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MINDFUL MAGAZINE FOR THINKERS

6 MINDFULNESS PRACTICES TO DO ANYWHERE

Q AND A WITH SAMANTHA BROWN

EFFECTS OF MINDFULNESS MEDITATION

School, work, you name it! These practices can be done anywhere, anytime

Local business owner helps give back to the community through yoga and love

Dive into the effects and see how they can change your everyday habits


ISSUE NO. 26 NOVEMBER 2019

FROM

THE

EDITOR

I have created this issue as part of my senior graduation project for my English class. I would like to thank Rebecca Woods, Mrs. Sawin, Mrs. Weeks, and Samantha Brown. They have all been mentors to me in such ways to help me dig deeper into this topic enough to write a whole magazine about it!  I also attend meetings led by Mrs. Woods and the ‘Breaking through Task Force’ community through Healthy Carolinian's of the Outer Banks in which helped me narrow down my topic. This group aims to address mental health concerns within our community to both children and adults helping to #breakthestigma.  I also have the honor of working for Mrs. Brown in the summer as part of her girls empowerment camp, Karma Girls.  This program is beyond extraordinary and has given be the opportunity to learn more about the importance of mindfulness meditation, especially at a young age. In my junior year, I was involved in a car accident and experienced panic attacks shortly after when driving.  Being the happiest person I know, I didn't know how to react to all the emotions that the anxiety had brought upon me. After seeing a therapist for a few months, practices listed inside helped me when I needed to learn to be calm. I recommend these to anyone rather they are feeling anxious or just try to boost well-being, it never hurts! We are all stressed and could all use the two seconds to catch our breath and become aware of our surroundings. As they have helped me, I grew more curious into the science behind the brain and have learned so much information throughout this process that I am so excited to share. I hope to help influence the readers and educate them on something new.

-CAROLINE MURRAY


| p. 2 THE UNDERSTANDING - Neuroscience behind - Breakthrough Studies on Patients - Meditation vs. Medication

THE PRACTICE

| p. 10

- Q and A with Samantha Brown - Yoga Poses - Around the World - 6 mindfulness activities to do anywhere, anytime

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

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THE UNDERSTANDING

THE UNDERSTANDING Take a step back understand and appreciate how mindfulness came about and the impact it has had on society for thousands of years through civilization starting with the Buddhist movement.

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THE SCIENCE

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Mindfulness meditation can include a variety of different practices centering around improving one’s attentional and emotional self-regulation. Currently, meditation research is still in its early stages. Although, there has been many studies to help guide the way of its importance consisting of both crosssectional and more rarely, longitudinal.  When conducting, researchers run into a few problems resulting in the production of less studies. For example, most researchers want to compare neuroimages to a brain at rest before and after: running into the problem that knowledgeable participants are likely to become more calm naturally when at rest.  A proposed solution is using images not reliant on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrasts (BOLD contrasts), which are signals that can be verified from an MRI showing changes in neuron activity. Mindfulness practices also play a huge part in the importance of pursuing attention and drawing it to the current moment.  This can be divided into three elements including alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring which are assessable by attention network tests or (ANT), in which tests the speed and accuracy of the alertness of a moving target. In a longitudinal study, 20 minutes of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) for a week resulted in enhanced conflict monitoring.  Studies a week or less in time, specifically in alerting, have found no notable results. A boost in emotion regulation is connected to many of the positive results of mindfulness meditation. This includes the feelings one occurs, how long the emotion lasts, and how they are personally experienced and expressed. Some results include depletion of unpleasant stimuli, lowered physiological reactivity, ability to return to baseline state, and lowered self-reported issues in emotion regulation.

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BREAKTHROUGH STUDIES SHOWING POSITIVE IMPACTS ON PATIENTS With Anxiety/Depression In a recent research report, 16 people were examined who experience anxiety and/or depression over the course of an 8-week mindfulness therapy group. The program took place at a psychiatry and psychosomaticmedicine clinic in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Participants were reached out to through the clinics website and were recruited based on willingness and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. “Jon Kahat Zohn, who developed mindfulness-based stress reduction (MSBR), defined mindfulness as “the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment.” Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) are on the rise more than ever across the world.

