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Architecture Design Studio A I R Weekly Design Journal

ABPL30048 Architecture Design Studio: Air Semester 1, 2014 The University of Melbourne Catherine Mei Min Woo 562729 Studio 12 Brad Elias and Phillip Belesky


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DEATH/DECAY

VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS ENVS10008 SEMESTER 02, 2012


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A01. Design Futuring 08 A02. Design Computation 15 A03. Composition/Generation 23 A04. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches 24 Part B. Criteria Design

Table of Contents

Part A. Conceptualisation

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B01. Research Field 28 B02. Case Study 1.0 34 B03. Case Study 2.0 40 B04. Technique: Development 46 B05. Technique: Prototypes 52 B06. Technique: Proposal 58 B07. Learning Objectives and Outcomes 72 B08. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches 74 Part C. Detailed Design ## C01. Design Concept ## C02. Tectonic Elements ## C03. Final Model ## C04. Additional LAGI Brief Requirements ## C05. Learning Objectives and Outcomes ## References ##

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DEATH/DECAY

VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS ENVS10008 SEMESTER 02, 2012


She is deeply fascinated by the processes of life, particularly the life cycle from growth to death. Each liv-

Name: Catherine Mei Min Woo Level: Undergraduate, Year 3 What is good architecture? Functional and accessible, not just design for the sake of aesthetics, or exclusively for people who can afford it. Born and raised in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, this 20 something wide eyed girl chose to put down her scalpels and lab-coats, only to pick up a pencil and scale rule, with the hopes of rekindling a long forgotten desire to create better futures through design and the built world. it is only through retrospect that the pursuit of architecture was really the only natural decision, and as life, the universe, and cosmic forces would have it, here she is, sometimes not recognizing herself in her reflections as she drags boxes and bags of modeling materials from the ground floor Eckersleys to her small room overlooking the city. The sleepless nights, she is told, are only the beginning to a tremulous -albeit masochistic- and unique relationship with the wonder that is architecture. A lover of art and science,

ing creature that graces the earth lives and dies in the most unique of ways, as contradicting as the order that humanity forces itself to abide by, and in turn by it’s own creations, built and otherwise. The built world, constructed around the whims and fancy of the riches, and needs and longings of the poor, has been alarmingly clear throughout history; A fascinating phenomena, as the only true constant for humanity, is it’s need to separate itself from itself time and time again. As do architects, in their own, somewhat less egotistical way, of expressing the unification of form and function in a building- let us say, a house. Ultimately, as humans inevitably die, as the function of a house is inevitably made to serve it’s humans for as long as they live. A fascinating, and very human conflict; Often extrapolated into architecture and always a pleasure for her to dissect at will.

(The Sims, an obvious favorite), the Bioshock series and Alice: Madness Returns, are old favorites when it comes to admiring the tremendous beauty and detail found in it’s design and architecture. Following the process She is new to this world, hence a tod- of video game design as they trandler knows what a toddler knows, scend from the mind, to paper, to She loves video games

She loves her dogs, and misses them

dearly. The comfort of thought, the wonder in learning; It is clear, that her passion, ultimately, is creating and fascilitating environments for it’s inhabitants to feel safe and comfortable, in sharing ideas and learning with likeminded people. An environment for everyone. She has limited experience with Rhino as of her first year in university, only using Rhino to model and fabricate the headpiece featured on the left of this page, with customized panels, using both lazer and handcut details to create the intricate paneling on the inside of the model to project the shadows onto the face of the wearer. The pattern being inspired by the decay of foliage, a tribute to her interest in the biological process of death.

introduction: Person and drives

computer, to player: is the most intricate and wondrous journey to embark on. Her words alone do no This is she. justice to the intricacies of creating an entire universe, from it’s lore to and she knows not a lot. What she the color and texture of the mossy columns on the far right of the does know is this: room. Go pick up a controller.

She hopes to be able to expand her grasp of computational techniques through this course, to further her skills in communicating and fabricating designs and mechanisms that pay tribute and evolutionize the understaning of nature through design. 5


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CUBES OF EIGHT

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTS ENVS10004 SEMESTER 01, 2012


Part a conceptualisation


A01 DEsign Futuring

THE CANOPY

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ARTIST TEAM: ALEX BISHOP, STEPHEN MAKRINOS, DANIEL NICHOLS, SEAN BURKHOLDER ARTIST LOCATION: PITTSBURGH, USA

Image Courtesy of Land Art Generator Initiative


‘The Canopy’ is made from sheets of thin film photovoltaics attached to geometrically patterned electroactive polymers (EAPs). Thin film photovoltaics are lightweight and flexible, providing the opportunity to pair them with another material and benefit from the coupled performance. EAPs are used primarily in robotics as synthetic muscles, contracting and expanding when an electric current passes through them. Consequently, canopy coverage will fluctuate in response to light levels and the amount of energy captured. During the brightest times, the pattern will be essentially flat to maximize surface area; on cloudy days and at night the canopy will open up and become illuminated. The cells are oriented south-south-west in order to maximize solar exposure.1 This project made use of a fascinating mechanism that makes use of solar energy that influences its panels to move according to the intensity of light throughout

the day. This reaction and mechanism appears to be influenced by nature, whereby plants adapt throughout the day in response to the intensity of sunlight which is seen to be changing throughout the day and into the night. This phenomena is known as photoperiodism.2 The influence of nature in the design appears to be extremely deliberate and conscious decision throughout the design, almost a mimicry of the nature itself. This deliberate choice can be inferred as a homage to nature, as well as the evoluton of the perspectives towards architecture beyond the confines of form and function3, or that the function overrides the importance of recognising and considering the impact of architecture onto its environment and the future.4 This advancement creates more engaging and tangible environments that stimulate curiosity of ones environment while attempting to move towards the development and integration of sustainable means of energy generation.

