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2015-2017

Strategic Plan

Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise A chartered NeighborWorks速 Member 1301 Market Street, Suite 100 Chattanooga, TN 37402 423-756-6201 info@cneinc.org

Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise 2015-2017 Strategic Plan

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Introduction Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise (CNE) has a long-standing practice of thoughtful planning that reflects market conditions, mission impact and financial sustainability. In 2014, the organization conducted strategic planning to identify its 3-year vision and goals for the organization. In preparation for planning, members of the Board of Directors and community stakeholders were interviewed and the staff was surveyed. An environmental scan was also conducted. External opportunities and challenges as well as internal strengths and areas for improvement were identified. In early May, Board members and the management team held a 2-day planning session to identify the organization’s vision, goals and strategies through 2017. Staff was also invited to provide input. This document contains the key decisions made during the process, and provides a roadmap for the next three years, including measurable indicators of progress. CNE is committed to fulfilling its mission and achieving its vision and goals, with the continued support of its community and partners.

Mission Statement

To create economically diverse neighborhoods filled with financially empowered citizens and housing for all.

Our Vision

All Chattanoogans can afford a safe place in a strong neighborhood to call home.

Core Values 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Community-wide Collaboration. Collaborating with the private, public and nonprofit sectors are essential elements of our work. Empowerment. We provide knowledge and tools to enable our customers to realize their goals and to be positive contributors in the community. Innovation. Seeking and implementing new and innovative ways of accomplishing our work is integral to accomplishing our mission. Quality service. The highest quality, best level of service, excellence, and integrity provide the cornerstone for all CNE activities and programs. Responsible Stewardship. We are committed to making decisions that will ensure the long-term survival of CNE for future generations. We are committed to maximizing the value of our human, financial, and physical resources in ways consistent with our mission.

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Our Goals for 2017 CNE has established organizational goals which it plans to achieve by the end of calendar year 2017. For each goal, indicators of progress are identified, along with strategies which describe the primary means to support goal achievement. Additionally, annual milestones for each goal have been developed which reflect what must be accomplished each year in order to meet the 3-year goals. The Annual Milestones, found in Appendix A, are updated each year and enable the organization to track its progress towards achievement of its strategic goals.

Goal 1: CNE Strengthens Families and Neighborhoods CNE will improve the living conditions of 2,000 individuals or families. INDICATORS OF PROGRESS

STRATEGIES FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

a) b) c) d) • • • • •

Increase # of affordable rentals in portfolio from 29 to 130 Increase # of home improvement loans from 12 to 20 per year Increase # of first time homebuyers created from 20 to 100 per year Achieve a successful resolution on 75% of foreclosure prevention cases

Develop a non-qualified mortgage loan product Implement first mortgage loan originations Originate Title I and 502 loans Participate in NFMC program Compete for affordable housing grants and tax credits (FHLB, NeighborWorks, LIHTC)

Goal 2: Resident empowerment through financial education & home ownership CNE will increase the number of Chattanooga families who utilize CNE resources to improve their financial well-being by 60%. INDICATORS OF PROGRESS

a) Increased demand for products and services (size of waiting list, # of inquiries) b) Increase # of first time home buyers assisted from 20 to 100 per year c) Increase % of moderate income customers served d) Increase # of Financial Skills Academy participants 20% every year with 60% reporting they have made positive changes in their financial behavior as a result e) 50% of home buyer education customers are financing their home purchases through a CNE-originated loan f) # of mortgage loans originated per year

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STRATEGIES FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

• Shift internal resources from foreclosure into home ownership and financial education • Partner with CHA, UTC, Public Schools, and neighborhood leaders, to develop a financial skills academy program to improve residents’ financial health. • Develop systems to measure the impact of CNE programs on customers’ lives

Goal 3: Collaborative-based real estate development and Neighborhood Revitalization CNE implements a collaborative approach to development which serves as a catalyst resulting in substantial improvement in three target neighborhoods and provides an additional 100 units of affordable housing. INDICATORS OF PROGRESS

STRATEGIES FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

a) 40 units of affordable rental housing are completed and fully occupied in Highland Park b) 20 units of affordable rental housing rental projects are completed and fully occupied in Alton Park c) A minimum of three projects are completed per the St. Elmo Village Plan

