CNG CNR Volume XLVII, No. 1

Page 1

Classical Numismatic

REVIEW Volume XLVII, No. 1 • Winter 2022 • Lancaster Pennsylvania, London England

Classical Numismatic Group, LLC

Contents Editorial................................................................................................................................ 1 Terms of Sale....................................................................................................................... 2 How to Order....................................................................................................................... 2 Calendar............................................................................................................................... 3 EMPIRES OF MYSTERY: Collecting Greco-Baktrian Coins by David S. Michaels.... 4 Coins for Sale..................................................................................................................... 14 The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series Information.................................................. 108

Production Staff

Managing Director: Consulting Directors: Director - Sales and Consignments: Chief Financial Officer: Managing Numismatists: Senior Numismatists: Numismatists (U.S.): Numismatists (U.K.): Lancaster Office Manager: London Office Manager: Office Staff: Customer Relations Manager: Accounting: Manager - IT and Production: Photography: Printing Control: IT Consultant:

Mike Gasvoda Victor England, Jr. (U.S.) Eric J. McFadden (U.K.) Dave Michaels Steve Pruzinsky David Guest (U.K.) Paul Hill (U.K.) Kenneth McDevitt (U.S.) Bradley R. Nelson (U.S.) D. Scott VanHorn (U.S.) Bill Dalzell Jeffrey B. Rill Lance Hickman Tom Mullally Caroline Holmes Karen Zander Alexandra Spyra Julia Motter Dawn Ahlgren Kate Rill Sharon Pruzinsky (U.S.) Travis Markel Dylan Ossman Robert A. Trimble A.J. Gatlin

Classical Numismatic Review Volume XLVII, No. 1 Winter 2022

Welcome to the Classical Numismatic Review, presented in conjunction with the New York International Numismatic Convention. As I write this introduction, we are facing yet another variant of the Covid pandemic with omicron. The uncertainty of what this means for the attendance and success of the NYINC will remain to be seen. After two years of disruption and uncertainty to what we considered to be a normal lifestyle we can only state one thing with confidence: the numismatic market remains incredibly robust. It has been a challenge to assemble a world class offering of coins for this CNR, but we believe you will be pleased with what you find on offer in these pages. All of our traditional markets are well represented. We will again be offering these coins on the first day of the NYINC to those in attendance to view in person, with online release at midnight after the first show day. This gives our customers who attend the show in person the first chance at this offering, which has proven to be a popular new tradition. We hope to see you at our tables! We have important news to share with you regarding the continued growth of CNG. We have three new hires who have come onboard or will do so shortly. Tom Mullally joined the cataloging staff in our Lancaster office full time in November. Tom is a talented numismatist with many years of cataloging experience, particularly in the field of Roman Provincial coinage. He will be at our booth in New York. Please stop and say hello. In London, we welcome Stephen Lloyd to our staff in February. Steve is a recognized expert in Islamic coinage and he will be heading up a new dedicated department at CNG related to this field. We expect to hold our first Islamic auction in London later this year. If you are looking to consign Islamic coinage for a future sale, please let us know. Finally, Julian Okun-Dubitsky will be joining our Lancaster consignment department later this month. He will be involved with the “front end” of our auction business handling incoming consignments. These new hires all indicate a robust numismatic market, and it should be clear that our commitment to grow with the field remains second to none. We look forward to continuing to provide you with the most detailed and timely response to your numismatic needs within the field. With these hires, CNG now has 16 professional numismatists on staff. I don’t believe anyone in the ancient, world, British, and Islamic fields can match this statistic. Our goal remains to provide you with the most enjoyable and positive dealer/collector relationship you can find anywhere. We are glad you are working with CNG! Thank you for your continued support. Happy Collecting! Mike Gasvoda Managing Director CNG, LLC


Terms of Sale 1. General Information. The point of sale for all items online is Lancaster, Pennsylvania. All orders are sent from Pennsylvania. 2. Guaranty and Return Privilege. All items are guaranteed genuine. Any coin order may be returned within fourteen days of receipt for any reason. Coins that have been encapsulated (“slabbed”) by a grading and/or authentication service may not be returned for any reason, including authenticity, if they have been removed from the encapsulation (“slab”). The customer shall bear the cost of returning all items and shall insure them for their full value. Books are not sent on approval and are not subject to return. 3. Sales Tax. Several states require us to collect and remit sales tax. Where applicable the appropriate tax will be charged to the customer invoice. 4. Postage. All orders are charged for postage, insurance, and handling. 5. Payment. Orders may be paid by US$ check, credit card or wire transfer. US$ checks must be written on a US bank and may be sent to either office. We accept VISA and MasterCard; payment by credit card must be made within 14 days of the invoice date. Payment by credit card will be charged a 2.5% handling fee. Credit card payment may be arranged by phone, fax or mail. United States address and phone number: CNG, LLC, P.O. Box 479, Lancaster, PA, 17608., phone: 717-390-9194, fax: 717390-9978. United Kingdom address and phone number: CNG, LLC, 20 Bloomsbury St, London WC1B 3QA, phone +44 (20) 7495-1888, fax: +44 (20) 7499-5916. Office hours are 10AM to 5 PM Monday through Friday. US$ bank account for wire transfers will be provided by phone, fax or mail. 6. Shipment. Please provide a specific shipping address and advise us of any special shipping instructions. Unless other specific shipping instructions are indicated, coins are sent by U.S. Insured or Registered Mail.

A Note on How to Order As with our normal monthly uploads, these coins are available for purchase on our website, If you are viewing the virtual catalog, you may click on an image, which will bring you to the online lot description, where you can add the coin to your cart as usual.

Digital Publications Archive

Digital versions of this and previous issues of the CNR are available to view or download in our Digital Publications Archive.


Major Show Schedule Additional Shows Listed on Our Online Calendar 50th New York International January 13-16, 2022 InterContinental New York Barclay Hotel 111 East 48th Street, New York January 13, Noon-7PM Preview January 14-16, 10AM-7PM (3PM on the 16th) Tabes 506-508 in the Gallery (on the Mezzanine)

Feature Auction Schedule Triton XXV - 11-12 January 2022 A Public Auction to be held in New York City ANA Money Show Auction - March 12, 2022 A Live Internet Auction to be held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania CNG 120 - 11-12 May 2022 A Public Auction to be held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania CNG 121 - 6-7 October 2022 A Public Auction to be held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania Consignment Deadlines Feature Auction Consignment Deadlines ANA Money Show - 22 January 2022 CNG 120 - 15 February 2022 CNG 121 - 15 June 2022 Triton XXVI - 15 September 2022 Deadlines for Electronic Auction Consignments Ongoing - About 90 days before scheduled sale Contact us early, as sales do fill up in a hurry. We may be contacted by email, fax, phone, or mail.

Classical Numismatic Group, LLC Email:

Mailing addresses & Phone numbers: Attention: Mike Gasvoda P.O. Box 479 Lancaster PA 17608 Phone: 717-390-9194 Fax: 717-390-9978 or Attention: Paul Hill (Ancients) or David Guest (British and World) 20 Bloomsbury St. London WC1B 3QA Phone: +44-20-7495-1888 Fax: +44-20-7499-5916. 3

EMPIRES OF MYSTERY: Collecting Greco-Baktrian Coins By David S. Michaels With the United States having recently concluded a costly 17-year-long war in Afghanistan, it’s become almost a truism—a “factoid” if you will—that Afghanistan is unconquerable, that it defeated Alexander the Great and every other foreign power that’s ever dared to invade it. The problem with this notion: At least in Alexander’s case, it’s simply wrong. Alexander the Great wasn’t defeated in Afghanistan. In the fourth century BC, he invaded and conquered ancient Baktria—largely contiguous to modern Afghanistan—and it remained under the rule of Greek kings for the next two centuries. Yes, it was a tough and bitter slog that cost tens of thousands of lives. But define “success” however you will, 200 years of unbroken rule in a distant land has to count for something. These Greek kings even expanded their realm beyond the Hindu Figure 1: Silver Tetradrachmn of Eukratides I “The Kush and into northern India, almost unimaginably Great” (Triton XXV, lot 561) remote from their homeland. What’s more, the Greek rulers of Baktria and northern India created something unique in history—a vibrant, diverse, multinational society that fused the cultures of Europe, Iran, Central Asia and India. From Alexander’s arrival in Baktria in 330 BC down nearly to the birth of Christ, this remarkable and exotic cultural melting pot took root and thrived, until it was finally snuffed out by new invasions of outside peoples. Today, only the faintest echoes survive. The history of these distant lands has been almost entirely erased. In all the records of ancient historians writing within a few centuries of their existence, only about 600 words refer to the Greek kingdoms of Baktria and India. Their cities have been swallowed by sand and scrub. Only one thing has survived in any quantity—the coin of the realm. And what coins they left us: Gigantic gold medallions, silver multiples the size of tea plates, large silver tetradrachms with portraits nearly photographic in their realism, bronzes in all sorts of odd shapes and sizes. All testify to the great wealth of the land and the brilliance of the civilization that produced them. But coins can only tell us so much. Of nearly all these rulers, we know only their names and faces, and those so faithfully rendered that if one of them walked into the room, you’d recognize him. Beyond that, it’s all guesswork. Trying to reconstruct the history of these Empires of Mystery is like trying to assemble a jigsaw puzzle with 90% of the pieces missing.

Where On Earth? This saga takes place within a region the Greeks of the Classical age thought impossibly remote, barbarous, and entirely unsuitable to civilized life as they conceived it. It comprised several provinces, or Satrapies, of the old Persian Empire abutting the towering Hindu Kush Mountains, including Arachosia, Margiana, Sogdiana and Baktria; on the other side of the Hindu Kush, the Indo-Greek Kingdoms at various times included Gandhara, the Punjab, Shurasena, and Malla. These regions are now part of the “stan lands,” Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, as well as northern India. Though considered rugged and inhospitable, the realm included vast tracts of fertile fields, rich wildlife, navigable rivers, and immense mineral wealth, not to mention a sizeable native population in hundreds of small towns. The exact boundaries of the Empires of Mystery are hard to establish, and shifted this way and that over three centuries of Greek occupation. Though usually spoken of as a singular “Greco-Baktrian Empire” or “Indo-Greek Kingdom,” it is clear the political entities were rarely, if ever, unified, which is why this article refers to them in the plural.


Alexander in the Orient Alexander III “the Great” was only 20 when, in 336 BC, he inherited the Kingdom of Macedon from his father, Philip II. He bequeathed his son an invincible army, composed of an infantry phalanx of superbly trained pikemen carrying 16-foot spears, and a powerful cavalry arm of expert horsemen. He also left Alexander with a mission— to lead a unified Greece in attacking and plundering the vast Achaemenid Empire to the east, finally avenging the attempted Persian invasion of Greece nearly 150 years before. Alexander went far beyond his father’s vision, not just raiding and plundering Persia, but swallowing it whole. In three titanic battles, he routed a Persian army many times the size of his own and pursued the fleeing King Darius clear across his disintegrating Achaemenid Empire. When Darius was assassinated on the approaches to the distant province of Baktria by two of his own Satraps, Alexander kept on going in hot pursuit of the Great King’s murderers. When Alexander crossed into Baktria in 330 BC, he was not yet 24 and had just smashed the greatest empire on earth with ridiculous ease, bringing all of Asia Minor, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Iraq and Iran under his direct rule. But the most difficult campaign of his career lay ahead. For the next three years, he marched back and forth across Baktria, often having to deal with revolts that sprang up in in the regions he’d supposedly pacified. His army suffered horribly from extreme weather and deprivation. The population proved even more hostile than the elements, adopting hit-and-run tactics much like those of the present-day Taliban. Finally, after three excruciating years, the enemy leaders were killed and Alexander decided to declare victory and move on. He also hit upon a diplomatic masterstroke: He took to wife Roxane, daughter of a powerful Sogdian warlord, and encouraged his men to take Persian and Baktrian brides as well. He inducted thousands of native Baktrian warriors into his army, giving them a stake in his continuing conquests. After settling 13,000 of his veterans in the region and founding several new cities, including at least three called Alexandria, he crossed into India and fought his last great battle, a victory against King Porus. He had notions of continuing on, seeking the literal ends of the Earth, but his Macedonian and Greek soldiers refused to follow him. Heartsick and worn out, he made his way back to Babylon, where he fell suddenly ill and died at age 32 in May of 323 BC.

Funeral Games With no successor but an infant boy and a half-witted brother, Alexander’s generals set to carving out spheres of influence within this brave new world. Within 20 years, the Macedonian Empire had split into three major and several minor kingdoms. The biggest of these, dwarfing all the others, was seized and held by the commander of Alexander’s elite bodyguard, Seleukos, Nikator (“Conqueror”), a crafty general and statesman par excellence. His realm sprawled from Syria and Phoenicia in the west all the way to the outskirts of India, and included all of Baktria. He reigned 30 years; his son and grandson, Antiochus I and II, reigned five decades more, spanning most of the third century BC. With so much territory to control, the Seleukid kings adopted the old Persian system of governance and appointed local governors called Satraps, who had enormous authority in their provinces. Along with this came a certain amount of autonomy. As time went on, the Satraps of the most far-flung provinces became semi-independent potentates. It remained only for one or more of them to take “semi” out of the equation.

Rebel Satrap? During this unsettled period, one of these Eastern Satraps, named Sophytes, struck coins in his own name, rather than those of his Seleukid overlord. It is not known whether this was an act of rebellion or whether he was just testing the limits of his authority.

Figure 2: Tetradrachm of Sophytes (Triton XXII, lot 445) 5

His name, Sophytes, seems more Indian than Greek. In fact, a “Sopeithes,” possibly a variant spelling, is named by one of Alexander’s biographers as a northern Indian king who fought against the conqueror during the Indian campaign of circa 325 BC. The Sophytes coinage has been dated by various authorities to between 304 and 240 BC. Perhaps, late in his career, King Sopeithes came to an accommodation with the Greeks and was appointed a local Satrap of Baktria and Greek-ruled India. Or perhaps Sophytes was his son, or someone entirely unrelated.

Coins of Sophytes fall into three groups: an immense number of Athenian-type “owl” tetradrachms of a distinctive Baktrian style, an issue of drachms and hemidrachms with an Athenian-style obverse and a standing eagle reverse, and a more limited issue with a distinctive helmeted male head on the obverse and a rooster and caduceus on the reverse. The portrait coins carry the name Sophytes in Greek letters, without the royal title Basileos, or King. Silver denominations from tetradrachm down to obol are known, with tetradrachms and didrachms exceptionally rare. The rooster reverse is highly unusual for a Hellenistic issue; perhaps it is a personal badge. Taken together with the caduceus, wand of the messenger god Hermes, the rooster would seem to be bearing a message. In Greek mythology, the rooster is a symbol of the victory of light over darkness, the dawn of a new day.

Baktrian Breakaway Around 250 BC, another Seleukid satrap of Baktria, a certain Diodotos, chose to put his own portrait on coins struck in his province instead of his ostensible sovereign, Antiochos II (261-246 BC). On the reverse, Diodotos employed a personal blazon, a striding figure of Zeus hurling a thunderbolt. Initially, Diodotos demurred from a full break from the Seleukid Empire, employing the name of Antiochos II on his coins. A more recent theory by Jens Jakobsson proposes that the coins that appear to depict Diodotos with the name of Antiochos in fact belong to another independent Baktrian king, “Antiochos Nikator.” This theory has gained acceptance in some circles, but has been challenged by Brian Kritt in his book “New Discoveries in Baktrian Numismatics” [CNG, 2015], which employs a detailed die analysis to support the more traditional interpretation of these gold and silver issues. We know very little about Diodotos, or about the kingdom he seized. He must have had a sizeable army in order to defend his realm against the Seleukids and the Parthians, who soon carved out their own kingdom southwest of Baktria. Eventually, the Parthian kingdom would occupy most of present-day Iraq and Iran, thereby cutting off the Greco-Baktrian kingdom from direct contact with the Greek-ruled west. This is one reason the Greek historians of the west make so little mention of Baktria in their writings – out of sight, out of mind, out Figure 3: Extremely rare posthumous silver of history. tetradrachm of Diodotos I (Triton XXV, lot 556 ). Diodotus ruled jointly for some time with his son of the same name (Diodotus II), who eventually succeeded him in about 235 BC. It appears as though Diodotus II continued to strike coins with the portrait of his father, but with the family name of Diodotus replacing that of Antiochos on the reverse; concurrently or a bit later, the portrait of the younger Diodotus replaces that of the elder. But after roughly a 10-year reign, Diodotus II was overthrown by the satrap of Sogdonia, a man named Euthydemos.

Euthydemos the Honest Euthydemos presents an interesting picture of a ruler. We know three things about him—he was bold, he was honest, and he was stubborn. We know he was bold because he took the initiative to overthrow his overlord and make himself king. We can say he was honest, as least as far as his appearance goes, because he is one of the few rulers who actually ages on his coins. His early coins depict him as a relatively smooth-faced young man, as seen at left. By the end Figure 5: Tetradrachm of Euthydemos I with young of his reign, he is the aged, care-worn fellow we see below. features (Triton XXII, lot 449) As for stubborn, Euthydemos is mentioned by the second-century BC historian Polybius in his biography of the Seleukid king Antiochos III the Great (222-187 BC). According to Polybius, Antiochos decided to march east and reconquer all the lands that had been lost by his forebears. In 208 BC he arrived in Baktria, ruled by Euthydemos. The Baktrian ruler commanded a huge cavalry arm, more than 10,000 riders. But these were routed by the Seleukid army and Euthydemos took refuge in the city of Baktra, where he remained under siege for more than two years. Eventually, Antiochos wearied of the siege and cut a deal, allowing Euthydemos to retain power. His stubbornness had paid off. 6

Polybius also mentions Euthydemos had a son named Demetrios, the next Baktrian king, who succeeded to the throne circa 200 BC. Demetrios wasn’t satisfied with holding just Baktria and Sogdonia. He launched a major invasion of India, probably about 190 BC, and conquered a huge swath of it to the north of the Peninsula. His coins show him wearing an elaborate headdress in the form of an elephant’s head, including trunk and tusks. This is not just a reference to his Indian conquests, but also an homage to Alexander the Great, the first Westerner to enter India.

Figure 6: Tetradrachm of Euthydemos with elderly features (Triton XXV, lot 552)

Figure 7: Tetradrachm of Demetrios I (Triton XXV, lot 553)

Royal Pageant After Demetrios, the recorded history of his successors almost disappears. We are forced to reconstruct what happened next from the coins alone. It does seem that Demetrios, while occupied in India, appointed his son, his brothers and perhaps other relations to rule Baktria in his stead. Perhaps they carved the kingdom up, perhaps they ruled the same lands by committee —we really don’t know. They all seemed to have ruled between 190 and 175 BC. In this Royal Pageant we have… Euthydemos II (c. 185-180 BC), probably the son or younger brother of Demetrios, who was obviously quite young when named king and doesn’t age at all in his portraits. This and the scarcity of his coins indicate a very brief reign.

Pantaleon (c. 185-180 BC), whose portrait coins are exceptionally rare. His remarkable, fleshy portrait is backed with a seated figure of Zeus holding an image of Artemis holding two torches, a curious local variation on the king of the Olympian gods.

Figure 8: Rare tetradrachm of Pantaleon (Triton XXV, lot 555)

Agathokles (c. 185-175 BC), perhaps the younger, thinner brother of Pantaleon. His coins are more easily obtained than those of Pantaleon, though one can’t call them “common.” His portraiture is razor-sharp and he seems to have a bit of a mad gleam in his eye. Further suggesting a tie to Pantaleon, his reverse also shows a standing Zeus holding an image of Artemis light-bringer.

Figure 9: Tetradrachm of Agathokles (Triton XXV, lot 557)

Curiously, the three rulers above struck a middledenomination coin in a metal nearly unknown to the Western ancient world: cupro-nickel. The only logical place this metal could have come from is China, where it was known as “white copper.” Surviving pieces usually have a rough, pitted appearance with inclusions of pure copper, suggesting the Greek mintmasters had trouble getting the nickel hot enough to properly alloy with copper. This, and the difficulty in obtaining nickel, is likely why the denomination was quickly abandoned. 7

Antimachos (c. 180-170 BC), who modestly calls himself Theos, or “god.” His coins are among the most amazing portrait pieces ever struck, depicting a rather self-satisfied and jovial-looking man sporting a peculiar Macedonian sun hat called a kausia. We haven’t said much about the reverses on these coins, but these are very important. The ruler usually puts his patron god or gods on the back, along with his name and titles. Antimachos depicts Poseidon, the Greek God of the sea, holding his trident. Yet Baktria was mostly land-locked, except for one corner that butted up to the Caspian sea, itself a big lake. One explanation may be that Poseidon is also the god of earthquakes, and these are rather common, and Figure 12: Tetradrachm of Antimachos (Triton XXII, lot frequently devastating, in Afghanistan. 461)

Apollodotos I (c. 180-160 BC), who is also depicted as aged and jowly. He could be a brother of Antimachos, as on his rare Attic-weight portrait coins, he is also depicted wearing the kausia. His area of control was likely centered in northern India because his small square silver drachms are commonly found there. He could thus be considered the first fully Indo-Greek ruler, although too little is known about his area of control to be certain.

Figure 10: Tetradrachm of Apollodotos I (Triton XXV, lot 558)

Demetrios II (c. 150-145 BC), possibly the younger son of Demetrios I, or of Euthydemos II, he seems to have attempted to solidify his rule over both Greek India and Baktria. For a few years he enjoyed success, but came to grief when he took on a usurper named Eukratides. The latter counterattacked, shredding the army of Demetrios, leading to his downfall and demise.

Eukratides the Great Eukratides, possibly the son of a successful general and a Seleukid princess, built on this success until he deposed all rival rulers and absorbed their realms into his own. His first coins are relatively modest: Eukratides wears the simple diadem of a Hellenistic king and identifies himself only with his name and the title Basileos. The reverse type is distinctive: The heavenly twins Castor and Pollux, sons of Zeus, galloping on their steeds, holding couched spears. As his conquests increased, his imagery and titles became more grandiose. On all his coins, he now wore an unusual helmet, a broad-brimmed variant on the Greek Boeotian helmet much like the pith helmets worn by British colonial officers of the late 1800s. On some of his coins he appears as a mighty Greek hero, heroically nude, with a powerful, muscled back, hurling a spear as Zeus would a thunderbolt. His title became Eukratidoy Megalou Basileos—“Greatest King Eukratides.”

Figure 13: Gold stater of Eukratides I Megas (Triton XVIII, lot 837)

If the sheer number of his coins are any indication, Eukratides was indeed “The Greatest.” His coins are found in a swath across Afghanistan and Northern India. Among them is the largest ancient gold coin ever found—A mammoth gold 20-stater piece, weighing 169 grams, nearly six ounces, and nearly 60 millimeters in diameter. This gigantic gold piece was apparently found in 1867 by six Afghani men near the town of Bukhara. As in “Treasure of the Sierra Madre,” the finders commenced killing one another – the six men were winnowed down to three, two, and one, who risked all to take his treasure to the center of the numismatic world, London.


The above story was provided by a French numismatist under contract with the British Museum. His name is now unknown, but he anonymously published an account of his discovery years later: As he was having lunch one day with some friends, one told him of an encounter with a shaggy beggar who tried to sell him an enormous gold coin which, of course, must be a forgery. He described the piece, and the Frenchman realized it might not be a fake. He tracked down the ragged beggar, who pulled out an old leather case and unwrapped the biggest gold coin the Frenchman had ever seen. And, being familiar with the amazing Baktrian coins starting to trickle out of Central Asia, he realized it had to be authentic. Figure 14: Gold 20-stater piece of Eukratides I (Source: Wikipedia)

The “beggar” demanded 5,000 pounds for the coin—an incredible sum in 1867, equivalent to about $600,000 today. The Frenchman calmly wrote out a check for 1,000 pounds and told the owner he had 20 minutes to think it over; after that, the price would go down to 800 pounds, then 500, and so on. The beggar scowled at him, then took the check and handed the Frenchman the coin. Although the Frenchman was supposed to be working for the British Museum, the coin ended up in the trays of the Biblioteque Nationale in Paris, where it resides today. Other coins of Eukratides tout his family lineage. This tetradrachm has on the obverse the jugate portraits of his father and mother, Heliokles and Laodike. Note that Heliokles wears no kingly diadem—although he may have held a high rank, he was not a king. But you can just detect that Laodike is wearing a diadem—she may have been of royal blood, which is how Eukratides possibly justified his claim on the throne. Figure 15: Dynastic tetradrachm of Eukratides I (Triton Eukratides also struck many bronze coins of a hybrid Greek-Indian design, including square bronze XXII, lot 469)

denominations with Indian Karosthi script on the reverse. This follows on from the earlier coinages of Apollodotus I, who began issuing parallel denominations—a heavier series of coins in the standard Greek denominations with Greek legends only, and a lighter, bilingual series of coins featuring Indian themes and deities.

Menander / Melinda Eukratides seems to have ruled all of Baktria and associated regions west and north of the Hindu Kush. At one point, he seems to have crossed the towering range and entered the area of Gandhara. His control of this region was short-lived, however, and he appears to have been pushed out of northern India and Pakistan by another Greek King named Menander Soter (“Savior”). Menander is one of the only Greek kings to have entered Indian lore—in a Buddhist text called the “Melinda Panha” he is described as “learned, eloquent, wise and able.” The book claims him as a convert to Buddhism: “And as in wisdom Figure 11: Extremely rare Attic-weight Tetradrachm of so in strength of body, swiftness, and valor there was Menander I, aka “Melinda” (Triton XXV, lot 565) found none equal to Melinda in all India. He was rich too, mighty in wealth and prosperity, and the number of his armed hosts knew no end.” Menander ruled more than three decades, circa 155 to 130 BC. His authority seems to have extended from Gandhara south of the Hindu Kush clear across India, as noted by Oliver Hoover, “as far east as the old Mauryan capital of Patilaputra and as far south as the Hindu Holy City of Mathura.” While not the first “Indo-Greek” as opposed to “Greco-Bactrian” king (that appears to be Apollodotos I), his reign did much to solidify and consolidate Greek rule in the region, which would continue at least another century and a half. While his Attic-weight silver 9

coins are extremely rare, with only three to five known specimens, his Indian-standard silver coins are abundant, indicating this part of his realm enjoyed a thriving economy. But while the Greek kingdom of India throve, Baktria faced catastrophe.

Bad End The one brief account we have of Eukratides’s life, by the Roman historian Justin, claims he reigned more gloriously than any of his predecessors, but came to a bad end. His wars eventually drained the treasury, leading to collapse and anarchy. Eventually he was murdered by his own son, who drove his chariot repeatedly over his father’s corpse, rending it limb-from-limb. Archaeological evidence points to multiple invasions of the Baktrian Kingdom from all sides, starting right around 145 BC. The culprits are the Parthians in the West, the Scythians in the North, and the Yuezhi, Asiatic steppe nomads rather like the Huns and Monghols, in the East. Whether the assassination of Eukratides threw the door open to the invaders, or whether his death was a result of the frontier collapse, we can’t say. Who was the murdering son? We have coins of three possible culprits— Eukratides II, who ruled briefly from about 145 to 140 BC; Heliokles I, who ruled a steadily shrinking realm from 145 to about 130 BC; and Plato, whose coins are the rarest of the three, reigning for a handful of years during the same span.

Figure 17: Tetradrachm of Plato, son (and killer?) of Eukratides I (Triton XV, lot 1348)

Plato’s rare coins depict a frontal view of a chariot bearing the sun god Helios on the reverse. Baktrian scholar Frank Holt has suggested this is an oblique reference to the desecration of Eukratides’s body, fingering himself as the parricide. This may be a stretch, but we have nothing else to go on.

The longest-reigning son, Heliokles, was the last Greek king of Baktria. He fought a rear-guard action against the invaders, but was finally overwhelmed between 130 and 125 BC. The invaders, though, absorbed Greek culture and produced coins that combined Greek, Parthian and Indian motifs. This polyglot culture survived for some centuries, eventually becoming what we now refer to as the Indo-Parthian and Indo-Sasanian cultures.

