3. DOC 438. MIRB 19a. RIC 226. Rare. A perfect, lustrous example. FDC. 25,000 Pulcheria was the older sister of Theodosius II and was probably the most powerful and competent of all the Theodosian women. She more-or-less acted as regent or, at least, power-behind-the-throne, throughout her brother’s reign. Supposedly out of piety, she and her sisters remained chaste throughout their lives (Pulcheria officially married Marcian to give him legitimacy as her brother’s successor, but the marriage was never consummated), though they may have thought that if they did marry, their husbands, if they had any abilities at all, would have become rivals of their brother. Solidi of Pulcheria used to be great rarities; they have now become more common but very few exist in such superb condition as this one.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

177

177. Zeno. First reign, 474-475. Tremissis (Gold, 1.43 g 5), Rome, struck by Julius Nepos, November 474 - January 475. D N ZENO PERP F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Zeno to right Rev. COMOB Cross within wreath with ties below and ends closed above with a jewel; below, mint mark. Depeyrot 89/7. Lacam pl. 45, 138. RIC 3210. Very rare. Edge slightly rough, otherwise, good very fine. 3250

3:1

For another tremissis of Zeno struck from the same reverse die see Leu 65, 21 May 1996, 536. Zeno was an Isaurian who originally was called Tarasicodissa, which was changed to the more euphonious Zeno after his marriage to Ariadne, the emperor Leo I’s eldest daughter. This coin was struck in the name of Zeno by Julius Nepos who had been appointed emperor of the West by Leo. He arrived in Rome in 474 and expelled the usurper Glycerius (who was made bishop of Salona), but in 475 he himself was driven out by the Patrician Orestes, who proclaimed his own son Romulus Augustulus emperor. A year later Orestes was killed by Odoaker and Romulus was forced into retirement; Nepos remained titular emperor in exile in Dalmatia until his murder in 480.

178

178. Zeno. 474-475/476-491. Tremissis (Gold, 1.47 g 6), Milan, 474-475/476493. D N ZENO PERP AVC Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right Rev. Cross within wreath; below, CONOB. Depeyrot 43/8. Lacam pl. 46, 161 (this coin). MEC 60. RIC 3614. Good extremely fine. 1000 From the collections of a Gentleman and of G. Lacam, DĂźrr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 164. The Italian coinage of Zeno was struck in his name by two rulers, one legitimate and the other less so. The earliest issues, as the previous lot, were produced under Julius Nepos who ruled in the West 474-475 and then was titular emperor, with his court in Dalmatia, 477-480. After 475 almost all coins in the name of Zeno from Italian mints had to have been struck under Odoaker, who had become the de facto ruler of Italy after he deposed Romulus Augustulus and killed his father Orestes. Odoaker ostensibly ruled with the permission of Zeno, but his position was never stable and the Emperor finally sent the Ostrogoths under their king Theodoric to expel him; he was defeated and killed in 493.

3:1

123


124

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FROM THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES TO EARLY MODERN TIMES

193 3:1


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

THE BURGUNDIANS.

179

179. Gundobald. 473-516. Solidus (Gold, 4.48 g 6), Lugdunum, 495-516. D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG Facing bust of emperor wearing helmet and cuirass, holding spear in his right hand and with shield adorned with horseman over his left shoulder Rev. VICTORIA AVGGGA / CONOB Victory holding jeweled cross to left; to right, star of seven rays. Belfort 5038. Lacam, Byzance pl. CV (this coin). Very rare. Wonderfully well preserved, a superb piece. Good extremely fine. 4500

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From the collection of a Gentleman, purchased privately from Tradart SA, and from the collection of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 337. The Burgundians, a Germanic tribe originally from Scandinavia, ended up ruling the area of Lyon and elsewhere in eastern Gaul, including Geneva and parts of Savoy, until their kingdom was destroyed by the Franks in 534. From the later 450s until his death in 472 one of the chief powers in the West was the patrician Ricimer, He created emperors as he wished and whenever they proved too powerful, deposed them. He was the brother-in-law of the Burgundian king Gundioc. His nephew Gundobald served Ricimer well - he even personally executed the emperor Anthemius on his behalf - but when his father Gundioc died he returned to Burgundy, which had been divided between him and his three brothers; by 500 he had managed to destroy them and was sole ruler. He began striking anonymous copies of the coinage of Anastasius c. 495, but after eliminating the last of his brothers his coins bore his monogram as well. The anonymous issues can be safely assigned to the Burgundians by their characteristic style and by find spots - the present piece is a particularly nice one.