• Identify partners to help implement community engagement processes to help shape design and development decisions prior to beginning development. • Focus on developing mixed-income projects and small developments • Develop additional expertise in property and asset management to manage expansion of this business line. • Manage rental properties to ensure that all are cash flowing and well-maintained for the long run • Develop innovative housing models for senior citizens

Goal 4: Visibility & Recognition Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise will have a highly visible brand that identifies our unique identity and impact, which is well-marketed to enhance customer experience and stakeholder engagement. INDICATORS OF PROGRESS

a) Increase in call volume by 50% b) Increase the number of orientation attendance by 100% c) Increase funds raised from traditional and non-traditional sources by 100% d) Increase number of customer referrals from staff, board, partners

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STRATEGIES FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

and clients by 25 % e) CNE has received positive mentions in local state and national publications for its work

• Implement successful brand launch and ongoing marketing strategies • Design/redesign and deploy marketing materials including a logo to make us more identifiable • Engage the board in proactive marketing • Create mechanisms for ongoing sharing of information across organization boundaries and staff training • Develop recognition strategies/celebrate success

Goal 5: Organizational Sustainability CNE has created sufficient and diverse revenue streams and strengthened its internal business practices and capacity to ensure continuity of operations, and optimal operational efficiency. INDICATORS OF PROGRESS

STRATEGIES FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

a) A minimum of $565,000 of annual income is generated from program operations by the end of 2017. b) Key financial ratios are in-line with NeighborWorks® peer groups (cash on hand, quick ratio) c) Staff turnover is below industry standards d) 100% of staff would recommend CNE as a great place to work. e) Rated strong by NeighborWorks America f) Board has more diverse representation g) Loan delinquency rate is comparable to or below comparable industry standards

• •

• • • •

Provide additional HR capacity to address key needs relating to hiring & orientation, staff development, compensation, grievance procedures, etc. Increase internally generated sources of unrestricted revenue including loan origination fees, loan portfolio interest collection, and rental development and management fees. Provide additional resources towards clean- up of the loan portfolio to generate additional interest income. Develop a business plan for rental property development and management; decision to be made by 2015 about size and scope of business line. Develop communication mechanisms to keep staff involved and informed as the organization grows and programs shift Create plan for Board recruitment and development

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Evaluation Methodology To ensure that CNE’s Strategic Plan is a living document and one which will serve to guide resource allocation, program priorities and management decision making, we commit to the following steps: • •

• • •

The Board and Staff retain collective responsibility for achieving the 2017 goals. Staff will develop a measurement plan to track the indicators for each goal, which identifies how and when data will be collected, who has the responsibility, and how often progress will be assessed reviewed for each indicator. Annual, measurable milestones will be created for each goal that will be used to help departments develop their goals and staff work plans. (See Appendix A) These milestones should reflect specific levels of progress desired on the indicators and the most critical steps to be taken each year to implement strategies for goal achievement. The CEO is ultimately responsible for ensuring that Department and individual staff work plans support achievement of annual and 3-year goals. The Board will receive regular dashboard reports not less than quarterly. Annually, the Board will evaluate progress on goals via a Board/Staff retreat during which they will review progress reports, discuss challenges and set next year’s milestones.

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Annual Milestones, Strategic Plan 2015-2017 Goals

Goal 1

• • •

Goal 2

• • • • • • •

Goal 3

• • • • • • •

Goal 4

Goal 5

• • • • • • • • • • • •

FY 2015 Milestones

Status

Obtain new FHLB AHP grant for affordable rental housing Increase the number of customers assisted through the down payment program from 20 to 30. Create a minimum of 24 additional homebuyers using conventional, FHA or THDA loan products. 240 people avoid foreclosure New mortgage product created 100% of HOME and CDBG funds fully expended CNE will increase its pre purchase customers 23% to serve 360 24 1st mortgages originated New Financial Skills Academy launched in October serving 300 people 25% of home buyer education customers finance their home through CNE Grow percentage of CNE moderate income customers to 10% 100% of available rental units are fully leased 14 units of affordable rental units created 5th St. renovated and fully leased One St. Elmo Village plan project completed 10 vacant and/or dilapidated properties surrounding Tennessee Temple are developed into mixed income (both affordable and market rate) housing Increase the percentage of residents in target area from 75% to 80% who would either definitely or probably recommend the community as a good place to live. Increase call volume by 12% Increase orientation attendance by 33% Achieve fundraising goal of $87,000 Increase customer referrals by 10% CNE receives three positive mentions in local media for its work CNE achieves Satisfactory rating by NeighborWorks America $329,000 generated in earned income Employee satisfaction is rated 75% satisfied or higher on survey Audit completed by October 15, 2014 Balance sheet is improved and cash position increased Business plan for rental housing line of business completed Pipeline of prospective board members is created