Indo-Greek Afterglow This was not the end of the Greek orient, however. Greek rule beyond the Hindu Kush, in Gandhara, the Punjab and other regions of northern India, continued for at least another century and a half. After Menander, the Northern Indian kingdom seems to have fragmented. We have coins of literally dozens of kings, and in some cases queens, many of whom must have ruled concurrently. These rulers generally stuck to a specialized hybrid Greek-Indian form of coinage based on a silver tetradrachm weighing about 9.5 grams, drachms of roughly 2.4 grams, and bronzes of several denominations, several of them square. The obverse legend naming the king or queen is in Greek letters, while the reverse repeated this in the Indian alphabet Kharosthi. A future article will deal in-depth with the Indo-Greek and other kingdoms of ancient India. Although both the Indo-Greek and Indo-Skythian kingdoms were eventually absorbed into the native Indian dynasties, and eventually the Kushan Empire, their fusion of Greek and Indian culture proved durable. The Greek model of coinage, including portraiture and Greek legends, were incorporated by the Kushan and Gupta rulers of India that followed. The serene faces of Buddha and Maya and the deities of the Hindu pantheon found in classic Indian sculpture carry clear echoes of the Apollo, Cybele and their Greek cousins, down to this day.

Collecting the Coins Greco-Baktrian coins were struck in gold, silver, cupro-nickel, and bronze. In general, the coins are widely available in the numismatic marketplace. Some rulers, like Eukratides and Menander, are commonly found in both print and online auctions, as well as dealer stocks and fixed price lists. Other rulers are much rarer and more difficult to find. Assembling a complete or nearly complete ruler set would be a major accomplishment, but by no means impossible. As you might expect, gold coins can be quite expensive, ranging from around $1,500 for a worn or test-cut specimen to more than $110,000 for a mint-state example, that record held by a gold stater of Eukratides. Silver 10

tetradrachms of the more common Baktrian or Indo-Greek kings can be had for as little as $300, but rare rulers in high grade can fetch $50,000 or more. Small denomination silver coins and bronzes, however, are rather neglected by the collecting public, and even rare and attractive examples can be obtained for well under $200. As noted repeatedly before, the portraiture found on the earlier Greco-Baktrian coins is the finest of any Hellenistic series. The superb execution, the inventive bust types and the evocative reverses all testify to the great skill of the engravers and mint masters in these far-flung regions. A carefully assembled collection of coins from these Empires of Mystery, arrayed on one or more trays, is truly a sight to behold.

TABLE OF GRECO-BAKTRIAN RULERS Rarity scale (applies to coins in Good VF to EF condition): Common – Regularly appears in internet, print and public auctions. Gold coins usually available under $5,000, silver coins available under $500, bronzes under $200. Scarce – Occasionally appears at auction. Gold coins available for a minimum $10,000, silver coins $1,000, bronzes under $300. Rare – Seldom appears at auction. Gold coins typically over $10,000, silver coins over $1,500, bronzes over $500. Very rare, Extremely rare = Each step approximately doubles value. Many rulers also struck special issues with different obverse and reverse types that can be of considerable rarity.




Satrap (?) c. 280/78270 BC


Rarity Silver non-portrait: Scarce Silver portrait: Rare Bronze: Rare Gold: Scarce

Diodotus I

C. 255-235 BC

Silver: Rare Bronze: Rare Gold: Rare

Diodotus II

C. 235-225 BC

Silver: Rare Bronze: Rare Gold: Rare

Euthydemos I

C. 225-200/195 BC

Silver: Scarce Bronze: Scarce


Gold: Very rare Demetrios I

C. 200-185 BC

Silver: Scarce Bronze: Common Silver: Rare

Euthydemos II

C. 185-180 BC

CU-NI: Rare Bronze: Rare Silver: Rare


C. 185-175 BC

CU-NI: Scarce Bronze: Scarce Silver: Extremely rare


C. 185-180 BC

CU-NI: Rare Bronze: Rare

Antimachos I Theos

C. 180-179 BC

Silver: Scarce Bronze: Rare Silver portrait: Extremely Rare

Apollodotos I

C. 160-155 BC

Silver drachm (nonportrait: Common Bronze: Common

Antimachos II

C. 160-155 BC

Silver drachm (nonportrait): Common Bronze: Rare

Demetrios II

C. 150-145 BC


Silver: Rare

Gold: Rare Silver (diademed portrait): Rare Eukratides I Megas

C. 160-155 BC

Silver (helmeted portrait): Common Silver dynastic: Rare Bronze: Rare

Eukratides II

C. 145-140 BC

Silver: Scarce


C. 145–140 BC

Silver: Extremely rare

Heliokles I

C. 145–130 BC

Silver: Scarce



586885. GAUL, Massalia. Circa 90-50 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.74 g, 6h). Light standard. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right; bow and quiver over shoulder, ∫ below chin / Lion standing right; ÂÅ%%Å above, ˚ to right, E¬˚ in exergue. F&P DRM-56-4; Depeyrot, Marseille 55/25. Lightly toned, underlying luster. EF. $1525

592497. CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos (22`mm, 7.58 g, 10h). Warrior, nude but for helmet, holding shield and two spears in left hand, preparing to cast a third held aloft in his right, on horseback right; Å@Qr[W∏] below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand, riding dolphin left; [t]År-Ås above, EU to left, anchor to right, År below. Vlasto 691 (same rev. die); HN Italy 966. Lightly toned over lustrous surfaces, minor die wear. EF. $3750

584967. CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 240-228 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 6.36 g, 1h). Youth, wearing short chiton, holding rein in right hand, left hand on mane, on horse leaping right; below, [zW∏Ur5W@] and facing boukranion surmounted by %W / Phalanthos, nude, holding hippocamp in extended right hand and cradling trident in left arm, riding dolphin left; to right, head of Silenos left above 2; t-ÅrÅs below. Vlasto 941 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1054. Attractively toned, with golden hues around the devices, slightly off center. EF. Early die state. $6500 Ex Graeculus Collection (Peus 427, 4 November 2020), lot 49; Jacob Stein Collection (Gemini V, 6 January 2009), lot 9; Numismatic Fine Arts XVIII (31 March 1987), lot 8.

587431. CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 240-228 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 6.56 g, 9h). Reduced standard. Warrior, wearing military attire, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, on horse rearing right; * to upper left, ˚Ŭ¬5˚rÅ>t˙s in two lines below / Phalanthos, nude, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, and cradling trident in left arm, riding dolphin left; “ to right, tÅrÅ[s] below. Vlasto 963; HN Italy 1059. In NGC encapsulation 4684164-004, graded MS, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5. $4250 Ex ArtCoins Roma 5 (14 May 2012), lot 41.


587654. LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 540-510 BC. AR Third Nomos (17.5mm, 2.63 g, 12h). Ear of barley with seven grains and bracts at base; te7 down right field / Incuse ear of barley with seven grains. Noe Class I, 28; Gorini 5 var. (ethnic); HN Italy 1460. Lightly toned, minor die break on obverse, light deposits on reverse. EF. Good metal for issue. $2750

582882. LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.73 g, 5h). Head of Demeter right, hair in ampyx and sphendone, wearing single-pendant earring and pearl necklace; ˚r5 behind neck / Ear of barley with seven grains and leaf to left; ÂEtÅπo upward to right. Noe 499 (same dies); HN Italy 1537; SNG ANS 375 (same dies). Toned. In NGC encapsulation 4375585-007, graded AU(star), Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5, Fine Style. $9250

589955. LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 290-280 BC. AR Nomos (22.5mm, 7.95 g, 4h). Head of Demeter left, wearing wreath of grain ears, single-pendant earring and pearl necklace; ˚ to right / Barley ear with leaf to right; spindle above leaf, ÂEtÅ upward to left. Johnston Class D, 1.4 (same dies as illustration); HN Italy 1612; SNG Fitzwilliam 507 (same dies). Lightly toned, underlying luster, small area of weak strike on obverse, small die break on reverse. Near EF. $6750 Ex Alde (19 October 2016), lot 10.

593531. LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 290-280 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.73 g, 11h). Head of Demeter left, wearing wreath of grain ears / Ear of barley with leaf to right; above leaf, cock standing left; ÂEtÅ upward to right. Johnston Class D, 2.2 (same dies); HN Italy 1613; SNG ANS 514 (same dies). Attractive gray tone with iridescence around the devices, a few light marks. Near EF. $3750 Ex Mercury Group Collection, purchased from David Vagi.


592496. LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 290-280 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 7.80 g, 7h). Head of Demeter right, wearing wreath of grain ears, single-pendant earring, and necklace; [d5 to left] / Barley ear of six grains, leaf to right; ÂEtÅ to left; above leaf, star above two amphoras, f[5] below. Johnston Class D, 4.16 (same dies); HN Italy 1625; SNG ANS 517 (same dies); SNG Ashmolean 790–2 (same dies). Lustrous, slightly compact flan. EF. $4750 Ex LHS 100 (23 April 2007), lot 122.

Ex Niggler, Jameson and Duruflé Collections

584968. BRUTTIUM, Kroton. Circa 480-430 BC. AR Nomos (19mm, 8.11 g, 6h). Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet; orJ to right / Incuse eagle flying right. Gorini 27; Attianese 54; HN Italy 2108; Jameson 419a (this coin). Old cabinet tone, a hint of porosity on obverse. Good VF. Attractive specimen with an illustrious pedigree. $12,500 Ex Walter Niggeler Collection (Part I, Leu/Munzen und Medallien, 3 December 1965), lot 73; Robert Jameson Collection (publ. 1932); Duruflé Collection (not in Rollin & Feuardent 1910 sale).

587341. SICILY, Akragas. Circa 495-485 BC. AR Didrachm (16.5mm, 7.75 g, 11h). Sea eagle standing left; A˚∞A to right / Crab within incuse circle. Westermark, Coinage, Period I, Group II, 141 (O57/R87); HGC 2, 93; SNG ANS 926 (same obv. die); SNG Delepierre 520 (same dies); BMC 12 (same obv. die). Lightly toned, underlying luster. Near EF. Well centered. $5750 Ex Father & Son Collection; Triton XXII (8 January 2019), lot 108.


594501. SICILY, Entella. Punic issues. Circa 300-289 BC. AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 17.36 g, 6h). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Head of horse left; palm tree to right, [†nJM∆M` (Punic ‘MHMḤNT) below]. Jenkins, Punic, Series 5a, 290 (O93/R238); CNP 271; HGC 2, 293 corr. (varying legend); McClean 3047 (same dies). Lightly toned, underlying luster, compact flan. Choice EF. $9500

585781. SICILY, Gela. Circa 490/85-480/75 BC. AR Didrachm (20mm, 8.75 g, 1h). Nude warrior, wearing Phrigian cap, riding right, preparing to cast javelin held aloft in his right hand / Forepart of man-headed bull right; 1E-¬å to right and below. Jenkins, Gela, Group Ib, 20 (O7/R8); HGC 2, 363. Beautifully toned. In NGC encapsulation 4936315-003, graded Ch AUṄ, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 5/5, Fine Style. $27,500 Ex Triton VII (13 January 2004), lot 44; Sotheby’s (7 March 1996), lot 48.

587340. SICILY, Himera. Circa 412-409 BC. Æ Hemilitron – Hexonkion (13mm, 1.25 g, 11h). Head of female facing slightly left, wearing tainia / Crawfish left; six pellets (mark of value) above, 5ÂE below. Kraay, Bronze, p. 31, 4a; CNS 36; HGC 2, 481. Warm red-brown patina. In NGC encapsulation 4281288-012, graded MS, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5, Wings approved. $750 Ex Mercury Group Collection, purchased 13 January 2008.


Ex Gillet Collection

5592088. SICILY, Katane. Circa 445-435 BC. AR Tetradrachm (26.5mm, 17.31 g, 4h). Charioteer, wearing long chiton, holding kentron in left hand and reins in both, driving slow quadriga of horses right; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses with wreath held in both hands / Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath; [˚ÅtÅ]@Å5o@ to right. Mirone 44; HGC 2, 567; SNG ANS 1249 (same dies); Gillet 389 (this coin). Attractive collection tone. Good VF. $17,500 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 8 (3 April 1995), lot 121; Charles Gillet Collection (†1972); L. Hamburger 98 (3 April 1933), lot 169.

592498. SICILY, Messana (as Zankle). Circa 500-493 BC. AR Drachm (23.5mm, 5.61 g). Dolphin left; Îånk63 below; all within sickle-shaped harbor / Nine-part incuse square with scallop shell in center. Gielow Group 4; HGC 2, 766. Lightly toned over lustrous surfaces. Near EF. A wonderful coin in hand. $12,500 Ex Dr. A. Binkert Collection (Münzen und Medaillen GmbH 36, 30 May 2012), lot 92; Münzen und Medaillen AG 88 (17 May 1999), lot 78.


587342. SICILY, Messana. 420-413 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25.5mm, 17.27 g, 5h). The nymph Messana, holding kentron in left hand and reins in both, driving slow biga of mules right; ŘÅs-sEµ counterclockwise from right, two dolphins confronted in exergue / Hare springing right; µEs-s-Å-˜-5o-˜ around; below, dolphin right. Caltabiano Series XIV, 536 (D212/R224); HGC 2, 792; SNG ANS 362; BMC 40; Garrett II 123 (same dies); Ognina 132 (same obv. die). Lightly toned, with light golden hues around the devices, underlying luster. Good VF. $15,750 Ex Bellwether Collection; Kovacs XV (10 January 2003), lot 27.

5592089. SICILY, Piakos. Circa 420-400 BC. Æ Tetras or Trionkion (14mm, 2.37 g, 9h). Dies by the Maestro della Foglia (Master of the Leaf). Laureate head of river god left; three pellets (mark of value) interspersed within π5Å˚ to left / Hound attacking stag right; acorn to left, leaf to right. Boehringer, Frühen 4; CNS 2; HGC 2, 1101; SNG ANS –; Rizzo pl. 60, 14. Dark brown patina, edge split. EF. Rare. $4500

589956. SICILY, Syracuse. Hieron I. 478-466 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25mm, 17.16 g, 1h). Struck circa 478-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, driving quadriga right; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands / Head of Arethousa right, wearing pearl tainia and necklace; s¨RAko-s5-o˜ and four dolphins around. Boehringer Series VIIIb, 162 (V72/R107); HGC 2, 1306; McClean 2605 (same dies); Pozzi 563 (same dies). Attractively toned. Good VF. $9500 Ex Peus 334 (4 November 1992), lot 145.


587343. SICILY, Syracuse. Dionysios I. 405-367 BC. Æ Drachm (29.5mm, 27.48 g, 1h). Struck circa 405-367 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with wreath; sUrÅ above / Sea-star between two dolphins. Holloway, Further, Series 4; CNS 62; HGC 2, 1436. Dark green patina. Good VF. $3975 Ex Mercury Group Collection, purchased August 2001.

592688. SICILY, Syracuse. Timoleon and the Third Democracy. 344-317 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 8.58 g, 1h). Struck under Timoleon, 344-339/8. Pegasos flying left / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; sUrÅkos5W@ to right. Pegasi 2; HGC 2, 1400; SNG ANS 494–507; SNG Lloyd 1442-3; Dewing 930–1; Gillet 673. Toned. Near EF. $2250

Mint State Second Punic War Issue

587426. CARTHAGE, Second Punic War. Circa 220-205 BC. AR Half Shekel (19mm, 3.36 g, 11h). Carthage or Sicilian mint. Struck during the expedition to Sicily, circa 213-210 BC. Head of Melkart left, wearing laurel wreath / Elephant advancing right; a (Punic A) in exergue. MAA –; cf. Visonà 55 (shekel); CNP 447; Burnett, Enna 116–31; Walker 29 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 383 (same dies); SNG Newham Davis 107. Toned. In NGC encapsulation 4625082-003, graded MS, Strike: 4/5, Surface: 4/5. $19,500 From the WTR Collection. Ex Northern California Collection (Heritage 3061, 7 January 2018), lot 32015; Coin Galleries (14 July 1993), lot 40. Initially attributed to a Spanish mint by Robinson, the discovery of examples in the Enna hoard and other Sicilian hoards (Burnett, SNR 62, pg. 11) makes it more likely that this coin was struck in Carthage for use in the Sicilian campaign of 213-210 BC. Whether the obverse head is to represent the god Melkart or a member of Hannibal’s family is still debated.


5592090. ISLANDS off THRACE, Thasos. Circa 412-404 BC. AR Stater (23mm, `8.61 g). Ithyphallic satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph; Å to upper right / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 6; HPM pl. X, 27–8; HGC 6, 334; Kraay & Hirmer 437. Toned, slight die shift on obverse, light scratches under tone. Near EF. Great detail for issue. $7750 Ex Andrian-Werburg Collection; Gorny & Mosch 133 (11 October 2004), lot 111.

592501. KINGS of THRACE, Macedonian. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31.5mm, 17.08 g, 6h). Amphipolis mint. Struck circa 288/7-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / ∫Å%5¬EW% ¬Us5ÂÅcoU, Athena Nikephoros seated left, resting left arm on shield set on ground; diagonal spear in background; monograms to inner left and exergue. Thompson 203; Müller –; HGC 3, 1750l. Lightly toned. Near EF. Rare issue, only one example in CoinArchives. $3750

587432. KINGS of THRACE, Macedonian. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 4.24 g, 12h). Lampsakos mint. Struck 297/6-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / ∫Å%5¬EW% ¬Us5ÂÅcoU, Athena Nikephoros seated left, resting left arm on shield set on ground; diagonal spear in background; ú to inner left. Cf. Thompson 57 (tetradrachm), otherwise, unpublished as a drachm. In NGC encapsulation 6057160-165, graded MS, Strike: 4/5, Surface: 4/5. $5750


585784. KINGS of THRACE, Macedonian. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29mm, 16.73 g, 12h). Abydos mint(?). Struck circa 297/6-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / ∫Å%5¬EW% ¬Us5ÂÅcoU, Athena Nikephoros seated left, resting left arm on shield set on ground; diagonal spear in background; to inner left, eagle standing right. Thompson –; Müller 342; HGC 3, 1750c; Seyrig, Parion, pl. XLII, B (same obv. die); Boston MFA 839 (same obv. die). Lightly toned, small flan crack. In NGC encapsulation 4936316-016, graded AU(star), Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5. $5500

587344. THRACO-MACEDONIAN REGION, Berge. Circa 525-480 BC. AR Stater (19mm, 9.76 g). Ithyphallic satyr standing right, grasping hand of nymph fleeing right; pellets above, to left, and to right / Quadripartite incuse square divided diagonally. Smith Group 5; Peykov A0020; HPM pl. VIII, 4; HGC 3, 531 (“Lete”). Attractive deep iridescent tone. Near EF. Good metal for issue. $8500 This coinage has previously been attributed to Lete and Siris, but S. Psoma has persuasively argued against both of these attributions, and suggests that the city of Berge is the most likely in light of the historical and numismatic evidence. (See S. Psoma, “The ‘Lete’ Coinage Reconsidered” in Agoranomia.

5590899. THRACO-MACEDONIAN REGION, Berge. Circa 525-480 BC. AR Stater (23mm, 9.94 g). Ithyphallic satyr standing right, grasping hand of nymph fleeing right; pellets above, to left, and to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Smith Group 7; Peykov A0040; HPM pl. VIII, 24–6; HGC 3, 531 (“Lete”); SNG ANS 964. Lightly toned. Near EF. A wonderful coin in hand. Rare late issue with this form of incuse. $15,000


585420. KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25mm, 17.13 g, 7h). Babylon mint. Struck under Stamenes or Archon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ŬE$Å@droU, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, kylix above Â, P below throne. Price 3652. Lightly toned, very minor doubling. EF. $2450

589722. KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25.5mm, 16.44 g, 4h). Babylon mint. Struck under Stamenes or Archon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ŬE$Å@droU, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, Nike flying right, holding wreath in both hands, above Â, P below throne. Price 3678. Lightly toned, a couple of marks on reverse. EF. Well centered on a broad flan. $3250

587345. KINGS of MACEDON. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 17.12 g, 4h). In the types of Alexander III. Babylon mint. Struck under Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I, circa 323-318/7 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ∫Ås5¬EWs f5¬5ππoU, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left;  in left field, ∫ below throne. Price P182. Lightly toned, some marks on reverse. EF. Well centered and struck. $2750


585418. KINGS of MACEDON. Kassander. As regent, 317-305 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23.5mm, 14.30 g, 5h). In the name and types of Philip II. Amphipolis mint. Struck circa 316-311 BC. Head of Zeus left, wearing laurel wreath / f5¬5π-πoU, youth, holding palm frond in right hand, rein in left, on horseback right; aphlaston below, À below raised foreleg. Le Rider pl. 46, 17–8; Troxell, Studies, Group 9, 323-5. Lightly toned over lustrous surfaces, minor die wear and a few tiny flan flaws. Near EF. $3500

592500. KINGS of MACEDON. Antigonos III Doson. 229-221 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30.5mm, 17.13 g, 12h). Amphipolis mint. Horned head of Pan left, lagobolon behind, in the center of a Macedonian shield / Athena Alkidemos, seen from behind, advancing left, shield decorated with aegis on left arm, preparing to cast thunderbolt held aloft in right hand; crested Macedonian helmet to inner left, Ò to inner right. TEA Period IV, Group 11, 59 (O14/R57); HGC 3, 1042 (Antigonos II). Lightly toned and crisply struck. EF. Beautifully centered. $4250

587346. KINGS of MACEDON. Perseus. 179-168 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30.5mm, 15.74 g, 12h). Reduced standard. Pella or Amphipolis mint; Au-, mintmaster. Struck circa 171-168 BC. Diademed head right / ∫Å%5-¬EW% ∏Er-%EW%, eagle, wings spread, standing right on thunderbolt; ã above, Q (mintmaster’s monogram) to right, f between legs; all within oak wreath; below, plow left. Mamroth, Perseus 18b; HGC 3, 1094. Attractive light tone. EF. $7950 Ex Father & Son Collection, purchased from Arete Coins, 2018; Dr. Walter Stoecklin (†1975) Collection (Nomos 14, 17 May 2017), lot 103, purchased from Bank Leu, Zürich.


587347. KINGS of MACEDON. Perseus. 179-168 BC. AR Drachm (15mm, 2.59 g, 2h). Third Macedonian War issue. Uncertain mint in Thessaly; Hermias, magistrate. Struck circa 171/0 BC. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; Erµ5Ås above, z-W flanking stem. Price, Larissa p. 241; SNG Keckman 795. Toned. EF. $1750 Ex Sigmund Collection.

Ex BCD Collection

581657. THESSALY, Larissa. Circa 400-370 BC. AR Drachm (20.5mm, 6.03 g, 4h). Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly right, wearing ampyx and necklace / Horse grazing right; ¬År5sÅ5 above. L-S Group 3, Head Type 17, dies O52/R1, d = BCD Thessaly I 1142 (this coin); HGC 4, 430. Attractive iridescent toning, minor porosity. EF. Well centered and struck. $5750 Ex BCD Collection (Nomos 4, 10 May 2011), lot 1142.

585585. BOEOTIA, Federal Coinage. Circa 225-171 BC. AR Drachm (18.5mm, 4.82 g, 12h). Head of Poseidon right, wearing laurel wreath / Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and grounded trident in left; y to left, ∫o5WtW@ to right. BCD Boiotia 114; HGC 4, 1175. Deep iridescent tone, a few light cleaning marks. Good VF. $875

Ex BCD Collection

587348. BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 480-460 BC. AR Drachm (13.5mm, 6.01 g). Boeotian shield / q in center of incuse square with ‘mill sail’ design. BCD Boiotia 345 (this coin); HGC 4, 1339. Even gray tone. Good VF. Rare denomination for issue. $2750 Ex Mercury Group Collection; BCD Collection (Triton IX, 10 January 2006), lot 27; G. Hirsch 115 (6 April 1979), lot 206.


589721. BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 379-368 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.91 g). Daim–, magistrate. Boeotian shield / Amphora; dÅ-5Â across field; all within incuse concave circle. Hepworth 18; BCD Boiotia 523; HGC 4, 1331. Underling luster. Near EF. Struck on a broad flan. $2750

587349. ATTICA, Athens. Circa 475-465 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 17.16 g, 4h). Head of Athena right, with frontal eye, wearing earring, necklace with pendants, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing, with spread tail feathers; olive sprig and crescent to left, AQE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group IV, unlisted dies; Svoronos, Monnaies, pl. 9, 8–12; HGC 4, 1595; SNG Lockett 1837; Rhousopoulos 1970. Attractive light toning. EF. $7950 Ex Jonathan P. Rosen Collection; Gemini XI (12 January 2014), lot 124 (hammer $15,000).

564789. ATTICA, Athens. Circa 454-404 BC. AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 17.20 g, 2h). Head of Athena right, with frontal eye, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent to left, AQE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; HGC 4, 1597; SNG Copenhagen 31; SNG München 49; Dewing 1611–22; Gulbenkian 519–21. Lightly toned, underlying luster. EF. Well centered on a broad flan, showing full crest. $6750


5592091. ATTICA, Athens. Circa 165-42 BC. AR Tetradrachm (32.5mm, 16.83 g, 12h). New Style coinage. Hera–, Aristoph–, and Herako–, magistrates. Struck 136/5 BC. Head of Athena Parthenos right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the foreparts of four horses above the visor, Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; Å-œE above ˙rÅ> År5%tof> ˙rÅ˚W (magistrates’ names) in three lines across field; to left, upright club, lion skin, and bowcase; Q on amphora, ˝¬ below; all within wreath. Thompson 337a var. (control below amphora; same obv. die); HGC 4, 1602. Lightly toned, underlying luster, a few faint marks. Near EF. $5250

Choice New Style Tetradrachm

5592092. ATTICA, Athens. Circa 165-42 BC. AR Tetradrachm (33mm, 16.82 g, 12h). New Style coinage. Mened(emos), Epigen(es), and Theophr–, magistrates. Struck 135/4 BC. Head of Athena Parthenos right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the shell / Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; Å-œE above ÂE-@Ed> E∏5>˝E@o> QEofr (magistrates’ names) in four lines across field, to left, Asklepios standing left, holding serpententwined staff, Å on amphora, ˙r below; all within wreath. Thompson 347d (same obv. die); HGC 4, 1602. A few faint marks. Choice EF. A wonderful coin in hand. $12,500


587350. ATTICA, Athens. Circa 165-42 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.71 g, 11h). New Style coinage. Timarchos, Nikago–, and Menan–, magistrates. Struck 134/3 BC. Head of Athena Parthenos right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the shell / Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; Å-œE above t5Â-ÅrcoU>@5˚Å˝o>ÂE@Å@ (magistrates’ names) in four lines across field, anchor and star to left, E on amphora, ÂE below; all within wreath. Thompson 364b var. (letter on amphora; same obv. die); HGC 4, 1602. Lightly toned, minor marks and deposits, typical die break at edge on obverse. Good VF. $4500 Ex Mercury Group Collection.

589957. ISLANDS off ATTICA, Aegina. Circa 480-457 BC. AR Stater (19.5mm, 12.28 g, 5h). Sea turtle, head in profile, with ‘T-back’ design on shell / Large square incuse with skew pattern. Meadows, Aegina, Group IIIa; Milbank Period III, pl. I, 15; HGC 6, 435. Attractive deep iridescent tone. Good VF. $7500 Ex Kricheldorf XV (15 June 1965), lot 1985.

5591697. ISLANDS off ATTICA, Aegina. Circa 350-338 BC. AR Stater (24mm, 11.60 g, 8h). Tortoise with segmented shell; Å-5 flanking / “Thin skew” incuse pattern; @-5 in upper incuses, dolphin in lower left. Milbank p. 51, a; cf. HGC 6, 445 (drachm). Lightly toned, horn silver and roughness in incuse. Good VF. Well centered and struck on a broad flan. $5750 Ex Robert W. Bartlett Collection; Ponterio & Wyatt 8 (5 November 1982), lot 11 (since conserved).