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They have shown positive effects to health including those suffering from depression/anxiety. Some methods included composing questionaires to help better understand the patients and their habits pre- and post intervention. Practitioners observe emotions, thoughts, and attitude, and sensations. Variables were explored as the outcome was altered. This study helps to fill the gap of uncertainty in the field of this study after being conducted. Only a few studies have been found to implement this therapy in standard programs until now. Currently only two standard programs exist known as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MSBR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. “The non judging facet of mindfulness and self-compassion significantly increased from pre-intervention to follow-up. Other facets of mindfulness, mind wandering, and the BIS/BAS did not significantly change. Improvements in some facets of mindfulness and self-compassion and reductions in BIS were significantly correlated with decreases in depression and anxiety.” The results indicate this 8-week program would be successful in terms of helping patients through their anxiety/depression as it was seen to decrease significantly over this time period.


With Cancer-Related Pain In both the United States and Denmark, multiple studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of different kinds of mindfulness intervention particularly in relation to cancerrelated pain. Although the effects of mindfulness on pain severity has not been proved, reviews have taken place to describe its effectiveness. Some of these interventions include mindfulness-based stress reduction, cognitive therapy, meditation with massage, and mindful awareness practices. These are conducted in hopes to find other natural resources besides analgesic drugs, which can sometimes become addictive (such as opioids) and have negative side effects to the patient including nausea, dizziness, etc. With approximately 32 million people living with cancer, more than 40% of cancer patients report chronic pain and suffer from psychological issues including lower quality of life and depression. “Cancer pain impairs cognition, particularly attention, memory, and other psychological functions. Practicing mindfulness meditation has been shown to be associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, both of which are involved in cognitive regulation of nociceptive processes, and in the orbitofrontal cortex that is implicated in reframing the contextual evaluation of sensory experiences.” “The anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex

(PFC, and the striatum are associated with attention control; the PFC and limbic areas relate to emotional regulation; and the insular cortex, medial PFC, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus are involved in selfawareness.” Cancer pain effects multiple parts of the body including physical, affective, cognitive, sensory, and behavioral dimensions being characterized in 2 types: neuropathic and nociceptive. Neuropathic pain includes central nervous system tissue damage, injury of peripheral neuronal tissue, changes in nociceptive processing, etc. While nociceptive pain occurs when normal tissue is damaged and can result from erosion of tumors, tissue inflammation, necrosis, and many more. Situational, physiological, and psychological factors play a role in influencing pain severity.

With Chronic Pain Throughout an 8-week process, Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MSBR) was tested among 55 adult patients that experience chronic pain. “Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is effective for the management of chronic pain. This approach teaches mindfulness meditation to challenge habitual patterns of cognitive reactivity which increase distress and exacerbate pain.” A 10 minute mindfulness-based body scan was compared to a control intervention. They rated their pain in multiples areas before and after listening to audio files

and in the clinic there was a significant reduction in pain related distress. This data suggested, although not confirmed, that brief body scan has immediate benefits for patients going through chronic pain. This is an issue across the world that adults experience, especially in the UK where 13% of adults report they experience it on a daily basis. Not only is it a problem psychosocially, but also economically. “Mindfulness has been described as part of a third wave in cognitive-behavioural therapies and it aims to empower patients to engage in active coping through encouraging awareness of the present, in which, often difficult, thoughts, feelings, and sensations are acknowledged and accepted without judgement.” Mindfulness has been practiced for years with a lack of evidence in relation to brain and body effects. By conducting a series of questions and exercises in this article for research, researchers begin to dig deeper into finding evidence. Ussher, Michael, et al. "Immediate effects of a brief mindfulness-based body scan on patients with chronic pain." Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, 2014, p. 127+. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A372695764/AONE? u=ncowl&sid=AONE&xid=6728faa2. Accessed 25 Apr. 2019. Ngamkham, Srisuda, et al. "A Systematic Review: Mindfulness Intervention for Cancer-Related Pain." Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 6, no. 2, 2019, p. 161. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A572500732/AONE? u=ncowl&sid=AONE&xid=9a274918. Accessed 22 Apr. 2019.

Takahashi, Toru, et al. "Changes in depression and anxiety through mindfulness group therapy in Japan: the role of mindfulness and selfcompassion as possible mediators." BioPsychoSocial Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A574573273/AONE? u=ncowl&sid=AONE&xid=5fd57123. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

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THE MEDITATION VS MEDICATION DEBATE

https://www.unityhillcountry.org/sites/unityhillcountry.org /files/center%20of%20calm%20meditation%20group.png