Bishop, et.al. 2012. The Canopy. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 2012. 2 Thomas & Vince-Prue. 1996. Photoperiodism in Plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press. 3 Schumacher. 2011. The Autopoiesis of Architecture. A New Framework for Architecture. John Wiley. 4 Fry. 2009. Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics, and New Practice. Oxford: Berg Publishers. 1

precedent: Past Entry: The Canopy

Image Courtesy of Land Art Generator Initiative

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A01 DEsign Futuring

THE STRATUS PROJECT

University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning 2010 Research Through Making Grant, University of Michigan 10 Office of the Vice President for Research 2010 Small Projects Grant and a Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada 2011 Research Creation Grant Image Courtesy of The Stratus Project


the potential for kinetic, sensing and environment-responsive interior envelope systems. The research emerges from a consideration of our attunement to the soft systems of architecture – light, thermal gradients, air quality and noise – to develop and prototype envelopes that not only perform to affect these atmospheres, but also to promote continual information and material exchange, and eventually dialogue, between occupant and atmosphere. It deploys a distributed approach to structural, mechanical and communications systems design and delivery, where localized response to demand is prioritized. The project works to reclaim the environmentally performative elements of architecture – in this case, specifically, interior mechanical delivery and interface systems – to within the purview of the discipline, as territories of material, formal, technological and experiential innovation and exploration The potential of this project introduces a fascintaing myriad of possibilites and design opportunities towards designing an architectural structure that can not only sustain itself structurally, but also produce energy to sustain itself, and possibly its surroundings as well. The Stratus project is an example of an onging study of different types of energy and the potential of combining them with engineering and architectural structures to create adaptive facades that are not only functional, but also aesthetically pleasing.

generation. Conventional renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and water all have the ability to generate kinetic energy with the use of machinery. I am interested in exploring the capability of integrating human psychology as a main driver for users of the site to interact with adaptive structures, and in turn generate kinetic energy through interracting with their environment.

Research: Energy Technology

The Stratus Project is an ongoing body of design research investigating

ANSYS fluid dynamic modelling software Fluent was used to test the effects of various configurations of Stratus on air velocity, thermal stratification, and energy draw.

Kinetic energy is a form of energy explored by The Stratus Project in the operation of adaptive facades, and I believe, can be taken another step further into generating more kinetic energy to firstly, recharge or replenish the energy taken to operate the mechanism, and secondly, to be able to become a supplier of stable energy. The advantage of kinetic energy is the flexibility of the means of its

11 Image source: RTVR. 2011. The Stratus Project. at http://rtvr.com/research.


A01 DEsign Futuring

Render of adaptive interior facade.

Stratus prototype responding to occupant presence.

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Sensors detect temperature rise from baseline settings, they then communicate with actuator motors to rotate breathing cells to open, the cooling fans are then deployed


Plan and axonometric drawings showing the layers and components The axonometric view of a 3-cell structure demonstrates reaction to temperature change; the plan view reveals the thick array of tensegrity structure, breathing cells, fabric membranes, sensors and actuators

The Stratus Project v1.0 prototype installed, lights responding to occupancy The first prototype mobilizes smart surfaces and responsive technologies in the development of a thick suspended ceiling that produces a light and air-based architectural environment using distributed technologies and systems to sense energy and movement flows, tempered by occupantresponsive feedback in producing envelopes of intimate and collective space.

13 Images source: RTVR. 2011. The Stratus Project. at http://rtvr.com/research.


A02 DEsign Computation

Son-O-House

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NOX: Lars Spuybroek with Chris, Seung-woo Yoo, Josef Glas, Ludovica Tramontin, Kris Mun, Geri Stavreva, & Nicola Lammers Public artwork for Industrieschap Ekkersrijt in collaboration with composer Edwin van der Heide Son en Breugel, The Netherlands


House is a public pavilion where visitors can sit around, eat their lunch and have meetings, surrounded by IT related companies. The structure is both an architectural and a sound installation that allows people to not just hear sound in a musical structure, but also to participate in the composition of the sound. It is an instrument, score and studio at the same time.A sound work, made by composer Edwin van der Heide, is continuously generating new sound patterns activated by sensors picking up actual movements of visitors. 6 This design is realized only through the integration of computer assisted modeling and generation, as the inspiration behind the complex geometry that makes up the structure can only be generated through the representation of sound waves geenrated by algorithms programed into the computer, producing a tangible shape or illustration that translates the idea of the physical embodiment of sound into a pavilion.7 However, the computational aspect is only limited to assisting in the synthesis and physical generation process, as this design not only involves architects, but also the help of musicians, sound engineers, and programers to realize the design. The design considers environmental factors and was experimented upon in terms of form, however, its layout and intention is very much similar to that of a house, consisting of spaces that are larger in walkways or rooms, and smaller for less dynamic spaces, such as utilitiy areas and services. This shows that the pragmatism and logic within the design process of architectural design is not lost when

considering or integrating the use of computational design tools, but instead, facilitates a framework or medium that further assists and provides alternatives to preconcieved notions of design based solutions that were not avaliable prior to the conception of programs or engines that process algorithms.8 Computation was a key factor in realizing and modifying the design and highly influenced the design outcome in terms of physical appearance and materiality. The structure was such that the requirement of flexbile and durable, when compred wiht the brief and options generated by the programs used. This reduced cost and time allocation for experimentation with materials and structure. The geometries in particualr benefited greatly from computer assisted design, as the programs allow for flexibility in shape and composition, which was integral in the design of this complex pavilion that not only required to fulfil the shape, but also it’s function as a pavilion that is not only a place of rest and leisure,

but a responsive and adaptive structure to human interaction, the music generated within the structure is influenced by the humans occupying the different spaces within the structure. As previously mentioned, the time and cost saved through the input of data and the availability of computer simulated experimentation not only reduces cost and saves time, but also evolutionizes evidence and performance based designing, that expands the potential of design independent of physical human capabilities.

Precedents: Son-o-House by nox

Son-O-House by NOX is located in a a large industrial park the Son-O-

This is extremely unique, as it is only recently that humans moved to valuing the aesthetics of architectural expression.9 To be able to communicate the imagination of the human mind through the assistance of mathematics and technology brings humanity closer to the truest expression of ideas through architecture.

15 Arcspace. 2002. Son-O-House by NOX. Pavilions in the Netherlands. 7 Kalay, Yehuda E. 2004. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 5-25. 8 Kalay. p. 8. 9 Kolarevic, Brank., 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York; London: Spon Press. p. 3-62 6


A02 DEsign Computation

Son-O-House Perspective of the completed structure.

Son-O-House Skeleton Fabrication Computer aided 2D layout of the skeletal frame, ready for print and cutting for assembly.