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Appendix A STRATEGIC PLAN BRIEFING MATERIALS History Celebrating 27 years in business, Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise has proven its ability to adapt to a changing market environment while also maintaining constancy of purpose in creating sustainable home ownership opportunities and strengthening communities within the city of Chattanooga.

Born out of a vision of a few pioneering and civic-minded Chattanoogans, CNE was founded in 1986 to support resident-led efforts to revitalize troubled neighborhoods by increasing owner occupancy and improving property conditions. Since its inception, CNE has had a number of key milestones, including the following: • • • • • • •

Chartered as the first affiliate member of the NeighborWorks America network of neighborhood revitalization organizations (1994). Led the nation in providing affordable housing for low-to medium-income families, investing over $29 million in home purchases and assisting over 600 new homeowners (1993-1995). Approved as the first nonprofit FHA Direct Endorsement Lender in the nation by the Federal Housing Administration (1995). Launched the CNE Homeownership Center in partnership with the NeighborWorks America National Campaign for Homeownership (1998). Organized the Chattanooga Community Development Financial Institution chartered by the U.S. Treasury Department (1998). Initiated the revitalization of Cowart Place, a mixed income affordable housing project featuring 35 units of housing (2000). Supporters contributed over 1.3 Million to establish the CNE Gift Loan Fund (2001-2004)

Our awards include: • • • •

National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials merit award for project design for the Lincoln Park and Oak Hill Neighborhood Revitalization projects (1992). Urban Land Institute Award for Excellence for Small Scale Residential Development for Orchard Village (1994). Mortgage Bankers Association of America National Affordable Housing Award for Homeownership Housing Production (1994). Chattanooga wins the John J. Gunther Blue Ribbon Award from the U.S. Conference of Mayors for affordable housing (1997).

Community Development

CNE has led the redevelopment of several neighborhoods, most notably the Southside. Made up of Cowart Place, Fort Negley and Jefferson Heights, the Southside neighborhoods were developed by CNE according to a plan commissioned from nationally-acclaimed new urbanist design firm Dover Kohl. Additionally, Jefferson Heights was part of the U.S. Green Building Council’s pilot program LEED for Neighborhood Redevelopment.

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As master developer, CNE’s roles included property acquisition and land banking, construction management, coordination with the City of Chattanooga on infrastructure improvements, recruitment of for-profit developers, design review, sales and marketing and the administration of $300,000 in purchase incentives. Other key projects include: • •

As part of the “M.L. King Tomorrow” initiative, CNE served as master developer for the residential areas of the M.L. King neighborhood adjacent to downtown and the UTC campus. Through the Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP), CNE built and sold 12 Better Built green homes in Bushtown and built or renovated 11 homes in Glenwood and Orchard Knob area.

Serving First-time Home Buyers in Chattanooga

Homeownership is an effective way for people to build financial security and stability. Owning a home correlates with increased social and political involvement, improved health, and educational achievement. Through CNE’s nationally-acclaimed homeownership education and counseling program, we have reached over 6,000 families.

Our key milestones in this area include: • • •

Published the FasTrack to Homeownership homebuyer education curriculum, which became a national standard in homeownership education (1994). HUD recognizes CNE’s work in homeownership promotion and preservation and its “extraordinary partnership” with the City of Chattanooga (1995). The NeighborWorks America Campaign for Homeownership ranks CNE No. 1 nationally among 117 participating organizations (1997).