587433. CORINTHIA, Corinth. Circa 350/45-285 BC. AR Stater (21.5mm, 8.58 g, 1h). Pegasos flying left; J below / Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet with neck guard; 5 before neck, star to right. Ravel Period V, 1034; Pegasi 425; BCD Corinth –; HGC 4, 1848. Toned, some die wear and slight doubling on obverse. EF. $4750

587351. SIKYONIA, Sikyon. Circa 350-340 BC. AR Stater (24mm, 12.08 g, 3h). Chimaera advancing left; wreath above, s5 below / Dove flying left; E above tail feathers; all within wreath. BCD Peloponnesos 216; HGC 5, 199. Toned, light scratches. Good VF. Very rare. $7750 Ex CNG inventory 829039 (August 2009); BCD Collection (not in previous sales).

589958. CYCLADES, Paros. Early 490s-early 480s BC. AR Drachm (15.5mm, 6.01 g). Goat kneeling right / Quadripartite incuse square. Sheedy Class D, Group 2, unlisted dies (but cf. 110 for similar); HGC 6, 655. Lightly toned with slight iridescence, traces of find patina. Good VF. $8750 Ex Alde (19 October 2016), lot 88.

589592. PAPHLAGONIA, Sinope. Circa 490-425 BC. AR Drachm (15.5mm, 6.08 g). Head of sea-eagle left, with ‘talon’; below, dolphin left / Quadripartite incuse square with two opposing quarters filled, the others stippled and with pellet. HGC 7, 384; SNG BM Black Sea 1359–63. Toned. Good VF. Well centered. $1250


589593. PAPHLAGONIA, Sinope. Circa 425-410 BC. AR Drachm (18mm, 6.14 g). Head of sea-eagle left; [below, dolphin left] / Quadripartite incuse square with two opposing quarters filled, ˚ within one unfilled quarter. RG –; HGC 7, 388 var. (pellet in quarters); SNG von Aulock 6837. Iridescent tone, two small flan flaws on obverse. Good VF. $7500 Ex Mercury Group Collection, purchased from Malter Galleries.

587352. PAPHLAGONIA, Sinope. Circa 350/30-300 BC. AR Drachm or Siglos (19mm, 5.07 g, 6h). Persic standard. Diou-, magistrate. Head of nymph left, hair in sakkos / Sea-eagle standing left, wings spread, on dolphin left; d5oU below eagle’s wings, s5@W in exergue. RG 25; HGC 7, 399; SNG BN 499. Iridescent tone, minor die break in field on reverse. Near EF. $1950 Ex Mercury Group Collection; Waddell inventory C43429 (2004).

587653. BITHYNIA, Kalchedon. Circa 367/6-340 BC. AR Tetradrachm (22mm, 15.10 g). Rhodian standard. Bull standing left on grain ear; ΔA monogram to left / Quadripartite incuse square with stippled quarters. Türkoğlu S02a; HGC 7, 509. Lightly toned, area of weak strike on obverse. Near EF. $2250

587353. MYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 550-450 BC. EL Stater (19mm, 15.95 g). Nude male kneeling left, holding in his extended right hand a tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze I 112; Greenwell 86; Boston MFA 1487 = Warren 1502; SNG BN 253; BMC –; FSD –; Gillet –; Gulbenkian –; Jameson –; Myrmekion –; cf. Rosen 488 (hekte); Weber –. Small edge split. Good VF. Well centered. $9500 Ex Siren Collection.


589713. MYSIA, Kyzikos. 3rd century BC. Æ (30mm, 18.66 g, 12h). Prow right / Boukranion facing; ˚-U/z-5 in two lines across field; all within wreath. Von Fritze III 11; SNG BN 438–9. Glossy dark green-brown patina, edge splits, overstruck on Kore/Tripod type (cf. BN 443–5). Good VF. Choice for issue. $525

589712. MYSIA, Kyzikos. 3rd century BC. Æ (29mm, 12.91 g, 12h). Head of Kore Soteira right, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace, hair in sphendone, two grain ears in hair / Tripod; ˚-U/z-5 in two lines across field, r to lower left, aphlaston to lower right, tunny below. Von Fritze III 21; SNG BN 443–5 var. (control marks). Glossy dark green patina, edge split. Good VF. Well centered on a broad flan. $575

589714. MYSIA, Pergamon. Circa 166-67 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29mm, 12.73 g, 12h). Cistophoric type. Struck circa 160150 BC. Cista mystica within ivy wreath / Two serpents entwined around bow and bowcase; E (civic monogram) to left, serpent-staff to right. Kleiner & Noe Series 19, unlisted dies; Pinder –; SNG BN –. Toned, underlying luster. Choice EF. Well struck on a broad flan. $1650 Very rare series, only two examples from one die pair recorded by Kleiner & Noe.


587354. AEOLIS, Myrina. Circa 160-143 BC. AR Tetradrachm (32mm, 17.08 g, 12h). Stephanophoric type. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Apollo Grynios standing right, holding phiale in right hand, filleted laurel branch in left; , and ÂUr5@Å5o@ to left, omphalos and amphora at feet; all within laurel wreath. Sacks Issue 20, obv. die 19; SNG Copenhagen 223. Lightly toned, a few light scratches at edge on reverse. EF. $7500

592502. IONIA, Ephesos. Circa 390-325 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 15.29 g, 12h). Ileos, magistrate. Struck circa 350340 BC. Bee with straight wings; E-f flanking head / Forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left, 5¬EWs to right. Pixodarus Class G, obv. die 120 (this coin referenced); SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –. Toned, underlying luster. Near EF. Well centered. A wonderful coin in hand. $12,500 Ex Numismatik Naumann 91 (5 July 2020), lot 61; Paulo Leitao Collection (Gorny & Mosch 269, 9 March 2020), lot 386.


Outstanding Magnesia ad Maeandrum Tetradrachm

592503. IONIA, Magnesia ad Maeandrum. Circa 150-140 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.70 g, 12h). Stephanophoric type. Erasippos, son of Aristeos, “magistrate”. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder / Apollo Delphios standing left, left elbow resting on tall tripod behind, holding in right hand a branch tied with fillet; ErÅ%5∏∏o% År5%tEoU to left, ;Å˝@˙tW@ to right, meander pattern below; all within laurel wreath. Jones dies 28/b; SNG von Aulock 2042; SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 37. Attractively toned with underlying luster, a hint of die wear on obverse. Superb EF. Struck from a masterfully engraved pair of dies. $15,000 Ex Kleinkunst Collection (Leu Numsimatik 6, 23 October 2020), lot 192; Sotheby’s (3 May 1984), lot 117.

594502. IONIA, Miletos. Circa 295/0-275/0 BC. AR Drachm (19mm, 4.28 g, 1h). In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ŬE$Å@droU, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; s (civic monogram) in left field. Marcellesi 29; Price 2151; SNG Saroglos 779. Toned over fully lustrous surfaces, a little die rust on obverse. Superb EF. $2250 Ex Jolimont Collection; Gorny & Mosch 244 (13 October 2014), lot 184.

586888. IONIA, Uncertain. Circa 650-600 BC. EL Trite – Third Stater Ingot (12mm, 5.78 g). Samian-Euboic standard. Plain globular surface / Rough flattened surface. Cf. Artemision 1 (hemihekte ingot); otherwise, unpublished in the standard references. As made. $2250


570804. CARIA, Antioch ad Maeandrum. Early-Mid 1st century BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 16.05 g, 12h). Eunikos (II), magistrate. Bearded head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath / Zebu bull standing left, head facing; to left, small female figure, wearing long chiton, standing right; Å@t5ocEW@/tW@ ∏ro% tW in two lines above, ÂÅ5Å@drW in exergue, E¨@5˚o% to right; all within laurel wreath. Thonemann Group C, 17a–c (O18/R32); HN Online 2069 var. (position of legends). Lightly toned. Good VF. Very rare, only eight tetradrachms of Eunikos (II) noted by Thonemann. $5750

Published Knidos Tetradrachm

5591384. CARIA, Knidos. Circa 395-380 BC. AR Tetradrachm (21.5mm, 14.48 g, 12h). Kleokrates, maistrate. Head of Aphrodite left, hair in ampyx and sphendone; ˚-@ flanking neck; behind neck, prow left / Forepart of lion left; [˚¬] Eo˚rÅt˙[s] below; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 4b (A4/P3 – this coin); HNO –; SNG Keckman –. Lightly toned, minor scratches on obverse. EF. Extremely rare, one of only three examples known with this magistrate. $8500 Ex Superior (6 December 1991), lot 469; Superior (31 May 1988), lot 1528.

589594. CARIA, Uncertain. Circa 197 BC. AR Drachm (20mm, 4.07 g, 12h). In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ŬE$Å@droU, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, √ above grape bunch on vine. Lorber, Pseudo-Chios, Group 7, dies A57/P74; Price 2324. Iridescent tone, some porosity at periphery. Superb EF. $750 Ex Mercury Group Collection; Triton VI (14 January 2003), lot 168.


582884. SATRAPS of CARIA. Pixodaros. Circa 341/0-336/5 BC. AR Didrachm (18.5mm, 7.03 g, 1h). Halikarnassos mint. Head of Apollo facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery at neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right; π5$odÅroU to right. Pixodarus 24 (A3/P10)); Konuk, Identities 30; HN Online 241. Toned. In NGC encapsulation 4375586-002, graded Ch AU, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5, Fine Style. $8750 Ex Roma V (23 March 2013), lot 396; Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164 (6 January 2012), lot 270.

587356. PAMPHYLIA, Side. Circa 205-100 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.95 g, 11h). Deino–, magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Nike advancing left, holding wreath in extended right hand; pomegranate to left, dE5-@o across field. Seyrig, Side 8; SNG BN 678–81. Toned, underlying luster, trace deposits. Good VF. Dies of good style. $4750 Ex W. Hansen Collection, purchased November 2003.

587357. PISIDIA, Selge. Circa 400-325 BC. AR Stater (27mm, 10.74 g, 10h). Two wrestlers grappling; astragalos between / Slinger in throwing stance right; stE¬˝EUs to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right, UE below; all in dotted square within incuse square. SNG BN 1924 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 5251–3 (same dies). Toned, with a few oxide deposits. EF. Struck on a broad flan. $7500 Ex Bellwether Collection, purchased from Frank Kovacs, 27 December 2007; Frank Kovacs Athletic Games Collection.


592504. CILICIA, Soloi. Circa 410-375 BC. AR Stater (20.5mm, 10.68 g, 9h). Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin / Grape bunch on vine; tiny A to upper left, so2EW@ to right; all within shallow incuse circle. Casabonne Type 5; SNG BN –; SNG Levante –; Athena Fund II 791 (same dies). Toned, slightly off center on reverse. EF. Very rare. $6500

594194. CILICIA, Tarsos. Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334 BC. AR Stater (22mm, 10.92 g, 1h). Baal of Tarsos seated left, his torso facing, holding eagle-tipped scepter in extended right hand; to left, grain ear and grape bunch above n (L in Aramaic); M (M in Aramaic) below throne, zRtL`b (B’LTRZ in Aramaic) to right / Lion left, attacking bull right above crenellated walls; kLiwAR HnRb`L`yz ydzM (MZDY ZY ‘BRNHR’ W ḤLK = ‘Mazaios, Governor of Transeuphrates and Cilicia’ in Aramaic) above. Casabonne Series 4, Group A; SNG BN 360; SNG Levante 113. Lightly toned, slightly weak strike on obverse. Near EF. $2500 The Aramaic inscription on the reverse of this stater has prompted Biblical coin researcher David Hendin to reconsider the meaning of this coin type. It traditionally is translated as “Mazaios governor of Transeuphrates and Cilicia,” but Hendin translates it somewhat differently as “Mazaios who is over Eber Nahara and Cilicia.” The similarity of this inscription and a descriptive phrase used in two books of the Old Testament (which was codified at approximately the time this coin was struck) has led to Hendin’s suggestion that the walls on this coin represent the ones encompassing Jerusalem, which less than a century before had been rebuilt by Nehemiah, as related in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. (A fuller discussion of the subject is presented on pp. 100–3 of the 4th edition of Hendin’s Guide to Biblical Coins.)

589716. CYPRUS, Paphos. Stasandros. Second half 5th century BC. AR Stater (24mm, 10.85 g, 12h). Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, e to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, s1 ß^ß (Basi Stasa in Cypriot) around; all within dotted square in incuse square. Destrooper-Georgiades 15; Zapiti & Michaelidou 7; Tziambazis 7. Slightly off center, minor die wear. Near EF. $6750


585779. CYPRUS, Salamis. Evagoras I. Circa 411-374/3 BC. AV Tenth Stater (8mm, 0.77 g, 8h). Head or Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Forepart of man-headed goat right. Markou, L’or, Variant A; Zapiti & Michaelidou 15; SNG Copenhagen 46. Lightly toned, minor edge scuff. Good VF. Removed from NGC encapsulation 4936355-014,where it was graded XF, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5, edge scuff. $3250

584155. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 222-187 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 17.10 g, 1h). “Rose” mint (Edessa?). Struck circa 211-209/8 BC. Diademed head right (Type B), with receding hairline, diadem ends falling strait behind / ∫Ås5¬EWs Å@t5ocoU, Apollo Delphios, testing arrow and placing hand on grounded bow, seated left on omphalos; © to outer left, ; to outer right. SC 1122.2a; ESM 403; HGC 9, 447bb. Lustrous. EF. Outstanding metal and portrait. Very rare, none recorded at CoinArchives. $3250

593532. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 14.23 g, 12h). Tyre mint. Dated SE 166 (147/6 BC). Diademed and draped bust right, diadem ends falling straight behind / ∫Ås5¬EWs ŬE$Å@droU, eagle standing left on prow left; palm frond in background; to right, club surmounted by Tyre monogram; to left, ?ΞP (date) above ◊. SC 1835.5a; Newell, Tyre 72; HGC 9, 883; DCA 123. Underlying luster, peripheral toning on reverse. EF. $4750 Ex Father & Son Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 87 (18 May 2011), lot 636.


593533. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Demetrios II Nikator. First reign, 146-138 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30mm, 16.63 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Dated SE 168 (145/4 BC). Diademed head right, diadem ends falling straight behind, within wreath / ∫Å%5¬EW% d˙µ˙tr5oU QEoU f52ÅdE2foU @5˚Åtoro%, Apollo Delphios, testing arrow in right hand, resting left hand on grounded bow, seated left on omphalos; , to inner left, ™ between legs, ˙$r (date) in exergue. SC 1907.1c; HGC 9, 957d; DCA 146. Lightly toned, a small spot of green verdigris in field on reverse. EF. $1850 Ex Father & Son Collection. Ex Northern California Collection (Heritage 3061, 7 January 2018), lot 29258, purchased from Frank Kovacs, late 1990s.

584156. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.61 g, 12h). Tyre mint. Dated SE 180 (133/2 BC). Diademed head right, diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border / ∫Å%5¬EW% Å@ t5ocoU EUEr˝EtoU, Athena Nikephoros standing left; to outer left, club surmounted by Tyre monogram, flanked by 5Er and `%U; ∏r (date) and > in exergue; all within laurel wreath. SC 2107.3; HGC 9, 1067q; DCA 195. Lustrous, small scratch in reverse field. EF. $1250

593534. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Kleopatra Thea & Antiochos VIII. 125-121 BC. AR Tetradrachm (28mm, 16.22 g, 12h). Ptolemaïs (Ake) mint. Undated issue, struck circa 124 BC. Jugate busts right of Cleopatra, wearing veil and stephanos, and Antiochos VIII, wearing diadem / ∫`%5¬5%%˙% ˚2Eo∏`tr`% QE`% ˚`5 ∫`%52EW% `@t5ocoU, Zeus Nikephoros seated left; † to outer left. SC 2271.1; LSM 8; HGC 9, 1182g. Toned, small deposit on obverse, some porosity on reverse. Good VF. Well centered. $3750


585427. SELEUKID EMPIRE. Philip I Philadelphos. Circa 95/4-76/5 BC. AR Tetradrachm (28mm, 15.93 g, 1h). Uncertain mint 127 in Cilicia, probably Tarsos. Struck 94/3-88/7 BC. Diademed head right, diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border / ∫`%5¬EW% f5¬5∏∏o¨ E∏5f`@o¨% f5¬`dE¬fo¨, Zeus Nikephoros seated left; in left field, 1 above Å; 1 in inner left field, ù below throne; all within laurel wreath. SC 2460d; SMA 456; HGC 9, 1316. Light marks on obverse. Superb EF. A bright example with a beautiful portrait. $1450

Exceptional Tyre Shekel – MSṄ, 5/5, 5/5

587427. PHOENICIA, Tyre. 126/5 BC-AD 65/6. AR Shekel (27mm, 14.21 g, 1h). Dated CY 51 (76/5 BC). Bust of Melkart right, wearing laurel wreath, lion skin around neck / Eagle standing left on prow; palm frond in background; to left, &@ (date) above club; d to right; b (B in Phoenician) between legs; tUroU 5Er&% ˚&5 &%U¬oU around. DCA–Tyre 180; HGC 10, 357; DCA 919. In NGC encapsulation 4372218-004, graded Ch MSṄ, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 5/5. Perfectly centered and struck. As good an example as can be found of this iconic series. $24,500


“Crucifixion” Year Shekel

592505. PHOENICIA, Tyre. 126/5 BC-AD 65/6. AR Shekel (24mm, 14.01 g, 12h). Lifetime of Christ issue. Dated CY 159 (AD 33/4). Head of Melkart right, wearing laurel wreath, [lion skin around neck] / Eagle standing left on prow; palm frond in background; to left, r@œ (date) above club; to right, ˚r above degraded l; b (Phoenician B) between legs; t¨ro¨ 5E[r`% ˚`5 `%¨]¬o¨ around. DCA-Tyre 578; RPC I 4663; HGC 10, 357; DCA 920. Lightly toned, some deposits and die wear on obverse. Good VF. Clear date. $7500 According to the traditional chronology, this coin was struck in the year of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion.

Cited by Mildenberg

589725. JUDAEA, Bar Kochba Revolt. 132-135 CE. AR Sela – Tetradrachm (25mm, 14.52 g, 1h). Dated year 2 (133/4 CE). Façade of the Temple at Jerusalem; showbread table within, cross above, 2LC∑R¥ (“Jerusalem” in Hebrew) around / Bundle of lulav; etrog to left, L!RC¥ RHL @C (“Y(ear) 2 of the freedom of Israel” in Hebrew) around. Mildenberg 15.8 (O4/ R8, this coin); Meshorer 230a (same dies as illustration); Hendin 6416; Bromberg 83 (same dies); Shoshana I 20262 (same obv. die); Sofaer 31 (same obv. die); Spaer 190. Minor doubling, some roughness. EF. $16,500 Ex J. Samel Collection (Künker 334, 17 March 2020), lot 2402 (since cleaned)

589724. JUDAEA, Bar Kochba Revolt. 132-135 CE. AR Zuz – Denarius (19mm, 3.23 g, 1h). Undated, attributed to year 3 (134/5 CE). ∑3o2C (“Shim‘on” in Hebrew) within wreath / Fluted jug; 2LC∑R¥ ¡∑RHL (“For the freedom of Jerusalem” in Hebrew) around. Mildenberg 132 (O19/R92); Meshorer 284 (same obv. die as illustration); Hendin 6450; Bromberg 502 (same dies); Shoshana I 20425 (same dies); Sofaer –; Spaer –. Lightly toned over lustrous surfaces. Choice EF. $3250


Map of the Hinterlands Around Ephesos

570806. PERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Artaxerxes III to Darios III. Circa 350-333 BC. AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 14.99 g). Chian standard. Uncertain mint in western Asia Minor (Ionia or Sardes?). Persian king, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear in right hand, bow in left / Incuse rectangle, containing pattern possibly depicting relief map of the hinterland of Ephesos. Johnston, Earliest 33; Meadows, Administration 328; Mildenberg, Münzwesen pp. 25–6 and pl. XII, 110; BMC Ionia p. 324, 3 and 6; Jameson 1787; Pozzi 3138. Lightly toned, a few light scratches, tiny flan flaw on reverse. VF. $6750 Johnston has interpreted this remarkable reverse design as a relief map of the hinterland of Ephesos, which would make it the earliest Greek map and first physical relief map known. On the right (north) are the mountains Tmolos and Messogis between the river valleys of the Caÿster and Maeander, to the left of which are three mountain ridges (Madranbaba Dagi, Karincali Dagi, and Akaba Tepesi). Johnston follows Six in suggesting that the coins were probably struck under the Persian general Memnon at Ephesos, circa 336-334 BC, in order to pay his army after he had captured the city, but before his defeat by Alexander at the Battle of Granicus in 334. However, Johnston’s map theory has been the subject of some doubt, most notably by Leo Mildenberg.

Fewer than Ten Known

593538. PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy I Soter. As satrap, 323-305/4 BC. AV Stater (19mm, 8.51 g, 12h). In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Memphis mint. Struck circa 322/1 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with serpent, single-pendant earring, and necklace / [Ŭ]E$Å@dr[oU], Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and cradling stylis in left arm; rose in left field, Å below left wing. CPE 5; Svoronos –; Zervos Issue 77, dies –/a (unlisted obv. die); Price 3966A; Hunt II 374 (same rev. die). Some light scratches, minor double strike on reverse. Good VF. Very rare, only three noted by Zervos, two additional in ANS photofile, two additional in CoinArchives, one additional in Pella. $8750

587434. PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy II Philadelphos. 285-246 BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.18 g). Alexandreia mint. Struck 285-261/0 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, wearing aegis around neck / ∫Å%5¬EW% ∏to¬EÂÅ5oU, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, fl above shield; M to right. CPE 306; Svoronos 555; SNG Copenhagen 113. Nicely centered and struck with attractive iridescent toning. In NGC encapsulation 4165530-001, graded AU (star), Strike: 5/5, Surface: 5/5. $3250 41

586891. PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy III Euergetes. 246-222 BC. Æ Drachm (42.5mm, 72.03 g, 12h). Alexandreia mint. Series 5B. Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right / ∫Å%5¬EW% ∏to¬EµÅ5oU, eagle with closed wings standing left on thunderbolt; filleted cornucopia to left, ^ between legs. CPE B395; Svoronos 964; SNG Copenhagen 171–2; Noeske 117–9; Weiser 71. Even, dark brown patina. Choice EF. An attractive and impressive coin of unusual quality. $6500 Ex Sternberg XXIX (30 October 1995), lot 143 and from the collection of M. Jungfleisch, Glendining & Co and Spink, (11 December 1975), lot 109.

540412. PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy V Epiphanes. 204-180 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 13.61 g, 12h). Alexandreia mint. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, aegis around neck / ∫Å%5¬EW% πto¬EµÅ5oU, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; no control marks. Olivier 3583–605 (unlisted obv. die, but see 3601 for die from the same hand); Svoronos 1231; SNG Copenhagen 244–5. Dark find patina, light porosity, minor die wear on obverse. Near EF. $1750

523156. PTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy VI Philometor. Second sole reign, 163-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27.5mm, 14.11 g, 12h). Alexandreia mint. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, aegis around neck / ∫Å%5¬EW% πto¬EµÅ5oU, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; no control marks. Olivier 4225–9 (obv. die D163); Svoronos 1489; SNG Copenhagen 262–8. Lightly toned, trace deposits, a couple light marks under tone. Near EF. With a strong portrait in high relief. $1950 Ex John L. Cowan Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 112, 11 September 2019), lot 378; Gemini XIII (6 April 2017), lot 108.



589715. EASTERN EUROPE, Imitations of Larissa. Mid-late 3rd century BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 12.42 g, 3h). Apollokopf-Dickscrhötling type. Mint in the central Carpathian region. Facing head of Apollo / Horseman riding right, crowning horse. Cf. OTA 228; KMW –; Lanz –; Zürich –. Toned, minor double strike and flan flaw on obverse. Good VF. Very rare. $1975

Oriental Greek

584085. KINGS of PARTHIA. Phriapatios to Mithradates I. Circa 185-132 BC. AR Drachm (4.00 g, 3h). Uncertain mint. Head left, wearing bashlyk / ∫Å%5GE∑% ÂE˝ÅGoU År%ÅkoU, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; œ to left; kto right; l in exergue. Sellwood (Mithradates I) –, but cf. 10.2 and 10.9 (for controls); Sunrise 255; Shore –. Light scratches, a hint of porosity on reverse. Near EF. Very rare. $1500

594143. KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. AR Drachm (20mm, 4.27 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Struck circa 119-109 BC. Diademed and draped bust left, wearing long beard, earring, and torque ending in sea-horse / ∫Å%5GE∑% ÂE˝ÅGoU År% ÅkoU E∏5fÅ@oU%, Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on omphalos, holding bow. Sellwood 24.10; Sunrise –; Shore 70. Light iridescence, a few hairlines, miniscule die break on reverse. EF. $975


584972. KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. AR Drachm (24.5mm, 4.24 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Struck circa 109-96/5 BC. Diademed bust left / ∫Å%5¬EW% above ∫Å%5¬EW@ to right, ;E˝Å¬oU below, År%Å˚oU/ E∏5fÅ@oU% to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow. Sellwood 27.2; Sunrise 294; Shore 86. Light iridescence, some faint hairlines. EF. $750

584086. KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. AR Drachm (22mm, 4.19 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Struck circa 109-96/5 BC. Diademed bust left / ∫Å%5¬EW% above ∫Å%5¬EW@ to right, ;E˝Å¬oU below, År%Å˚oU/ E∏5fÅ@oU% to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; Å(?) behind throne. Cf. Sellwood 27.5; Sunrise –; cf. Shore 88. Traces of iridescence, light scratches, a hint of doubling on reverse. EF. $385

584097. KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. AR Drachm (21.5mm, 4.17 g, 12h). Rhagai mint. Struck circa 96/5-93/2 BC. Diademed bust left, wearing ornate tiara with eight-rayed star / ∫Å%5¬EW% above ∫Å%5¬EW@ to right, ;E˝Å¬oU below, År%Å˚oU/E∏5fÅ@oU% to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow. Sellwood 28.1; Sunrise 296; Shore 95. A few light scratches. Superb EF. $525

584105. KINGS of PARTHIA. Sinatrukes. 93/2-70/69 BC (Intermittently). AR Drachm (21mm, 4.09 g, 12h). Rhagai mint. Bust left, wearing tiara decorated with horn and stags / ∫Å%5¬EW% above ;E˝Å¬oU to right, År%Å˚oU below, œEo∏ÅtoroU/@5kÅtoro% to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow. Sellwood 33.4 (Gotarzes I); Sunrise 302; Shore 114 (Gotarzes I). Lustrous, a few light hairlines, trace deposits on reverse. Superb EF. $625


594144. KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates III. 87-80 BC. AR Drachm (20mm, 4.13 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Bust left, wearing tiara decorated with eight-rayed star / ∫Å%5GE∑%/ÂE˝ÅGoU above, År%ÅkoU to right, ÅUtokrÅtoro[%]/ f5Go∏Åtoro% below, E∏5fÅ@oU%/[f5G]EGG˙@oU% above to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow. Sellwood 31.5 (Orodes I); Sunrise –; Shore 122 (Orodes I). Underlying luster, small die flaw on reverse. EF. $850

592788. KINGS of PARTHIA. Phraatakes, with Musa. Circa 2 BC-AD 4/5. BI Tetradrachm (29mm, 12.99 g, 12h). Seleukeia on the Tigris mint. Dated Daisios 31[...] SE (May, AD 1, 2, 3, or 4). ∫¬[45¬E∑4] to left, ∫245¬] E∑@ to right, diademed bust of Phraatakes left, wart on forehead; before, Nike flying right, crowning him with wreath; [...]5t on diadem pendant / œ424 o ¨r [2@524 ;o¨4˙4] ∫245254˙4, diademed and crowned bust of Musa right; before, Nike flying left, crowning her with wreath; dG5 (month) over shoulder. Sellwood Type 58 (unlisted month); cf. Sunrise 403 (for type); cf. Shore 323 (same). Toned, light porosity, scratch and graffiti on reverse. VF. Rare. $5500 Ex Dr. Jay M. Galst Collection; Triton I (2 December 1997), lot 597. Phraatakes was the son of the slave girl Musa, who was given to the Parthian king Phraates by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 20 BC, as part of the deal that saw Parthia return the Roman standards they had captured in 53 BC. A woman of great beauty and cunning, Musa soon became the favorite wife of Phraatakes and bore him a son, Phraatakes, around 19 BC. She quickly maneuvered her son into an unchallenged position to succeed the king, after which, like her later Roman counterpart Agrippina Jr., she had her husband poisoned in 2 BC. The historian Josephus claims Phraatakes then married his mother to secure her influence and legitimize his rule; modern historians have challenged this account, however, noting that there are no traditions in Parthian or Iranian culture in which a mother can marry her son. However, coins were issued starting in AD 2 with both their portraits, the first time a woman had appeared on a Parthian coin; she is named as “Heavenly Queen,” pointing to coequal or superior status in the regime. This proved intolerable to the Parthian nobility, who were also angered by the royal couple’s recognition of Roman suzerainty over Armenia. In AD 4, the nobles rebelled and placed a certain Orodes III on the throne. By some accounts, Musa and Phraatakes managed to escape and fled to Rome, where Augustus welcomed them.

