Page 1

Final Report 2007 - 2015


Table of contents  3 2. Foreword by the CEO of host organisation  3 1. Foreword by the centre coordinator

5 8

3. Summary 

4. Vision/goals 

9 14

5. Basic facts about the centre 

6. Centre funding and spending 

16

7. Results and deliverables- Key figures 

19

8. Research 

38

9. International cooperation 

40

10. Training of researchers, subsequent employment situation 

45

11. Communication and dissemination of knowledge 

48 51

12. Effects of centre for the host institution and research partners  13. Effects of centre for the user partners and the society at large 

54 56

14. Future prospects  15 Conclusions 

APPENDICES: 1 - Statement of accounts for the complete period of centre funding 2 – Lists of board members, senior researchers, postdocs, PhD theses and students, master & bachelor degrees 3 – List of publications

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1. Foreword

by the centre coordinator Dr Erling Kolltveit, centre coordinator 2009-2015 and Department Manager at host organisation Christian Michelsen Research AS. The Bergen region in western Norway has for more than 100 years been a pioneer in turning measurement science into sensors and instruments. The initial motivation was to support the scientific work of pioneering oceanographers and other scientists, but over the last 50 years it is increasingly the development of industry and businesses that has benefited, mostly within fisheries, marine sector, and more recently, oil & gas and aquaculture. The Michelsen Centre of Measurement Science & Technology (MIMT) during its eight years as a Centre of Research-based Innovation (CRI) in the Research

2. Foreword

Council of Norway’s (RCN’s) CRI programme has been a re-vitalisation in due time of this tradition by pairing scientific knowledge with industrial needs. At the same time, MIMT has represented a steep learning curve in cooperation and joint development of crossdisciplinary, cross-business perspectives and strategies. Some of these observations and learnings are summarised in section 15 ’Conclusions’. This report is only meant to summarise highlights and main deliverables as a background for an overall understanding of MIMT, MIMT’s achievements, and lessons learnt. Please note that the annual reports 2007-2013 together with associated scientific publishing and general dissemination give a detailed knowledge of also secondary deliverables. Enjoy your reading!

by the CEO of host organisation Dr Arvid Nøttvedt, chairman of the centre board and CEO of host organisation Christian Michelsen Research AS. Harvesting of natural resources has long traditions in Norway, and the sosio-economic importance of the fisheries and oil and gas sectors is substantial. Minimizing the environmental impact is a prerequisite for sustainable industry development and growth. The Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (MIMT) fills an important role in the Norwegian portfolio of Centres for Researchbased Innovation (CRI), exploiting technological synergies between petroleum, fisheries and the environment. Better economic performance and better use of

natural resources in environmentally sensitive areas is the guiding star for MIMT. After 8 years in operations, the MIMT grant now is coming to a close. The spirit of the centre, however, still is vital, and the research and industrial partners in the centre will continue their cooperation through other projects and networks. The scientific production and innovation impact of the centre has been very good. Key performance figures testify of significant research education, important scientific publications and novel innovations. As host institution, we are proud, on behalf of the collaborating research and industry partners, to have facilitated MIMT on contract with the Norwegian Research Council.

michelsencentre.com

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4 The Michelsen Centre


3. Summary 3.1 Summary in Norwegian MIMTs hovedsuksess har vært å utvikle et førtitalls applikasjonsorienterte innovasjoner innen måleteknologi for de tre anvendelsesområdene i fokus: Olje og gass, fiskeri og havbruk, miljømonitorering. Hovedstrategien var å i fellesskap lukke teknologigap ved å kombinere brukernes innovasjonsbehov med forskningspartnernes kompetanser innen målevitenskap og –teknologi. De viktigste verktøyfagene har vært akustikk, ultralyd, elektromagnetisme, optikk og nanoteknologi. Forsknings- og brukerpartnere har blitt knyttet sammen gjennom innovasjonsprosjekter for å stimulere brukerne til aktiv deltagelse. Dette var et bevisst valg for å unngå en struktur der vitenskapelige resultater passivt ble overført til brukerpartnere som ikke var aktive deltagere i innovasjonsprosessen. Vitenskapelige resultater fra MIMTs forskningsgrupper har skapt grunnlag for innovasjon, vitenskapelig rekruttering og patentering. Internasjonalt samarbeid i form av gjesteforskere og professor II-stillinger har gitt sampublisering, bistand til studentveiledning og gjesteforelesinger i undervisnings- og seminarsammenheng. Der har foregått en betydelig publiseringsog formidlingsaktivitet som har skapt ringvirkninger langt utenfor selve SFI-konsortiet. Et eksempel er industrikursene innen målevitenskap og usikkerhetsanalyse som har bidratt til faglig fornyelse av mer enn 120 industriansatte fra mer enn 20 bedrifter lokalisert i sju ulike land. Seminarer, workshops og konferanser (delvis i samarbeid med andre) har bidratt til å profilere MIMT og skapt verdier for det større teknologiske fellesskapet. Noen få eksempler fra MIMTs innovasjonsresulter er listet under for å gi et visst inntrykk:

Product Development Manager Jostein Hovdenes (AANDERAA) showcasing prototypes based on results from MIMT projects: A black acoustic sensor (left) withstanding the high pressures at extreme ocean depths and a blue marine CO2 sensor (right).

Anvendelsesområde olje og gass • Utvikling og bruk av et innovativt testoppsett for kostnadseffektiv optimalisering av seismiske sensorer for plassering på havbunnen. Dette er sensorkonsepter som er svært relevante for leting etter olje og gass og for langtidsovervåking av undersjøiske felt for optimalisering av brønnboring og produksjon i løpet av feltets levetid. Også framtidige undersjøisk lagring av CO2 vil ha nytte av dette. • Karakterisering av elektromagnetiske sensorer for utplassering på havbunnen. Bruk av elektromagnetiske metoder for leting etter olje og gass er nyttig og gir komplementær kunnskap i forhold til seismiske teknikker basert på akustiske bølger. Dagens anvendelse er innen olje og

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gass mens framtidig undersjøisk CO2-lagring vil være et nytt anvendelsesområde. Utvikling av prototype av et akustisk kamera som senkes ned i olje- og gassbrønner ved vedlikeholdsoperasjoner. Dette vil gjøre vedlikeholdsoperasjonene mindre tidkrevende og dermed korte ned tiden produksjonen må stenges ned. Utvikling av måleteknologi for betydelig mer nøyaktig måling av olje- og gasstrømmer fra brønner og i rørledninger. Den utviklede teknologien er relevant for forbedring av kommersielle målere som i dag anvendes til å måle ca 12% av all olje som blir produsert verden over. Disse sanntidsdataene er sentrale for å ivareta sikkerhet og HMS, tillater optimalisering av produksjonen og sørger for at de ulike felteierne får sin rettmessige del av fortjenesten. Utvikling av optimale målekonfigurasjoner for å håndtere måling av høy-viskøs (tungtflytende) oljer som utgjør 70% av verdens gjenværende reserver. Utvikling av kalibreringsteknologi for forbedring av ytelsen i industrielle gassmålere. Slike gassmålere blir brukt verden over for måling av gassens brennverdi som er grunnlaget for verdifastsettelse ved salg og kjøp av gass og

ved beregning av statlig avgifter. Som en illustrasjon av betydningen av høy nøyaktighet kan nevnes at 17% av Norges gasseksport går gjennom en slik industriell målestasjon i Easington (UK). Anvendelsesområdene olje og gass, fiskeri og havbruk, miljømonitorering • Utvikling av akustiske sensordesign som tåler ekstreme temperaturer og trykk i olje- og gassbrønner og på store havdyp. • Utvikling av robuste sensorteknologier for måling av kritiske havparametre som CO2, surhet (pH) og ammoniakk samt nivåer av hydrogenperoksid som er sentralt i fjerning av lakselus fra levende laks uten å tilføre medisiner eller vaksiner. • Utvikling av fiberoptisk kommunikasjonsteknologi for høyhastighets overføring av måledata (telemetri) i uvennlige miljøer som f.eks. olje- og gassbrønner, store havdyp, industrielle prosesser.

Scientist Stian H Stavland (CMR) explaining the bits and pieces of a MIMT test set-up for seismic sensors.