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Son-O-House Sound Outlets Location of sound outlets that project musical piecescompsed Edwin van der Heide, generating sounds based on the movemnet of it’s occupants. Images source: NOX Architects, 2000. NOXart. at http://www.nox-art-architecture.com/NOX/Book%20Excerpts/MA.pdf


Precedents: Son-o-house by nox

Son-O-House scaled model Scaled model based off the computer generated spines to create the structural frame of the pavilion.

Son-O-House design process Computer aided deisgn process and assembly.

Son-O-House Completed in 2004 Completed pavilion with mesh cladding.

Images source: NOX Architects, 2000. NOXart. at http://www.nox-art-architecture.com/NOX/Book%20Excerpts/MA.pdf

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A02 DEsign Computation 18

Research Pavilion 2010: Stuttgart University

Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges


stitute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) designed and constructed a temporary research pavilion. The innovative structure demonstrates the latest developments in material-oriented computational design, simulation, and production processes in architecture. The result is a bending-active structure made entirely of extremely thin, elastically-bent plywood strips. 10 This structure experimented with material specific, computational design, structural simulation, and production processes in architecture. The result is entirely made of extremely thin, elastically-bent plywood strips, creating a bending-active structure.

conventional of approaching

methods processes. Through the use of aldesign. gorithms, mathamatical parameters set for the computer to process in“The strips are robotically manufac- clude the physical properties and tured as planar elements, and sub- behavior of the material.14 sequently connected so that elastically bent and tensioned regions alternate along their length. “12, The conclusion of this reaearch evidence of futher integration of supports the integration of design computer aided design in the fabri- computation and materialization cation process. The fabrication and as a feasable invetment, a hypothdesign of 80 different strip patterns esis that can be extended towards constructed from more than 500 industrialized integration of such geometrically unique parts, with the technology in the future. entire structure, of a diameter of more than twelve meters, can onlu be constructed using 6.5 millimeter thin birch plywood sheets, very specfically further cites the significance of computation in the simulation stages via parametric modeling to reduce the waste of resources towards building the structure.

The material used was specifically chosen to allow for stress and rpessure testing, both internal and externally exerted pressures. The limitation is that computer aided design processes are usually unable to reflect these intricate relations, in contrast to the physical world, experimentation is often the conventional method of doing so. In computational design, form and force are viewed independently, as they are divided into processes of geometric form generation and subsequent simulations influenced by specific material properties, this is known as scripting culture.11 Brady theorizes about the significance of the role of computers in The computational generation of this the field of practical architecture, form is directly influenced and purely whereby the gravity of it’s signifisynthesized by physical properties cance is a fact that can be extrapoand material composition of the ply- lated from this case study, as the woodstrips, evidence of an experi- demonstration of the capabilities of mental approach to design with the computer simulation in the design, intention of studying material, versus simulation and fabrication

Archimmenges. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. PProf. Achim Menges: ICD Universitat Stuttgart. [http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds.1999. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. London: MIT Press. p. 11, 12 12 Archimmenges. 2010. 13 Peters, Brady. 2013. Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 14 Archimmenges. 2010. 10 11

Precedents: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 Stuttgart University

Research Pavilion 2010 - Stuttgart UniversityIn 2010, the In-

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A02 DEsign Computation

Research Pavilion mapping Computer aided 3D layouts, graphs and mapping of primary bending joints of the structure throughout the curvature. Coupled with the statistics and results of the experimentation of the strength and flexibility of the timber used, as well as the structure and how individual components weave and fit into each other to create the curvature.

20 Images source: Institute for Computational Design. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. at http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458


Close up of joints at the base of each end of the timber weaving within the structure.

Precedents: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 Stuttgart University

Joint Detailing

Research Pavilion asembly Construction and completed structure. Details of the weaving materials are also called out. Images source: Institute for Computational Design. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. at http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458

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A03 Composition Generation

Son-O-House

NOX: Lars Spuybroek with Chris, Seung-woo Yoo, Josef Glas, Ludovica Tramontin, Kris Mun, Geri Stavreva, & Nicola Lammers Public artwork for Industrieschap Ekkersrijt in collaboration with composer Edwin van der Heide Son en Breugel, The Netherlands

Images source: NOX Architects, 2000. NOXart. at http://www.nox-art-architecture.com/NOX/Book%20Excerpts/MA.pdf

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Research Pavilion 2010: Stuttgart University

Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges

Images source: Institute for Computational Design. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. at http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458


designs towards realizing proposed designs. Both precedents have been completed and are tangible examples of successful structures that relied heavily on algorithmic thinking, parametric modelling and scripting culture to achieve the deign intent. These two projects consider two different ways of using computational design within the design process. In Son-O-House, computaiton desgin was crucial in achieving the form of the skeletal frame that holds up the mesh of the structure. In contrast, the Research Pavilion’s design was integral in the simulation of material resilience, which in turn allowedfor the emergence of the final design. This contrast is a fascinating parallel in regards to the use of computational designing. One of which uses it as a medium for composition, while the other for generation. Conceptually, the Son-O-House began with a more organic and fluid strcture, as seen in figure 1, however, it is not physically possible to achieve such curvature. The integration of computational design gave the designers a digitized version of the paper scale model in its smoothest form, and provided anchor points for each curvature, hence creating “interlacing vaults that sometimes lean on each other or cut into each other” in order to create the final design. 15 The advantage of this apporach was being able to manipulate the existing design to become more realistic in Arcspace. 2002. Archimmenges. 2010. 17 Archimmenges. 2010. 15 16

the parameters of computational design. This is evidenced through the Research Pavilion, whereby the form is generated based on the physical properties of its materiality, plywood.16 The function of the Research Pavilion as an experiment of materiality, allowed for the emergence of a complex, weaving design. This was only made possible through the use of computational design to extrapolate physical forms based on preFigure 1 Conceptual design model of the Son-O- exiting data and experimentation of House, pre-digitization. the material, as seen in Figure 2. it’s structure for fabrication, however, the disadvantage of doing so is evident through the loss of the desired organic forms seen in the conceptual design. This is due to the pre-existing limitations set by the programing of the computational design softwares, a necessary sacrifice in terms of programming Figure 2 to be able to create the software. Computer generated graphs that depict This limitation highlights the dispar- stress levels within the components in different forms. ity of the creativity of the human mind from the tools which are the These two parallels make use of computational design as a tool to computer programs. compose as well as generate deThis disparity, however, is chal- signs. Although this method has lenged by Oxman (2014), whom limitations, the parameters can also claims that such limitations enable be exploited to create different dearchitects and desingers to explore sign outcomes of a more tangible other possibilities of design within and realistic quality.