584109. KINGS of PARTHIA. Meherdates. Usurper, AD 49-50. AR Drachm (21.5mm, 3.45 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Facing bust, wearing tiara; stars flanking / ä¬5¬4¬4/ä¬45¬4¬@ above, ¬5 5¬@äd to right, 5¨55˝4täd/¬5c¬5ä¨ below, 5∏5+¬@ ä¨4/+5¬5¬¬˙cä4 to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; + below bow. Sellwood 67.1 (Vonones I); Sunrise 417-8; Shore 368 (Vonones II). Toned, roughness, some scratches in obverse margin, slight double strike on reverse. EF. $575


584114. KINGS of PARTHIA. Vologases V. Circa AD 191-208. AR Drachm (19mm, 3.73 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Diademed facing bust, wearing long beard and with hair in bunches above head and over ears / GLM ySGLy/¬5¬55¬¨ above, 5∏¨ä below, c¬5¬ to left, archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; e below bow. Sellwood 86.3; Sunrise 455; Shore 448. Toned, hairline flan crack, minor die break on obverse. EF. $1575

584123. BAKTRIA, Local issues. Sophytes. Circa 280/78-270 BC. AR Drachm (16mm, 3.45 g, 6h). Attic standard. Uncertain mint in the Oxus Regios. Male head right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with laurel wreath and wing on cheek piece; traces of ;@Å on truncation of neck / %WfUtoU to right, cock standing right; kerykeion to left. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes 3 (hemidrachm); Bopearachchi & Rahman –; SMAK pl. 30 = Triton XV, lot 1343; SNG ANS 21-24; cf. MIG Type 29b; HGC 12, 14. Iridescent toning, roughness, die break on reverse. Near EF. $1750

584147. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Euthydemos I Theos Megas. Circa 225-200/195 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30mm, 16.54 g, 12h). Mint B (“Baktra”). Struck circa 210-206 BC. Diademed head right / ∫Å%5¬EW% to right, EUQUd˙;oU to left, Herakles seated left on rock, holding club set on rocks; } to right of rock. Kritt B15; Bopearachchi 10A; MPHB B Group V; SNG ANS 137; HGC 12, 42. Minor deposits, a hint of porosity, small scratch on reverse. EF. $7750

584153. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Demetrios I Aniketos. Circa 200-185 BC. Æ Dichalkon (24mm, 6.61 g, 12h). Bearded bust of Herakles right, wearing ivy wreath and lion skin; club over shoulder / ∫Å%5¬EW% to right, d˙;˙tr5oU to left, Artemis standing facing, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver; I to inner left. Bopearachchi 4C; MPHB dies O4/R7; SNG ANS 204; HGC 12, 68. Iridescent brown surfaces, slight porosity, minor deposits and double strike on reverse. Near EF. $775 46

584122. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Euthydemos II. Circa 185-180 BC. CU-NI Dichalkon (23mm, 7.67 g, 12h). Laureate head of Apollo right / ∫Å%5¬EW% to right, EUQUd˙;oU to left, tripod; } to inner left. Bopearachchi 6A; MPHB Group III; SNG ANS 223; HGC 12, 42. Dark gray and red-brown patina, typical roughness, cleaning marks on reverse. VF. Rare. $475

592508. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Antimachos I Theos. Circa 180-170 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.96 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right, wearing kausia / [∫]Å%5¬EW% QEoU to right, Å@t5;ÅcoU to left, Poseidon, laureate, standing facing, holding trident in right hand and cradling filleted palm in left arm; K to inner right. Bopearachchi 1D; MPHB Group III; SNG ANS 276-7; HGC 12, 106. Light iridescent toning, minor porosity. EF. $6250

Choice Eukratides Tetradrachm

592509. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (34mm, 16.97 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% above, EUkrÅt5doU in exergue, the Dioskouroi, holding palm fronds and spears, on horses rearing right; } in lower right field. Bopearachchi 1B; SNG ANS 431; HGC 12, 130. Lightly toned with underlying luster. Choice EF. An exceptional example. $10,750 Ex Oxus Collection.


584148. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Drachm (19mm, 4.20 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% above, EUkrÅt5doU in exergue, the Dioskouroi, holding palm fronds and spears, on horses rearing right; } to left. Bopearachchi 2B; SNG ANS 437-8 var. (placement of monogram) HGC 12, 135. A few faint scratches, slight double strike on reverse. Near EF. $3000

592699. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Drachm (19mm, 4.26 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% above, EUkrÅt5doU in exergue, the Dioskouroi, holding palm fronds and spears, on horses rearing right; Å to left; monogram in lower right field. Bopearachchi –, but cf. 2C and 2E; cf. SNG ANS 439-442; HGC 12, 135. Lustrous. Superb EF. Exceptional strike and surfaces. $5500

589723. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (34mm, 16.93 g, 12h). Helmeted, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% ÂE˝ÅGoU around, EUkrÅt5doU in exergue, the Dioskouroi, holding palm fronds and spears, on horses rearing right; Í in lower right field. Bopearachchi 6E; SNG ANS 465; HGC 12, 131. Light iridescent toning, traces of underlying luster, a few minor marks. EF. $4250

584151. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Drachm (21mm, 4.26 g, 12h). Helmeted, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% ÂE˝ÅGoU around, EUkrÅt5doU in exergue, the Dioskouroi, holding palm fronds and spears, on horses rearing right; Í in lower right field. Bopearachchi 7A; SNG ANS –; HGC 12, 136. Lightly toned. EF. Well centered. An exceptional example. $4500 48

584065. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I Megas. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Obol (12mm, 0.68 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / ∫å%5GE∑% to right, EUkrÅt5doU to left, piloi of the Dioskouroi, each with palm frond; T below. Bopearachchi 9C; SNG ANS 496-516; HGC 12, 139. Deposits, scratch on reverse. EF. $475

584152. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides II Soter. Circa 145-140 BC. AR Tetradrachm (33mm, 16.99 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% to right, EUkrÅt5doU to left, Apollo, holding arrow, standing left and leaning on bow set on ground; Ò to inner left. Bopearachchi 1H; SNG ANS 619-22; HGC 12, 161. A hint of deposits, some metal flaws. EF. Very rare in high grade. $5250

584121. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Heliokles Dikaios. Circa 145-130 BC. AR Drachm (19.5mm, 3.86 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust right / ∫å%5GE∑% to right, ˙G5okGEoU% to left, d5kÅ5oU below, Zeus standing facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; d in exergue. Bopearachchi 2B; SNG ANS 652-3; HGC 12, 171. Lightly toned, some minor porosity. Near EF. $1500

584120. BAKTRIA, Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Heliokles Dikaios. Circa 145-130 BC. AR Drachm (19mm, 3.57 g, 12h). Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing crested helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with head of Gorgon and wing / ∫å%5GE∑% to right, ˙G5okGEoU% to left, d5kÅ5oU below, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned left; ; to inner left. Bopearachchi 4A; SNG ANS 658; HGC 12, 172. Light marks, struck from a slightly worn obverse die, some areas of roughness and trace of deposit on reverse. Near EF. Rare. $1750


Central Asian

585502. INDIA, Kushan Empire. Huvishka. Circa AD 151-190. AV Dinar (19mm, 7.92 g, 12h). Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?). Early phase. saOpapOsaO O OIs˚i ˚OsaI[O], crowned and diademed bust left on clouds, holding mace scepter and goad; flames over shoulder / ardOxsO, Ardoxsho standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia; 7 to right. MK 154 (O10/R7); ANS Kushan 721; Donum Burns 232. Lightly toned, a couple of light marks. Near EF. $3500

585501. INDIA, Kushan Empire. Vasudeva I. Circa AD 190-230. AV Dinar (20mm, 7.98 g, 12h). Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?). Early phase. sÅO˜Å˜OsÅO ßÅ ZOÅIO ˚OsŘO, Vasudeva standing left, flames at shoulder, holding trident, sacrificing over altar / ÅsnO (sic) to right, Siva standing facing, holding diadem and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing left; ^ and pellet to upper left. MK –, but cf. 512; ANS Kushan –; Donum Burns –, but cf. 422-3 and 428-9; Zeno –. Lightly toned, hint of double strike, small die break and light scratch on obverse. Near EF. Very rare. $1750

585504. INDIA, Kushan Empire. Kanishka III. Circa AD 267-270. AV Dinar (21mm, 7.78 g, 12h). Main mint in Taxila. sDONDNOsDO Dnh˚s˚o ˚oDNO, Kanishka standing left, holding filleted standard, sacrificing over altar to left; filleted trident to left; 1 (ga) to right of altar; Y (gho) between legs; õ (hu) to right of scepter / OIsO to right, Ithyphallic Siva standing facing, holding a garland or diadem and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing left; to upper left, • above :. MK 634/21 (same dies); ANS Kushan 1644; Donum Burns –. Lightly toned, traces of underlying luster. Near EF. $1675

584074. SASANIAN KINGS. Ardaxšīr (Ardashir) I. AD 223/4-240. AR Drachm (25mm, 4.13 g, 9h). Mint C (Ctesiphon”). Phase 3, circa AD 233/4-238/9. mzdysn bgy ’rthštry MRK’n MRK’ ’yr’n in Pahlavi, bust right, wearing diadem (type G) and close-fitting headdress with korymbos and no earflaps / NWR’ ZY in Pahlavi to left, ’rthštr in Pahlavi to right, Fire altar (flames 3) with diadems (type G); pellet to left of altar. SNS type IIIa/3a. Toned, slight double strike on reverse. Good VF. $750 50

Sasanian Dynastic Issue

584077. SASANIAN KINGS. Vahrām (Bahram) II, with Queen and Prince 4. AD 276-293. AR Drachm (27.5mm, 4.26 g, 3h). Style A. ‘Ctesiphon’ mint. mzdysn bgy wrhr’n MRK’n MRK’ ‘yr’n w ‘n’yr’n MNW ctry MN yzd’n in Pahlavi, jugate busts of Vahrām (Bahram), wearing winged crown with korymbos, and his queen, wearing kolah with boar’s head, right, vis-à-vis bust of Prince 4, presenting wreath and wearing kolah with eagle’s head, left / NWR’ ZY in Pahlavi to left, wrhr’n in Pahlavi to right, fire altar with ribbon; flanked by Bahram and his queen, holding ring; fravahr and taurus symbol flanking flames; triple pellets on altar shaft. SNS II Type VIIa(1)/5a(1a), Style A. Lightly toned, some scratches, hint of die rust. Good VF. $1350



585509. SASANIAN KINGS. Pērōz (Fīrūz) I. AD 457/9-484. AR Drachm (29mm, 4.18 g, 3h). Type 3. NY (Nēhāvand[?]) mint. Struck circa AD 477-484. kd[y] pylwc in blundered Pahlavi to right, Bust right, wearing crown with two wings, frontal crescent, and korymbos set on crescent, ribbon over each shoulder / Fire altar with ribbons; flanked by two attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; ny in Pahlavi (mint signature) to right. SNS type IIIb/1c; Sunrise –. EF. $195 585505. SASANIAN KINGS. Husrav (Khosrau) II. AD 591-628. AR Drachm (31mm, 4.23 g, 3h). BBA (Court) mint. Dated RY 28 (AD 618/9). GDH monogram and ’pzwt’ in Pahlavi to left, bwl’n in Pahlavi to right, bust right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, two wings, and korymbos set on crescent; ribbon on left shoulder, crescent and ribbon on right; star behind crown, star in crescent before / Fire altar with ribbons; flanked by two attendants, star and crescent flanking flames, hštwyst’ in Pahlavi (RY date) to left, bba in Pahlavi (mint signature) to right. SC Tehran 2189-91. Light iridescence, underlying luster. EF. $195

584075. SASANIAN KINGS. Bōrān. AD 630-631. AR Drachm (31.5mm, 4.02 g, 3h). SK (Sakastan) mint. Dated RY 3 (AD 631). GDH monogram and ’pzwt’ in Pahlavi to left, bwl’n in Pahlavi to right, bust right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, two wings, and korymbos set on crescent; ribbon on left shoulder, crescent and ribbon on right; star behind crown, star in crescent before / Fire altar with ribbons; flanked by two attendants, star and crescent flanking flames, tlt’ in Pahlavi (RY date) to left, sk in Pahlavi (mint signature) to right. Malek & Curtis 74-133; SC Tehran –; Sunrise 1006 var. (date). Lightly toned, hint of die rust and smoothing. Good VF. $1450


Roman Provincial

589718. MOESIA INFERIOR, Marcianopolis. Caracalla, with Julia Domna. AD 198-217. Æ Pentassarion (27mm, 11.18 g, 12h). Quintilianus, legatus consularis. Struck AD 215. ANTΩNINOC AVGOVCTOC IOVΛIA ΔO, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Caracalla right vis-à-vis draped bust of Julia Domna left / VΠ KVNTIΛIA NOV MAPKIAN OΠOΛITΩ / N, Serapis, raising hand and holding scepter, standing left within tetrastyle temple; clipeus(?) in pediment, Є (mark of value) in left field. H&J, Marcianopolis,; Varbanov 1049 var. (obv. legend). Dark brown patina, detailed strike. Near EF. Great surfaces with no evident tooling or smoothing. $775

5592093. PAMPHYLIA, Side. Aemilian. AD 253. Æ Pentassarion (31.2mm, 13.37 g, 7h). AVTO K MAP AI AIMIΛIANON ЄYC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; Є (mark of value) to right / CI ΔH TΩN, Apollo Sidetes advancing left, holding patera in right hand and bow in left. RPC IX 1163; otherwise unpublished. Green patina, slight uniform roughness. Good VF. Very rare, only five known to RPC. $4750 Ex Peter Weiß Collection, acquired between 1967 and 2015.

Exceptionally Well Struck

5592094. PISIDIA, Apollonia-Mordiaeum. Gallienus. AD 253-268. Æ (42.5mm, 32.56 g, 6h). AYT K Π ΛI ΓAΛΛIHN, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, viewed from front / AΠOΛ-ΛΩ-NI-ATΩN, ΛVΘPKOY (OY in ligature) in exergue, emperor standing left, holding spear, within octastyle temple. von Aulock, Pisidiens 162 = SNG BN 1365. Attractive dark brown patina. EF. A rare large, medallic provincial bronze for this late period. Boldly struck for issue, rare as such. $6750 52

585786. CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea-Eusebia. Domitian. AD 81-96. AR Didrachm (22mm, 7.19 g, 6h). Dated RY 13 (AD 93/4). AVT KAI ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟC CEBACTOC ΓΕΡΜ, laureate head right / Athena standing right, holding owl in right hand and spear in left, ЄTO IΓ (date) across field. Ganschow, Münzen 92a; RPC II 1669; Metcalf, Caesarea 23; Sydenham, Caesarea 124. Toned. In NGC encapsulation 4936335-010, graded XF, Strike: 4/5, Surface: 5/5, Fine Style. Well centered on a round flan of good metal, rare in this quality. $3250

585428. SELEUCIS and PIERIA. Antioch. Otho. AD 69. Æ As (30mm, 14.27 g, 12h). IMP · M · OTHO CAE AVG, laureate head right / Large S · C within laurel wreath. McAlee 321c; Butcher 149i; RPC I 4318. Glossy brown patina, two peripheral obverse flan flaws on obverse. Near EF. Exceptional portrait. $975

592512. SELEUCIS and PIERIA, Laodicea ad Mare. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. AR Tetradrachm (28mm, 12.25 g, 12h). Struck AD 208-209. AVT KAI CЄOVHPOC CЄ, laureate and draped bust right / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ VΠATOC TO Γ, eagle standing facing, head left, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; star between legs. Prieur & Amandry Group III, 34a; McAlee, Severan, Group III, 25; Prieur 1149. Lustrous. Superb EF. A spectacular example of this attractive issue. $2750


Divus Julius Marinus

593541. ARABIA, Philippopolis. Divus Julius Marinus. Died before AD 244. Æ (23mm, 5.60 g, 6h). Struck circa AD 247-249. ΘЄΩ MAPINΩ, bareheaded bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder, supported by eagle standing right / ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛIT-ΩN KOΛ[ΩNIAC], Roma or Allat standing left, holding patera and spear, with shield at side; S C across field. Butcher, Two, pl. 25, 11; Spijkerman 2; Sofaer 2; SNG ANS 1402. Earthen green patina. VF. $2250 Ex Triton XXI (9 January 2018), lot 826. The father of Philip I, Julius Marinus hailed from a small town in the province of Arabia (modern day Shuhba, Syria; the original name of the ancient town is unknown). Following the death of Marinus, Philip deified his father and had a temple to him built in his newly aggrandized hometown – now renamed Philippopolis and elevated to the rank of colonia. The neat fabric of the city’s coins is quite out of place for Arabia. This, combined with die links between the coins of Philippopolis, Zeugma, and Antioch, point to production at a central location, with Antioch being the likeliest candidate.

Roman Republican

593542. Anonymous. Circa 225-214 BC. AR Didrachm – Quadrigatus (21.5mm, 6.47 g, 12h). Rome mint. Laureate head of Janus; curved truncation / Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory; in exergue, rOÂa raised on outlined tablet. Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d; RSC 24; RBW 76. Attractive old cabinet tone, minor areas of porosity, small edge chip. EF. Struck from dies of fine tyle. $2750 Ex Dr. Jay M. Galst Collection.

589719. Anonymous. 225-212 BC. AR Didrachm – Quadrigatus (21.5mm, 6.45 g, 6h). Uncertain mint. Laureate head of Janus, wearing slight beard, slightly wavy truncation / Jupiter, holding thunderbolt in right hand and scepter in left, in fast quadriga driven right by Victory; rOÂa incuse on raised tablet in exergue. Crawford 30/1; Hersh, Quadrigatus -; Sydenham 64b var. (no slight beard); cf. Kestner 108 var. (same); cf. BMCRR Romano-Campanian 93; RSC 23; RBW 65-6. Lightly toned, minor flan crack. Near EF. Struck from dies of intriguing style. $2450 54

586901. M. Atilius Saranus. 148 BC. AR Denarius (18.5mm, 3.77 g, 9h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; ÍArY downward to left, x (mark of value) below chin / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; Â • ATiLi below horses, rOÂa in exergue`. Crawford 214/1b; Sydenham 398b; Atilia 9; RBW 905. Attractive old cabinet tone, minor deposits. Near EF. Well centered on a broad, round flan. $975

592513. Cn. Lucretius Trio. 136 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.97 g, 5h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; x (mark of value) below chin, TriO to left / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; CN • luC[r] below, [r]OÂ[A] in exergue. Crawford 237/1a; Sydenham 450; Lucretia 1; RBW 978. Light iridescent tone over lustrous surfaces. Superb EF. $1250

594481. M. Aburius M.f. Geminus. 132 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.99 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, ornamented with griffin’s head, visor in three pieces and peaked, single drop earring, and pearl necklace, hair falling in three locks; ge downward to left, • (mark of value) below chin / Sol, radiate, wearing cloak, driving galloping quadriga right, holding whip in right hand and reins in left;  • äœi below, rOÂA in exergue. Crawford 250/1; Sydenham 487; Aburia 6; BMCRR Rome 995-7; Kestner 2260-3; RBW 1027. Beautifully toned, minor deposits. Choice EF. E xcellent metal. $1250 Ex Regierungsrat Dr. iur. Hans Krähenbühl Collection, purchased from Bank Leu, 5 November 1981.


Abduction of the Sabine Women

592704. L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus. 89 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.86 g, 5h). Rome mint. Bareheaded and bearded head of King Tatius right; ÍABiN downward to left, ë to right / Abduction of the Sabine Women: two soldiers, facing each other, each carrying off a Sabine woman in his arms; [L • Ti]Turi in exergue. Crawford 344/1a; Sydenham 698; Tituria 1; RBW –. Iridescent tone. EF. Exceptional strike, showing facial details of reverse figures. $1975 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78 (26 May 2014), lot 619. The tale of the “Rape of the Sabine Women” (”rape” in the sense of an abduction, rather than a sexual assault), as related by Livy, dates from the early history of Rome. Romulus and his male followers, having founded Rome, found themselves in desperate need of females to take to wife and grow their community. According to Livy, Romulus attempted to negotiate with his neighbors for their daughters to supply the Roman men with brides, but having failed, he devised a plan to abduct the women instead. He held a large festival and invited the neighboring tribes to attend; at a given signal the Roman men grabbed the Sabine girls and carried them off to their homes. The women were offered proper marriage and property rights, which all of them accepted. The Sabines went to war to get their daughters back, lead by King Tatius (depicted on the obverse of this issue), but at a critical point in the conflict, the Sabine women appeared and threw themselves between the combatants, imploring fathers and husbands alike to cease fighting. The men relented and agreed to unite the Roman and Sabine people, with Tatius and Romulus ruling jointly. The tale had special relevance to the moneyer, whose name indicates his Sabine lineage, and to the political context of 89 BC, with Rome just emerging from the Social Wars, which the moneyer conflates with the struggle between Rome and the Sabines, ultimately resulting in unification.

592514. Q. Antonius Balbus. 83-82 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (19.5mm, 3.81 g, 5h). Rome mint. Laureate head of Jupiter right; Í • C downward to left / Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, palm frond, and wreath; œ below, œ • MO • B8B/pr in exergue. Crawford 364/1d; Sydenham 742b; Antonia 1. Beautiful iridescent cabinet tone. EF. $975 Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor of Sardinia. Before he left for his territory, the Senate ordered him to mint this issue to pay the army preparing to resist Sulla’s return. The reverse reflects expectation of Balbus for victory and consequent peace. Sulla was victorius, however; L. Philippus, a partisan of Sulla, removed Balbus from his position and had him slain.

585500. L. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (17.5mm, 3.89 g, 9h). Military mint moving with Sulla. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, ornamented with griffin’s head, the visor in three pieces and peaked, singlependant earring, and ornate necklace; prO • œ down ward to left, L • ÂANLi upward to right / Sulla, holding branch in right hand and reins in left, driving triumphal quadriga right; above, Victory flying left, crowing him with wreath; L • ÍuLLA • i[Âp] in exergue. Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757a; Manlia 5; BMCRR East 7 & 11; Kestner 3174–6; RBW 1386. Attractive iridescent cabinet tone. Near EF. $975


592515. L. Rutilius Flaccus. 77 BC. AR Denarius (18.5mm, 3.88 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet with peaked visor; FLAC downward to left / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and wreath; L • ruTiLi in exergue. Crawford 387/1; Sydenham 780a; Rutilia 1a; RBW 1420. Wonderful old cabinet tone. Near EF. $850

592516. P. Galba. 69 BC. AR Denarius (17.5mm, 4.06 g, 3h). Rome mint. Veiled and draped bust of Vesta right; Í • C downward to left / Emblems of the pontificate: secespita, simpulum, and securis; Ae Cur across field, p • gALB in exergue. Crawford 406/1; Sydenham 839; Sulpicia 7; BMCRR Rome 3517; RBW 1454. Light iridescent tone over residual luster, traces of original find patina. EF. $1750 Ex Tkalec (29 February 2008), lot 161.

592517. L. Torquatus. 65 BC. AR Denarius (18.5mm, 3.99 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of Sibylla right, wearing ivy wreath; [ÍiBULL[A] below / Tripod surmounted by amphora between two stars; L • TOrœuAT downward to left, iii • uir upward to right; all within ornamented torque. Crawford 411/1b var. (border of dots); Sydenham 836; BMCRR Rome 3514; Manlia 12a; RBW –. Lustrous, a few tiny spots of encrustation. EF. From dies of fine style. $6750 Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 67 (11 July 2019), lot 288.

Outstanding Sulla Portrait

593543. Q. Pompeius Rufus. 54 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.57 g, 3h). Rome mint. Bare head of the consul Q. Pompeius Rufus right; œ • RO • ruFi downward to right, ruFuÍ • COÍ downward to left / Bare head of Sulla right; ÍuLLA • COÍ downward to right. Crawford 434/1; Sydenham 908; Pompeia 4; RBW 1544. Toned, some faint hairlines. Near EF. Exceptional portrait of Sulla in high relief. $4500 Ex Thomas A. Palmer Collection; Peus 366 (25 October 2000), lot 1220; Lanz 72 (29 May 1995), lot 416; Monetarium 42 (Autumn 1984), no. 82. The moneyer chose to depict both his maternal grandfather, the dictator Sulla, and his paternal grandfather, Quintus Pompeius Rufus, consuls in 88 BC. Pompeius was an ardent supporter of the dictator, and their alliance was further cemented by the marriage of Pompeius’ son to Sulla’s eldest daughter, Cornelia Sulla. The marriage produced two children, the moneyer responsible for this denarius and Pompeia, second wife of Julius Caesar (whom Caesar famously divorced following the scandal associated with the festival of Bona Dea in 62 BC).


592518. The Caesarians. Julius Caesar. April-August 49 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.70 g, 9h). Military mint traveling with Caesar. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent; CAeÍAr in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49; BMCRR Gaul 27; RBW 1557. Beautiful iridescent toning. Choice EF. Well struck. $9750 Despite being the most widespread of all Caesar’s coins, the design of this type, the first issue in the dictator’s name, is still somewhat mysterious. Authorities have even debated which side is which: Crawford describes the elephant as the obverse, but other experts dispute this. The symbolism is commonly held to show the triumph of good (elephant) over evil (serpent or dragon). Alternatively, the “horned serpent” may be intended to represent a carnyx, a serpent-shaped horn used by the Celtic tribes in Gaul, whom Caesar had recently overcome in his epic eight-year conquest, in which case the elephant would again represent Caesar himself, or the unstoppable juggernaut of Rome. Unlike Pompey, Caesar brazenly placed his own name on the coinage without having the constitutional authority to do so, as Sulla had done 33 years before. The reverse depicts the emblems of the Pontifex Maximus, an office Caesar had possessed since 63 BC.

587435. The Caesarians. Julius Caesar. Late 48-47 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.87 g, 6h). Military mint traveling with Caesar in North Africa. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, holding palladium and bearing Anchises on his shoulder; CAeÍAr downward to right. Crawford 458/1; CRI 55; Sydenham 1013; RSC 12; BMCRR East 31; Kestner 3577-9; RBW 1600. Light iridescent tone. Choice EF. $5750 Julius Caesar traced his descent all the way back to the Trojan hero Aeneas, legendary founder of the Latin race. Aeneas, in turn, was the product of a sexual liaison between the goddess Venus and Anchises, a herdsman who was related to the Trojan royal family. In a scene recounted by Virgil in the Aeneid, when the Greeks torched Troy, Aeneas escaped from the burning city carrying the aged Anchises on his shoulder and the sacred Palladium, a cult statue of Pallas Athena rescued from the household shrine. The scene is depicted on the reverse of this denarius of Caesar, struck in 48-47 BC, at least two decades before the Aeneid was composed. Venus, the mother of Aeneas (and thus the divine antecedent of Caesar) appears on the obverse.