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3.2 Summary in English MIMT’s main achievement has been the development of more than 40 application-oriented innovations within measurement technology aimed at the three selcted application areas: Oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, and environmental monitoring. MIMT’s main strategy was to close identified technology gaps by joining the user partners’ need for innovation on one side with the host’s and the research partners’ fundamental competencies in measurement science and measurement technology on the other side. The basis scientific knowledge consisted of the disciplines of acoustics, ultrasound, electromagnetism, optical technologies, and nano technology. Research partners and user partners have been pulled together in projects delivering innovation in order to stimulate active partner participation in the innovation process. This was a deliberate choice in order to avoid a structure where scientific achievements were delivered to user partners not actively taking part in the projects. Scientific achivements by MIMT’s research groups have been the foundation for innovation and for scientific recruitment as well as patenting. This has led to a significant publishing and dissemination activity, thereby creating ripple effects far outside the consortium behind MIMT. An example of the latter are the industry courses in measurement science and uncertainty serving more than 120 industry employees from more than 20 companies located in seven different countries. Seminars, workshops and co-hosted MIMT conferences have helped building MIMT’s profile and to benefit the larger technological society. International cooperation in the shape of guest researchers and Professor II-positions has generated co-publishing, joint student advisorship and guest lectures for students and at MIMT seminars. Some examples of MIMT’s more than 40 innovation achievements are listed below as a non-exhaustive list in order to provide a quick insight: Application area oil & gas • Development of a lab test facility for cost-efficient optimisation of designs of seismic ocean

bottom sensors. Such sensors are needed in oil & gas exploration and for long-term optimisation of reservoir utilisation. Characterisation of electromagnetic sensors for detection and monitoring of oil & gas reservoirs as well as future monitoring of CO2 storage in subsea geological structures. Development of prototypes of an acoustic camera technology for shortening of the costly production stop necessary for service and maintenance operations of oil and gas wells. Development of cross-disciplinary measurement technology for increased accuracy of measurements of oil and gas flows in wells and in pipelines. The results are relevant for measurement technology currently metering 12% of the world’s oil production, thereby providing real-time data of vital importance for safety as well as for production optimization and ownership allocation of oil & gas from fields with multiple owners. Development of optimum configurations for oil & gas flow measurement systems in order to handle the high-viscosity oil which accounts for 70% of the world’s remaining oil reserves. Development of calibration technology for future high-precision and cost-efficient use of already installed industrial natural gas meters. Such meters are applied in commercial transactions and taxation of large quantities of natural gas. Example: 17% of Norway’s export of natural gas goes through a single measuring station in Easington, UK.

Application areas Oil & Gas, Fisheries & Aquaculture, and Environmental Monitoring • Development of acoustic sensor designs for extreme temperatures and pressures encountered in oil and gas wells but also for the pressures encountered in deep-sea measurements in fisheries and oceanography. • Development of sensor technologies for monitoring of critical marine water parameters (CO2, pH, NH3) and for monitoring of levels of chemicals (hydrogen peroxide) for removal of salmon lice. • Development of fibreoptic communication technology (telemetry) for harsh environments .

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4. Vision/goals The Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (MIMT) has been an interdisciplinary Centre of Research-based Innovation (CRI) covering three application areas which to the benefit for the society at large need to be treated as an integrated whole: Oil & Gas, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and Environmental Monitoring. It has developed into a key player in the expansion of the user partners’ sensor technologies by developing innovative measurement solutions improving the state-of-art. MIMT’s exploitation of technological synergies between sensor and measurement technologies applied within Oil & Gas, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and Environmental Monitoring will lead to better economic performance and better use of natural resources as well as mutual understanding in environmentally sensitive areas, ref. Figure 4.1 where the sensor technologies is the common denominator creating technological synergy.

Figure 4.1: MIMT has exploited technological synergies within sensor technologies for petroleum, fisheries and the environment that will lead to better economic performance and better use of natural resources as well as mutual understanding in environmentally sensitive areas.

Department manager Kjetil Daae Lohne (left) and Senior Scientist Anders Hallanger, both CMR, with an acoustical measurement cell used for determing fluid properties (velocity of sound, density, attenuation, etc.) at different temperatures. Accurate knowledge of these parameters decide the accuracy of the measurement of flowing fluids as oil and water.

8 The Michelsen Centre


5. Basic facts about the centre 5.1 Research partners and user partners MIMT has been hosted by Christian Michelsen Research AS which is a research institute within sensor and measurement technology located in Bergen, Norway. The University of Bergen (UoB) represented by four departments (Physics & Technology, Geophysics,

Chemistry and Biology) together with the Engineering Faculty of Bergen University College (BUC) have been the two other research partners. In total eight user partners within oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, and environmental monitoring have participated as can be seen by Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 : The three research partners (including host CMR) and the eight user partners of MIMT, the latter categorised in the three selected application areas oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, and environmental monitoring.