Precedents: Generative approaches

Son-O-House by NOX & Research Pavilion 2010 - Stuttgart University as precedents, both make use of computational aid to generate

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A04 Appendix and algorithmic sketches 24

The videos have helped tremendously in the understanding the basics and logic of Rhino. Here is a pictorial documentation of progress over the last 3 weeks based on the prescribed videos.


Archimmenges. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. PProf. Achim Menges: ICD Universitat Stuttgart. [http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443] Arcspace. 2002. Son-O-House by NOX. Pavilions in the Netherlands. Bishop, et.al. 2012. The Canopy. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 2012. Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds.1999. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. London: MIT Press. p. 11, 12 Fry. 2009. Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics, and New Practice. Oxford: Berg Publishers. Institute for Computational Design. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. at http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458 Kalay, Yehuda E. 2004. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 5-25.

Appendix and Algorithmic Sketches

Appendix

Kolarevic, Brank., 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing. New York; London: Spon Press. p. 3-62 NOX Architects, 2000. NOXart. at http://www.nox-art-architecture.com/NOX/ Book%20Excerpts/MA.pdf Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. 2013. Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 RTVR. 2011. The Stratus Project. at http://rtvr.com/research. Schumacher. 2011. The Autopoiesis of Architecture. A New Framework for Architecture. John Wiley. Thomas & Vince-Prue. 1996. Photoperiodism in Plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press.

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Part B

Criteria Design


B01 Research Field 28

Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005, Aichi, Japan

Foreign Office Architects

Images source: Digital Architecture Fabrication. 2005. Spanish Pavilion 2005 at http://digiitalarchfab.com/portal/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Spanish-Pavilion.pdf


replicates traditional lattice windows on external walls, inspired by the structure and compactness of honeycombs, to diffuse the distribution of light and protecting the interior spaces from wind and rain.1 Inspired both by Spanish culture and naturally existing systems, FOA is an example of architects utilizing scientific knowledge of nature and combining the human experience to create a unique architectural experience for its users.

Biomimicry

Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005 by Foreign Office Architects

BIOMIMICRY IS ABOUT HUMAN SOCIETY LEARNING FROM IT’S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND INTEGRATING SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS TO BUSINESSES AND TECHNOLOGY. Nature, as a teacher, not only serves as a useful mentor for problem solving, but also an ecological standard for justifying and valuing innovation: from function, to durability, and to suitability.2 Biomimicry in architecture is often difficult to replicate due the organic and complex construct of naturally existing structures. Man-made technology that exists today is not advanced enough to be able to accurately construct the curvature and joints that share both, aesthetic and functional traits. The individual hexagonal units were designed and produced in Spain, hence replicating them using software such as Rhino and Grasshopper based on pre-set algorithms proved complex, even with the simple geometry as a base shape, such as the hexagon. Iterations were generated based on the algorithm provided and were replicated.

Figure 1 Site location, perspective projection, plans, elevation and section of the Spanish Pavilion at the 2005 Expo, in Aichi, Japan.3

Ceramic Architectures. 2005. Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005. Obras. 2 Visser, Wayne, & Benyus, Janine M. . 2009. Biomimicry. The Top 50 Sustainability Books. Greenleaf Publishing & GSE Research. p. 104-107 (4). 3 Ceramic Architectures. 2005. 1

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B01 Research Field 30

The Morning Line, Vienna

Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary

Images source: Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary. 2011. The Morning Line, Vienna at https://www.flickr.com/photos/thyssen-bornemisza_art_contemporary/


architecture with physically intangible sensations through working together with other disciplines, such as music, as well as other faculties such as art, mathematics, cosmology and science.4 Intergating biomimicry and computational design and challenging existing techniques, Aranda\Lasch worked in collaboration with Matthew Ritchie and Arup Advanced geometry unit to realize this semiasographic building - directly expressing content through structure.5

Biomimicry

The Morning Line, Vienna 2011 by Aranda\Lasch integrates

The structure of the pavilion was based on the idea of geometric fractals, recursive and repetitive by definition, and can be joined to each other to generate the final product. The Morning Line was realized through using an equilateral tetrahedron and truncating fractal processing techniques.

This was a complex process made possible through the use of programs to not only enhance creative boundaries, but also facilitate the probability of physically fabricating the structure. The completed structure was created and utilized as a performance space for musicians and composers.6 Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok’s cosmology theories led to the development of the visually engaging design and buildable cellular structure, with the resounding quote: “evolution of the universe as a story without beginning or end, only movement around multiple centers.” A clear connection between biomimicry in architecture.7 Iterations were generated based on the algorithm provided and were replicated.

Figure 2 Computer generated projections of the structure and photograph of the structure onsite. IS

Choi, Leeji. 2009. The morning line by Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup. Design Boom at http://www.designboom.com/art/the-morning-line-by-matthewritchie-with-aranda-lasch-and-arup/. 5 Siggraph. 2008 .The morning line. Siggraph at http://www.siggraph.org/s2009/galleries_experiences/generative_fabrication/04.php3 Ceramic Architectures. 2005. 6 Choi. 2009. 7 Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary. 2008. Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line. Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary at http:// www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/page_2?category=pavilions. 4

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B01 Research Field 32

VoltaDom Installation Images source: SJET. 2011. Voltadom: MIT 2011. SJET at http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html.

Skylar Tibbits and SJET


marriage of multidisciplinary research and parametirc design.8 The structure stands as a vaulted passageway with rib vaulted ceilings, as a contemporary design that pays tribute to iconic features in architectural history.9 Voronoi, in the study of biomimicry, was the inspiration behind the fabrication of the vaults that divide the spaces into regions based on specified points along an allocated matrix. This created the layout of the vaults, which emerged into the passageways while providing thickened surface articulation. At the center of the vaults, the oculi allows for light penenetration and unique views for its users.10

Biomimicry

VoltaDom Installation by Skylar Tibbits and SJET reflects the

The surface panels were also further developed towards multiple curves within vaulted surfaces. The resulting geometry creating intricate and almost natural “curves within curves�. 11

The realization of this design required the simplifying of this design into strips of material that can be easily fabricated. This method allows for design limitatons to be challenged to go beyond exisiting parameters, and allows for the realization of hybirdized designs that are not only accurate to the imagination but also easy to fabricate. Iterations were generated based on the algorithm provided and were replicated.