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ADHD, also known as AttentionDeficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder, is one of the most commonly known childhood disorders, with about 5% being affected everyday. Kids who have ADHD tend to be hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive which can interfere with their development and social skills in any setting. Some examples include, consistently tapping, running in inappropriate situations, interrupting people’s conversations, etc. “A metaanalysis reviewed seven Europeanbased studies and found that the average total annual costs related to ADHD lie between 9,860 and 14,483 (euros) per patient.” In order to help patients, the most common treatments to reduce ADHD symptoms are medication and psychosocial interventions. The most common psychostimulant is methylphenidate and is globally the most prescribed drug. This can come with side effects including loss of appetite, anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, and is not long time effective causing patients to steer away from wanting to spend the money on it. “It has been demonstrated that children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD have a substantial economical impact on society… From a family perspective, family members with children and adolescents with ADHD add to the economical burden with (euro)161 million of

health care costs, and with (euro) 143 to 339 million because of productivity losses.” Not too mention about 30% of users, notice no difference after trying medication. Due to these drawbacks, patients may not want medication as an option, but instead non-pharmacological treatment. As mindfulness training has become more popular than ever, there is a large demand for more research to see if this could be a better option for children with ADHD. “Mindfulness meditation has been incorporated into programs such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MSBR) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). MBSR was originally developed for chronic pain patients in order to help them cope with their illness, whereas MBCT was developed as a relapse prevention method for patients suffering from recurring depression.” As mindfulness increases awareness and helps pay attention to the present moment, if patients could notice that their impulses are arising and create the opportunity to choose how to respond, as opposed to just going on automatic pilot. Meppelink, Renne, et al. "Meditation or Medication? Mindfulness training versus medication in the treatment of childhood ADHD: a randomized controlled trial." BMC Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A468888644/AONE? u=ncowl&sid=AONE&xid=161e478b. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.


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THE PRACTICE Experience it for yourself. Here are some guides and helpful practices to do at home, work, you name it! Take a look into its benefits, be present and enjoy.

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Q & A: Samantha Brown

Business Owner/Yoga Instructor Q: What is your definition of mindfulness? How does this play a part in what you do? A: My definition of mindfulness, in the most simplest terms, would be the two seconds that you recognize the two seconds before you open your mouth rather it be to act, speak, or do.  Getting to the point of where your mindful of something is recognizing what you are doing and overall becoming aware of it and in encompassing that, it's a 360 view. Mindfulness can be a one way vision, seeing a full 360 view of where you are, what you're saying, how you're acting, and what's going on around you.  I know my body better than anyone I’ve ever met because I sit in yoga and I close my eyes and I breathe and you feel your body. When you're in yoga, you're taking everything else out there's nothing else in the room but your body so you begin to feel every muscle. I remember running all the time and hurting myself.  I've never done that since I started yoga because I hear and can feel my body before it gets hurt. That's mindfulness. Just like before you talk, before I pushed to hard I can be aware before it happens. It helps you realize why you do the things you do, what your body is supposed to feel like, and create space in the brain and in yoga you get those 2 seconds.

Q: What is one important life lesson you try to teach as a yoga instructor? A: Good question.  It depends on what age I’m teaching.  When I'm teaching my children, the biggest life lesson I teach is love and kindness. To be kind to each other is the biggest thing I think they're missing.  I'm always hearing such horrible stories of kids bullying each other and lack of kindness and respect. That is my overall goal I push when i teach classes and especially in the summer with the camp.  With my older adults, we focus more on stress relief- not that kids aren't stressed but if they know love and kindness from the young age hopefully they won't have as much stress as they do. We work a lot on breathing techniques for stress relief.

Photo by Kristi Midgett Photography

"It is the two seconds that you recognize the

Q: Do you think yoga has a positive effect on helping treat mental health issues?

two seconds..."

H I S Q:TWhat OR Y inspired you to

A: I am not a mental health professional however, I do strongly I don't think anyone could argue that not just yoga, not just mindfulness helps people cope in a way people haven't been able to before. We give people an outlet for people who may not know they are holding their breath. Especially for people with chronic pain, I deal with so many people and that's hard mentally and physically.  I’ve helped so many people there’s no doubt.

open The Studio? A: I sat down and made this list with everything I wanted to do and at the top of that list was the idea that I want to help kids. That's why I did GO FAR for so long, I wanted to inspire them to be better human beings. And what're we doing right? I thought we wern't addressing, in my opinion, social and emotional issues in kids so I built this studio because I knew there as something else we needed to be doing. We needed an outlet for kids in a different way to find kindness, respect, all those tools we expect them to have but yet not everyone is taught. So that is how we found this place!