180

180. Sigismund. 516-524. Solidus (4.43 g 7), Lugdunum. D N IVSTINVS P P AVG Facing bust of emperor wearing helmet and cuirass, holding spear in his right hand and with shield ornamented with horseman over his left shoulder Rev. VICTORIA AVGGG IS / CONOB Victory standing left, holding P topped cross; to left, six-pointed star. Belfort 5154.MEC 340. Lacam Byzance pl. CVII, 2b (this coin). Very rare. Good extremely fine. 9500 From the collection of a Gentleman, purchased privately from Tradart SA, and from the collection of G. Lacam, Dürr/Michel, 8 November 1999, 342. Almost all the known solidi of Sigismund (the S on the reverse makes the identification sure) come from the Gourdon hoard of 1846 (Chalon-sur-Saône); most of those pieces are now in museums. Sigismund was ultimately captured and killed by the Franks in 524; his brother Gondomar was able to maintain the kingdom until his own defeat in 534.

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125


126

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

BYZANTIUM 181.

181

Justinian II. First reign, 685-695. Solidus (Gold, 4.03 g 6), Constantinople, 692-695. IhS CRISTDS REX REGNANTIuM Draped bust of Christ facing, with long hair and full beard, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in his left; behind head, cross Rev. D IuSTINIANuS SERu ChRISTI Z / CONOP Justinian II, crowned, bearded and wearing loros, standing facing, holding cross potent on base and two steps in his right hand and akakia in his left. DOC 7 (but this officina not recorded). MIB 8a. SB 11248. A remarkably well-struck and lustrous example. Some minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 10,000 This coin bears the first numismatic portrait of Christ, and it remains one of the finest ever made. It shows Christ Pantocrator and was copied from a representation found in the Imperial Palace that was itself based on the head of the Zeus of Phidias from Olympia. The decision to place Christ on the coinage was a momentous one: until this point the Moslem Arab conquerors of the Byzantine East and Africa had been content to use Byzantine solidi as their sole gold coinage. The appearance of a bust of Christ, however, was unacceptable to them and led to the introduction of a new, national coinage, first with a ‘standing Caliph’, based on the figure of Justinian II, in 693/4 and then the non-figural epigraphic dinars that began in 696/7 (A.H. 77).

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ENGLAND

182

182. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of All England. Edward the Confessor. 10421066. Penny (Silver, 1.33 g 3), Helmet type, Lewes. Edwine, moneyer, 1053-1056. +EDPER-D REX Helmeted bust to right, holding cross-tipped scepter Rev. +EDPINE ON LÆPE Voided cross. BMC 587. North 825. SCBC 1179. Very attractively toned and with a splendid portrait. An exceptional piece. Extremely fine. 2000

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Ex Triton IV, 5 December 2000, 946. Edward the Confessor was the second-to-last Anglo-Saxon king of England. He spent much of his early life in exile in Normandy, where he had been sent in the face of the Danish invaders under Canute. He came to the throne as a successor to his half-brother Harthacanute (son of Canute and Edward’s mother, Emma of Normandy, formerly the wife of Edward’s father, Ethelred the Unready) in 1042. His preference for his Norman friends alienated the powerful Anglo-Saxon and Danish nobles but in the end, married Edith, daughter of the powerful Earl Godwin of Wessex. Her brother Harold became king when Edward died without issue, though he was overthrown by William of Normandy, who claimed the throne as well.

183

183. NORMAN. William I ‘the Conqueror’. 1066-1087. Penny (Silver, 1.24 g 4), Bonnet type, Winchester. Æthelwine or Ælfwine, moneyer, 1068-1070. +PILLEMV REX I Crowned, filleted and diademed bust facing Rev. +IELPINE ON.PINCEI Voided cross with pellets, crescents and piles. BMC -. North 842. SCBC 1251. Beautifully toned and with a most attractive facing head of the king. Nearly extremely fine. 2000 Ex Triton IV, 5 December 2000, 947. William I, ‘the Conqueror’ became Duke of Normandy in 1035 and king of England in 1066, after defeating Harold II at the battle of Hastings.

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127


128

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE - ORANGE 184. Raymond V. 1340-1393. Franc à pied (Gold, 3.74 g 3). RAMVNDVS DEI GRA PRIC AVRA Crowned and armored price standing facing within gothic portico, holding sword and scepter; fields ornamented with lis Rev. +XPIC VINCIT XPIC REGNAT XPIC IMPERAT Cross fleury quartered with two lis and two crowns, all within polylobe of four arcs and four points, lis in each spandrel. Boudeau 985. Fr. 190. Poey d’Avant 4527. Sharp and beautifully struck, a well-nigh perfect piece. Good extremely fine. 7500 184

The principality of Orange came into being in 1163, as a fief of the Empire and soon came into the hands of the powerful Counts of Baux (now Les Baux, the site where the name of the ore of aluminum, bauxite, comes from). Raymond V was the last full member of the House of Baux to rule Orange, it then passed to Marie of Baux and her husband John of Chion, then to the House of Orange-Nassau, the present ruling house of the Netherlands. In fact, the principality had been taken by Louis XIV in 1673, though the title went to Prussia with the death of William III. In 1713 the Prussians ceded all their rights to France . This coin is the most impressive of all the coins issued by the medieval rulers of Orange and reflects the overwhelming power and pride of the House of Baux (do note that there is a great deal of confusion over the numeration of the counts of Baux - this coin is often wrongly given to Raymond IV).