Figure 3 Experiencing the Voltadom Installation fromt he inside. Photocredits: SJET.us

33 Grozdanic, Lidija. 2011. VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET. eVolvo at http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/. 9 Grozdanic. 2011. 10 SJET. 2011. VoltaDom: MIT 2011, SJET at http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html. 11 SJET. 2011. 8


B02 Case Study 1.0

Aperture: 0.5 units offset from curve.

Aperture: 1.0 units offset from curve.

Aperture: 1.5 units offset from curve.

Height: Varied gradients of heights from uniformed to random.

The primary varibales that were altered in these iterations were limited to their height and apetures to show the variations possible of a single geometric form aka the hexagonal basic shape. 34


Aperture: 2.5 units offset from curve.

Aperture: 3.0 units offset from curve.

Apeture: Uniform gradient of apeture change throughout the basic matrix

Height: Varied gradients of heights from uniformed to random.

Foreign Office Architects - Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005: ITERATIONS

Aperture: 2.0 units offset from curve.

Limitations include: shape of which base geometry can be developed. eg, the desired connections cannot be obtained through a circle. 35


B02 Case Study 1.0 Fractals: 3.1 units

Fractals: 3.2 units

Fractals: 3.3 units

Fractals: 3.4 units

Fractals: 4.1 units

Fractals: 4.2 units

Fractals: 4.3 units

Fractals: 4.4 units

Fractals: 5.1 units

Fractals: 5.2 units

Fractals: 5.3 units

Fractals: 5.4 units

The definition is altered through changing the size of the polygons via the radius and number of sides of the geometry in Grasshopper. 36

Sliders determine the number of fractals on the polygon, Increasing the number of fractals generate increasingly complex forms as seen above.


Fractals: 6.2 units

Fractals: 6.3 units

Fractals: 6.4 units

Fractals: 7.1 units

Fractals: 7.2 units

Fractals: 7.3 units

Fractals: 7.4 units

Fractals: 8.1 units

Fractals: 8.2 units

Fractals: 8.3 units

Fractals: 8.4 units

Aranda\Lasch - The Morning Line: Iterations

Fractals: 6.1 units

Limitations include: the inversely proportional ploygons to the extrusion points in the x-axis. This resulted in the flat tening of the 3D objects formed. 37


Radius of Cones

Radius of Cones

Heiight of Cones

B02 Case Study 1.0

Points of Cones

Voronoi are generated through the intersection of cones with a single plane along the x-axis that trim off the cone tip, and in turn creaing an oculus. 38

The variables include: cone heights, oculi diameter, and number of cones. Position of points in the parameter can also be randomly positioned throughout the selected space


Skylar Tibbits and SJET - VoltaDom INstallation 2011: ITERATIONS Limitations include:the extent to which the geometires can be modified until they no longer represent voroni

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B03 Case Study 2.0 40

Nonlin/lin Pavilion Images source: Theverymany. 2011. Nonlin/lin Pavilion at http://theverymany.com/constructs/10-frac-centre/

Marc Fornes and Theverymany


ample of computational design that addresses and challenges the issue of creating desings “from network to surface condition” and “from non-linear morphology to descriptive geometrical search into linear elements”.12 Through the use of computational design, the inspiration of coral is brought to life through this structure through paneling, the simplest form of fabrication that alludes to the complexities of architecture that is influenced by biomimicry. This was a sucessful experiment in addressing these issues. This prototype experiments in text based morphologies and custom comuptational protocols. Parameters include: - Form finding (surface relaxation) - Form description (composition of linear elements) - Information modeling (re-assembly data) - Generational heirarchy (distributed networks) - Digital fabrication (logistic of production) 13 The scale is able to be varied in various productions, coupled with materials that are extremely resilient to loads, and is straightforward to assemble. The technology used to generate this structure include Robert McNeel & Associates (Rhino3D), TDM Solutions (RhinoNest), and VRay (for Rhino). The different properties are generated with different properties through many types of agent behaviors, in order to generate forms of radically different morphologies and achieve the stability and aesthetic required of this structure.14

Figure 4 Process of fabrication. Photo credits to theverymany.

Marc fornes and theverymany - NONlin/lin pavilion 2011

nonLin/Lin Pavilion by Marc Fornes & Theverymany is an ex-

41 Theverymany. 2011. 11 Frac Center. nonLin/Lin Pavilion at http://theverymany.com/constructs/10-frac-centre/ 13 Theverymany. 2011. 14 Theverymany. 2011. 12


B03 Case Study 2.0

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1. As an initial experimentation of an arch form which has the tubes that are similar to the NonLin Pavilion using rhino, circles were drawn to generate the desired form. Angles of these circles are varied in order to create the specific form and provide the variation and increase the complexity of the structure to that of the case study. 42


Marc fornes and theverymany - NONlin/lin pavilion 2011: REVERSE ENGINEERING 2. After the circles were generated, they were lofted using grasshopper. It was proved quite difficult to recreate the “puckering� effect of the tubes at the ends of the openings, as well as the seemingly smooth joints of the tube forms where they intersect. As a result, this solution was abandoned and a different approach was attempted, as advised through the technical help session.

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B03 Case Study 2.0

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1. Through analyzing the idea of creating a tri-partite form and circulation pattern of the NonLin Pavilion, the current shape being re-engineered is based on the “Y” form, similar to that of the precedent. Generating lines on rhino in this manner creates the inhabitable space in which the visitors can explore inside. 2. These lines are then joined in a logical manner as an attempt to create variation and increase the complexity of the form while creating an almost arch like shape. Furthering this, there are added lines which extrude from the initial arches to try and create more “branches” for the tubes.