Gold for the Victors of Thapsus

589964. The Caesarians. Julius Caesar. Early 46 BC. AV Aureus (21mm, 8.13 g, 12h). Rome mint; A. Hirtius, praetor. Veiled head of female (Vesta or Pietas?) right; C • CAeÍAr COÍ Ter around / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: lituus, capis, and securis; A • hirTiuÍ • pr around from lower left. Crawford 466/1; Molinari 148-54 (D12/R215); CRI 56; Sydenham 1018; Bahrfeldt 19; Calicó 37; Biaggi 27-8; BMCRR Rome 4052; Kestner 3634-6; RBW 1634. Light reddish tone, a few faint cleaning marks. Near EF. Struck on a broad flan from dies of pleasing style. $22,500 Aulus Hirtius, friend and confidant of Julius Caesar, was praetor in 46 BC, and thus charged with the distribution of the first truly large issue of Roman gold coins to date. The aurei were for distribution to the general’s successful troops after their final victory over the Pompeians in Africa at Thapsus. Each legionary received 5000 denarii (200 aurei), centurions twice that. Since Caesar had at least 40,000 legionnaires at Thapsus, the amount of coin needed was immense. But the amount of booty collected from Caesar’s many campaigns was also colossal, and Hirtius seems to have been able to supply the need. Hirtius later finished the dictator’s memoirs after his assassination and was himself killed at the siege of Mutina in 43 BC.


587436. The Caesarians. Julius Caesar. 42 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.72 g, 12h). Rome mint; L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer. Laureate head right / Rudder, cornucopia on globe, winged caduceus, and apex; L • ÂuÍÍiDiuÍ • LONguÍ downward on left and below. Crawford 494/39b; CRI 116; Sydenham 1096c; RSC 29; BMCRR Rome 4241; Kestner 3750 var. (orientation of legend); RBW 1742 var. (same); Kress 128, lot 443 (same rev. die). Old cabinet tone, scratches and light test cut on obverse under tone, minor edge chips. Near EF. The rarer variety with this legend orientation. $7500 Lucius Mussidius Longus, a moneyer with an otherwise unknown cursus honorum. His nomen Mussidius indicates that he was a novus homo, or up-and-coming man with no long family pedigree. As such, he would have allied himself to any potential long-term power base. In 42 BC, as the Second Triumvirate was defeating Caesar’s assassins, Mussidius oversaw the striking of this denarius of the now-deceased and soon to be deified dictator, a clear nod to the Caesarian cause. Apparently, such a move benefitted the gens Mussidia. A distant relation, T. Mussidius Pollianus, was a senator under the new regime in the first century AD.

LEG XVIIII – Rarest of Antony’s Legionary Denarii

589959. The Triumvirs. Mark Antony. Autumn 32-spring 31 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.39 g, 6h). Legionary issue. Patrae(?) mint. Praetorian galley right; ANT • Aug above, [iii • u]ir • r • p • C below / Aquila between two signa; Leg xuiiii across lower field. Crawford 544/34; CRI 379; Sydenham 1241; RSC 54; RBW –. Toned with some find patina. Fine. An extremely rare type with XVIIII, as opposed to the more frequently encountered LEG XIX. $9750 Not to be confused with a similar legion under the command of Octavian, this Antonian legion was either disbanded or incorporated into another legion after Actium. Antonian legionary denarii were hammered out in such great numbers that uniformity in die engraving suffered; hence some engravers chose different ways of depicting the same Roman numeral; XIX and XVIIII are both seen, although the longer form is considerably rarer.

587437. The Triumvirs. Octavian. Summer 37 BC. AR Denarius (21mm, 3.70 g, 2h). Bareheaded and bearded head right; iÂp • CAeÍAr • Diui • F [• iii • uir • iTe]r • r augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus; COÍ • iTer • eT • Crawford 538/1; CRI 312; Sydenham 1334; RSC 91; RBW 1826. Lustrous, area of flat portrait of a young Octavian.


Mint in southern or central Italy. • p • C around / Emblems of the Ter • DeÍig around and to right. strike at periphery. EF. Excellent $4750

Roman Imperial Ex Haeberlin Collection – Pedegreed to 1933

585785. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (3.96 g). Rome mint. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Struck 19/8 BC. • TVRPILIANVS III • VIR •, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing pearl necklace and stephane, above which is a row of berries; FE RON below bust / CAESAR AV GVSTVS SIGN RECE, Bareheaded Parthian kneeling on right knee right, extending in right hand a signum, to which is attached a vexillum marked with X, and holding out left hand below left knee. RIC I 288; RSC 484; BMCRE 15-17 = BMCRR Rome 4526-8; BN 127-137. Deep cabinet tone. In NGC encapsulation 4936333-008, graded Ch AU, Strike: 4/5, Surface: 5/5. $6750 Purportedly ex Mossberg Collection (1946); Ernst Justus Haeberlin Collection (Cahn-Hess, 17 July 1933), lot 3237.

592510. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Cistophorus (25mm, 11.96 g, 2h). Ephesus mint. Struck circa 25-20 BC. IMP • CAE SAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS, capricorn right, head left, bearing cornucopia on back; all within laurel wreath. RIC I 477; Sutherland Group V, – (unlisted dies); RPC I 2213; RSC 16; BMCRE 696 = BMCRR East 263; BN 916–7. Beautiful old cabinet tone. Choice EF. With a handsome portrait in high relief. $9250 Ex Tradart (18 December, 2014), lot 238; Vedrines (22 January 2003), lot 24; Vinchon (9 December 1983), lot 261. The cistophoric tetradrachm was introduced by the Attalid kings of Pergamum in the 190s BC, and was intended for circulation only within a closed economic region in western Anatolia. Its name derives from the cista, or sacred basket containing serpents, that appeared on the obverse of the first issues. The Pergamene Kingdom was later bequeathed to Rome in 133 BC as Asia Province and the coinage continued, with the local design gradually supplanted by portraits of Roman rulers. It was theoretically a tetradrachm (4-drachm piece) on the reduced Asian standard of about 3 grams per drachm; however, its weight was also equivalent to three Roman denarii, so it could also have passed current in the western provinces as a triple denarius piece. Whether cistophori were used in the west in this fashion is a matter of ongoing debate.

587656. Agrippa. Died 12 BC. Æ As (30mm, 11.28 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. M • AGRIPPA • L • F • COS • III, head left, wearing rostral crown / S C across field, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand and trident in left. RIC I 58 (Gaius); BMCRE 161-8 (Tiberius); BN 77-97. Attractive pale green patina, light smoothing in reverse fields. Good VF. With a bold portrait of fine style. $1850 60

587428. Tiberius. AD 14-37. AV Aureus (19mm, 7.72 g, 6h). “Tribute Penny” type. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Group 6, AD 36-37. TI CΛESΛR DIVI ΛVG F ΛVGVSTVS, laureate head right; long, parallel ribbons / PONTIF MΛXIM, Livia (as Pax) seated right on chair, feet on footstool, holding scepter in right hand and olive branch in left; ornate chair legs, single line below. RIC I 29; Lyon 153; Calicó 305c; BMCRE 47; BN 26-7 var. (one ribbon on shoulder); Adda 14; Biaggi 170; Mazzini 15** var. (same). A few marks on reverse. EF. Well struck on a broad flan. Wonderful portrait. $22,500

586892. Anonymous issues. temp. Tiberius, AD 14-37. Æ Tessera (20mm, 4.89 g, 1h). Struck circa AD 22/3-37. Laureate head of Augustus right; FEL below; all within plain border and wreath / X within pearl border and wreath. Buttrey 5/X (unlisted combination). Cohen VIII 62; Kestner, Tesseren –. Dark brown patina with some light earthen deposits. Good VF. Boldly struck. Very rare. $2500 For centuries, numismatists have been puzzled by a curious series of bronze tokens bearing on their reverse numerals from I to XVI. The obverse types on these tokens vary dramatically, bearing not only portraits of Augustus, Tiberius, and Livia, but also various erotic scenes, heterosexual and (possibly) homosexual, or bigas, maenads, capricorns, and other scattered mythological figures. The most prominent theories suggest that they were tickets for entrance to the theater or the games, and the numerals represented sections in the stands, or that they were brothel tokens, with the obverse representing a chosen “product” and the reverse the price. However, both of these theories seem unlikely when one considers that the two seemingly divergent themes are joined by die links to the numeral reverses. Alberto Campana (“Le Spintriae: Tessere Romane con Raffigurazioni Erotiche,” in La Donna Romana Imagini e Vita Quotidiana [2009], pp. 43-96) has published a die study of the erotic pieces, recording eight specimens with at least basic find spot information, most notably a sealed tomb in Modena, firmly dated to the mid-late Julio-Claudian period, as well as other examples found around the Roman world in Palestine, Gaul, Germany, and Britain, often in areas of military interest. He notes that these tesserae are primarily struck in orichalcum, a metal more valuable than regular copper or bronze. Considering the find spots and the metal used in the tokens, Campana suggests that they were luxury gifts given by the Imperial house to important military figures for use in some now-forgotten board game, possibly a variant of duodecim scripta, a game resembling modern backgammon (“Les spintriae et leur possible fonction ludique,” in Archeothema 31 [2013], p. 66).

Rare Nero Caesar Cistophorus

592511. Nero. As Caesar, AD 50-54. AR Cistophorus (26mm, 10.81 g, 6h). Ephesus mint. Struck under Claudius, AD 51. NERONI • CLAVD • CAES • DRVSO • GERM, bareheaded and draped bust left / COS DES/ P[RIN]C/ IV[VEN]T in three lines on round shield; all within laurel wreath. RIC I 121 (Claudius; same dies as illustration); RPC I 2225 (same dies as illustration); RSC 82; BMCRE 236 (same dies); BN 307 (Pergamum). Pleasing old toning. VF. Rare, and with an artistically engraved portrait of the young Nero. $9500


Colossus of Nero – CNR Plate Coin

587423. Nero. AD 54-68. AV Aureus (19.5mm, 7.29 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR, laureate head right / AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS, Nero, radiate and togate, standing facing, holding branch in right hand and globe surmounted by Victory in left. RIC I 46; Calicó 402; BMCRE 56-9; BN 202-5; Biaggi 221; CNR 9/5 (this coin, “Collezione privata”). Light reddish-orange tone, a few faint hairlines. Near EF. $19,500 Ex Triton V (5 December 2000), lot 468. The reverse depicts Nero’s Colossus, a roughly 120-foot tall bronze statue of the emperor as Sol that was created by Zenodorus for the vestibule of the Domus Aurea, or Golden House, the massive palace constructed by Nero after the fire of AD 64. Its memory was retained in the popular name of the amphitheater constructed by the Flavians close to the site – the Colosseum.

587417. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ Sestertius (35mm, 27.84 g, 7h). Rome mint. IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head right / Roma seated left on cuirass, right foot on helmet, holding Victory and parazonium, shields to right; S C across fields, ROMA in ecergue. RIC I 329; WCN 160. Dark brown patina, surface marks, edge scrape. Good VF. A nice portrait with a particularly attractive reverse for this issue. $3950 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection.


Denarii of the Civil War The civil wars at the end of Nero’s reign began with the revolt of the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gaius Julius Vindex, probably around the beginning of March of AD 68. Vindex offered the leadership of the revolt to Servius Sulpicius Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who was hailed imperator by the Spanish legions at Carthago Nova in April of the same year. The title was cautiously refused, but Galba did declare himself the legatus of the senate and people of Rome. Just a month later, Galba’s confidence would be shaken by the crushing defeat of Vindex near Besançon by the general Lucius Verginius Rufus, governor of Germania Superior. But in another twist of fate, by 9 June, Nero was dead, having taken his own life. Galba began his march to Rome, and his brief reign was underway. Coinage, of course, was needed during these precarious months of revolt and without an emperor to strike in the name of (save for that in honor of the “model emperor” of Roman history, Augustus) the coinage was struck with messages suiting the political climate. The issues struck under Vindex possess a more aggressive air that underscores the militant nature of his revolt, while Galba’s tend to be more constitutional and optimistic in tone.

594493. Civil War. AD 68-69. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.55 g, 1h). ‘SIGNA P R Group’. Uncertain mint in Gaul or in the Rhine Valley. MARS VLTOR, draped bust of Mars to right, wearing crested helmet and plain necklace / SIGNA / P - R, Aquila to right before lighted altar; signum on either side. RIC I 51; AM 60; RSC 406; Mairat 78.8 (this coin); BMCRE 39; Nicolas, Néron 94 and pl. VIII, 94 PR1 (this coin). Beautifully toned, minor edge nicks. Good VF. $8500 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection; Gordon McLendon Collection (Christie’s New York, 12 June 1993), lot 103; Numismatic Fine Arts XII (23 March 1983), lot 201; Dr. E.P. Nicolas Collection (Kampmann, 9 March 1982), lot 203; A. Page (14 June 1933), lot 799 (‘Collection d’un Amateur Parisien’).

594490. Civil War. AD 68-69. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.46 g, 5h). ‘S P Q R Group’. Uncertain mint in Gaul or in the Rhine Valley. SALVS GENERIS HVMANI, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm frond / S P Q R within oak wreath, RIC I 72; AM 77; RSC 420; Mairat 97.12 (this coin); BMCRE 34; Nicolas, Néron 77. Attractive cabinet tone, minor field marks. Near EF. $9500 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection; Nomos 9 (21 October 2014), lot 221.


Extremely Rare – Among the Finest Known

594499. Civil War. AD 68-69. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.67 g, 7h). ‘G P R Group II’. Uncertain mint in Gaul or in the Rhine Valley. G•P•R, draped bust of the Genius of the Roman people to right; scepter over shoulder / MARS VLTOR, Mars, nude but for helmet and parazonium slung around his chest, advancing right, wielding spear in his right hand and holding shield in his left. RIC I 48; AM 25, but cf. 24 and pl. 2, 24 P (for an aureus struck from the same reverse die); RSC –; Mairat 35.3 (this coin); BMCRE 21 note; Nicolas, Néron 26, but cf. 24-25 and pl. I, 24 P & 25 CAL (for aurei struck from the same reverse die). Deeply toned, slight roughness in the fields. Near EF. Extremely rare and exceptional for issue. Among the finest known. $22,500 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection; Lanz 128 (22 May 2006), lot 291; Numismatica Ars Classica 92 (23 May 2016), lot 501. Exceptional style, not typically encountered in the Civil War denarii. While most of the Rhine mint denarii tend to be of a more crude style and fabric, this specimen is superb, revealing the hand of a particularly talented engraver.

594498. Civil War. AD 68-69. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.39 g, 6h). Augustus, with Divus Julius type. Uncertain mint in Spain or Gaul. Struck 3 April-late June AD 68. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / DIVVS IVLIVS across field, Sidus Iulium: eight-rayed comet with tail upwards. RIC I 92; AM A10; RSC 98 (Augustus); Mairat 146.6 (this coin); BMCRE 49 = Nicolas, Néron A8. Lighlty toned, slightly granular surfaces. Good VF. Struck on a full flan. Very rare. $12,500 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection, purchased from Paul-Francis Jacquier, September 1992.

594495. Galba. AD 68-69. AR Denarius (17.5mm, 3.28 g, 5h). Spanish mint (Tarraco?). Struck circa April-late AD 68. GALBA IMP, laureate head right, globe at point of neck / HISPANIA, Hispania standing left, holding poppy and two stalks of grain in right hand and round shield and two spears in left. RIC I 21; CSB 27; RSC 80; BMCRE 172; BN 10. Toned, a few minor scratches. VF. $7500 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection; Thomas Bentley Cederlind Estate (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 102, 18 May 2016), lot 880.


594500. Vitellius. AD 69. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.60 g, 7h). Spanish mint (Tarraco?). Struck January-June AD 69. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head left, globe at point of neck / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing left, holding shield inscribed S P / Q R in two lines. RIC I 36 var. (with palm before bust); BMCRE 94 var. (same); RSC 101 var. (same); BN 13 var. (same). Deeply toned, surfaces a little rough. Good VF. Bold portrait. An extremely rare variety. $9750 Ex Dipl.-Ing Christian Gollnow Collection; E.E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection (Numismatica Ars Classica 92, 23 May 2016), lot 2123.

587438. Vitellius. AD 69. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa late April–20 December. [A V]ITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head right / Victory, draped, seated left, holding patera in right hand and palm frond in left. RIC I 71; RSC 121; BMCRE 4-5; BN 37. Iridescent tone with luster around devices, a few minor scratches. Near EF. With an attractive portrait. $8950 Ex Künker 168 (12 March 2010), lot 7702; A. Lynn Collection (Helios 4, 14 October 2009), lot 280; Triton IV (5 December 2000), lot 492.

593544. Vespasian. AD 69-79. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 25.42 g, 6h). “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, S C in exergue, Victory standing right, left foot on helmet, inscribing shield with right hand set on palm tree; on right, Judaea seated right, in attitude of mourning. RIC II.1 221; Hendin 1508. Green and brown patina, a few cleaning marks. VF. $3750 Ex Father & Son Collection; Patrick H. C. Tan Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 84, 5 May 2010), lot 983.

585436. Vespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.49 g, 6h). Ephesus mint. Struck AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian, veiled and togate, standing facing, each holding patera; EPHE (PHE is ligate) in exergue. RIC II.1 1430; RPC II 832; RSC 250. Light iridescent tone, a tad off center, flatly struck on high points on portrait, minor flan flaw on reverse. EF. $2750 Ex Gorny & Mosch 249 (11 October 2017), lot 559.


593545. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-90/1. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.51 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Titus, AD 80-81. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGUSTI F, diademed and draped bust right; hair in long plait / VENVS AVGVST, Venus, seen half from behind, naked to the hips, standing right, resting elbow on column, holding transverse scepter and crested helmet. RIC II.1 388 (Titus); RSC 14; BMCRE 141-3 (Titus); BN 106-7 (Titus). Beautifully toned, some faint hairlines under tone. Near EF. $5750 Ex Thomas A. Palmer Collection, purchased from Classical Numismatic Group, August 1995; Leu 59 (17 May 1994), lot 264; Leu 45 (26 May 1988), lot 323. Flavia Julia Titi was born in AD 65 as the daughter of Titus Flavius Vespasianus, an up-and-coming junior officer in the Roman Army. Titus was soon forced to divorce Julia’s mother, whose family was implicated in a plot against the Emperor Nero. Three years later, Vespasian seized the throne and Titus, his eldest son, was named Caesar and heir-apparent. Julia was Titus’ only child and soon became a pawn in the game of dynastic politics. In her teens, Julia evidently developed an attachment to Titus’ younger brother Domitian. When she came of age, Titus, perhaps reluctantly, proposed that she marry Domitian. But Domitian was enamored with another lady and refused the match. A short time later Julia was betrothed to a cousin, Flavius Sabinus, who was just starting on his political career. In AD 79, Vespasian died and Titus became sole emperor. One of his first official acts was to raise Julia to the rank of Augusta, or Empress, the first woman in more than a decade to hold that exalted position. He struck this lovely coin for the occasion, pairing Julia’s obverse portrait with a charming image of Venus with her half-covered derriere turned coyly to the viewer. Julia thus became the first reigning Roman empress to be honored with a regular issue of Roman coins struck solely in her own name.

585025. Domitia. Augusta, AD 82-96. AR Cistophorus (25mm, 11.25 g, 7h). Uncertain Asian mint. Struck under Domitian, AD 82. DOMITIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in long braids with single looped plait at back / VENVS AVG, Venus, seen half from behind, naked to the hips, standing right, resting elbow on column, holding scepter and helmet. RIC II.1 847 (Domitian); RPC 870 (Domitian); RSC 19. Lightly toned. Good VF. Very rare, with a portrait of fine style. $7950 Ex Gorny & Mosch 257 (15 October 2018), lot 611; Künker 280 (26 September 2016), lot 574. Domitia Longina was the daughter of the famous Roman general Corbulo, and the mistress of Domitian before the two were married in AD 71. A boy was born to the couple, but died very young and was deified upon Domitian’s accession as emperor in AD 81. Domitia was acclaimed as Augusta shortly thereafter, but the marriage was a tempestuous one and she was exiled from the palace for a time in AD 83. By the following year she had returned, and the couple seems to have arrived at a modus vivendi for the rest of Domitian’s reign. The historian Cassius Dio claims Domitia had a role in her husband’s assassination in September of AD 96. However, she continued to refer to herself as “Domitia, wife of Domitian” for the rest of her long life. She died peacefully sometime beween AD 126 and 130.


Ex Garrett and Baron Delbeke Collections

587418. Trajan. AD 98-117. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 25.89 g, 5h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 104/5-107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on shoulder / S • P •Q • R • OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Victory standing right, foot on helmet, holding stylus and resting hand on shield inscribed VIC/DAC in two lines set on palm tree, S C across fields. RIC II 527; Woytek 204bA; Banti 162. Dark green patina, areas of very light smoothing. Near EF. $3750 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection; Classical Numismatic Review XXVI (Summer 2001), no. 102; John Work Garrett Collection (Part I, Numismatic Fine Arts/Bank Leu, 16 May 1984), lot 773, purchased from M. Schulman, 1 April 1927, for $63; Baron Delbeke Collection.

585437. Trajan. AD 98-117. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.22 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 103-107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Dacian captive seated right in attitude of mourning at foot of trophy. RIC II 222; Woytek 190b; RSC 537a. Bright surfaces, areas of porosity, traces of deposits on reverse. Near EF. $875 Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 313 (23 October 2013), lot 235.

585793. Trajan. AD 98-117. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.05 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Bonus Eventus standing left, holding patera and grain ears. RIC II 276; Woytek 421b; RSC 398a. Lightly toned. In NGC encapsulation 4936325-002, graded MS, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 3/5. $1475


The Alimenta Italiae

587439. Trajan. AD 98-117. AV Aureus (20mm, 7.17 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 111. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / COS • V • P • P • S • P • Q R OPTIMO PRINC, ALIM • ITAL in exergue, Trajan, togate, standing left, holding volumen in left hand, extending right hand to young boy and girl standing right. RIC II 93 corr. (bust type); Woytek 345f; Calicó 984; BMCRE 378; Biaggi 462-3. Nicely centered, with light reddish tone over residual luster, a few minor marks, tiny reverse die break. Good VF. Pleasing portrait in high relief. $12,500 Desirous to favor the Italian people after the ravages of the civil wars, Trajan was especially nurturing toward the youth, many of whom were destitute and impoverished. At the expense of the state, these children were raised and, in some cases, adopted by the emperor himself. It was these acts to which the reverse of this type alludes, with the concept of ALIMenta ITALiae, the nourishment and resources provided to Italy, represented by the personification of Abundantia (or Annona) along with the emperor.

587419. Trajan. AD 98-117. Æ Sestertius (32mm, 24.14 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S C across fields, Arabia standing left, holding branch and bundle of cinnamon sticks; to left, camel advancing left, ARAB • ADQVIS in exergue. RIC II 466; Woytek 363a; Banti 23. Green-brown patina, lightly smoothed in spots. Near EF. A handsome large bronze with a bold portrait. $3250 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection; Lanz 60 (11 June 1992), lot 433.


View of Trajan’s Forum

592523. Trajan. AD 98-117. AV Aureus (20mm, 7.16 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 112-113. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Triumphal gateway to Trajan’s Forum, with six columns, sculptural reliefs, and attic statuary consisting of a chariot drawn by six horses flanked by two figures standing to either side of trophy; FORVM TRAIAN in exergue. RIC II 257; Beckman, Early, Group I, 2 (dies a13/F1); Woytek 409f; Calicó 1031 = Biaggi 494. Residual luster, minor deposit on reverse. Good VF. Struck on a broad flan, with a detailed depiction of Trajan’s Forum. $17,500 Nearly every detail of Trajan’s Forum was intended as a celebration and aggrandizement of the emperor’s Dacian victory, so it is fitting that the forum’s entrance doubled as Trajan’s triumphal arch. In typical fashion, the arch is surmounted by a statuary group with figures of the emperor and Victory in a chariot. A large portion of the Forum survives to this day, containing multiple market stalls, indicating its function as the ancient Roman equivalent to a shopping mall.

Trajan’s Column

592524. Trajan. AD 98-117. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.35 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan’s Column: column surmounted by statue of Trajan standing left, holding patera and scepter, and set on podium decorated with two eagles. RIC II 292; Woytek 425v; RSC 558. Toned, trace deposits. EF. A detailed depiction of Trajan’s column, showing the famous spiral relief. $3950 Trajan’s Column was the crowning glory of the Forum Traiani, built with the spoils of the Dacian Wars. Covered by a continuous frieze of the war’s events, the column was capped with a gilded heroic statue of the emperor, while an inscription on the base recounted the feat of engineering in the forum’s construction. After Trajan’s death, the column became the repository of his ashes.

587420. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 28.99 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119-circa mid 120. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with bare chest, slight drapery / PONT MAX T R PO T COS III, S C across fields, Hadrian seated left on sella castrensis set on suggestus on right, extending right hand; to left, woman standing right, placing her right hand on child at her side to left, holding child in left; LIBERTAS RESTI / TVTA in exergue. RIC II.3 236; Banti 517. Attractive green-brown patina, lightly smoothed in isolated areas. Good VF. $2500 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection.


581659. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 27.86 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119-circa mid 120. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HA DRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with bare chest, slight drapery / PONT M A X T R POT COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, foot on helmet, holding Victory and spear; shield at side to right; S C in exergue. RIC II.3 254; Banti 603. Superb enamel-like green patina. Near EF. A spectacular bronze. $15,000 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 52 (7 October 2009), lot 425; Tkalec (22 April 2007), lot 222.

587421. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ Sestertius (32mm, 27.27 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 124-125. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery / COS III, S C across fields, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding parazonium and reversed spear. RIC II.3 741; Banti 196. Beautiful green-brown patina, very minor smoothing in spots. Near EF. With a wonderful mid-reign portrait. $2750 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection.

593546. Hadrian. AD 117-138. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.42 g, 12h). “Travel series” issue (“Provinces cycle”) – The province alone. Rome mint. Struck circa AD 130-133. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / AFRICA, Africa reclining left, leaning on rock, wearing elephant-skin headdress, holding scorpion and cornucopia; basket of grain ears to left. RIC II.3 1494; RSC 138. Light iridescent tone. Near EF. $1750 Ex CNG Inventory 510875 (April 2019); Dr. Klaus Berthold Collection (Künker 318, 11 March 2019), lot 1236; Gorny & Mosch 138 (7 March 2005), lot 2112.


585788. Antoninus Pius. As Caesar, AD 138. AV Aureus (18mm, 7.48 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139. IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS, bareheaded and draped bust right / AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II, Pietas, veiled, standing right, sprinkling incense over lighted and garlanded altar with outstretched right hand and holding incense box in left. RIC III 13a; Strack –; Calicó 1474; BMCRE 29; Biaggi –. In NGC encapsulation 5769993-004, graded AU, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 3/5, Fine Style. Rare. $8750 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica K (30 March 2000), lot 1789.

587422. Marcus Aurelius. As Caesar, AD 139-161. Æ Sestertius (30mm, 23.19 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck under Antoninus Pius, AD 145-147. AVRELIVS CAE SAR AVG PII F COS II, bareheaded bust right, slight drapery / HILARITAS, S C across fields, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm frond and cornucopia. RIC III 1242a (Pius); Banti 111. Brown patina, some green and red, lightly smoothed, cleaning scratches in reverse fields. Near EF. Handsome portrait. $2250 Ex T. R. Fehrenbach Collection.