YOGA FLOW for daily stress relief

13 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/185492078387734979/


PROJECT

WEBSITE DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT FOR INFINITE BREWING COM PANY Photo by Kristi Midgett Photography

HAPPENING AROUND THE WORLD

Mindfulness enters school systems As it boils down to it, the people who would benefit the most from these practice would be in hospitals, prisons, schools, and work. The Mindfulness in Schools Project arose in 2007 by three professors drew up a syllabus called ‘dotb’. This stood for Stop, Breath and Be. After a prototype was taught successfully, MiSP was shared with almost 3,000 staff members to reteach along with being adopted by dozens of countries.  While some schools do offer a Buddhist-based curriculum, meditation, and other courses for young people, dot-b is the most established program.

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H I Sarguing T against O Rpublic Yschools. ⅓ of young adults in England are claimed to

Dot-b is not presented to teachers as “buddhism by the back door” nor “hippy dippy” kind of relaxation but more that it grows on a “solid evidence base for teaching mindfulness which comes from careful evaluations of interventions and findings of neuroscience.” As the curriculum seeks to draw attention to the understanding of stress, dot-b’s intention is “to promote the capacity to respond, rather than react.” Things are tested and observed throughout the curriculum especially sensations as they help draw the attention. Although debates do arise on if meditation is considered religious,

have mental health issues which can follow them into their adult life if not helped at a young age. Students will begin to use techniques without even noticing it, it is the smallest things that make the biggest difference over time. The authors of the syllabus suggest that there is no wrong answers to how you can feel and that kindness is the strongest way to feel compassion. This helps students not only focus on subject matters but also on themselves as it targets causes as opposed to just symptoms.


6 MINDFUL ACTIVITIES

YOU CAN DO ANYWHERE

Examine your surroundings

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5 THINGS YOU CAN SEE 4 THINGS YOU CAN TOUCH 3 THINGS YOU CAN HEAR 2 THINGS YOU CAN SMELL 1 THING YOU CAN TASTE

Mindful Observation PICK A NATURAL OBJECT THAT YOU CAN SEE FROM WHERE YOU'RE SITTING. NOTICE IT. KEEP NOTICING IT. VISUALLY EXPLORE THE OBJECT AND TRY TO CONNECT ITS PURPOSE TO THE NATURAL WORLD.

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Mindful Immersion THE IDEA OF THE EXERCISE IS TO LET YOURSELF FULLY EXPERIENCE AN EXERCISE YO DO ALL THE TIME. TAKE YOUR TIME. USE YOUR SENSES. SLOW IT DOWN TO AN EXPERIENCE.

breathe, focus & relax.

Journal WRITE DOWN 3 THINGS YOU ARE GRATEFUL FOR TODAY, 2 THINGS THAT COULD HAVE BEEN BETTER AND 1 WAY YOU CAN CHANGE TOMORROW.

Mindful Breathing START BY BREATHING IN AND OUT SLOWLY. TRY BREATHING IN FOR 4 SECONDS, HOLDING FOR 6, AND RELEASING FOR 7 IN THROUGH YOUR NOSE AND OUT THROUGH YOUR MOUTH.

Go mobile DOWNLOAD APPS LIKE BREATHE, AND CALM. THESE HAVE EXERCISSES RIGHT AT YOUR FINGER TIPS.

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Mandala Magic

Using art to calm your brain

“Carl Jung, the psychologist said that a mandala art symbolizes “a safe

Art Therapy Through Mandalas Art is known to hold therapeutic properties, in which can specifically cultivate mindfulness. Mandala art is more than 2,000 years old and consists of circular designs that contain intricate patterns inside. It originated in the Southeast Asian region, finding sketches in ancient Tibetan from the 8th-12th centuries. Art therapy has been around as long as civilization, starting with drawing on cave walls. Coloring in mandalas is used as a therapeutic intervention to help with psychological health, Jung says. “They can be used as a perfect therapy in many chronic diseases because it activates both the parts of cerebral hemisphere and

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refuge of inner

increases the cognitive functioning." Some ways he recommends using mandalas for healing are mandala meditation, creating one, or coloring. “Today in health care, mandala arts are widely used as a healing tool to treat people suffering from terminal illness like cancer undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, grief, substance abuse and addiction.”In order to do mandala meditation, you must choose one you like, focus on the center, move your attention to other areas of the art and gain enough focus, and staying present with thoughts/feelings that arise as you take in the beautiful patterns.  If 

reconciliation and wholeness.”

you start to lose focus, it is important that you kindly draw your attention back to the art, allowing it to take in all your attention and focus. You will begin to feel relaxed as you breath and let the emotions come to you. When creating or coloring one, simply find a quiet place where you can concentrate and relax the mind, body, and spirit.

HISTORY

"The Healing Nature of Mandala Magic." International Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 2018. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A5788 67848/AONE? u=ncowl&sid=AONE&xid=de17bb42. Accessed 30 Apr. 2019.


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