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

THE KNIGHTS of ST. JOHN on RHODES 185. Dieudonné of Gozon. 1346-1353. Ducat (Gold, 3.53 g 1), Rhodes, circa 1350-1353. F.DEODAT’/MGR/S IOhES B Grand Master, kneeling to left, holding staff bearing the flag of the Order, which is being given to him by St. John the Baptist, nimbate, standing to right Rev. +hOSPITALIS QVENT’RODI Angel, nimbate and with spread wings, seated facing on the open tomb of Christ, holding lis-tipped scepter in his right hand. Ash. p. 299 = F. p. 42 = Schlumberger pl. IX, 22. Fr. 1. Gamberini 372. Ives A = Papadopoli pl. XII, 1. Extremely rare, one of only three examples known. A splendid coin of great beauty. Nearly extremely fine. 100,000 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 26, 27 June 2003, 3364. This is one of the most beautiful gold coins of the 14th century. The first example of this type was published in 1630 but has since been lost; the next specimen appeared in 1910. The second existing example turned up in 1980, and the present coin came to light early in this century. The angel seated on the tomb of Christ almost certainly must be copied from a contemporary painting. The Grand Master responsible for this lovely coin was Dieudonné de Gozon; prior to his election his greatest claim to fame was the destruction of a ‘dragon’ that was terrorizing the people of Rhodes (probably a large Nile crocodile that had escaped from a circus!). This coin was almost certainly struck towards the end of Gozon’s reign since equally rare examples of the same type were struck by his successor, Pierre de Corneillan (13541355). They must have been struck in very small numbers to be used for presentation purposes; they are now among the greatest rarities of all the coins struck by the Hospitallers.

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185

129


130

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 186.

186

Maximilian I. 1493-1519. Quarter Guldiner of 15 Kreuzers (Silver, 7.66 g 1), Hall, under the magistrate Bernhard Beheim the elder, with dies cut by Gian Marco Cavalli of Mantua, undated but 1506. MAXIMILIANVS ROMANORV.REX.ET.C (partially ligate) Armored bust of Maximilian to left, wearing flat beretta Rev. MONETA.NOVA. COMIT.TIROLIS Crowned eagle with spread wings, head to left and Austrian arms on its breast. Armand III, 47C. Domanig, Erzh. 11. Egg. 1. Moser & Tursky - (but see p. 35 for this engraver’s work at Hall). Of the greatest rarity. A splendid coin, beautifully toned, and with a superb Renaissance portrait of the finest Italian style. Lightly double-struck in the legends without affecting the design. Extremely fine. 50,000 Ex Leu 74, 19 October 1998, 1624 and from the collection of Count Wilczek, Hess 200, 21 May 1930, 51. Gian Marco Cavalli (1454-after 1508) was a sculptor, goldsmith and engraver who worked for most of his life in Mantua. He was responsible for a number of superb medals made for Francesco II of Mantua, 1466-1519 (see I Gonzaga, Moneta Arte Storia, Milan 1995, pp. 412-414, V.24-28), but was at the mint of Hall in Tyrol from March through June 1506. The portrait on this coin is, in fact, one of the finest of all portrayals of Maximilian I and can only be described as a masterpiece of Renaissance engraving; it shows a skill in bringing out character and emotion that is far and above the abilities of the local engravers who produced dies for the Emperor’s coinage at Hall, St. Veit and elsewhere (even the famous Ulrich Ursentaler). This coin must have been produced in very small numbers for presentation purposes only: today it is a coin of great rarity and importance.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