The Tumultuous AD 193

595027. Pertinax. AD 193. AV Aureus (21mm, 7.17 g, 12h). Rome mint. 2nd emission. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN • AVG, laureate head right / PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia, draped, standing left, holding up right hand toward small star, left hand on breast. RIC IV 11a; Lempereur Type 10, 146 (D36/R88); Calicó 2389; BMCRE 11 var. (large star); Biaggi 1045. Underlying luster, a few minor marks on reverse. Choice EF. Boldly struck, with a powerful portrait. $85,000 If AD 69 is known as “The Year of the Four Emperors,” then AD 193 should be called “The Year of the Five Emperors.” On 31 December AD 192, the maniacal emperor Commodus was assassinated. The plotters appear to have predesignated the aged Helvetius Pertinax as Commodus’ successor, a decision that was likely influenced by two prominent Romans: Claudius Pompeianus, a patron of Pertinax and second husband of Lucilla, and Flavius Sulpicianus, an ex-consul who was Pertinax’s father-in-law. Pertinax had followed a long and winding path to the imperial throne. His father was a former slave who upon freedom became a successful wool merchant. With his wealth, he was able to have his son educated and Pertinax became a grammaticus. In AD 161, he left his teaching position, opting instead for a military career and greater pay. Once there, he quickly distinguished himself and was rapidly promoted from commander of a cohort to military tribune, then to consul, and eventually to proconsul in several provinces, including Upper and Lower Moesia, Dacia, Syria, Britain and Africa. During his tenure in the army and as proconsul he acquired a reputation for probity and severity, which lead on occasion to mutinies, one of which almost cost him his life. In AD 189, Commodus appointed him urban prefect of Rome, and from this position he was offered the throne upon the death of Commodus on 31 December AD 192. Unfortunately, the strict measures Pertinax instituted to reform the government and military antagonized important factions, and the emperor was assassinated by disgruntled Praetorians on 28 March AD 193, after a reign of only 87 days. After the death of Pertinax, it was clear that there was no clear successor to the throne. Two prominent Romans, the aforementioned Flavius Sulpicianus, and Didius Julianus, a senator and perhaps the wealthiest man in Rome, approached the Praetorians and made a bid for their support as the new emperor. Legend has it that the Praetorians compelled the two men to make competing bids in an auction-for-empire. While it was conventional for new emperors to distribute a sum of cash to the Praetorians upon their assent to the throne, such bidding for power was an affront to conservative Romans. Julianus made the higher offer, and was given the support of the Praetorians, who presented him to a Senate that was obliged to confirm his accession. At the same time, the new emperor’s wife, Manlia Scantilla, and daughter, Didia Clara, were given the rank of Augusta. Clara was then given in marriage to Cornelius Repentinus, who was presumably Julianus’ candidate for successor. The situation in Rome precipitated the acclamation of three provincial governors by their troops: Clodius Albinus, governor of Britain; Septimius Severus, governor of Upper Pannonia; and Pescennius Niger, governor of Syria. Severus was the closest of all three, and a little more than two months after Julianus’ elevation, marched on Rome at the head of his legions. In light of Severus’ imminent arrival, on 1 June AD 193, the Praetorians quickly shifted their allegiance and murdered Julianus. When the new emperor took possession of the capital he granted an interview to Scantilla and Clara, and agreed to their request that the remains of the late emperor should be deposited in his family tomb. Both were stripped of their imperial rank and Clara lost her inheritance. They retired into private life and nothing further is known of them. Before his arrival in Rome, Severus had already begun preparing to deal with Albinus and Niger. He offered Albinus the rank of Caesar and heir to the throne should Albinus join him. Sensing his own tenuous position, Albinus prudently threw his support behind the muchstronger Severus by accepting the latter’s offer, and the two shared the consulship in AD 194. Once Severus secured his position in Rome, he deployed an army east to deal with Niger. A series of battles ensued between the two, but each one slowly eroded Niger’s legions and support. Eventually, faced with certain defeat, Niger attempted to secretly flee to Parthia, but his plan failed, and he was captured and executed along with his entire family. The alliance between Severus and Albinus was short-lived. In AD 196, while Severus was away in the east fighting Pescinnius Niger, he learned of Albinus’ proclamation of himself as emperor. Severus responded by declaring Albinus a public enemy, and, in turn, appointed his eight-year-old son, Caracalla, to the rank of Caesar. Rallying his troops in Britain to begin a march on Rome, Albinus and his army were stalled in Gaul. A battle between Albinus and Severus occurred near Lugdunum (Lyon) on 19 February AD 197. After making initial gains, Albinus’ army was routed, and he committed suicide when he became trapped in a house near the Rhône. Now, Septimius Severus became sole emperor of Rome.




Dis Auspicibus – The Divine Heralds 595028. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. AV Aureus (20mm, 7.24 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 194. L SEPT SEV PE RT AVG IMP III, laureate head right / DIS • AVSPICIB T R P • II, COS • II • P P in exergue, Hercules, naked, on left, standing left, holding club set on ground in right hand, lion skin over left arm; on right, Bacchus (or Liber), wearing wreath, naked, standing fleft, holding oenochoe in right hand and vertical thyrsus in left; between them, a panther, standing left, head right. RIC IV 31; Calicó 2446; BMCRE 63 (same rev. die); Biaggi 1069 (same obv. die); Rauch 103, lot 415 (same dies). Underlying luster, tiny die flaw on reverse. EF. $45,000 The first Roman emperor from Africa, Septimius Severus was born in Leptis Magna, which is present day Al-Khums, Libya. Severus seized power after the death of Pertinax in AD 193. On 1 June AD 193 Didius Julianus was killed by a palace soldier. Severus fought against the rival emperor Pescennius Niger, who he defeated in AD 194 at the battle of Issus in Cilicia. The reverse of this coin depicts the gods Hercules and Bacchus, patron deities of his hometown. They are identified as “Dis Auspicibus,” the Divine Heralds, who, together figure in the rhetoric of conquest and power, mediating between the Olympian deities and humankind. Septimius Severus celebrates their intervention in his rise to the throne and the defeat of his rival claimants with this magnificent reverse type.

Ex Sir Arthur Evans Collection 587429. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. AV Aureus (20mm, 7.20 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 198-200. L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE AV GG FEL, Victory alighting left, holding diadem in both hands; to left, shield set on low cippus. RIC IV 144a; Calicó 2561; BMCRE 138. Underlying luster. EF. Well struck. $42,500 Ex Phil Peck (”Morris”) Collection (Heritage 3071, 7 January 2019), lot 32150; Lanz 109 (27 May 2002), lot 552; Sir Arthur John Evans Collection (J. Hirsch XXX, 11 May 1911), lot 1065 .


585440. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.35 g, 12h). Emesa mint. Struck AD 194-195. IMP CAE L SEP SE V PERT AVG COS I I, laureate head right / FORTV N R EDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. RIC IV 379; BMCRE 358 var. (obv. legend breaks); RSC 173a. Reverse just a tad off-center, otherwise sharply struck in sound metal. EF. $550

593547. Diadumenian. As Caesar, AD 217-218. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.38 g, 6h). Rome mint. 3rd emission of Macrinus, AD 218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bareheaded and draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt. RIC IV 116 (Macrinus); Clay Issue 3; RSC 21. Lightly toned, traces of deposits on reverse. EF. Residual luster. $1725

Ex Mazzini & Evans Collections

587424. Elagabalus. AD 218-222. AV Aureus (20mm, 6.59 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 220-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / C–ONSERVATOR AVG, slow quadriga drawing car carrying conical stone of El-Gabal, with eagle on face; star above. RIC IV 61d; Thirion 243; Calicó 2988a; BMCRE 197 var. (arrangement of rev. legend); Biaggi 1283 var. (same); Mazzini 18 (this coin, illustrated). Near EF. Rare and important type. $45,000 Ex Continental Collection (Triton XX, 10 January 2017), lot 806; Vecchi 4 (5 December 1996), lot 283; Giuseppe Mazzini Collection; Sir John Evans Collection (Rollin & Feuardent, 26 May 1909), lot 225. At the age of fourteen, Varius Avitus Bassianus (better known as Elagabalus or Heliogabalus) inherited the office of high priest of the sun god El-Gabal at Emesa in Syria. The deity was worshipped in the form of a sacred stone, and when Elagabalus was made emperor and journeyed from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. During his reign, the emperor was devoted to promoting the cult of El-Gabal, building a lavish temple on the Palatine Hill to house the stone. For a brief period, the exotic eastern deity nearly came to dominate the Roman Pantheon. While this issue could possibly commemorate the journey from Emesa to Rome, it more likely refers to the annual transfer of the stone from its principal temple in Rome to its “summer home,” a large and richly decorated temple in the suburbs. Describing the transfer, Herodian (V.6.7) writes: A six-horse chariot bore the sun god, the horses huge and flawlessly white, with expensive gold fittings and rich ornaments. No one held the reins, and no one rode in the chariot; the vehicle was escorted as if the sun god himself were the charioteer. Heliogabalus ran backward in front of the chariot, facing the god and holding the horses’ reins. He made the whole journey in this reverse fashion, looking up into the face of his god.


593548. Maximus. Caesar, AD 235/6-238. Æ Sestertius (31mm, 21.84 g, 12h). Rome mint. 2nd emission of Maximinus, AD 236. C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bareheaded and draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, emblems of the pontificate: lituus, secespita, patera, guttus, simpulum, and aspergillum. RIC IV 6; BMCRE 119-20; Banti 1. Glossy dark green patina, light smoothing. Good VF. $975 Ex Jack A. Frazer Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 114, 13 May 2020), lot 957; Classical Numismatic Group 63 (21 May 2003), lot 1488.

594145. Philip II. As Caesar, AD 244-247. AR Antoninianus (23.5mm, 3.89 g, 12h). Rome mint, 3rd officina. 5th emission of Philip I, AD 246. M IVL PHILLIPVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right / PRINCIPI I VVENT, Philip II standing left, holding globe and reversed spear. RIC IV 218d var. (also cuirassed); RSC 48 var. (same). Fully lustrous, light scratch on obverse. Superb EF. Well centered on a broad flan. $375

587425. Gallienus. AD 253-268. AV Aureus (20mm, 4.04 g, 12h). Siscia mint. 3rd emission, AD 266-267. GALLIENVS AVG, laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing facing, head left, holding balance scales in right hand and cornucopia cradled in left arm. RIC V.1 23 var. (Rome mint, bust type); MIR 36, 1423 (same dies); Calicó 3461 var. (Rome mint, bust type). Lustrous, and with a fine late portrait of Gallienus. In NGC encapsulation 6030426-005, graded MS, Strike: 4/5, Surface: 4/5. $19,500 It is interesting that, as the economic and military crises of the third century accelerated, the Romans chose different forms of debasement for their silver, bronze and gold currency to stretch their waning supply of precious metals. The traditional bronze denominations disappeared entirely, while the silver content of the denarius and its eventual replacement, the antoninianus, rapidly declined to less than 5%, with the remainder mainly copper. The gold coinage was kept essentially pure, rather than cut with silver as other cultures had done, but the aureus denomination declined precipitously in weight from the second century norm of 7.5 grams to less than a third of that weight at the depths of the crisis, circa AD 268. The weights of individual aurei struck during this period fluctuated so wildly that it appears they were essentially treated as bullion, with scales employed to weigh out a certain value as in pre-coinage days. This aureus, struck circa AD 266, weighs in at 4.04 grams, but a quick survey shows that other aurei struck from the same mint (Siscia), in the same time span, can weigh as little as 1.95 grams and as much as 4.75 grams.


586954. Aurelian, with Vabalathus. AD 270-275. Antoninianus (20.5mm, 3.00 g, 11h). Antioch mint, 5th officina. 1st emission, November AD 270-March 272. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian right; Є / VABALATHVS V C R IM D R, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Vabalathus right. RIC V 381; BN 1248-51. Toned over full silvering, traces of deposits. Near EF. $775 Ex Liggett Collection. The son of Odenathus, the ruler of the rich eastern trade center Palmyra, and his wife Zenobia, Vabalathus was declared king following the murder of his father in AD 267. Since he was still in his minority, Zenobia took over as regent, using the position and the confusion following the death of Gallienus to establish her position between Rome and Persia and expand Palmyrene power. In late AD 270, Zenobia sent the Palmyran army to secure control of greater Syria and Egypt, bringing the mints of Antioch and Alexandria under her control. Coins were struck depicting Vabalathus, with the titles Vir Clarissimus, Rex, Imperator, Dux Romanorum, paired with the current Emperor Aurelian, who was styled Imperator Caesar Augustus. It is uncertain whether Aurelian ever granted the tacit recognition this coinage implies, but by AD 272 he had clearly decided to suppress the Palmyran regime and launched a campaign. Palmyra was sacked and both Zenobia and Vabalathus were captured as they tried to make their way to Persia. The two were to be brought to Rome and be paraded in Aurelian’s triumph in AD 274, but apparently only Zenobia survived the journey. According to later tradition, Aurelian, impressed by her beauty and dignity, later freed her, and granted her a villa in Tibur, where she spent the rest of her life.

587430. Diocletian. AD 284-305. AV Aureus (20mm, 4.70 g, 12h). Pre-reform issue. Cyzicus mint. Struck AD 284-286. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front / ROMA E AET ERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory on globe in right hand and grounded spear in left. RIC V.II 301; Calico Calicó 4563. Lustrous. In NGC encapsulation 6057916-002, graded MS, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5. An exceptional example of Diocletian’s pre-reform aurei. $18,500 This aureus is struck on the stabilized weight standard imposed by Aurelian in AD 274/5, of about 70 aurei to the pound. Diocletian would later raise the weight to 1/60th of a pound or about 5.04 grams. Diocletian also struck a new silver coin, the argenteus, and regularized the bronze coinage. These reform efforts did reintroduce a monetary economy, although they did not cure the rampant inflation that plagued the Late Roman era.


Ex Biaggi de Blasys Collection – Calicó Plate Coin

585789. Maximianus. First reign, AD 286-305. AV Aureus (19mm, 5.62 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 295-305. MAXIMIA NVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VIR TVS AV GG, Hercules standing right, leaning to left, arms wrapped around head of Nemean lion, who climbs up his forward leg. P R in exergue. RIC VI –, cf. 343 (bust type, Ludunum mint); Calicó 4732 (this coin); Biaggi 1801 (this coin). Pleasing satiny surfaces. In NGC encapsulation 4936351-001, graded Ch AU, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5. Powerful portrait in high relief. $62,500 Ex Ed Waddell inventory #47657; Leo Biaggi de Blasys Collection (Numismatica Ars Classica 49, 21 October 2008), lot 435, purchased from L.S. Forrer, 1952. Leo Biaggi de Blasys (1906-1979) was a Swiss sugar magnate and sportsman whose fascination with ancient Rome led to the creation of one of the world’s greatest collections of Roman gold coins. Born in Genoa to a Swiss-Italian diplomat and a French mother, he became active in the Red Cross after 1943 and, with his father, he repeatedly helped Jews in Italy escape persecution in the later years of World War II. In 1961, he received the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic for his services. His collection focused on Roman gold from the Republic to late Empire, ultimately comprising over 2,000 specimens. The gold collection was purchased en bloc by Bank Leu (Zurich) in 1978, and slowly sold off to collectors over the next few decades. More than 500 ex-Biaggi coins were sold by Numismatica Ars Classica in their Auction 49 in 2008. The Biaggi pedigree remains highly prized among collectors of Roman gold.


585790. Constantius I. As Caesar, AD 293-305. AV Aureus (19mm, 4.99 g, 12h). Treveri (Trier) mint. Struck AD 294. CONSTAN TIVS NOB C, laureate head right / IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter enthroned left, holding thunderbolt in outstretched right hand and scepter in left; to left at feet, eagle standing left, head and tail right, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak; PTR. RIC VI –; cf. 19 (obv. legend, PT in exergue); Calicó 4847b (this coin illustrated); Pink, Goldprägung, p. 318; Depeyrot 2B/4 (this coin). Slight red-orange toning over lustrous surfaces. In NGC encapsulation 4936351-002, graded Ch MS, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5. High relief portrait in exemplary style. $57,500 Ex Leu 83 (6 May 2002), lot 835; Leu 61 (17 May 1995), lot 302. Flavius Valerius Constantius was a native of Naissus in modern Serbia. He found escape from his low social standing in the Roman army and rose steadily through the ranks. Along the way, he took a local barmaid named Helena as his common-law wife and she bore him a son, Constantine, probably in AD 273 or 274. By AD 284, Constantius had been made military governor of Dalmatia. He supported Diocletian’s bid for power and was rewarded with a series of important posts in the new regime. In March of AD 293, Diocletian and Maximian appointed him Caesar of the West and charged him with restoring Britain and northern Gaul, then under the separatist rule of the usurper Carausius, to Roman control. Constantius spent three years in careful preparations and launched his invasion in mid-AD 296, achieving complete surprise and total victory. He won the reputation of a just and compassionate ruler during his years as Caesar. With Diocletian’s retirement in AD 305, Constantius became Augustus of the West and technically the senior ruler, but Galerius was clearly dominant. Constantius had to implore Galerius to release his son Constantine, serving in the eastern court, so that the young officer could assist in a projected British campaign. The two were reunited in early 306 and campaigned jointly against the Picts, winning Constantius the title “Britannicus Maximus.” But Constantius fell seriously ill that summer and died on July 25. The army immediately acclaimed Constantine as Emperor, launching the career of one of Rome’s greatest rulers.


5591357. Constantius II. AD 337-361. AV Solidus (22mm, 4.50 g, 12h). Rome mint, 5th officina. Struck AD 357. FL IVL CONSTAN TIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed bust left, wearing consular robes and holding mappa in right hand and short scepter in left / FELICITAS RO MANORVM, Roma and Constantinopolis, with right foot on prow and holding scepter in left hand, enthroned facing, holding between them a shield inscribed VOT/XXXV/MVLT/XXXX in four lines; RSMЄ(palm). RIC VIII 298; Depeyrot 15/3. Lustrous, some graffiti and slight double strike on obverse. Good VF. Very rare. $4250 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78 (26 May 2014), lot 1182. In AD 357, Constantius II entered his 20th year of rule as Augustus, a milestone rarely attained by Roman emperors. Furthermore, he had outlasted his imperial brothers and overcome the usurpers Magnentius, Decentius and Vetranio, leaving him sole master of the Roman Empire, a situation not seen since the death of Constantine I the Great in AD 337. To mark the the occasion, Constantius made his first an only visit to Rome, entering the city on April 23 with a magnificent triumphal parade. He also accepted his ninth consulship, in partnership with his cousin Julian II, now serving as his subordinate Caesar in the west. This rare solidus, issued at the Rome mint for the occasion, depicts him as consul, wrapped in the toga picta, an elaborately embroidered garment, and holding the ancient symbols of the office: the mappa, a white kerchief used to signal the start of a chariot race, and the scipio consularis, a short ivory scepter.

Aristocratic Collector’s Mark

5591363. Constantius II. AD 337-361. AV Solidus (21.5mm, 4.37 g, 12h). Sirmium mint. Struck AD 351-355. FL IVL CON STANTIVS PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding shield with horseman motif on left arm and shouldering spear held in right hand / GLORIA REI PVBLICA, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated slightly left, with foot on prow, each holding scepter and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT/XXX/MVLT/ XXXX in four lines; *SIRM*. RIC VIII 8; Depeyrot 16/1. Edge bend, small die crack, slightly worn reverse die. Collector’s countermark of a dolphin and letters I / A applied in right obverse field.Near EF. $5250 Ex Leu Numismatik 2 (11 May 2018), lot 329. The tiny, artfully executed countermark in the right obverse field was likely applied by an aristocratic collector in the 17th or 18th centuries. Stamping coins with a countermark, sometimes with silver inlay, was common practice among the great collecting families of Europe after the Renaissance, including the d’Este Collection curated by the Gonzagas of Mantua. This nicely shaped countermark bears a dolphin twined through the letters I and A.


586956. Julian II. AD 360-363. AE Double Maiorina (27.5mm, 8.63 g, 6h). Sirmium mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 361-363. DN FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, bearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, with close beard / SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right; two stars above; *ASIRM(palm). RIC VIII 106; LRBC 1621. Attractive brown and green patina, traces of silvering. Choice EF. $1250 Ex Liggett Collection. One of Julian’s reforms was the introduction of a new coin of silvered bronze, sometimes termed a “double maiorina.” This remarkable piece, struck at the mint of Sirmium in modern Serbia, bears a striking portrait of Julian wearing a beard, much against the prevailing fashion of the day and an open expression of his adherence to the “old ways,” including Paganism. The reverse depiction of a sacrificial bull with two stars overhead, coupled with the legend evoking the “Security of the Republic,” probably alludes to the restoration of the old Roman religion as providing new strength and security to the state.

589963. Eugenius. AD 392-394. AR Siliqua (18mm, 2.11 g, 6h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, second officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; LVGPS. RIC IX 46; Lyon 230; RSC 18A. Attractively toned. EF. Rare. Attractive portrait. $4250 The coinage of Eugenius marks a return to individualistic portraiture not seen since the reign of Julian II 30 years before. Like Julian, Eugenius appears on his coins with a long beard. Although nominally a Christian, Eugenius wore his beard in honor of the great philosophers of the past. This was taken as a visible sign of sympathy by the Pagan aristocracy of Rome, which had seen its position fade to that of a persecuted minority under the zealous Catholic Theodosius I, emperor of the East. To bolster support in Rome, Eugenius made overtures to followers of the old religion, who responded enthusiastically. Unfortunately for them, this provided exactly the casus belli sought by Theodosius, who invaded Italy and suppressed the rebel regime.

585441. Theodosius II. AD 402-450. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.46 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 10th officina. Struck AD 408420. D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman motif / CONCORDI A AVGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding spear and Victory on globe; to left at feet, prow of galley; star in left field; I//CONOB. RIC X 202; MIRB 12a; Depeyrot 73/2. Well struck and free of the usual marks and graffiti. EF. $2250


585442. Theodosius II. AD 402-450. AV Solidus (21.5mm, 4.49 g, 12h). Constantinople mint, 4th officina. Struck AD 420422. D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder in right hand and shield decorated with horseman motif on left arm / VOT XX MVLT XXX, Victory standing left, holding long, jeweled cross in right hand; Δ//CONOB. RIC X 218; Depeyrot 74/2. Fully lustrous, a few die preparation marks in fields. Superb EF. A brilliant example, virtually as struck. $2250


595033. Anastasius I. 491-518. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.48 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 1st officina. Struck 492-507. D N ANASTAS IVS PERP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder in right hand and shield decorated with horseman motif in left / VICTORI A AVGGG, Victory standing left, holding long jeweled cross in right hand; star in right field; A//CONOB. DOC –; MIBE 3a; SB 3. Hint of die rust, reverse double struck. EF. $1500

595030. Tiberius II Constantine. 578-582. AV Tremissis (16.5mm, 1.51 g, 6h). Ravenna mint. D m COSTAN TINVS PP AC, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTOR TIbЄRI AVG, cross potent; CONOB. DOC 64; MIBE 17; Ranieri 445; SB 470. Minor deposits, hairline die breaks on obverse. EF. $3000 Ex MacKay Collection of Byzantine Gold and Silver; Spink 215 (4 December 2012), lot 756.


595031. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.43 g, 6h). Uncertain eastern military mint. Struck circa 613-616. dd NN hЄRACLЧS ЄT hRA CONT (sic), crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each wearing chlamys; cross above / VICTORIA AVSЧ, cross potent set on three steps; IX//CONOB. DOC 187c (Alexandria); Bendall, Jerusalem, Type 4 and pl. XLI, 15 (uncertain eastern military mint) = MIB pl. 4, 77.7 (Cyprus); SB 852 (Jerusalem). EF. $1600 Ex Iconodule Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 106, 13 September 2017), lot 873.

595032. Constantine VI & Irene, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV. 780-797. AV Solidus (19.5mm, 4.47 g, 7h). Constantinople mint. Struck 787-790. COhSτ Λhτ IhoS [CA] B’ Δ’ , Constantine V, Leo III, and Leo IV seated facing, each crowned and draped / SЧh IRIhI AΓ’ mЧ τRI A (sic), crowned facing busts of Constantine VI, draped and holding globus cruciger, and Irene, wearing loros and holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter; cross above, • between. DOC 1; SB 1593. Underlying luster, area of weak strike. Good VF. $2000

584532. Irene. 797-802. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.34 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. ЄIPInH ЬASILISSH, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter / • ЄIPInH ЬASILISSH X, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter. DOC 1c; Füeg 1.B; SB 1599. Lustrous. EF. $5750

585606. Theophilus. 829-842. Æ Half Follis (22mm, 2.93 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck 831-842. Half-length facing figure of Theophilus, wearing loros and tufa decorated with pellets, holding labarum and globus cruciger; small cross to right / + ΘЄO/FILЄ AVG/OVSτЄ SV/nICAS in four lines. DOC 16c; SB 1668. Glossy two-tone green patina. Near EF. Nicely centered and complete. $425 82


592689. FRANCE, Provincial. Metz (Archbishophric). temp. Gaston Henri de Bourbon. 1612-1652. AR Taler (43mm, 28.82 g, 5h). Dated 1646. Coat-of-arms within floral polylobe with lis at cusps / Nimbate bust of St. Stephen left. Boudeau 1673; Davenport 5583; KM 27 (German States). Richly toned, flan split. Good VF. $1250 Ex Sincona 47 (5 May 2018), lot 1770.

An Impressive Pair of Wild Men

584954. GERMANY, Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle (Duchy). Christian Ludwig. 1648-1665. AR 3 Taler – Löser zu 3 Reichstalern (78mm, 96.14 g, 12h). Zellerfeld mint; mm: crossed keys. Dated 1665 HS. Crowned CL monogram within wreath; around, fourteen crowned coats-of-arms on vines / SINGERE · ET · CON STANTER · AO 1665, wildman standing left, holding tree trunk; in background, view of the countryside including miners and woodworkers. Davenport 192; Welter 1501; KM 256.2. Deep old cabinet tone with minor staining, die breaks on obverse, traces of mount. Good VF. $27,500

584950. GERMANY, Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Duchy). Julius. 1568-1589. AR Taler (40mm, 29.11 g, 12h). ‘Licchtaler’ (Light taler) type. Goslar mint. Dated 1572. Coat-of-arms, with wildman supporters, surmounted by ornately crested helmet / Wildman advancing left, holding tree and lit candle. Welter 576; Davenport 9060. Toned with hints of blue iridescence around devices, a few light marks. VF. $3500 83

584949. GERMANY, Hessen-Kassel (Landgravate). Wilhelm VI. 1637-1663. AR Taler (43mm, 28.65 g, 7h). Kassel mint. Dated 1637 GK. Crowned lion rampant left / Willow tree buffeted by winds and struck by lightning from tree to left; five buildings in background; above, radiant name of God in Hebrew. Schütz 1014; Davenport 6772; KM 181. Old cabinet toning, a few edge marks and bumps. Good VF. $3000 The scene of the willow tree being blown by a storm and struck by lightning is common on talers of Hessen-Kassel struck during the period of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). The depiction of the storm alludes to the continued effect of war on Hessen-Kassel. During the Thirty Years’ War, countless militias swept through the territory, ravaging the countryside and killing a large proportion of the population. In the upper right of the scene is a shining sun representing Jehovah, perhaps a reminder of God’s presence and a hope that sunny days are ahead.

584952. GERMANY, Sachsen-Albertinische Linie (Electorate & Duchy). Johann Georg II. 1656-1680. AR Taler Klippe (47x48mm, 29.27 g, 3h). Commemorating the marriage of Erdmuthe Sophie to Christian Ernst. Dresden mint. Dated 1662. Hands emerging from clouds crowning with wreath a monument decorated with two coats-of-arms, joined by hanging garlands to two garlanded pillars on either side, one surmounted by a pair of wings, the other a pair of doves; radiate name of God above; ornate coats-of-arms in corners / Legend in nine lines; ornate coats-of-arms in corners. Clauss & Kahnt 511; Schnee 914; Davenport 7631; KM 500. Wonderful old cabinet toning. Near EF. $5750 Ex Johns Hopkins University Collection (Part II, Leu/Numismatic Fine Arts, 16 October 1984), lot 1398; Hall Collection.