Home Ownership Preservation & Neighborhood Stabilization

In 2008, recognizing the devastating impact that foreclosures were having on families and neighborhoods, CNE rapidly shifted its focus to provide education and loan modification services to keep families in their homes. In 2010, CNE was one in four recipients of the City of Chattanooga’s Neighborhood Stabilization (NSP) funding. Through partnerships with the Lyndhurst Foundation and Community Impact of Chattanooga, CNE ramped up capacity to acquire, rehab and resell foreclosed properties in the Bushtown, Orchard Knob, and Glenwood neighborhoods. Together, these efforts helped to provide and preserve sustainable homeownership for over 3,000 families in Chattanooga, as well as stabilizing neighborhoods during a period of devastating impact due to the high level of foreclosures and disinvestment. Asset & Portfolio Management

During the course of our 27 year history, CNE has accumulated a $6 million loan portfolio. Additionally, we manage a $22 million portfolio for the City of Chattanooga—returning over $800,000 annually to City coffers. The local property holdings are managed for the benefit of both residents and neighborhoods. CNE also manages an array of privately funded revolving loan funds, each with a specific neighborhood or demographic beneficiary

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Other major accomplishments over the last 5 years include: 2009 • Reached $10 million in loans made to small businesses by CNE’s Chattanooga Community Development Financial Institution (CCDFI). • Launched the Chattanooga Foreclosure Prevention Hotline. • Provided foreclosure intervention counseling to 216 Chattanooga families who were at risk of foreclosure.

2010 • Received the Excellence Award for Outstanding Example of Urban Infill Housing for the Jefferson Heights Revitalization – presented by the Chattanooga Hamilton County Regional Planning Agency. • Launched $1.3 million Innovate Here loan fund supporting businesses relocating to Main Street in the Southside 2011 • #1 producer in the state for THDA’s Hardest Hit Fund (HHF), preventing 111 foreclosures • Tennessee's Best for Excellence in Partnership from Tennessee Housing Development Agency 2012 • Received "Tennessee's Best" Award for Excellence in Partnership from THDA for our revitalization of N. Holly Street in Bushtown

2013 • Re-launched the Housing Info line website and released updated Rentwise! handbook about tenant and landlord rights and responsibilities in Chattanooga • Completed the re:NOVATE campaign to invest $1 million in Chattanooga's neighborhoods through renovation loans to low income residents

Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise Today

Today, Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise builds strong communities by providing sustainable homeownership products and services across the city of Chattanooga. Located in downtown Chattanooga, with a staff of 17 and an operating budget of $1.54 million, CNE is able to serve hundreds of clients annually and invest in local communities, with a special focus on helping low to moderate income residents.

CNE is guided by a belief that homeownership and healthy communities have a symbiotic relationship: homeownership supports healthy communities and strong, thriving communities help residents enjoy a better quality of life. CNE believes that ownership builds a sense of pride and responsibility, in addition to creating economic growth and increased stability for the family and the neighborhood. The four current business lines include: • Home Ownership Counseling & Education, including Foreclosure Prevention

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• • •

Residential lending (including Loan Servicing and Portfolio and Asset management ) Real Estate Development & Services Community Building

Each business line has several programs and different income streams.

Home Ownership Education & Counseling delivers programs that provide support for people to follow a successful path to sustainable homeownership and includes HUDapproved homebuyer education and individual counseling offered by trained and certified staff; budgeting counseling, and foreclosure counseling and legal assistance referrals for services for families at risk of losing their homes.

Residential lending provides access to rehab loans, and down-payment assistance through trained and licensed staff. This business line includes loan servicing and loan portfolio management. Real Estate Development and Services seeks to improve neighborhoods and create homeownership opportunities by acquiring blighted homes or vacant land for development of affordable housing. It includes new home construction and acquisition and renovation of existing homes to create safe, “green”, quality homes for homebuyer clients. Community Building responds to residents’ local priorities, within the framework of the mission, and with the overall goal of strengthening communities and residents’ capacity to bring about positive change in their communities.