Marc fornes and theverymany - NONlin/lin pavilion 2011: REVERSE ENGINEERING

3. The use of grasshopper and kangaroo was integral in creating the exoskeleton structure of the form as it takes the curve inputs from rhino and creates a base mesh. From the exoskeleton component, there is the opportunity to vary the sides, thickness, nodes, knuckle bumpiness and division length along the tubes. The result is a mesh which is further explored in the next step. 4. Using the mesh, the forces for relation can be altered according to the nodes to create a physics simulation using the Kangaroo plugin. It uses the points around the exterior edges as anchors in order to make the interior edges into “springs�. By incorporating a slider, you can change the mesh to more or less relaxed (varying the length of the springs by the original length). By using this function, the final outcome creates a more funnel like tube which is similar to the pavilion.

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B04 Technique: Development 46

Sides for tubes > Thickness > Node Size > Knuckle > Spacing > Boolean 6 29 30.4 0.0 30.0 OFF

10 19 12.8 10.0 2.4 OFF

3 4 0.0 0.0 10.0 OFF

10 19 28.7 10.0 30.0 OFF

3 1 0.0 0.0 0..9 OFF

6 1 12.8 0.0 30.0 OFF

6 1 12.8 0.0 30.0 OFF

10 1 25.0 10 30.0 OFF

5 6 7 0 20.4 0.5

8 9 0 6.1 20.4 0.5


3 1 85.8 10.0 30.0 1.0

10 35 0.0 10.0 30.0 1.0

6 1 12.8 0.0 30.0 0.0

10 18 27.5 10.0 10.0 1.0

3 1 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.0

10 2 24.0 10.0 30.0 1.0

6 1 12.8 0.0 30.0 0.0

6 1 12.8 0.0 30.0 1.0

6 8 3 3 11.1 0.89

5 6 7 0 20.4 0.5

Iteration Generation

Sides for tubes > Thickness > Node Size > Knuckle > Spacing > Boolean

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B04 Technique: Development 48

Sides for tubes > Thickness > Node Size > Knuckle > Spacing > Boolean 8 9 0 6.1 20.4 0.5

6 8 3 3 11.1 0.89

3 1 3.7 1.1 30 0.5

7 2.5 4.5 2 30 0.5

8 13 10.8 0.0 16.2 TRUE

10 17 20.5 0.0 12.2 TRUE

9 11 13 0.0 16.8 TRUE

8 13 10.8 0.0 16.2 TRUE

1 1.0 0.7 8.0 TRUE

7 10 10.3 4 5 FALSE (0%)


7 2.5 4.5 2 3. 0.5

7 2 5 2.5 27 0.89

7 2 5 2.5 27 0.89

3 1 3.7 1.1 30 0.5

10 17 20.5 0.0 12.2 FALSE (0%)

3 10 7.7 0 13.3 TRUE

10 7 12.8 5.1 10.1 TRUE

4 4 7.6 0.0 20 TRUE

3 1 3.6 0 3.1 TRUE

3 2 0.0 0.0 15.1 TRUE

Iteration Generation

Sides for tubes > Thickness > Node Size > Knuckle > Spacing > Boolean

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B04 Technique: Development 50

Sides for tubes > Thickness > Node Size > Knuckle > Spacing > Boolean 10 8 0.0 0.0 30 FALSE (0%)

10 8 5 0 30 FALSE (0%)

10 11 4.7 0 30 FALSE (0%)

10 11 4.7 0 22 FALSE (20%)

4

10

Aura tally

10 1 25.0 10 30.0 OFF

5 6 7 0 20.4 0.5

8 9 0 6.1 20.4 0.5


Additionally, we wanted to ensure that the structure would be relevant and appropriate within the context of the site, blending it with its current surroundings but at the same time, being able to stand out with its unique composition to attract users. All while remaining unique to the site and its heritage. Following our initial research field of biomimicry, we attempted to generate potential designs that could micmic systems that exist in the natrual surroundings of the site. It also had to be an interesting space for users to occupy through evoking curiousity and interest from visitors who would then be drawn to interact with the space.

thoroughly and shortlist the most promising options with the most potential for further development. The selection criteria for our group is ranked as follows: - Functionality of the space and the structure - Buildability and realization of project - Harness energy via use of wind - Aesthetics Relation to the site - Relating back to the ideas of biomimicry - Use of materials - Consideration of users and creating a space for them - to occupy - Affect and effect - Light and shadow, creating an emotive response

Iteration Generation

Based on the brief given, our selection criteria considered the significance of the structure being able to harness energy via capturing energy i.e. wind on site.

The tubular forms from the nonLin/Lin Pavilion were thus adapted and further developed through exploring different shapes, sizes and combinations, each increasing in complexity, while ensuring that it retained the ability to capture sufficient wind to produce energy. It was also essential to further incorporate the historical, social and cultural context when considering the design. Kalay states “search(ing)” comprises of “Finding or developing candidate solutions, and evaluating them against the goals and the constraints” .15 The process involves produces a series of potential solutions, and then selecting the most appropriate one to further evaluate and develop. It is crucial to ensure that each iteration is thoroughly reviewed on the premise of fulfilling the selection criteria. As specified in the reading, search methods should abide to the following: Depth first, Breadth first and Best first.16 Through following these rules, we were able to explore each iteration

Iteration 50 was the most successful iteration of the set. The desing potential fits witht he aesthetic and function listed in the selection criteria lined up by the group. It’s geometries allow for both functional usage (eg as a pavilion) as well as present members that have potential energy harnessing capabilities. In PROTOTYPES, a single member of this iteration is chosen for prototype testing.

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 16 Kalay. (2004) 15

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B05 Technique: Prototypes Paneling Panels distributed throughout the memember for fabrication. Panels are laid out such that they can be exploded into smaller panels and rejoined into strips for printing, cutting and assembly.

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tures that can emulate organic or almost organic shapes while using solid materials, eg. metals. Individual panels are fabricated and joined togeter to make a shape or a face of the structure.

prototyping: Prototype 0

Paneling is a method of fabricating struc-

This prototype was digitally modeled and laid out using Rhino and Grasshopper. However, it was quickly revealed through the software that the generated member of the iteration had corners and edges that were unsuitable for the desired outcome. These errors and complex joints are highlighted in red on the right. It was with this revelation that forced the group to move on to our second prototype. Paneling Unrolled panels in preparation for fabrication, accompained by the exploded model of the overall structure.