5591397. ITALY, Milan (Duchy). Galeazzo Maria Sforza. 1466-1476. AR Testone (29mm, 9.64 g, 7h). Reform coinage. Second period, 1474-1476. Armored bust right / Helmet left, crested by dragon consuming human figure; branding irons with buckets to left and right; G3 M flanking. MIR 201/2; Crippa 6/A; MEC 12, 733-5. Toned, a few deposits. Near EF. $1950 84

5591366. ITALY, Savoy (duchy). Carlo I. 1482-1490. AR Testone (29mm, 9.49 g, 6h). Type I. Cornavin mint. Draoed bsut right, wearing biretta and holding sword over shoulder / Coat-of-arms with knot above, fe rt across field; all within quadrilobe. MIR 227c. Toned, scrape, slightly double struck. Near EF. $9500

5591360. PHILIPPINES, Spanish Colonial. Isabel II. 1833-1868. AR Peso (40mm, 26.96 g, 12h). Type VI. Struck 18341837. Crowned Y·II· within circular cartouche countermarked on a Chilean ‘volcano’ peso of the Santiago mint, dated 1834 IJ. For countermark: Basso 43; KM 108. For host: KM 82. Rich iridescent toning, once polished. Host VF, c/m EF. A better host coin for the series. $3500 For centuries, the wealth of the Spanish empire had flowed eastward in the form of millions of tons of silver. When independence came to South America in the 1820s, it brought with it a number of smaller states, each with their own distinctly republican, anti-monarchical coin types. Yet the flow of silver continued to the orient. Colonial officials in the Philippines, then one of the few territories still held by the truncated Spanish empire, feared that the influx of numismatic propaganda from the new republics might inspire Filipinos into an insurrection of their own, or at the very least imply tacit recognition of the breakaway colonies. To address these concerns, mint officials began countermarking imported republican silver. The first counterstamps were ordered by the Captain-General of the Philippines on 13 October 1828 and bore the legend HABILITADO POR EL REY N S D FERN VII (Rehabilitated by the King, our lord Don Ferdinand VII). Subsequent stamps would be more simplistic, ultimately settling on F7o for Ferdinand VII, and Y:II for his successor, Isabel II. Counterstamping ceased with an edict issued on 13 March 1837, after Spain had officially recognized their former American colonies as independent nations. This example bears a countermark of Isabel II, struck over one of the most iconic coin types of the early South American republics: the Chilean peso with erupting volcano.

The First Christian King of Sweden

594118. SWEDEN. Olof Skötkonung (the Treasurer). 995–1022. AR Penny (20mm, 1.62 g, 3h). Imitation of Æthelred II Helmet type. Sigtuna mint. Struck after 1003. ๘ ዞዝዞ⌦ዞያዝ ያዞX aé, helmeted bust left / ๘ ዞዝ Ḧ ዩዢɉ ȵቸ ∂ ⌦ѝÄ, voided long cross, with pellet in center and triple crescent ends, over square with trefoil at each point; annulet in third quarter. SMH 519 (same dies); Malmer chain 5-L, dies 4.301/4.811; Malmer, Sigtuna chain 24, 311.801; Viking Collection (Spink 150, 14 March 2001), lot 1165 (same dies, cover coin). Richly toned, small peck on obverse. Near EF. Very rare. An excellent example. The work of a highly skilled engraver who Malmer dubbed ‘the Helmet-master.’ $6950 Ex Lawrence R. Stack (Sotheby’s, 22 April 1999), lot 808; P. Carlyon-Britton (Sotheby, Wilkinson, Hodge, 17 November 1913), lot 522 (part of, illustrated pl. XIV). Also known as Olof Eiríksson, Olof Skötkonung (the Treasurer) was the first Christian King of Sweden. The epithet Skötkonung refers to Olof’s role as a treasure king: taxes, a tributary relationship, the minting of coins, or an ancient land ownership ceremony have all been suggested as possible explanations. In 1008, Olof Skötkonung was baptised a Christian by St. Sigfrid at Husaby. Olof’s death in the winter of 1021/2 was, according to legend, the result of his refusal to sacrifice to the pagan gods. He was later canonized as St. Olof of Sweden.



585720. CELTIC. ‘Ring Money’. Circa 1150-750 BC. AV Ring (14mm, 1.84 g). Cable pattern tapering to plain ends. Van Arsdell 1-1; cf. ABC p. 202; SCBC p. 117; cf. Quiggin p. 279-81; Opitz p. 280. Essentially as made. $2950 Ex Coin Galleries (12 July 2000), lot 265; Classical Numismatic Auctions XXI (26 June 1992), lot 653. Reportedly found in Gloucestershire.

593006. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of Mercia. Coenwulf. 796-821. AR Penny (19mm, 1.28 g, 6h). Tribrach type. Canterbury mint; Sigebeorht, moneyer. Struck 798-805. ๘ üℽዞዧ⎍⎍Ǯዟ ʽዞҟ, large M / ˨ዢŨ ዞዛዞ ʽh in angles of two-lined tribrach moline. Naismith C16.2e = EMC 2010.0072 (this coin); SCBI 67 (BM), 126; North 342; SCBC 914. Slight porosity. Dark toning. Good VF. $4500 Ex John W. Cross Collection. Found near Postwick, Norfolk, 2008.

593013. ANGLO-SAXON, Anglo-Viking (Danish Northumbria). Cnut & Siefred (Sigeferth). Circa 900. AR Penny (19mm, 1.15 g, 3h). Class IIId. York mint. æ n ⎍ Ḷ ˸ ያ / ዞ ๘ / arranged around inverted patriarchal cross with pellets in upper angles / ๘ ⎄ዢ ዞዟʽ ʽዞዝ ⎍⎄, short cross pattée with pellets in first and fourth quarters. L&S class IIId; SCBI 29 (Merseyside) 367 (same obv. die); BMC 1022; North 502; SCBC 996. Areas of weak strike. Otherwise lightly toned. EF. Very rare. $5250 Ex John N. Cross Collection.

594119. ANGLO-SAXON, Anglo-Viking (Danish Northumbria). Cnut & Siefred (Sigeferth). Circa 900. AR Penny (19mm, 1.36 g, 4h). Class VIc, ‘Mirabile fecit’ type. York mint. ม ዦዢያ©ዛዢዥ© ዓዞæዢͿ, cross pattée; pellets in first and fourth quarters / /ม ዞ/ዛያ/©ዢ / æዞæ, inverted patriarchal cross, four pellets around upper crossbar. SCBI 29 (Merseyside), 395 (same obv. die); BMC 1056; North 512; SCBC 1000. Richly toned with some underlying iridescence. EF. Rare thus. $3250



594050 594438. ANGLO-SAXON, Anglo-Viking (Danish Northumbria). Cnut. Circa 900-905. AR Penny (20mm, 1.16 g, 12h). Class IIe, Cunneti type. York mint. æ n ⎍ Ḩ ˸ ያ Ḩ ዞ ๘ Ḷ arranged around inverted patriarchal cross with pellets in upper angles / ๘ æ⎍n ๘ nዞ˸Ḷ˸ዢ Ḩ, short cross pattée with pellets in first and fouth quarters. L&S class IIe; SCBI 29 (Merseyside) 257/334 (for obv./rev.); cf. BMC 925 (for type); North 501; SCBC 993. Slight ghosting on reverse. Toned. EF. $1650 Ex Irv Ford Collection.

594050. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of Wessex. Æthelstan. 924-939. AR Penny (23mm, 1.48 g). Contemporary imitation of the Circumscription Rosette type (BMC vi). Rosette, blundered legend around / Rosette, blundered legend around. The crude legends are suggestive of the moneyer ‘Cnapa’ from the Chester mint. Evans, “Anglo-Saxon Coins Found in Meath,” in NC Series 3, Vol. 5 (1885), 26 (this coin); Blunt, Aethelstan 495; SCBI 34 (BM), –; cf. North 680 (for official issues); cf. SCBC 1098 (same). Toned, slightly wavy flan. VF. A rare imitation with ties to Ireland. Includes ticket in the hand of Bert Seaby (cf. Eaglen D22A-1). $1750 Ex Sir John Evans Collection; 1876 Killyon Manor, Co. Meath, Ireland Hoard. “In the year 1876 a game-keeper, in digging for a missing ferret at a place called Killyon Manor, Hill fo Down, Meath, came upon a hoard of 88 silver pennies, the bulk of which, thanks to the kindness of the Rev. Dr. Scott, passed into my hands. The spot where they were found is regarded as an ancient battle-field, and with the coins were some desiccated bones, which, however, proved to be those of a horse.” Sir John Evans, Numismatic Chronicle, 1885.

585794. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of All England. Eadgar. 959-975. AR Penny (20mm, 1.45 g, 6h). Reform Small Cross type (BMC vi). Rochester mint; Sidumann, moneyer. Struck 973-975. ม ዞ©ዝű©ʽ ʽዞҟ ©nű⌦j, draped and diademed bust left / ม Ӳዢዝዞዦ©n ዦ!ɭ ዡʽɭዟ, small cross pattée. SCBI 11 (Reading), 59 (same dies); North 752; SCBC 1141. Weak in parts, scuffed and some porosity. Near VF. Very rare. $1950

588853. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of All England. Æthelred II. 978-1016. AR Penny (20mm, 1.14 g, 3h). Crux type (BMC iiia, Hild. C). Southwark mint; Ælfric, moneyer. Struck circa 991-997. ม®Tዞ⌦ʽ®ዝ ʽዞҟ ©é⌦j, draped bust left; trefoiltipped scepter before / ม®⌦ዟʽዢü ዦ!ɭ Ӳ⎍Tዛӎ, voided short cross; ü ʽ ⎍ ҟ in quarters. SCBI 20 (Mack), 882 (this coin; there as Sudbury); North 770; SCBC 1148. Deep glossy toning. Good VF. $1350 Ex R. C. Mack Collection (not in Glendining’s sales), purchased from Spink, 1928.


588857. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of All England. Cnut. 1016-1035. AR Penny (19mm, 1.07 g, 5h). Pointed Helmet type (BMC xiv, Hild. G). York mint; Sunnulfr, moneyer. Struck circa 1023-1030. ม ün⎍Ϳ ʼዞҟ ©nű, bust left, wearing pointed helmet; trefoil-tipped scepter to left / ม ⎄⎍nɭ⌦ዟ ȵ!ɭ ዞɭዟʼ, voided short cross, limbs united at base by two concentric circles with pellet in center; in each angle, broken annulet enclosing pellet. SCBI 13 (Copenhagen), 841 (same dies); North 787; SCBC 1158. Deep glossy toning, a few very light marks. Near EF. $950 Ex Baldwin’s 77 (27 September 2012), lot 2549; G. Doubleday (Glendining, 6 October 1987), lot 598; V.J.E. Ryan (Part II, Glendining 22 January 1952), lot 830 (part of).

594444. NORMAN. William I ‘the Conqueror’. 1066-1087. AR Penny (19mm, 1.39 g, 10h). Paxs type (BMC viii). London mint; Beorhtwine. Struck circa 1083-1086. ม ዩዢ⌦ዞ⌦ȵ ʼዞҟ, crowned facing bust, holding scepter; trefoil on shoulder / ม ዛʼዢዡͿዩዢɉ ȵɭ ⌦ዢዢ, cross pattée; letters of ዩ a ҟ S in annulets within quarters. SCBI 18 (Copenhagen), 1330 (same dies); BMC 871; North 848; SCBC 1257. Some light earthen deposits. Toned. Near EF. $1850 Ex Irv Ford Collection.

585665. NORMAN. Stephen. 1135-1154. AR Penny (20mm, 1.18 g, 8h). Profile/Cross and Piles type (BMC vi). Castle Rising; Rodbert, moneyer. Struck circa 1150-1154. ม ˫[Ϳዢዞዟ]n[ዞ], crowned bust left, holding scepter / ม ˃ɭዝዛ[ዞ˃Ϳ Ḧ ]ɭn Ḧ ˃ዢ˫, cross fleurée, with saltire cross at center and piles surmounted by trefoils in each quarter. Mack 81-3; SCBI –; North 879; SCBC 1281. Weak in parts. Toned. VF. With a clear reverse reading and bold portrait. Very rare. $3750

5590909. PLANTAGENET. Edward I. 1272-1307. AR Penny (19mm, 1.43 g, 8h). New coinage, class 1c. London mint. Struck May to December 1272. ๘ ĚĕѾ ʽĚᛸ _Ƀg⌦= ĕɃ⎄ ƌӎB, crowned facing bust / æƱ⎍Ʊ Ϳ_⎄ ⌦ɭɃ ĕɭɃ, long cross pattée. SCBI 39 (North), 29 var. (obv. legend stop); North 1012; SCBC 1382. Areas of weakness in legends otherwise richly toned and with a medallic quality. Near EF. $1250 Ex Spink Numismatic Circular XCVIII.9 (November 1990), no. 6874.


594446. PLANTAGENET. Edward I. 1272-1307. AR Farthing (10mm, 0.39 g, 8h). New coinage, class 9b. London mint. ๘ Ě ʽ an g⌦ ĕ n, crowned facing bust / æƱ⎍Ʊ Ϳ_⎄ ⌦ɭn ĕɭn, long cross pattée; triple pellets in quarters. Withers I type 27; cf. SCBI 39 (North), 1027; cf. North 1057/2; cf. SCBC 1449A (for slightly different crown). Toned. Near EF. Rare. $575 Ex Irv Ford Collection.

594590. LANCASTER. Henry VI. First reign, 1422-1461. AV Half Noble (25mm, 3.40 g, 11h). Annulet issue. Calais mint; im: lis. Struck 1422-1430. ƌ ĚNˆƩý Ⴀ ĕƩ=$ Żˆa=$ ˆĚҞ$ aŻǭ=$ Ԥ$ fˆaNý=$ , Henry standing facing in ship, holding sword and shield; annulet to left of hand; ornaments: 1-1-1; quatrefoils: 3/3 / Ⴀ ĕɨ⍴ƩNĚ ᛋ ˆĚ ი ƩN ი fѝˆɨˆĚ ი ˶ѝɨ ი aˆŻѝa˨ ი ⍴Ě, cross fleurée over voided short cross potent; at center,ƌ within quatrefoil; in each angle, crown above lion passant; all within double polylobe, with annulet in one spandrel and trefoil in all others. Whitton, Heavy 2; Schneider 301; North 1418; SCBC 1808. In NGC encapsulation 2119563-045, graded AU 55. Toned. Well struck and extremely rare.. $7950 Ex Dr. Baumhauer Collection; M. Rasmussen FPL 26 (Summer 2014), no. 27 (only a few examples known, VF, £5500).

594449. LANCASTER. Henry VI. First reign, 1422-1461. AR Groat (26mm, 3.74 g, 5h). Annulet issue. Calais mint; im: pierced cross 2. Struck 1422-1430. 2 ƌENRiý ⎡ Di= ⎡ ŷˆ¨ ⎡ ˆEҞ ⎡ ¨NŷȄ ⎡ ⎜ ᚤ fˆ¨Ný=, crowned facing bust within tressure of arches; lis at cusps; annulets flanking neck / 2 ʏɨSѝi ი DEѝM Ḻ ¨ DiѝTɨR E= MEѝM/ ѝiȄ Ȅ¨ Ḻ ý¨Ȅi SiE Ḻ, long cross; trefoil in quarters, annulets within second and third trefoil. Whitton, Heavy 11; North 1424; SCBC 1836. A few light marks. Toned. Near EF. $550 Ex Irv Ford Collection.

585799. LANCASTER (Restored). Henry VI. Second reign, 1470-1471. AV Angel (27mm, 5.10 g, 4h). Tower (London) mint; im: restoration cross/–. $ ƌENˆiýѝ˨ $ Di=$$ ŷˆ¨=$ ˆEҞ $ ¨NŷȄ=$ ⎜ $ fˆ¨Ný 2, Archangel Michael slaying the dragon to right with spear terminating in cross crosslet / ʖĿʽý ʽѝý˨Ŀ=$ ΍ѝa= SaǺѝa= ɇɨS $ Ңʖý=$ ʽĿēĿ=$΍ɨʽ, ship bearing shield and cross, ƌ and ჭ flanking cross; portcullis without chains. Blunt & Whitton 3/11; Schneider 439 (same dies); North 1613; SCBC 2078. Short scratch on reverse. Toned. Good VF. Rare. $7950 89

5590879. YORK (Restored). Edward IV or V. 1483. AR Groat (23mm, 2.69 g, 1h). Tower (London) mint; im: halved sun & rose. (halved sun & rose) ĚĕѾ¥ˊĕ=ᚤ ĕƩ=ᚤ gˊ¥=ᚤ ˊĚҢ ᚤ ¥ɀgǭ=ᚤ Ԥ ᚤ fˊ¥ɀý=, crowned facing bust within tressure of arches with trefoils at cusps / (halved sun & rose) ʖɨSѝi DEѝM ᚤ ¥ DiѝͿɨR E MEѝM/ ýiѝi Ϳ¥S ǣɨN DɨN, long cross pattée; triple pellets in quarters. Stewart, “The Dies of Edward V’s Silver Coins” in BNJ L (1980), obv. die A; Lessen, “The Groats of Edward V” in BNJ 53 (1983), obv. die 9; MEG p. 46; North 1631 (Edward IV); SCBC 2146A. Slightly short of flan. Toned. Good VF. Rare. $5950 Ex M. Rasmussen FPL 4 (Spring 2003); no. 97; Superior (11 December 1992), lot 1407; David Dupree collection. Edward V’s brief reign lasted from 9 April, when his father Edward IV died, to 26 June 1483, when he was deposed by his uncle, Richard III. The halved sun and rose mint mark was the last used for Edward IV, and continued into the reign of his successor Edward V. The 12-year old Edward and his younger brother, Richard, became the famous lost “Princes of the Tower” whose fate has never been firmly established, although they were most likely murdered on their uncle’s orders.

588001. YORK (Restored). Richard III. 1483-1485. AR Groat (25mm, 3.20 g, 9h). Type IIb/IIIa mule. London mint; im: boar’s head 2/halved sun & rose 2. (boar’s head 2) ˊƩýaˊĕ ᚤ ĕƩ ᚤ Żˊa ᚤ ˆĚҢ ᚤ aNŻǭ=ᚤ Ӳ ᚤ ŖˆaNý, crowned facing bust within tressure of arches / (halved sun & rose 2) ʖɨ˫ѝƩ ĕĚѝ⍴ Ḻ a ĕƩѝ˸ɨˆ Ě Ḻ ⍴Ěѝ⍴/ ýƩѝƩ ˸¨˫ ǭɨN ĕɨN, long cross pattée; triple pellets in quarters. MEG type 2B/3 mule; Winstanley 9; Stewartby p. 434, IIb/IIIa; North 1679; cf. SCBC 2156/2157 (obv./rev.). Full flan. Deeply toned. Good VF. Extremely rare muled initial mark combination. $5950 Ex Classical Numismatic Group Inventory 914716 (January 2012); F. Brady (Spink 209, 6 October 2011), lot 238.

594450. TUDOR. Henry VII. 1485-1509. AR Groat (25mm, 3.05 g, 12h). Type IVb. Tower (London) mint; im: greyhound’s head. Struck 1502-1504. (greyhound’s head) ƌĚNˆƩý⎡ ĕƩ⎡ ŷˊa⎡ ˆĚҢ ᚤ aNŻǭ⎡ Z ᚤ Ŗˆ=, crowned facing bust within tressure of arches with fleurs at cusps / (greyhound’s head) ʖɨ˫ѝƩ ĕĚѝ⎡ a ĕƩѝ˸ɨˆ Ě⎡ ⍴Ěѝ/ ᚤ ýƩѝƩ ˸¨˫ ᚤ ǭɨN ĕɨN ᚤ, long cross pattée; triple pellets in quarters. North 1706b; SCBC 2201. Toned. Near EF. An exceptional example struck on a broad flan. $2250 Ex Irv Ford Collection, purchased from Charles Wolfe, 1992.


594592. TUDOR. Henry VIII, with Jane Seymour. 1509-1547. AV Crown of the Double Rose (25mm, 3.70 g, 10h). Second coinage, crown gold. Tower (London) mint; im: arrow. Struck 1536-1537. ሌ ƌĚȺˊƱý ⎡ ⎍ƱƱƱ ⎡ ˊ⎍˶Ʊ⌦⍒N⌽ ᚤ ˊɨ⌽⍒ ᚤ ⌽ƱĚ ⎡ ⌽PƱ⍒, crowned double rose; crowned ƌ Ʃ / ሌ dĚƱ Ḻ Ż ⎡ ˊ=Ḻ ¥Ż⌦ƱĚ ⎡ ә ᚤ Ŋˊ¥ný=Ḻ dn⌽=Ḻ ƌƱBĚˊnƱ=, crowned coat-of-arms; ƌ Ʃ. Whitton (iv), 6 ; Schneider 591-2 var. (legend stops, rev. legend. See 590 for same rev. die); North 1790; SCBC 2279. In NGC encapsulation 2119526-047, graded MS 62. A pleasing specimen. Attractively toned. $7750 Ex Dr. Baumhauer Collection. Though no portrait issues were ever struck for any of Henry VIII’s eight wives, three were commemorated on Henry crown gold coinage and the silver harp types struck for use in Ireland. On this example, the crowned letter I to the right of the devices represents Henry’s third wife, Jane Seymour. She would die only a few weeks after the birth of her first child, the future king Edward VI.

587403. TUDOR. Henry VIII. 1509-1547. AR Groat (25mm, 2.93 g, 4h). Second coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: lis. Struck 1526-1544. Ⴀ ƌĚNˆƩý Ḻ ѝƩƩƩ=Ḻ ĕ=Ḻ ŷ⎡ aŷǭ⎡ Z ᚤ ŖˆaNý=, crowned bust right (Laker D) / Ⴀ ʖɨ˫ѝƩ ĕĚѝ=Ḻ aĕƩѝ˸ɨˆ Ě=Ḻ ⍴Ěѝ=, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée with saltires at ends. North 1797; SCBC 2337E. Richly toned. Near EF. With an excellent portrait. $1850 Ex Bosworth Collection; Spink Numismatic Circular CXVI.2 (April 2008), no. HS3337.

594593. TUDOR. Edward VI. 1547-1553. AV Half Sovereign (30mm, 5.35 g, 12h). Second period. Southwark mint; im: Y. Struck 1549-1550. Y SCVTVM * FIDEI * PROTEET * EVM *, bareheaded and armored bust right / Y EDWARD’: VI : D’· G’· AGL’: FRA’· Z · HIB’· REX :, crowned coat-of-arms; E R flanking. Potter, Coinage type Ib; Schneider 686 (same obv. die); North 1908; SCBC 2435. Perhaps very lightly polished in field and with a small mark on reverse. In NGC encapsulation 2119532-011, graded AU Details, tooled. Bold portrait. $14,500 Ex Dr Baumhauer collection; R. R. Beresford-Jones (Spink 29, 2 June 1983), lot 43; ‘Member of the Numismatic Society of London’ (Sotheby, Wilkinson, & Hodge, 26 May 1902), lot 11; W. N. Clarkson (Sotheby, Leigh & Wood, 16 April 1901) lot 32. Whereas NGC were generally rather generous with the coins in the recent sale of the Dr Baumhauer collection, they have come down rather hard on this coin which, though it has some light rubbing in the obverse field, is a very pleasing coin with an excellent provenance.


585795. TUDOR. Edward VI. 1547-1553. AR Crown (41mm, 31.33 g, 11h). Third period; Fine Silver issue. London mint; im: У. Dated 1551. ӎ Ḧ ĚĕѾ¨ˊĕ=Ḧ ѝƩ Ḧ ĕ=Ḧ ŷ=Ḧ ¨ŷǰ Ḧ ōˊ¨Ný=Ḧ Z Ḧ ƌƩBĚ=ˊḦ ˊĚҢ /, Edward, armored and holding sword, on caparisoned horse right; ἳἭἭἳ below / ʖɨ˫ѝƩ ĕĚѝ=/ ¨ ĕ ƩѝͿɨˊĚ⍴ Ḧ ⍴Ěѝ⍴ Ḧ ӎ Ḧ, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Woodbridge dies A/9; North 1833; SCBC 2478. Slight weakness to tail of horse otherwise with excellent detail. Toned. Good VF. A pleasing example of the first silver crown. $13,500

5590880. TUDOR. Edward VI. 1547-1553. AR Shilling (32mm, 6.18 g, 5h). Third period, fine silver issue. Tower (London) mint; im: tun. Struck 1551-1553. Ḧ (tun) Ḧ ĚĕѾ¨ˊĕ=/ ѝƩ Ḧ ĕ=/ ŷ=/ ¨ŷȄ=/ fˊ¨=/ Z / ƇƩB=/ ˊĚҢ, crowned and mantled bust facing slightly left; rose to left, XII to right / Pɨ˫ѝƩ ĕĚѝ=/ ¨ ĕƩѝ˸ɨˊ Ě=Ḧ ⍴Ěѝ=/, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. North 1937; SCBC 2482. A little soft on king’s tunic otherwise richly toned. Good VF. $1850

589599. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AV Quarter Angel (17mm, 1.30 g, 4h). Fifth issue. Tower (London) mint; im: Latin cross (over Greek cross)/Latin Cross. Struck 1580-1581. † (over +) ELIZABETH : D G ANG : FRANCIE, Archangel Michael slaying dragon to lower right, spear topped by cross fleurée / † ET · HIBERNIE · REGINA · FIDEI ·, ship bearing shield and cross; E and rose flanking cross. Brown & Comber E7; Schneider 776; North 1993; SCBC 2528. A few light marks.. Good VF. Rare over-mintmark on obverse. $6500 Ex C. Comber Collection; C. Herriot (Dix, Noonan, & Webb 62, 30 June 2004), lot 78.


585796. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Halfcrown (35mm, 15.05 g, 4h). Seventh issue. Tower (London) mint; im: 1. Struck 1601-1602. 1 : ELIZABETH : D’· G’· ANG’· FRA’· ET : HIBER’· REGINA :, crowned bust left, wearing ruff and holding lis-tipped scepter / : 1 : POSVI : DEVM : AD IVTORE M : MEVM :, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. BCW 1-1/1-a1; North 2013; SCBC 2583. Toned. Good VF. $7250

593243. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Sixpence (26mm, 2.93 g, 6h). Milled coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: star. Dated 1562. ო ELIZABETH · D · G · ANG · FRA · ET · HIB · REGINA, crowned bust left, with plain dress, wearing ruff; rose to right / ო POSVI · DEVM · AD IVTORE M · MEVM, crowned coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Borden & Brown 23, dies O1/R1; North 2052/2; SCBC 2594. Pleasing cabinet toning, traces of red wax on reverse. Good VF. $1450

593246. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Sixpence (26mm, 3.14 g, 7h). Milled coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: star. Dated 1562. ო ELIZABETH · D · G · ANG · FRA · ET · HIB · REGINA, crowned bust left, with decorated dress, wearing ruff; rose to right / ო POSVI · DEVM · AD IVTORE M · MEVM, crowned coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Borden & Brown 26, dies O8/R2 var. (later die state not noted, with small die breaks through E in DEVM and E in ADIVTOREM); North 2027; SCBC 2596. Tiny mark on reverse field and some light cabinet friction. Toned. EF. Rare thus. $3250

593244. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Sixpence (25mm, 3.02 g, 10h). Milled coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: lis. Dated 1567. ჭ POSVI DEV’· AD IVOTRE M · MEV’·, crowned bust left, with decorated dress, wearing ruff; rose to right / ჭ POSVI DEV’· AD IVOTRE M · MEV’·, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Borden & Brown 37, dies O1/R1; North 2030; SCBC 2599. Richly toned, diagnostic die break on reverse. Good VF. $1450 Ex Bloomsbury (21 June 2006), lot 721.


Standard Catalog Plate Coin

5590881. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Groat (23mm, 2.04 g, 6h). Milled coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: star. Struck 1560-1561. ო ELIZABETH · D · G · AMG · FRA · ET · HIB · REGINA, crowned bust left, with decorated dress, wearing ruff / ო POSVI DEVM · AD IVTORE M · MEVM, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Borden & Brown 18, dies O1/R1; North 2032; SCBC 2601 (this coin illustrated, 2019 ed.). A superb coin. Small mark by obverse mint mark otherwise richly toned with underlying blue luster. EF. Rare, especially so this fine. $7250 Ex Marshall Collection (Spink 167, 31 March 2004), lot 108; Spink Numismatic Circular (December 1942), no. 17381 (£5/5/-).