GERMANY-SAXONY

187

187. Ernestine Line. Friedrich III, the Wise, and Johann. 1486-1525. Thick Guldengroschen (Silver, 28.98 g 12), Buchholz, 1525. FRI.DVX.SAX.S. RO IMP.ELE DEI.GRA/VERBVM.DOMINI.MANET.IN ÆTERNV Draped bust of Friedrich to right, wearing soft hat; around, double circle of inscriptions with the outer divided by four shields Rev. .IOHAN.DVX.SAX .M.D.XXV. DEI.GRA/VERBVM.DOMINI.MANET.IN ÆTERNV.T. Draped bust of Johann to left, wearing soft hat with elaborate visor; around, double circle of inscriptions with the outer divided by four shields. Dav. 9712. Keilitz & Kohl 84. Schnee 49. Schulten 2971. Very rare. Lightly toned and particularly attractive. About extremely fine. 15,000 Friedrich the Wise was one of the great figures of the German Reformation. He was born in 1463 as the eldest son of the Elector Ernst and succeeded to the throne of what became known as Ernestine Saxony with his younger brother Johann in 1486 (the Saxon state and ruling house had been partitioned into the Ernestine and Albertine Lines in 1485). Friedrich was a very canny diplomat and kept his duchy free from war during his reign. In 1502 he founded the University of Wittenberg, which later became a major force in German Protestant thinking. While personally devout, he protected Luther from the Inquisition because he believed that the church desperately needed reform. Johann, Friedrich’s co-ruler and younger brother, inherited the throne in 1525 and ruled until his death in 1532. He continued his brother’s policies. The name ‘Guldengroschen’ means ‘a groschen worth a gulden’ (up until the introduction of this denomination the largest silver coins in the German-speaking world were groschens, which were relatively small - the Gulden was then the name of the standard gold coin, later largely replaced by the Ducat). A few years after this coin was issued the Guldengroschen were replaced by Thalers, which were of roughly the same size and weight but of slightly lower fineness. This coin is remarkable for its relatively small size and thick flan; the dies were actually made for the half-denomination, but such thick strikes were a specialty of the Saxon minters (the coin was struck in Buchholz, a district of Annaberg in the mining area of Saxony).

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131


132

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

THE KNIGHTS of ST. JOHN on MALTA 188. Philippe Villiers de l’Isle Adam. 1530-1534. Zecchino (Gold, 3.49 g 6). .F.PHS.DE.LILE ADA/MP/.M.HOS.HIEM (last reading upwards) Grand Master kneeling to left, grasping staff bearing the flag of the Order given to him by St. John, nimbate and standing to right Rev. .DA.MIHI. VIRTVTEM..COTRA.HOSTES.TVOS. Christ standing facing with nine stars (4. l., 5 r.), all within mandorla. Azz. 654 var. Fr. 1. var. Schembri -. Apparently unpublished. Of the greatest rarity, probably unique - the first zecchino of standard types to be struck on Malta. Nearly extremely fine. 25,000 188 This fabulous coin very neatly completes the gold coinage of Philippe Villiers de l’Isle Adam, the last Grand Master to rule in Rhodes and the first on Malta. He was elected in 1521 on Rhodes, just prior to the long expected attack of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman, which came in the summer of 1522. As part of the preparations for the siege the Knights struck gold ducats of the usual type, very similar to those struck in preceding reigns (note especially that St. John is named on the obverse; see, for example, lot 48 in my catalogue of the coinage of the Knights, LHS 99, and compare it to lots 38-40 and 45-46). Those in the name of de l’Isle Adam are often incorrectly ascribed to Malta. This coin differs from them by not identifying St. John on the obverse; his name has been replaced by de l’Isle Adam’s title as Grand Master of the Hospitallers reading upwards, an arrangement that is paralleled by what is found on all the zecchini that were struck by de l’Isle Adam’s successors (see LHS 99, 54 for a zecchino of Pietrino del Ponte, 1534-1535, that was struck from dies that were probably cut by the same engraver who made the dies for this coin). As such, we can be absolutely sure that this coin was minted on Malta and was carefully redesigned in order to differentiate it from all the earlier gold zecchini of the Knights.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

GERMANY - SAXONY 189. Ernestine Line. Johann Friedrich I. 1532-1554. Medal (Silver, 65mm, 66.5 g 12), cast and gilt, by Hans Reinhart the Elder, 1535. IOANNS. FRIDERCVS.ELECTOR.DVX.SAXONIE.FIERI.FECIT.ETATI S SVÆ. 32 Facing bust of Johann Friedrich, turned slightly to the right, wearing elaborate robes, a fur cloak and a neck band inscribed XRENXALS XINXEREN; he holds a broad sword in his right hand and his electoral cap in his left; below his right hand, incuse, monogram of HR (= Hans Reinhart) Rev. SPES MEA IN DEO EST ANNO NOSTRI SALVATORIS M.D.X.X.X.V (with a floral ornament between each word) Three crested helmets over elaborate arms. Domanig 154. Habich II, 1, p. 279, 1935. Kress p. 115, 605. Scher, Currency of Fame, 126. Rare. A superb original, chased cast with original gilding. Attractively toned. Holed and with suspension loop. Some minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 4000 Johann Friedrich I was the elector of Saxony who became a friend of Martin Luther and a champion of the Reformation in Germany. He was defeated by the emperor Charles V at the battle of Mühlberg in 1547, where he was captured and sentenced to death as a traitor, but was finally released in 1552. During his captivity he made plans for opening a university at Jena; it was opened by his sons in 1558. The portrait on this coin is one of the finest works of the famous German medalist Hans Reinhart the Elder (circa 1510-1581) who was himself a student of the painter Lucas Cranach,; the portrait on this medal is based on a woodcut made by Cranach in 1533. The motto on the ribbon around the Elector’s neck is, in full: Alles in Ehren kann Niemand wehren = no one can refuse anything honorable. This medal was a popular one due to Johann Friedrich’s importance during the Reformation and there are many later casts and copies - original gilt ones are quite rare, especially in this quality.