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B05 Technique: Prototypes Metal and Fabric Metal wires representing studs and reinforcement to the fabric and as support to assist in realizing the intended shape of thestrcture through the versatile and flexible fabric.

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prototyping: Prototype 1

Metal and Fabric

Digital model and pre-fabricated joint members is another Counterclockwise from left are the digital models in various states of progress, followed by the pre-fab joint members printed and cut from method we pursued. With prefabricated (built in Rhino and lazer cut) joints to hold the metal MDF

wire together to act as the steel supports and reinforcements for the structure. This prototype is Prototype 1. However, it was quickly revealed through model making that the amount of supports we fabricated were insufficient to hold up the entire structure due to dead loads.

Testing outcomes Results indicate that the strcutre is weak in terms of overall structurall support with relatively durable isolated members. Also, the intgeration of fabric with the metal wires

proved more challenging that expected, and

Solutions Add additional supports along the horizontal and vertical plane of the resulted in a more complex aesthetic, an emerstructure to ensure the forces are evenly distributed throughout the gence that we may consider keeping for the final structure. design. Construct more secure joint systems to hold memebers together without adhesives.

It was after these revelations that the group to move on to our third prototype. 55


B05 Technique: Prototypes 56

Timber and Fabric Timber stud framing used as the primary support system with layered fabric and as cladding to assist in realizing the intended shape of thestrcture through it’s versatility, in turn facilitating the emergence of a more complex and textured outcome.


Prototyping: Prototype 2

Timber and Fabric

Timber stud framing is the final Digital model of the proposed timber stud framing from various views method we pursued. With more traditional methbefore being fabricated physically.

ods and materials, we consdiered the possibility of using timber stud framing to be the primary support for the structure. This prototype is Prototype 2.

After construction, it became apparent that the structure has difficulty standing on it’s own unless on different angles or slanted on an even surface. While it can support it’s own weight, it Testing outcomes Results indicate that the strcutre is relatively strong in terms of overall has not direct footings holding it to the ground. structurall support with relatively durable isolated members.

The use of timer studs proved most sturdy, while

Solutions Consider more secure and more practical fabrication solutions for con- being able to carve out the shapes required. structing the model at 1:1 scale. Design a structural support system that would connect the earth to the structure.

Although this was the most sturdy physical model, the methods used to construct the model would be inappropriate at a larger or 1:1 scale, and hence rquires more refinement.

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B06 Technique: proposal

COPENHAGEN 1

2

AERIAL PHOTOS OF REFSHALEØEN IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://LANDARTGENERATOR.ORG

1. LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE LOCATION (LAGI)
 2. LAGI 2014 COMPETITION LOCATION PLAN

MARITIME

HISTORICAL PHOTOS OF REFSHALEØEN IMAGE SOURCE: REFSHALEØEN HOLDING

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The brief was to design a sculpture or building that can generate or create energy. Site location is highlighted in Copenhagen’s Land Art Generator Initiative site. The location of the site was historically a port and harbor for industrial purposes. To reference it’s history, we deiced that “Time” was going to be one of the key drivers in determining the structures design. Based on this research, we drew inspiration from an existing iconic sculpture, The Little Mermaid, as well as the materials that exist wihtin the site: metal (that corrodes over the course of time), clay bricks, and timber.


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1 2

EXISTING ENERGY GENERATION INITIATIVES IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.EORC.JAXA.JP ; HTTP://WWW.FREDHOOGERVORST.COM ; HTTP://WWW.FIRSTUNITED.DK

RESEARCH 1.

2.

proposal: Site context and energy harvesting

EXISTING

RESEARCH OF PRECEDENTS FOR POTENTIAL ENERY GENERATION IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://OPENBUILDINGS.COM ; HTTP://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM

1. TURBULENT LINE- KINETIC FACADE BRISBANE DOMESTIC TERMINAL CAR PARK BY URBAN ART PROJECTS (UAP) AND NED KHAN
 2. SPANISH PAVILION AT SHANGHAI EXPO 2010 BY MIRALLES TAGLIABUE (EMBT)

The primary driver for energy harvesting in this site is the harvesting of wind energy. This is harvested in two ways, via turbines located along the dikes, as well as offsite along the coast. Based of this precedent, we decided to act upon the same energy source, but harvest them through different methods, as seen in the kinetic facade at Brisbane’s Domestic Terminal, through the use of wind and panels that generate energy when in motion.

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B06 Technique: proposal

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1. HISTORICAL PHOTO
 2. PRESENT DAY PHOTO 3. AVERAGE BETWEEN HISTORICAL AND PRESENT DAY PHOTO
 4. FINALISED AVERAGE 5. ADAPTED AVERAGE

WIND ROSE

WIND PATH IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://LANDARTGENERATOR.ORG

PRIMARY WIND SECTOR NORTHPOINT

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2

NONLIN/LIN PAVILION BY MARC FORNES THE VERY MAN IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.DEZEEN.COM

HISTORICAL AND EXISTING

RESEARCH

HISTORICAL AND EXISTING MATERIALS

EXISTING ENERGY GENERATION INITIATIVES IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.EORC.JAXA.JP ; HTTP://WWW.FREDHOOGERVORST.COM ; HTTP://WWW.FIRSTUNITED.DK

Other factors that influenced the final design include taking data that are foudn to surround or even create the site. We plotted a landscape based on historical and present day photos of the site, and form their intersecting points, generated a new data path that symbolizes the unification of the history of the site as well as the present day, a tribute to what has been and what is.

proposal: Form generation - influencing factors

BIOMIMICRY

The height of the structure was determined when comparing the structure to the windrose diagram, whereby the members with strongest wind velocity, called for a higher structure to be placed as an opportunity to harvest higher amounts of energy. Also, at higher heghts, the higher the velocity of wind travels, therefore a tall design has potential to harvest more energy when positioned strategically. Biomimicry was the precedent studied previously, and its complexity aids in the realization of the organic design that we hope to achieve. The materials we explored, as mentioned prior, are referenced from the historical features of the site, and integrated into the contemporary context.