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The role, main scientific or technological contribution together with the industrial orientation of the users are listed in Table 5.1 below: Research partners Christian Michelsen Research AS (CMR)

Host, research institute (sensor and measurement technology)

University of Bergen (UoB)

Department of Physics and Technology (IFT) Dep. of Geophysics (GFI) Dep. of Biology (BIO) Dep. of Chemistry (KI)

Bergen University College (BUC) (“Høgskolen i Bergen”) Engineering Faculty User partners (total no. of employees / no. employees in collaborating unit) Havyard MMC AS (83 / 4)

Fisheries & Aquaculture (solutions for handling and cooling of seafood on board fishing vessels, live fish carriers and on-shore plants)

AANDERAA Xylem AS (86 / 86)

Environmental Monitoring (sensors and sensor systems)

ProAnalysis AS, associated partner from 2011 (31 / 31)

Oil & Gas (oil-in-water sensors, also water treatment sensors)

Seabed Geosolutions AS (350 / 20)

Oil & Gas (ocean bottom seismic solutions)

FMC Kongsberg Metering AS (800 / 102)

Oil & Gas (metering equipment)

Roxar Flow Measurement AS (300 / 12)

Oil & Gas (products and associated services for reservoir management and production optimisation)

Archer AS (8,500 / 34)

Oil & Gas (drilling services, production optimization, well integrity and intervention, decommissioning)

Statoil AS (22,500 / 5)

Oil & Gas (main operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf)

Table 5.1 : The eleven partners of MIMT listed with their role, main scientific or technological contribution together with the users’ industrial orientation

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5.2 Organisation 5.2.1 Main organisation of centre

The organisational structure developed over the years 2009-2012 due to strategic and structural changes (see section 8.3 ‘2010-2015: Delivering innovation and re-entering the innovation cycle’), and settled as shown in Figure 5.2 below:

pendix 2 – Lists of board members, senior researchers, postdocs, PhD theses and students, master & bachelor degrees’, section ‘Board members 2007-2015 ’

Figure 5.2 : The organisational form that emerged in 2010 and settled in 2012

Dr Cato Bjelland, CMR, was the director of MIMT in 2007, followed by the centre coordinators Dr Kjell Eivind Frøysa, CMR (2008 - February 2009), and finally Dr Erling Kolltveit, CMR (February 2009 - 2015). The Department of Physics & Technology (University of Bergen) was granted the responsibility of supplying the deputy manager who was Professor Per Lunde (2007 - July 2009), followed by Professor Lars Egil Helseth (July 2009 - 2015). The longest-serving board members were: • Chairman Arvid Nøttvedt (CEO CMR): 8 years • Deputy chairman Professor Geir Anton Johansen (UoB Dep. of Physics & Technology): 8 years • Skule Smørgrav (Manager Engineering & Marketing, FMC Kongsberg Metering AS): 8 years • Arne Ulrik Bindingsbø (Department Manager, Statoil AS): 7 years Full list of all board members 2007-2015 together with the periods they served at the board are listed in ‘Ap-

5.2.2 International Scientific Advisory Committee ISAC (2011-2013) The establishment of an International Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) in 2011 was a direct consequence of the mid-life evaluation requirements (see section 8.1 ‘2007-2009: The initial research plan’). The ISAC’s contributions and advice were instrumental in the re-structuring of the project portfolio and in providing third-party advice to the individual innovation projects. The three ISAC members were acknowledged international experts covering MIMT’s main focus areas. All three had a strong combined background within both science and industry: 1. Professor Jerker Delsing, Luleå University Sweden http://www.ltu.se/staff/j/jerker-1.11583 2. Dr Kenneth Foote, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute USA http://www.whoi.edu/profile. do?id=kfoote 3. Dr Andrew Hunt, Atout Process Ltd UK http://

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atoutprocess.com/index.html (also a member of the Research Council of Norway’s expert panel October 2010) The ISAC’s general mandate was to review and advice research at all levels: • Vision, focus and level of research program • Participation of senior scientists • Activities of PhD students • Future development and preparations for the exit strategy • Provide a written report after each site visit summarising ISAC’s findings and advice