1,5:1

189

133


134

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

GERMANY - BAVARIA 190. Albrecht V. 1550-1579. Ducat (Gold, 3.48 g 3), undated. ALBERT9.COM. PA.R.BAVA.DV. Crowned and bearded bust of Albrecht V to left, wearing elaborate robes and order of the Golden Fleece Rev. .SI.DE9.NOIS QVI.CON.NOS Crowned arms within Order of the Golden Fleece. Fr. 183. Very rare. Some minor marks, otherwise, about extremely fine. 40,000 190

Albrecht V was a champion of the German Counter-Reformation, apparently because he believed that Catholicism was vital for the continued good fortune of the Wittelsbach family as rulers of Bavaria - his marriage to Anna von Habsburg, the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I, had also placed Bavaria firmly on the side of Austria. In addition to his religious activities he was, however, a passionate collector and patron of the arts, especially, in fact, of antiquities. His many purchases laid the foundation of the great coin collection now in the Munich Cabinet. Unfortunately, his many and constant acquisitions (including 2480 coins and medals from a single major Venetian collection) well-nigh bankrupted the state, and this may be one reason why his gold coinage is so rare today. The superb quality of the portrait that appears on this coin must reflect the Duke’s personal interest in the coin’s design.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

SPAIN 191. Philip II. 1556-1598. Medal (Bronze, 66mm, 117.36 g 12), contemporary cast with remains of gilding, by Jacopo da Trezzo, 1555. PHILIPPVS. REX.PRIN HISP.ÆT.S.AN.XXVIII Bare-headed and armored bust of Philip II to right; below, IAC.TREZZO.F / 1555 Rev. IAM ILLVSTRABIT OMNIA Apollo driving the chariot of the sun flying over the sea and a rocky landscape. Kress 437. Lanna 691. Rare. A lovely medal with a fine portrait of Prince Philip of Spain, who was then twenty-eight years old. Holed for suspension, about extremely fine. 4750 Ex Sotheby Zurich, 27 May 1974, 190. Jacopo da Trezzo (c. 1514-1589), was a Milanese goldsmith and engraver who worked for the Habsburgs and was in Brussels with for Philip II when this medal was made (he went with the king to Spain in 1559). The reverse shows Philip II’s emblem, and the legend, ‘now he will illuminate all things.’ This medal seems to have been made as a pendant to the most famous of all of da Trezzo’s medals, that portraying the king’s wife, Mary Tudor (as Scher, Currency of Fame, 54).

1,5:1

191

135


136

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

SPANISH - NETHERLANDS 192.

192

Alexander Farnese, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. 1578-1592. Medal (Silver, 45mm, 25.62 g), Antwerp, by Jacob Jonghelinck, 1585. ALEXANDER FARNES:PAR:PLA.DVX.BELG:DVM:GVB Armored bust of Alexander Farnese to right, wearing ruff and order of the Golden Fleece; on shoulder truncation, ÆT.40 Rev. CONCIPE CERTAS SPES 1585 Allegorical scene showing Alexander the Great, with the features of Alexander Farnese, in a tent during the siege of Tyre, being shown the way to victory by a satyr who stands before him, pointing towards a ship sailing towards a pontoon bridge with the city in the distance; on the rocks below, SATYROS. Armand II, p. 265, 14. Lanna 471. Smolderen 99. Van Loon I, p. 350, 1. Very rare. A toned original cast of high quality. Nearly extremely fine. 7500 Alexander Farnese was the son of Margaret of Austria, wife of Ottavio Farnese. He was a good general and an able diplomat who was the Spanish commander in the Netherlands early during the Dutch Revolt. He recovered most of the southern Netherlands and began to besiege Antwerp in 1584. The city fell the following year but Farnese avoided the massacres that stained earlier Spanish advances. This medal commemorates the fall of he city with a scene from legendary history of Alexander the Great.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