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B06 Technique: proposal

PERSPECTIVE

TOP

PROPOSED DESIGN INSPIRED BY WIND ROSES

FRONT

PROPOSED MINIMUM HEIGHT OF APPROXIMATELY 4M

PROPOSED DESIGN INSPIRED BY WIND ROSES

The finalized form for the preliminary submission is as above

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The structure combines sculptural and pavilion like elements that create an interesting and functional open space for people to interract with and explore. The proposed minium height is 4m, for the exact purposes as stated previously.


GRASSHOPPE GRASSHOPPER

EXOSKELETO EXOSKELETON

WEAVERBIR WEAVERBIRD

KANGARO KANGAROO

proposal: FInalized design

RHIN RHINO

These diagrams is the generated linework created through the process as stated on TOP: Proposed algorithmic deisgn method. The linework diagram on the TOP LEFT: the plotted lines from the top view without the exoskeleton plugged in. The remaining diagrams is the linework of the finalized model taken from different views.

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B06 Technique: proposal

PLAN VIEW

PRIMARY VIEWS TO THE LITTLE MERMAID STATUE ACROSS THE WATER LOCATION OF PROPOSED DESIGN

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proposal AERIAL PHOTOS OF REFSHALEØEN IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://LANDARTGENERATOR.ORG

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B06 Technique: proposal

PLAN VIEW

PRIMARY VIEWS TO THE LITTLE MERMAID STATUE ACROSS THE WATER SECONDARY VIEWS

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PRIMARY CIRCULATION PATHWAY


proposal: simplified plan view VIEWS AND CIRCULATION IMAGE SOURCE:HTTP://LANDARTGENERATION.ORG

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B06 Technique: proposal

ON SITE

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS TO CONSIDER: 68

RHIN RHINO LIGHT

GRASSHOPPE GRASSHOPPER ORGANIC FORM

EXOSKELETO EXOSKELETON SLENDERNESS

WEAVERBIR WEAVERBIRD MATERIALITY

KANGARO KANGAROO LAYOUT


proposal: Rendered view

SITE PHOTOS OF REFSHALEĂ˜EN IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://LANDARTGENERATOR.ORG

LIGHT: Playing with shadows and light through the gaps between the different members to capture different views. ORGANIC FORM: A tribute to biomimicry as a study while remaining unique to the site. SLENDERNESS: To ensure a steamlined asthetic that can also be fabricated easily. MATERIALITY: Must be lightweight to be able to suatin dead loads as well as environmental loads, eg. winds, compression, tension, and movement. LAYOUT: Freeform/open planned layout that is meant to generate intrigue and the sense of curiosity to explore the strcuture while being directed through the arches to exit towards the main views.

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B06 Technique: proposal

PIEZOELECTRICITY

PIEZOELECTRICITY GENERATION PROPOSAL IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.AZOM.COM ; HTTP://WWW.FREDHOOGERVORST.COM ; HTTP://WWW.FIRSTUNITED.DK

Piezoelectricity is the generation of electric charges that are proportional to mechanical stress by specific crystalline materials.17 70

The potential here combined with the intensity of wind velocity onsite allows fortremedous potential for piezoelectricity to be used as an efficient energy harvester.


proposal: Energy generation

PIEZOELECTRICITY

PIEZOELECTRICITY GENERATION PROPOSAL

Above is how the panels would work within the members when reacting with the wind being channeled into the the members, all while creating a somewhat domino effect of vibrations (reverberations) throughout the strcture via the panels as well as the cladding that is in tension and will constantly be in vibration. 17

Jaffe, B. (2012). Piezoelectric ceramics (Vol. 3). Elsevier.

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B07 Learning objectives PRESENTATION FEEDBACK GROUP 8 - Materiality of the models is quite nice, but should be integrated into the definition - Very much a bit of sculpture - the inhabitation/energy generation aspect doesn’t make sense at the moment - Think about the branches or ‘members’ in your structure. Why do they look the way they do? Do they vary in thickness or degree of tapering?

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Follow up

Explore the intricacies of integrating materiality into the paneling of the digital model through integrating the appropriate definitions wihtin the software. Further practice and explore grasshopper and other plugins to achieve an accurate and developable 3D model. Some programs to explore: Ecotech for testing wind levels Gecko as a grasshopper plugin Masslab to reduce the number of panels for simpler fabrication Possible follow up steps: Estimate and average vibrations of materials and put them in Grasshopper to compare and then analyze the results Physical conditions, assembly/systems and geometry of the size Consider wind shadows and turbulence

Expand the architectural aspects of creating a more habitable structure. Research the energy generation aspect and statstics/facts behind piezioelectricity. Explore how much energy is produced and why are the forms tapered beyond enhancing functionality, and explain how that works.

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B08 Appendix - Algorithmic sketches 74

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES Exploration of lofting, Fields and Attracter Points, Delaunay functions wihtin the definitions of grasshopper was conduted throughout the design process alongside the tutorial videos throughout the weeks. Other sketches are listed as seen throughout B02, B03 and B04, all of which utitlize these techniques and beyond. Refer to these sections for the specifications and details.


Archimmenges. 2010. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010. PProf. Achim Menges: Ceramic Architectures. 2005. Spanish Pavilion Expo 2005. Obras. Choi, Leeji. 2009. The morning line by Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\Lasch and Arup. Design Boom at http://www.designboom.com/art/the-morning-line-bymatthew-ritchie-with-aranda-lasch-and-arup/. Grozdanic, Lidija. 2011. VoltaDom Installation / Skylar Tibbits + SJET. eVolvo at http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/. Jaffe, B. (2012). Piezoelectric ceramics (Vol. 3). Elsevier. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Siggraph. 2008 .The morning line. Siggraph at http://www.siggraph.org/s2009/ galleries_experiences/generative_fabrication/04.php3 Ceramic Architectures. 2005.

Appendix - Algorithmic sketches

Appendix

SJET. 2011. VoltaDom: MIT 2011, SJET at http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM. html. Theverymany. 2011. 11 Frac Center. nonLin/Lin Pavilion at http://theverymany. com/constructs/10-frac-centre/ Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary. 2008. Matthew Ritchie with Aranda\ Lasch and Arup AGU – The Morning Line. Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary at http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/page_2?category=pavilions. Visser, Wayne, & Benyus, Janine M. . 2009. Biomimicry. The Top 50 Sustainability Books. Greenleaf Publishing & GSE Research. p. 104-107 (4).

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Woo catherine mei min 562729 part b submission