Guidelines including a Non-Disclosure Agreement and a work process were developed prior to the first site visit in order to provide the ISAC with sufficient background information on MIMT and on the innovation projects so that efficient site visits were possible. The ISAC’s two site visits to Bergen had different focuses according to the development process of MIMT: • October 17-18, 2011: Main task to review and evaluate the seven innovation projects launched in 2007 in order to recommend next step. The ISAC’s recommendations and the projects’ own views were overwhelmingly similar in the choice between the five suggested options: 1. Hand-over to the involved user partner for industrialisation 2. Spin-off to project outside MIMT 3. Hand-over to scientific partner because results were outside the involved user partner’s markets 4. Re-defined scope and some tasks transferred to new, multi-user projects within MIMT 5. To be continued within MIMT • March 11-12, 2013: Review and evaluation of the re-structured project portfolio and MIMT’s preparations for an exit strategy.

5.2.3 Senior researchers Please refer to ‘Appendix 2 – Lists of board members, senior researchers, postdocs, PhD theses and students, master & bachelor degrees’, section ‘Senior researchers’ for a complete listing.

5.2.4 Cooperation within the centre Relations between organisations will always have to be based on relations between individuals in order to be vital and efficient. MIMT has therefore seen its innovation projects as its main engine through the teambuilding represented by the efforts made by joint project teams in solving the technological challenges justifying the individual projects. CMR Senior Scientist Jan Kocbach with a device for characterisation of materials for ultrasound transducers for high pressure and high temperatures. Such high pressures and/ or high temperatures are met in oil & gas exploration and production as well as at large ocean depths. Although these application areas belong to different markets, the respective transducer design challenges have many similarities.

The majority of the user partners had a hands-on involvement and direct contributions to the projects far beyond project planning, meetings and evaluation. A main reason was that 6 of MIMT’s 8 industrial partners provided their contributions as in-kind (although the option of converting in-kind to cash was exploited by

12 The Michelsen Centre


both Archer and Havyard Tendos), 1 was an associated partner (ProAnalysis) and 1 contributed cash only (Statoil).

The new multi-user project structures necessitated carefully tailored project agreements managing IPR. The IPR distribution was generally based on time-limited exclusivity arrangements securing the individual user partner within his main markets or applications. Bergen University College (BUC) became much more involved than in the first phase of MIMT.

The strategic and structural changes 2009-2012 (see section 8.3) included a very fruitful and involving joint brain-storming phase. Thirteen potential new project themes were identified based on the user partners’ technology gaps. Eight of them were launched as prestudies in 2009-2010 and six of these subsequently 2010-2012 evolved into full multi-user projects with a wider generic focus, each project serving and involving a multitude of user partners.

A vital part of the relation building within MIMT was the closed seminars presenting MIMT’s projects in more detail. Open workshops and seminars always included presentations of MIMT activities, allowing for a more generic dialogue within the targeted industrial and scientific community (ref section 11 ‘Communication and dissemination of knowledge’).

This resulted in establishment of new cross-links and relations as described by Table 5.2:

Project / pre-study

Partners

Multiphase Flow Sensors / Marine EM Sensors

1

1

1

Seismic Sensor Coupling

1

1

1

Water Quality Monitoring

1

1

1

1

Nano Technology

2

1

1

2

Optical Technologies

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Statoil

1

Archer

1

Roxar

Fiscal Flow Metering

Pro-Analysis

1

Tendos

Viscosity Effects on Flow Measurements

1

1

FMC

SBGS

1

Tomographic Methods for Characterisation of Flow

1

ANDERAA

BUC

UoB

CMR

Transducer Technology for HPHT

1 1

1 2 1

2

1 2

Table 5.2 : Partner participation per project in 2014 demonstrating the achieved dominance of innovation projects involving multi-user partners (yellow: launched 2007, lavender: launched 2011-2012, white: pre-study). Level of participation: Green / 1: The partner participates actively by contributions in terms of personnel, equipment, in-kind resources, etc. Blue / 2: The partner participates in meetings and discussions.

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6. Centre funding and spending The actual MIMT budget accumulated over 8 years amounted to 3.6% above the nominal budget planned for at the opening of MIMT. RCN can fund maximum 50%, but ended up at 44% as shown by Figure 6.1 which also shows the 28% industry funding split between cash and in-kind as well as the 28% in-kind from the scientific partners.

partners (industry). This has had a profound impact on the level of direct project involvement from especially the user partners as discussed in section 15.7.