THE NETHERLANDS 193. United Provinces. Utrecht. Rozenobel (Gold, 7.58 g 4), undated (1600/1601). MONE.NOVA.ORDINVM.TRAIECTEN Crowned and armored knight standing facing in boat, holding sword in his right hand and shield with the arms of Utrecht in his left, on ship’s prow, flag bearing the Lion of the Netherlands; on side of the ship, rose Rev. CONCORDIA RES PARVÆ CRESCVNT Floriated cross with fleur-de-lis at the end of each limb; at the center, rose over rays; in the quarters, crown over lion passant to left; all within tressure of eight arcs. Delmonte, Or 959. Fr. 279. A sharp, fresh, perfectly struck example, rare in such outstanding condition. Good extremely fine. 5000 The noble was originally an English gold coin, first struck in 1344, which showed King Edward III standing in a ship, commemorating the English victory at the battle of Sluys in 1340. It became very popular and continued to be produced over the next 250 years. Rose Nobles are those with a large rose on the side of the ship: this was introduced by Edward IV in 1465 to distinguish his new coins from older debased ones (they were also termed Ryals or Royals). These coins were copied in the Low Countries where they were known as Rozenobels or Gouden Nobels.

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193

137


138

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE - TUSCANY

194

194. Maria Magdalena of Austria, Wife of Cosimo II de’Medici. 1589-1631. Medal (Bronze, 91.3mm, 96.72 g), an early uniface cast with hollow back , by Guillaume Dupré, 1613. MAR.MAGDALENÆ.MARCH.AVSTR. MAG.D.ETR Bust of Maria Magdalena to left, with her hair elaborately arranged and ornamented with jewels, wearing earrings, necklace, high ruff, court robes and pectoral cross on order chain; below, in small letters, G D P 1613 Rev. Uniface with hollow areas as made. Jones II, 44 (but less good than this piece). Kress 562. A fine early cast in high relief with an attractive dark patina. Extremely fine. 3250 Maria Magdalena was Archduchess of Austria and wife of Cosimo II of Tuscany. Her husband’s cousin, Marie de’Medici, was Queen Regent of France when this medal was made in her honor.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE

195

195. Marie de’Medici. 1600-1642. Medal (Silver, 100mm, 159.56 g), original cast uniface with hollow back and integral suspension loop, by Guillaume Dupré, 1624. MARIA AVGVSTA GALLIÆ ET NAVARÆ REGINA (retrograde) Bust of Marie de’Medici to right, wearing tiara, large earring, necklace and elaborate robes with lace ruff and large pectoral cross; below shoulder truncation, G DVPRE F 1624 Rev. Uniface and slightly hollow as made. Jones 59. Kress 568. Extremely rare as an original cast in silver. A superb piece beautifully made in high relief. Attractively toned, good extremely fine. 7500 Ex Astarte VIII, 11 October 2001, 127. Marie de’Medici was born in 1575, the daughter of Francesco I, the Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Johanna, Archduchess of Austria; she married Henry IV of France in 1600. Her life was a turbulent and difficult one: she had problems with Henry’s mistresses and, after his assassination in 1610 when she became Queen Regent for the young Louis XIII, she was under the influence of Italian advisors to the detriment of French policies. She established a pro-Spanish, pro-Habsburg policy that was reversed by her son as soon as he took over the throne in 1617. He then exiled his mother and appointed Richelieu as his chief minister. She headed an unsuccessful revolt in 1619 but was reconciled with Louis and was part of the royal council in 1621. She tried another coup in 1630 and was once again exiled but escaped abroad in 1631, remaining outside France until her death in Cologne in 1642. This medal was made by Guillaume Dupré (1574-1643), one of the greatest French medalists of the 17th century and shows her as a mature woman of great presence. The curious way the legend is given in reverse was done in order for it be read in a mirror, to symbolize the fact that her glory was reflected from that of her son!

139


140

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

196

196. Marie de’Medici. 1600-1642. Medal (Bronze, 112mm, 177.6 g), original cast uniface with hollow back , by Guillaume Dupré, 1624. MARIA AVGVSTA GALLIÆ ET NAVARÆ REGINA (retrograde) Bust of Marie de’Medici to right, wearing tiara, large earring, necklace and elaborate robes with lace ruff and large pectoral cross; below shoulder truncation, G DVPRE F 1624 Rev. Uniface and slightly hollow as made. Jones 59. Kress 568. A large and sharp original cast. Attractively toned, good extremely fine. 4000 There is an old collection inventory number, 9934, on the reverse of this medal.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