Environmental Factors

Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise has remained a major player in the city’s affordable housing industry, despite a challenging external environment marked by volatility and uncertainty. During the last eight years, the market has made rollercoaster-like shifts, marked by rapid and steep fluctuations in home prices, dramatic changes in lending products and regulations, and sharp reductions in federal, state and local funding for housing programs and organizations. Meanwhile an economic recession increased unemployment. Economic Conditions & the Housing Market

Today, the economic and housing market recovery is underway. Unemployment in Chattanooga MSA currently stands at 6.3% which is the same as the national rate. Price appreciation and the overall housing market in the Chattanooga MSA is improving in more moderate terms compared to some parts of the nation. The median price of single family homes increased by 5.7% to $137,000 from 2012 to 2013. Inventory of homes for sale is also improving in the Chattanooga MSA, although an absorption rate of 9 months remains significantly higher than pre-recession levels.

Total building permits in the Chattanooga MSA increased by 37.58 % on a year over year basis thus far in 2013 compared to 2012. Building permits for single family and multi-family increased 30.4 % and 142% respectively. This suggests a response to the increasing rental Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise 2015-2017 Strategic Plan

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demand in the local market. In the Chattanooga MSA, residential construction saw an increase in spending from $211 million to a new five year high of $255 million year over year. Foreclosures are still prevalent, but are declining substantially. According to RealtyTrac.com, in the Chattanooga MSA the total number of foreclosures proceeding to auction were down 38.1% from 2012, and bank foreclosures were also down 9.1%. And while the need for CNE’s foreclosure prevention services remains higher than in the pre-recession era, demand for services is expected to continue to decrease. Policy changes

The Mayor of Chattanooga has identified priority focus areas for the city, and within these areas the issues of access to, and creation of, affordable housing has been prevalent. There is a recognized need for higher community design standards, smarter neighborhood and transportation planning, and for identifying urban areas where opportunities for infill and mixed-income housing exist. There are two areas in particular in the Chattanooga MSA, the St. Elmo and Highland Park neighborhoods, where serious local momentum has begun to take hold and these areas are priorities for CNE neighborhood revitalization and housing development activities during the next three years. Housing Affordability

Housing affordability remains a major issue for the working poor in Chattanooga. Housing is considered affordable when it costs less than 30% of a household’s pre-tax income and lowincome families are impacted the most when it comes to housing costs. In Chattanooga 77%, of households with incomes of less than $20,000 and 51% of households with incomes between $20,000-$34,999 are housing cost burdened. These households continue to be CNE’s target market. As can be seen in the charts below, the average hourly worker remains priced out of the ownership market, and only able to rent. Many in the Chattanooga MSA in need of work force housing, such as wait persons, cashiers, or retail sales persons find buying, or renting, unaffordable. For the past two years, single wage earner households earning the median wage working mostly in service sector jobs were not able to buy or rent a medianpriced home without being cost burdened.

Chattanooga has a deficit of over 4,000 affordable rental units for those households with incomes below $20,000. The Chattanooga public housing authority is currently experiencing a 3000 person backlog on their waiting lists. Emphasis has shifted to providing housing

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subsidy vouchers, and away from housing very low income residents in large projects, consistent with the cities vision of mixed income neighborhoods. Lending Environment

A review of 2012 HMDA home improvement lending data shows that approximately 50% of low income the applicants are denied loans in the conventional marketplace. More profound is that the denial rate jumps to 83.71% for African Americans. This means that every six of seven African American applicants are denied home improvement loans in the conventional marketplace. In other words, they are not served. This contrasts with CNE, who has historically had a very high approval rate for African Americans seeking home improvement loans.

The HMDA data also showed that the approval rate for FHA home purchase loans is double the denial rate though the denial rate for African Americans is still slightly higher than for whites. The number one reason for denial is credit and a close second is debt to income. These are issues that can be addressed through CNE’s homebuyer education.

Analysis of Key Stakeholder Input - Common Themes

As part of its strategic planning process, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including Board members, senior managers and community members. Interviewees were asked to provide input on recent accomplishments, strengths, areas for improvement, opportunities and threats. The common themes from the interviews are shown in the charts below.

Recent Accomplishments

      

Continuing to operate in challenging conditions Getting our financial house in order Organizational & board strengthening New Executive Director is a strong leader, is rebuilding confidence in CNE Getting the right people in place to push things forward Preventing foreclosures Meeting low income housing needs- played a role as lender, educator or counselor in 25-30% of Chattanooga dwellings.