Pattern Shilling from the Dr. Carter Collection

589600. TUDOR. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. Pattern AR Shilling (31mm, 6.11 g, 11h). Sixth issue. Tower (London) mint; im: key. Dies by Charles Anthony. Struck 1595. (key) ELIZAB’· D’· G’· ANG’· FR’· ET HIB’· REGI, crowned bust left / (key) POSVI DEV’· AD IVOTRE M · MEV’·, crowned coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. BCW KY-3C/KY-c1; B&C P4; North 2044. A few light marks, Toned. Good VF. A wonderful and very rare portrait piece. $19,500 Ex C. Comber Collection; Dr. E. Burstall Collection (with his ticket, Eaglen C15); Dr. E.C. Carter Collection (purchased en bloc by Baldwin, 1950). After the death of the mint’s chief engraver Derek Anthony, his son Charles assumed the position. Charles engraved a new set of portrait punches for the reintroduction of a crown gold coinage in 1593. Elizabeth was portrayed in profile in a richly decorated dress and with long, flowing hair. After this success, he prepared a redesign of the silver shilling. A small number of beautiful patterns were struck with the key mint mark. For unknown reasons, the ‘flowing hair’ design was not adopted, and the youthful portrait of the queen continued in use on the currency issues until the end of the reign.


584589. STUART. James I. 1603-1625. AV Laurel (35mm, 8.98 g, 10h). Third coinage, crown gold. Tower (London) mint; im: lis. Struck 1623-1624. ჭ IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FRAN : ET : HIB : REX, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FACIA M EOS IN GENTEM VNAM ჭ, crowned coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Schneider 86; North 2114; SCBC 2638C. In NGC encapsulation 5971180-004, graded AU 58. Attractively toned. $4950

594455. STUART. Charles I. 1625-1649. AV Unite (34mm, 9.01 g, 10h). Group B. Tower (London) mint; im: heart. Struck 1629-1630. (heart) CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX, crowned, armored, and draped bust left, wearing ruff; XX (mark of value) to right / FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA · (heart) ·, crowned coat-of-arms. Schneider, Tower Class Ia; Brooker 57-60 var. (stops); Schneider 127-8 var. (same); North 2149; SCBC 2688. Some light cleaning marks in fields, slightly wavy flan. Good VF. $3950


589726. STUART. Charles I. 1625-1649. AV Triple Unite (44mm, 26.62 g, 6h). Declaration type. Oxford mint; im: plume. Dated 1643. (plumes) CAROLVS · D : G · MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET : HIB : REX ·:, crowned and armored half length bust left, holding sword in right hand and olive branch in left; plume to right / EXVRGAT : DEVS : DISSIPENTVR : INIMICI ·:·, (continuing into inner field) RELIG : PROT/ : LEG : ANG/ LIBER : PAR on continuous scroll; above, three plumes above III; I643 below. Beresford-Jones dies VI/58; Brooker 838 (same dies); Schneider 295 (same dies); North 2384; SCBC 2727. Light even wear to high points. Richly toned. Good VF. An attractive, well struck specimen. Rare. $97,500 Ex Künker 316 (31 January 2019), lot 742; T. Bullmore (R. Richardson FPL, Autumn 2014), no. 3 (£75000); M. Rasmussen FPL 9 (Spring 2006), no. 133; Baldwin’s 13 (28 May 1997), lot 1997; D. Mitchell (Glendining’s, 27 April 1949), lot 20.


594597. STUART. Charles I. 1625-1649. AV Unite (34mm, 8.35 g, 10h). Declaration type. Oxford mint; im: plume. Dated 1645. (plumes) CAROLVS · D : G · MAG : BRIT : FR : ET · HI : REX ·, crowned and armored half length bust left, holding sword in right hand and olive branch in left; XX (mark of value) to right / EXVRGAT · DEVS · DISSIPENTVR · INIMICI ·, (continuing into inner field) RELIG · PROT :/ LEG :· ANG :/ LIBER PAR on continuous scroll; three plumes above; I645 below. Beresford-Jones dies XI/19; Brooker 855 (same dies); Schneider 327 (same dies); North 2389; SCBC 2738. In NGC encapsulation 2119539-003, graded AU 55. Richly toned. A very rare date. $29,500 Ex Dr. Baumhauer Collection; R. Beresford-Jones (Spink 29, 2 June 1983), lot 125; V.J.E. Ryan (Glendining, 28 June 1950), lot 543. Unites dated 1645 are known from two reverse types; one – as the piece offered here – with three plumes above the declaration (SCBC 2738), and the other with a single plume above the declaration and OX below the date (SCBC 2739). We believe there to be only 4 examples of the three plume type and two examples of the single plume type in private hands.

594055. STUART. Charles I. 1625-1649. AR Threepence (19mm, 1.29 g, 8h). Exeter mint; im: rose. Dated 1644. შ CAROLVS · D · G · MA · F · ET · H · RE, crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust left; III (mark of value) to right / CRISTO AVS PICE · R EGNO შ, coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée. Besly dies A/1; Brooker 1072 (same dies); North 2580; SCBC 3089. Richly toned. Good VF. Bold portrait. $1350 Ex Dix, Noonan, & Webb 104 (5 December 2012), lot 279.

589728. STUART, Siege money. Newark. 1645-1646. AR Ninepence (25x27mm, 4.26 g). Dated 1646. Crown; C R across field, IX (mark of value) below / OBS:/NEWARK/1646 (date) in three lines across field. Brooker 1227; Hird 263 (same dies); North 2641; SCBC 3145. Deeply toned with wonderful surfaces. Near EF. $5750 Ex ‘Silver Coins of Charles I from a Private Collection’ (Part II, Dix, Noonan, & Webb 79, 24 September 2008), lot 3738.


Choice Blondeau Pattern Halfcrown

585798. COMMONWEALTH. 1649-1660. Pattern Milled AR Halfcrown (33mm, 15.11 g, 6h). Dies by Simon. Blondeau’s mint, Drury House, London. Dually dated 1651 and year 3 of the Commonwealth. · ᛹ · THE COMMONWEALTH · OF · ENGLAND ·, coat-of-arms within wreath of palm frond and olive branch / · GOD · WITH · VS · 1651, two coats-of-arms; II · VI above. Edge: IN · THE · THIRD · YEAR · OF · FREEDOME · BY · GODS · BLESSING · RESTORED · 1651. ESC 443; North 2731. Richly toned. EF. One of the finest known examples of this important and rare pattern. $19,500 Ex H.E. Manville (Spink 154, 14 July 2001), lot 21; M. Hughes (Spink 139, 16 November 1999), lot 207; H. Selig (Spink 70, 31 May 1989), lot 232; ‘Agricola’ Collection (Spink 31, 12 October 1983), lot 254; Spink 1 (11 October 1978), lot 204. Hammered coinage in the medieval and early modern period was plagued by the endemic problem of clipping. In 1651, Commonwealth officials invited the Frenchman Peter Blondeau to London to introduce the techniques of milled coinage to the mint. Patterns for the new coinage were produced both by Blondeau and by the Englishman David Ramage. Blondeau’s coins, carefully struck from dies cut by Thomas Simon, were technically far superior. The Halfcrowns bore the first appearance of a lettered edge in the English series.

585800. COMMONWEALTH. 1649-1660. AR Sixpence (27mm, 3.05 g, 11h). Tower (London) mint; im: sun. Dated 1651. · ᛹ · THE COMMONWEALTH · OF · ENGLAND ·, coat-of-arms within wreath of palm frond and olive branch / · GOD · WITH · VS · 1651, two coats-of-arms; · VI · above. ESC 1484; North 2726; SCBC 3219. Richly toned. Choice EF. $4000 Ex H.E. Manville (Spink 154, 12 July 2001), lot 44; H. Selig (Spink 70, 31 May 1979), lot 235.


Three Gold Medals of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Simon

‘No one rises so high as he who knows not whither he is going.’ Oliver Cromwell

At Dunbar on the 3rd of September 1650 Oliver Cromwell, recently appointed as commander-in-chief of the forces the nascent English republic, led the New Model Army to a resounding victory against a larger Scottish force that had proclaimed Charles II as king and sought to re-establish monarchy throughout the British Isles. Exactly eight years later, on the 3rd of September 1658, Cromwell died in Hampton Court Palace having named his son Richard to be his successor as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. At the elaborate state funeral which followed his effigy bore the crown he had refused during his lifetime. This highly important trio of struck gold medals serve as a splendid memorial to the remarkable man they portray, one of the most significant and divisive figures in British history. All three are the work of Thomas Simon, a medallist whose fame, as Leonard Forrer rightly stated, ‘stands unrivalled in the British series.’ Together they mark the passage of a tumultuous eight years, an epoch that witnessed the culmination of Cromwell’s brilliant career, and which was defined by his exceptional character and deeds. From the collection of Marvin Lessen, the foremost expert on Simon’s oeuvre, these medals are exceedingly rare and have for centuries been among the most coveted items in all British numismatics. No other set of these medals exist outside of the British Museum.


The Lord of Hosts is With Us

AV Medal (8.36 g, 12h). The Battle of Dunbar. By Thomas Simon. Dated 3 September 1650. · THE LORD OF HOSTS · above, WORD · AT/DUNBAR in two lines to left, SEPTEM :/Y · 3 I650 in two lines to right, barehead, draped, and armored bust left; scene of battle in background; T · SIMON · F on truncation of arm / Interior view of House of Commons in session, looking toward the Speaker’s Chair, seen from public gallery. Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, Nummi anglici et scotici cum aliquot numismatibus recentioribus, collegit Thomas Pembrochiae et Montis Gomerici comes (London, 1746), pl. iv, 19 = M. Lessen, “The Cromwell Dunbar Medals,” BNJ 51 (1981), p. 117 & pl. vii, 2 (this medal); MI I 391/13; Eimer 181b; BBM 12. A superb medal. EF. Of the highest rarity and great historical importance. Ex M. Lessen (Dix Noonan Webb 186, 21 January 2021), lot 1168; Sotheby (5 December 1966), lot 29; J.P. Heseltine (Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 29 May 1935), lot 102; G. Sparkes (Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 2 February 1880), lot 329; Earl of Pembroke (S. Leigh Sotheby, 31 July 1848), lot 259. This celebrated medal has fascinated collectors, medallists and scholars for the past three hundred years. Thomas Simon’s exquisite workmanship is, in the words of Sir George Hill, ‘extraordinarily minute’ and can only be fully appreciated under magnification. The documentary evidence for the issue, surveyed most thoroughly by Lessen, shows ‘it is clear that an enthusiastic parliament intended to provide medals to all victorious participants at Dunbar.’ It is therefore the first official British military award. We know from a letter written by Cromwell to the Committee of the Army that, although he had requested that the medal did not bear his portrait, Simon was sent to Edinburgh to take his likeness. Furthermore, the obverse legend: ‘The Lord of Hosts’ - the battle cry for the English army - as well as the scene of the fighting behind the bust were included at the suggestion of Cromwell himself. The Lord General’s admiration of the engraver’s talents is evident in this letter. Cromwell writes that Simon’s ‘paynes & trouble hither have been verie great & I shall make it my second suite unto that you will please to confer upon him that imployment in your service wch Nicholas Briott had before him, indeed the man is ingenious & worthie of incouragement.’ Simon produced the gold medal in two sizes, a smaller one - the type presented above – and, later, a larger version, which Lessen considered to be perhaps a pattern piece. While a general distribution of medals would appear to have been aborted due to the costs involved, Lessen’s study led him to believe that the small gold Battle of Dunbar medal was presented to the high-ranking officers. He records only three original struck examples in gold: the British Museum specimen which is ex Sir Hans Sloane; another specimen, ex Earl of Oxford and James West, that has not seen since 1773, and the medal offered here, which was once in the renowned cabinet of Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke (1656-1732).


If You Seek Peace Prepare for War

AV Medal (39mm, 29.71 g, 12h). The Lord Protector. By Thomas Simon. OLIVERVS · DEI · GRA’ · REIPVB’ · ANGLIÆ · SCO’ · ET · HIB’ & · PROTECTOR ·, bareheaded, draped, and armored bust left; THO:/SIMON · F in two lines below / · PAX · QVÆRITVR · BELLO ·, lion seated facing, supporting coat-of-arms of the Protectorate. M. Lessen, “The Cromwell Lord Protector Medal by Simon,”BNJ 47 (1977), Type 1 and pl. XII, 1 (this medal); Nathanson, p. 25; MI I 409/45; Eimer 188a. Some light marks to fields and edge. Otherwise toned, EF. A magnificent portrait medal. Exceedingly rare. Ex M. Lessen (Dix Noonan Webb 186, 21 January 2021), lot 1175, purchased from Spink 1966; Seaby Coin and Medal Bulletin 311 (March 1940), no. 64049 (there listed as ‘EF/FDC £100’); R. Huth (Part II, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 8 April 1927), lot 15. Simon spared none of his prodigious skill on the magisterial portrait of Cromwell and the characterful laureate lion sejant on this large and impressive medal. The depiction of Cromwell is similar to that in a miniature by Samuel Cooper in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. Interestingly Lessen states ‘it appears the coinage portrait was derived from the medal.’ Prior to Lessen’s 1977 study it was believed that the medal had been issued to commemorate Cromwell’s inauguration as Lord Protector in December 1653. Lessen concluded it was struck somewhat later for use as an ‘official Protectorate monetary political reward and perhaps, to a lesser extent, a military reward, or more reasonably a reward for cumulative military services.’ Records show that the Lord Protector medal was issued only in gold and presented to Englishmen and foreign diplomats between 1656 and 1658. Known recipients are: Major Daniel Redman; Colonel Thomas Sadler; Christiern Bonde, the Swedish Agent; Rudolf von Strauch, Agent of the Duke of Courland; Don Francisco de Mello, the Portuguese ambassador. From a detailed comparison of the images of the four known examples of the Lord Protector medal it would appear that the medal offered is here is in a finer state of preservation than the British Museum, the Montagu and the Murdoch specimens. Murdoch’s Lord Protector medal resurfaced in an unnamed sale in Sotheby in 1907. Since then neither that medal nor the Montagu specimen have been traced.


They Shall Not Lack an Olive Tree

AV Medal (20mm, 6.21 g, 12h). The Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell. By Thomas Simon. Dated 3 September I658. OLIVAR · D · G · RP · ANG · SCO · HIB & PROTECTOR, laureate and armored bust left; T · SIMON on truncation of arm / NON · DEFITIENT · OLIVA · SEP · 3 · I658, shepherds with flocks beneath a young olive tree, beside the stump of another tree. M. Lessen, “The Cromwell Funeral Medal by Simon,”BNJ 52 (1982), 3 and pl. 1, 1 (this medal); Nathanson p. 30; MI I 433/82, van Loon II, 420; Eimer 202a. With integral suspension loop. Richly toned. Near EF. Extremely rare. Ex M. Lessen (Dix Noonan Webb 186, 21 January 2021), lot 1176; Spink Numismatic Circular LXXVIII.10 (October 1970), no. 11571; A. Morrison Collection (Part I, Christie, Manson & Woods, 23 July 1965), lot 5. While no contemporary sources mention this medal, it is highly probable, according to Lessen, that it was issued to be worn by ‘selectively honoured individuals in the funeral procession’ for Cromwell which took place with considerable pageantry on 23rd of November 1658. Richard Walpole reports that Thomas Simon walked in the cortege. Simon had prepared Cromwell’s death mask and this served as the model for the Protector’s effigy at the funeral. On the medal we find an austere bust of Cromwell, noticeably older than on the earlier medals. As with Simon’s portrait coinage of 1656-8 Cromwell wears a laurel wreath. The Arcadian scene on the reverse alludes to the hopes for the regime of the new Protector; the young olive tree - Richard - growing up by the stump of his father. By May 1659 Richard, who lacked the skill and prestige of his father and proved unable to reconcile the conflicting demands of the army and parliament, had relinquished power thus initiating a chain of events which led to the collapse of the Commonwealth. Within the year Simon was preparing dies and seals for Charles II. The Funeral medal is familiar today from later copies on round flans which were produced in The Netherlands. Original struck specimens are extremely rare. While Lessen traced 11 examples in gold several of these are likely duplicated and only four of these could be verified as struck originals from Simon’s dies.

595025. Three (3) medals in lot.

Price on Application



From George Vertues Thomas Simon, 1753

587404. SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA. Edward VII. 1901-1910. Matte Proof AV Sovereign (22mm, 7.99 g, 12h). London mint. Dated 1902. Bare head right / St. George on horseback rearing right, holding reins and sword and slaying dragon to lower right. Edge: milled. W&R 408; SCBC 3969. Tiny mark on neck. Proof. $1250

587405. SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA. Edward VII. 1901-1910. Matte Proof AV Half Sovereign (19mm, 3.99 g, 12h). London mint. Dated 1902. Bare head right / St. George on horseback rearing right, holding reins and sword and slaying dragon to lower right. Edge: milled. W&R 411; SCBC 3974A. Proof. $795

581591. SCOTLAND. James II. 1437-1460. AV Demy (24mm, 3.40 g, 5h). First coinage, type IVb/IVa. Edinburgh mint; im: crown/cross pattée. Struck 1437-1451. ՟ ƩaýɱÏѝ˫ Ḻ ĕĿƩ Ḻ ŷʽaýƩa Ḻ ʽĿҢ ˫ý , coat-of-arms within ornate lozenge / ๘ ˫aȄѝѝ⍴ Ḽ Ŗaý PɱPѝȄѝ⍴ Ḽ ˶ѝѝ⍴ dN, St. Andrew’s Cross, flanked by lis, within double linear six-arched stellate pattern, each arch ending in lis; quatrefoil with filled center in each external void. Burns 8 (fig. 513); SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian), 635 var. (rev. legend stops; same obv. die); SCBC 5219/5217. Toned. Good VF. Rare. $8950

581589. SCOTLAND. James II. 1437-1460. AV Lion (25mm, 3.46 g, 4h). Second coinage, second/first issue mule. Edinburgh mint; im: crown/cross pattée. Struck 1451-1460. ՟ Ʃ⌃⌐ɨÙѝS Ḻ ĕĚƩ ⎡ Żˊ⌃⌐Ʃ⌃ Ḻ ˊĚҢ Ḻ Sæɨ˶ɨˊ=Ḻ, crowned coat-of-arms; lis flanking / แ S⌃ ǭ⎑⍴ Ḻ f⌃⌐ ʖɨʖ⎍ ǭ⎍⍴ Ḻ ˶⎑⍴, St. Andrew crucified on short cross saltire; crowned lis flanking. Burns 1a (fig. 519A [same dies]); SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian) 686 (same dies); SCBC 5221/5220. Minor die breaks on St Andrew. Toned. Good VF. Very rare. $19,500


585797. SCOTLAND. James VI. 1567-1625. AV Britain Crown (21mm, 2.48 g, 9h). Tenth coinage. Edinburgh mint. Struck 1609-1625. (thistle) · IA · D · G · MAG · BRIT · FRAN · ET · HIB · REX ·, crowned and armored bust right / (thistle) HENRICVS · ROSAS · REGNA · IACOBVS ·, crowned coat-of-arms; I R flanking. Burns 5 (fig. 991, same dies); SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian), 1358 (same dies); SCBC 5468 (this coin illustrated,, 2015 ed.). Minor die breaks. Good VF. Very rare. $5000 Ex Loch Ness Collection; L. Lariviere (Spink 179, 29 March 2006), lot 160, purchased from Baldwin’s, 11 October 1984.

594111. SCOTLAND. James VI. 1567-1625. AR 5 Shillings (25mm, 2.96 g, 10h). Seventh coinage. Edinburgh mint. Dated 1594. + · IACBOVS · 6 · D · G · R · SCOTORVM ·, bareheaded and armored bust right / + · NEO · ME · IMPVNE · LACESSIT · 1594 ·, crowned thistle. Burns 1 (fig. 940); SCBI 58 (Edinburgh), 1536 (same dies); SCBC 5494. Toned. Good VF. Rare in this quality. $2450

584868. IRELAND. Edward IV. First reign, 1461-1470. AR Penny (14mm, 0.60 g, 12h). Heavy ‘Cross and Pellets’ coinage. Waterford mint. Struck 1465. ม ĚĕѾaˆĕ ᚤ ĕƩ [...], crowned facing bust / ýƩ⎍Ʃ ͿaS ѾaͿ ĚˆŖ, long cross pattée with quatrefoil in center; triple-pellets in quarters. IHP W-2h, style B portrait; D&F –; SCBI –; SCBC 6316. Toned with light iridescence. Good VF. Very rare in this state of preservation. A superb example. $2750

594112. IRELAND. Edward IV. First reign, 1461-1470. Æ Farthing (16mm, 0.56 g, 8h). Struck 1463-1465. Mitred facing head of St. Patrick / Long cross pattée; roses and suns in alternating angles. D&F 100; SCBI –; SCBC 6402. Brown surfaces, areas of weak strike. Fine. Very rare. $2750 The first copper coin in the Irish series.


587406. IRELAND. Edward VI. 1547-1553. AR Groat (25.5mm, 2.62 g, 7h). Sixth Harp issue, in the name of Henry VIII. Bristol mint. Struck 1547. ƌĚNˆƩý [  ] ĕĚƩ ŷˆaýƩ aŷǭƩ, crowned coat-of-arms over long cross fourchée / fˆaNýƩĚ ! Ě˸ ƌƩBĚˆNƩĚ ! ˆĚҢ $$, crowned harp; crowned ƌ ˆ flanking. D&F 211; SCBI –; SCBC 6484A. Weak in part with some hard green flecks otherwise much as struck. Near EF. Considerable luster. $1250 Ex Bosworth Collection, purchased from Baldwin’s; L. LaRiviere (Part IV, Spink 179, 22 February 2006), lot 83; Whyte’s (20 February 1998), lot 101.

Exceptional Philip & Mary Shilling

589601. IRELAND. Philip & Mary. 1554-1558. BI Shilling (33mm, 9.30 g, 9h). Tower (London) mint. Dated 1555. PHILIP : ET : MARIA : D’· G’· REX : ET : REGINA : ANG, confronted busts of Philip and Mary / (portcullis) POSVIMIVS : DEVM : ADIVTOREM : NOSTRVM, crowned harp; crowned P M flanking. D&F 232; SCBI –; SCBC 6500. Slightly irregular flan, some light marks to Mary’s portrait otherwise very sharp with original surfaces. EF. Extremely rare in this condition. Likely the finest known. $16,500 Ex C. Comber Collection; Spink Numismatic Circular CXI.1 (February 2003), no. IH0116; Spink 67 (16 November 1988), lot 196; N. Asherson (Spink 6, 11 October 1979), lot 230; R.C. Lockett (Part V, 18 June 1957), lot 575.

589602. IRELAND. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR Groat (25mm, 3.21 g, 2h). First (Base) coinage. Tower (London) mint; im: rose. Struck 1559. შ ELIZABETH · D’· G’· ANG’· FRA’· Z · HI’· REGI, crowned bust left, wearing ruff / შ ELIZABETH · D’· G’· ANG’· FRA’· Z · HI’· REGI, crowned harp; crowned E R flanking. BCW RS-1C/RS-a1; D&F 246; SCBI –; SCBC 6504. Light toning over attractive surfaces, slight softness on the crown. Near EF. $1450 Ex C. Comber Collection, purchased from Baldwin’s, 1989; Dr. E.C. Carter Collection (purchased en bloc by Baldwin, 1950). Lot includes tickets in the hands of Frank Purvery (Eaglen D22C-2) and J.H. Daniels (Eagle D06-1).


Inchiquinn Money – Issue of the Lord Justices

587407. IRELAND, The Great Rebellion. Issues of the Lords Justices. 1642-1649. AR Shilling (26mm, 5.85 g, 6h). “Inchiquin Money” issue. First issue. Dublin mint. Struck 1642. “ 3:21” (denomination) in two lines within linear and beaded border / “ :1” (denomination) in two lines within linear and beaded border. D&F 279; SCBC 6534. A few light marks. Toned. Near VF. Very rare. $7500 Ex Marvin Lessen Collection; ‘The Coins and Tokens of Ireland From the Earliest Times to the Present Day,’ Spink Numismatic Circular LXXVIII.5 (May 1970) no. 5886.

British Medals The Seringapatam Medal in Silver

588839. HANOVER. temp. George III. 1760-1820. AR Medal (49mm, 49.78 g, 12h). Seringapatam Medal. Issued by the Honourable East India Company. By Conrad Heinrich Küchler. Soho (Birmingham) mint. Dated 4 May 1799 (in Roman numerals), but struck circa 1801. British Lion standing right, subduing supine Indian Tiger (emblem of Tipu Sultan) to ground; Lion’s tail supporting banner above, decorated with Union Jack and inscribed asad Allah al-Ghalib (lion of God Almighty in Arabic); C · H · K · to lower right; IV. MAY./MDCCXCIX. in two lines in exergue / The storming of the Seringapatam Fort; seri rang patan ra 28 dhiqa’da (= dhi’l-qa’da) 1213 ba hijri khodadad ((Seringapatam, 28 dhi’l-qa’da 1213 of the hijra/ God-given in Persian) in two lines in exergue. BBM 27; Eimer 903a. Iridescent toning, a few very light marks and hairlines, underlying luster. EF. $3250 Known as the “Tiger of Mysore”, Tipu expanded Mysore’s power in southern India through a series of enlightened reforms and successful wars against his neighbors. The wealth of his court made it a great source of patronage for the arts. Tipu’s abilities attracted the eye of the French, who hoped to employ him as a diversion against the British. Seeking an alliance with the Sultan, the French supplied him with arms and advisors. During the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792), Tipu, after initial success, was defeated by forces of the East India Company under the command of Charles, Lord Cornwallis, who had been appointed the Governor-General of India several years after his defeat against the Franco-American forces at Yorktown. Tipu was allowed to remain on the throne but he was forced to cede territory and hand over two of his sons as hostages, as well as pay a cash indemnity. Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt prompted a new alliance between the French and Tipu, leading to the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The war culminated in the storming of Tipu’s island stronghold Seringapatnam by the British, led by Colonel Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington). Tipu Sultan died in the battle and many of his treasures were brought back to England by the victors.


The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series by Oliver D. Hoover

More than three decades have passed since David Sear published Greek Coins & Their Values, his revision of Gilbert Askew’s A Catalogue of Greek Coins published by B. A. Seaby in 1951. Since then, the field of ancient numismatics and the hobby of collecting ancient coins have changed so much that now Greek Coins & Their Values would require a complete revision to include all of the most current numismatic information available, list the many new types and varieties unknown to Sear, and determine an approximate sense of rarity for all of these issues. In order to encompass this new material and create a viable reference for the beginning and specialized collector, such a handbook would have to be more than the two volumes which Sear found necessary. As a result, Classical Numismatic Group is publishing The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, written by Oliver D. Hoover, in a series of 13 volumes, each covering a specified area of Greek coinage with the first being The Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC (Volume 9 in the series). This series is designed to aid the user in the quick, accurate, and relatively painless identification of Greek coins, while providing a cross-reference for each entry to a major work, which will allow the inquirer to pursue more in-depth research on the subject. The subject-matter of each volume is arranged chronologically for royal issues, and regionally for the civic issues; within each region, cities are listed directionally, depending on the region. For those rulers or cities that issued coins concurrently in all three metals, these issues will be arranged in the catalog with gold first, followed by silver, and then bronze; each metal is arranged by denomination, largest to smallest. Known mints for the royal coinage are listed below the appropriate type, making an easy search for a specific mint. Each entry will include a rarity rating based on the frequency with which they appear in publications, public and private collections, the market, and/or are estimated to exist in public or private hands. No valuations are listed, since such values are generally out of date by the time of publication. An online valuation guide at will allow interested individuals the opportunity to gauge the market, and reduce the need for repeated updates of this series. Whether one purchases the entire set for their reference library, or the individual volume pertaining to one’s area of specialization, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series should provide a useful staging-point from which collectors and interested scholars can pursue their research and interests.

Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Macedon and Its Neighbors. Part I: Macedon, Illyria, and Epeiros, Sixth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 3]. 2016. lxxviii and 431 numbered pp. Hardbound. (GR332) $65

Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: Achaia Phthiotis, Ainis, Magnesia, Malis, Oita, Perrhaibia, Thessaly, Akarnania, Aitolia, Lokris, Phokis, Boiotia, Euboia, Attica, Megaris, and Corinthia. [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 4]. 2014. lxxvii + 563 numbered pages (GR333) $65

Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Baktria and Ancient India Including Sogdiana, Margiana, Areia, and the Indo-Greek, Indo-Skythian, and Native Indian States South of the Hindu Kush. Fifth Century BC to First Century AD. [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 12]. 2013. lxxxiv + 389 numbered pages. (GR341) $65

Please see our website for additional volumes.


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