197. Hieronymus Carafa de Montenero. 1564-1633. Medal (Bronze, 55mm, 31.16 g 12), 1624. HIER.CARAPHA MARCH.PRINCEPS MONTNIO SAC.RO.IMP.&CAP.AC.L.T.GNLIS.FERD 2.IMP. Armored bust of Carafa to left; on shoulder truncation, MDCXXIIII Rev. Phoenix, with spread wings, standing facing on its pyre, its head turned up to left toward the sun. L. Bรถrner, Die italienischen Medaillen der Renaissance und des Barock (1450-1750) (Berlin, 1997), p. 361, 1853. Morbio 4215. VannelToderi 2005, p. 134, 1213. A fine original cast with a lovely golden brown patina. Minor casting fault on the reverse, otherwise, extremely fine. 3750 Hieronymus Carafa de Montenero (1564-1633) was a member of a distinguished noble family from southern Italy (relatives were cardinals and a later member of the family was a Grandmaster of the Knights of St. John), who rose high in the service of the Habsburgs of Spain and of the Empire. He served with the Spanish army under Alexander Farnese in the Netherlands and then later in Italy. He transferred to the Imperial army at the request of Ferdinand II and successfully waged war against Hungarian rebels. He was made a Prince of the Empire, Fieldmarshal (1622) and was given a precious ring by Ferdinand II as a mark of honor and friendship. He later returned to Spain and died in Genoa in 1633. He was very learned, spoke several languages and was passionately interested in astronomy: it is said that he spent much of his free time in the evenings looking at the stars.

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197

141


142

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE - DOMBES

198

198.

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Gaston and Marie. 1626-1627. Teston (Silver, 9.25 g 8), 1629. GASTON. ET.MARIE.SOVV.DE.DOMBES On the left, bare-headed and draped bust of Gaston to right, facing, on the right, draped bust of Marie to left; below their busts, monogram of M and G Rev. DNS ADIVTOR ET REDEM NOSTER 1629 Crowned arms between the crowned monograms of Gaston and Marie. Divo 163. Poey d’Avant 5177. Extremely rare. Attractively toned and with good portraits. Nearly extremely fine. 10,000 The principality of Dombes is in eastern France, just northeast of Lyon. In the 16th and 17th centuries its rulers were of the Bourbon-Montpensier family. After the untimely death of Prince Henri (1592-1608) the succession devolved upon his very young daughter Marie. She ruled alone, first under the regency of her mother and then under her uncle, from 1608 to 1626. As an infant she had been destined to marry the Duke of Orléans, but he died in 1611 and then she was affianced to Gaston, brother of Louis XIII. The marriage finally took place in 1626. She died on 29 May 1627 while giving birth to her only child, Anne-Marie Louise, who became known as ‘la grande Mademoiselle’ and was the last independent ruler of Dombes. Marie’s coinage is very rare in general; those with her husband Gaston are especially so. This piece was, however, struck posthumously: an old obverse die was used with a new, dated reverse, and was issued during Gaston’s long regency for his daughter (1627-1650).


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

GERMANY - SAXONY 199. Johann Georg I. 1611-1656. Double Ducat (Gold, 6.93 g 12), Dresden, under the mint master H. Jacob, 1630, on the one-hundredth anniversary of the Augsburg Confession. CONFESS:LUTHER:AUG:EXHIBITÆ SECULUMM / 1630 25 JUNY / IOH GEO Three-quarter bust of Johann Georg I to right, wearing electoral robes and cap and holding a sword in his right hand; before, arms in cartouche Rev. NOMEN DOMINI TURRIS FORTIS / 1530 25 JUNY /IOA NES Bust of the Elector Johann to right, wearing electoral robes and cap, and holding sword; legend quartered by four shields of arms. Baumgarten 295. Fr. 2701. Merseberger 1058. A fresh, perfectly struck example of exceptional quality. Virtually as struck. 7000

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199

143


144

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE

200

200. Nicolas de Neufville, Marquis de Villeroy. 1598-1685. Medal (Bronze, 103mm, 155.35 g), original cast with incuse reverse of the obverse design, by Claude Warin, early 1651. NIC.DE NEVFVILLE.MARCH.VILL. GALL.MARESC.REG.PERS.ET.LVGD.MO DER Draped and armored bust of Nicolas de Neufville to right; below shoulder truncation, WARIN.1651 Rev. As the obverse, but incuse. Jones II, 306 (an after cast). Very rare. A splendid contemporary cast with an obverse in high relief. Attractively toned. Suspension hole and some minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 2250 Nicolas de Neufville was Marshal of France, governor of Lyon and guardian of the young Louis XIV. Claude Warin (c. 1610-1654), the younger brother of the famous Jean Warin, was the medalist of the city of Lyon from 1630 to 1654. He prepared this medal of behalf of the Consulate of Lyon in early 1651, prior to Neufville’s becoming Duc de Villeroy in September of that year.


nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

201. Louis XIV. 1643-1715. Medal (Bronze, 70mm, 107.25 g 12), Parcel gilt or Damascened, 1660. LUDOVICUS.XIIII.REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Louis XIV to right; under bust, tiny R (= Roussel) Rev. REGVM COLLOQVIVM / AD PIRENAEOS/M.DC. LX / MOLART The kings of France, on the left, and Spain, on the right, standing facing each other, clasping their right hands; behind them, landscape with bridge crossing the river Bidassoa, which formed the Franco-Spanish frontier in the Pyrenees. Divo 55. J. Jacquiot, Médailles et Jetons de Louis XIV (Paris, 1968), p. 136, II and pl. XXV, 3 var. Very rare. Raised surfaces with contemporary parcel gilding, remaining surfaces with an attractive, deep brown toning. A few minor marks, otherwise, good extremely fine. 3750 A great French specialty of the later 17th and 18th centuries was the careful gilding of the raised surfaces of bronze medals that were then used as presentation pieces, especially during the reign of the ‘Sun King’, Louis XIV. The color contrast between the bright and pale gold on the relief and the deep brown of the toned bronze of the fields is particularly attractive; the same technique was used for the luxury furniture and objets d’art that were so characteristic of this period.

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201

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146

nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

FRANCE - LORRAINE 202.

202

Charles V. 1675-1690. Medal (Silver, 73.5mm, 92.7 g 12), Cast and gilt, 1678, on his marriage to the Archduchess Eleonora of Austria. ELEONORÆ.AVSTRIACÆ.ET.CAROLO.LOTHARINGICO Facing busts of Charles V, laureate and armored, and Eleonora, crowned and wearing elaborate robes ornamented with the Order of the Golden Fleece, both turned slightly to the right Rev. FLVIT.EX.ASTRIS.OMNIS.FELICITAS. Allegorical representation of a crown over two flaming hearts atop a janiform male and female head on a low pedestal; to left and right, crowed arms of Lorraine and Austria; above, in clouds, bearded god pouring out happiness from a vase. Florange, Lorraine, 13 December 1937, 145 (cast, gilt bronze, 73 mm) and 146 (cast silver but 53 mm). Collection M. M. Monnier, Rollin & Feuardent, 7 April 1874, 684. Montenuovo 833. Very rare, an original cast. Minor marks, otherwise, extremely fine. 3000 While Charles V was officially Duke of Lorraine, throughout his reign his duchy was occupied by the French and he spent his time as a general in the forces of the Emperor (his grandson Francis III became emperor himself when he married Maria Theresia - the duchy finally became a permanent French possession in 1766). He was an accomplished soldier and rose to be commander of the Imperial forces at the relief of Vienna from the Turks in 1683. This strong link to the Habsburgs was strengthened by his marriage in 1678 to Eleonora, one of the daughters of Ferdinand III. Born in 1653, she was ten years younger than Charles V and had previously been married in 1670 to Michael Korybut, King of Poland (he died in 1670). Her marriage to Charles V seems to have been a happy one and they had six children, of whom two died in infancy. It should be noted that this coin is dated by a chronogram - all the letters M, C, L, X, V and I on both sides of the coin are larger in size to indicate that they are being used as Roman numerals; when added up they arrive at 1678.

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nomos . . . . . . auction I, zurich 6 may 2009

ITALY - VENICE

203

203. Marcantonio Giustinian. 1684-1688. Zecchino (Gold, 3.49 g 5). M.ANT.IVSTIN / DVX / S.M.VENET Doge kneeling left, grasping long, cross-tipped scepter handed to him by St. Mark, standing right before him Rev. SIT.T.XPE.DAT.Q.TV REGIS.ISTE.DVCA Christ standing facing in mandorla with sixteen stars. Gamberini 1059. Fr. 1341. Paolucci p. 109, 1. A superb example, lustrous and attractive. Virtually as struck. 1250

Marcantonio Giustinian was elected Doge of Venice in 1684 at a time when the state was facing war with the Turks. He had had a successful career as a diplomat, was an elderly bachelor (and still a virgin it was said), and a very good administrator (he greatly helped the poor of Venice). His reign proved one of the high-points of Venetian history: under the brilliant Venetian naval commander, Francesco Morosini, with the land forces under the Swedish general, Count KÜnigsmark, Venetian forces conquered all of southern Greece in 1687. These victories were wildly celebrated in Venice and when Giustinian died in March 1688, Morosini was unanimously elected as his successor. It was during this campaign that, on 26 September 1687, the Parthenon in Athens, which the Turks were using as a powder magazine, was blown up by one of Morosini’s mortars, destroying a great deal of the superstructure and the sculptures. Even more were damaged when Morosini attempted to remove them and they fell to the ground and were smashed.

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147


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nomos ……… catalogue april 2009

nomos ……… catalogue april 2009

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auction 1

nomos I

zürich, 6 may 2009

nomos ag, numismatists

zähringerstrasse 27, postfach 2664, ch-8022 zürich, switzerland telephone +41 44 250 51 80, fax +41 44 250 51 89 info@nomosag.com, www.nomosag.com

02_cover_mey09.indd

4-5

nomos ag, numismatists zürich, switzerland

9.3.2009

21:11:24 Uhr


Nomos Auction 1