Strengths

       

Strong Historic reputation for being an innovative leader with model programs Only 1 of 2 organizations focused on affordable housing Have been great partners to the city Known for being a neighborhood catalyst in revitalizing low to mod income communities, using home ownership development as a tool (e.g., Southside, ML King, etc. ) Providing financing for low, mod-income families who would not otherwise be able to buy, but not letting them buy “over their heads.” #1 lender to African-American community. Rehabbing older homes in lower-income neighborhoods Focused on ensuring that income diversity remains in perpetuity.

Areas for Improvement

  

Damage to brand, reputation & credibility; not good at telling story of positive impact. Loan portfolio was not well-managed Need to get better at assessing risk

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    

Poor management of rental units, home repair loans No strong sidewalk presence, not particularly customer friendly Lack of clarity on mission, brand, services Funding challenges Internal organization (Financial management & reporting, Board diversification, staff concerns)

Opportunities 

Continue to promote home ownership and be a resource  Offer financial literacy, home ownership counseling, and foreclosure prevention services to a broader range of clients, particularly higher income  Develop products and services for different segments (seniors, millennials, single mothers)  Explore workforce housing partnerships and partner with churches and other religious nonprofits  Consider community land trust model  Pursue First mortgage origination  Be a connector to a continuum of services, non-profits Neighborhood revitalization resident-driven strategies; “the agency for communities”  Have a long term, holistic vision & partner for collective impact  Convene renters, home owners, all stakeholders, voices heard equally, (not just the usual suspects)  Project-based collaboration around improving the welfare of people, social capital, leadership development (not just bricks and mortar.)  Concentrate efforts in smaller target areas to have a visible impact  Help low income residents be part of the mainstream  Strategies that respond to resident priorities and avoid displacement  Be at the table for regional planning and growth  Follow through on St. Elmo, Southside Real Estate Development  Put together good projects, (e.g. mixed income rentals, small infill development); partner with other developers to share risk.  Get away from singular home development, do neighborhood development- a block or more to make an impact  Diversify housing product mix (Single or 1-4 family development, consider market rate development, demonstration projects, Green building)  Follow through on Highland Park lots  Develop or rehab home ownership units if numbers are right  Huge opportunity, should keep doing rehab & improve profitability  Be lead developer in neighborhoods that have some assets (St. Elmo, Highland Park, Alton Park) Advocacy & Visibility  Demonstrate value, ROI to the city, its residents and neighborhoods  Advocate for policy change (zoning, penalties for absentee owners, inclusionary housing)  Advocate for funding to eliminate substandard places  Strengthen relationship with city, city council

Threats

Funding-related  Dependency on city funding and political decisions  CDBG funds are going away  Need to diversify income streams; generate revenue internally  Do we fit into foundations’ visions?  Decline in charitable giving Brand/media related  Tarnished reputation, need to avoid more negative publicity  Not effectively communicating CNE’s brand; letting others define us

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 Lack of mission clarity; Confusion over term “affordable housing” Internal organizational issues  Financial stability; ensure sustainability  Deterioration of loan portfolio  Improve our accountability and follow-through  Staff and Management turnover  Need focus on and consistent, high quality delivery of core services and programs Competition from outside developers who have more access to capital

Key Stakeholders Interviewed Mayor Andy Berke Paul Brock, Brown Associates, Inc. Bruz Clark, Lyndhurst Foundation Angela Conner, SunTrust Bank Councilman Moses Freeman Perrin Lance, Chattanooga Organized for Action Andrew Kean, Chattanooga Whiskey Company Mike Mathis, Regions Bank Bob McNutt, McNutt Consulting Sarah Morgan, Benwood Foundation Jeff Pfitzer, Benwood Foundation Maria Noel, Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce

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Board Members John Bridger, Chairman Ralph Woodard, Vice Chairman David Elliott, Treasurer Linda Mosley, Secretary John Bilderback Trip Farmer Paul Green Yusuf Hakeem Frank Hughes Mai Bell Hurley Stephen Johnson Mai Bell Hurley Stephen Johnson Sumner McCallie Peter Murphy Eric Myers Marco Perez

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CNE Strategic Plan 2015-2017  
CNE Strategic Plan 2015-2017  
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