Figure 6.1 : Distribution of accumulated funding of MIMT 2007-2015 including both cash and in-kind. Total is MNOK 182. ‘RCN’ is the Research Council of Norway, ‘U’ signifies both University of Bergen and Bergen University College. ‘RI’ signifies Research Institute (Christian Michelsen Research AS). See also ‘Appendix 1 - Statement of accounts for the complete period of centre funding’ for tabulated overview.

The development in the annual distribution between these categories that is shown in Figure 6.2 below offers insight in the structural changes in spending triggered by strategic decisions as described in sections 8.1, 8.2, and 8.3:

As much as 47% of the total funding of MNOK 182 has been in the form of in-kind from U&R&I and user

The annual distribution of cash spending 2007-2015 can schematically be split between five different categories of activities: 1. ‘Projects 2007’ represents the seven projects launched in 2007 (accumulated cash funding MNOK 37) 2. ‘Projects 2011’ represent the new, multi-user projects launched 2010-2012 (accumulated cash funding MNOK 15) 3. ‘Common centre activities’ represents meetings, seminars, workshops, industry courses, funding of Professor II-positions (20% part time positions at the University of Bergen), etc. (accumulated cash funding MNOK 23 including course fees). 4. ‘Seed funding’ represent pre-projects, spin-offs initiatives, and initiatives supporting the exit strategy (accumulated cash funding MNOK 6). 5. ‘Adm’ represents costs related to administrative tasks as management, planning, reports, organisation of board meetings and general assemblies, external profiling, etc. (accumulated cash funding MNOK 18)

The three arrows indicate the implementation of three major strategic milestones which all had a profound effect on the budget allocations: • 2009: ‘Common centre activities’ were

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launched, representing meetings, seminars, workshops, industry courses, funding of Professor II-positions (20% part time positions at the University of Bergen), etc. • 2010: ‘Projects 2011’represent the new, multiuser projects launched 2010-2012 • 2013: This was the year when ‘Seed funding’ was boosted, represent pre-projects, spin-offs initiatives, and other initiatives supporting the exit strategy.

No PhD grants were included in the projects launched 2010-2012 as seed funding and centre building was prioritised by the University of Bergen (see section 8.3 ‘2010-2015: Delivering innovation and re-entering the innovation cycle’). If a second group of four PhD students had been integrated into these newer projects, the cash spending in these projects would have increased with at least MNOK 12, although still lagging far behind the accumulated cash funding of the projects launched in 2007.

Figure 6.2 : Annual distribution of cash spending split between five different categories. The three arrows indicate structural changes in cash spending triggered by strategic decisions as described in section 8.1 ‘2007-2009: The initial research plan’.

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7. Results and deliverables- Key figures 7.1 Publishing and dissemination MIMT’s scientific publishing summarised in Figure 7.1 has flourished in an interaction between MIMT-funded activities and associated activities in the border zone between MIMT, the host organisation and the participating scientific partners.

external arrangements and to the more than 40 MIMT meetings, seminars, workshops, and industrial courses that have been held, giving MIMT and its partners a high external profiling as knowledge-building organisations.

The dissemination activities 2007-2015 are summarised in Figure 7.2 and demonstrate the tangible results of the 2009 milestone of changing budget priorities discussed in the preceding section. This dissemination includes contributions to both

Figure 7.1 : Accumulated scientific publishing 2007-2015..

Figure 7.2 : Accumulated dissemination measures 20072014.

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7.2 PhD degrees and master degrees (funded and associated) The accumulated number of funded and associated PhD degrees and master degrees are shown in Figure 7.3

Figure 7.3 : Accumulated PhD (funded by MIMT and by other sources), master, and bachelor degrees.

7.3 Innovation results, patents Innovation is a difficult matter to quantify from several reasons: • The actual origin of an innovation may have a number of sources • Innovation may take shape of an elongated process rather than a single, tangible result • The tangible innovation with an industrial impact may occur with a delay of everything from days to a number of years after the initial origin took shape • The innovation may have such promising commercial value that the details will not be disclosed and be far from the easily quantifiable scientific publishing efforts reported elsewhere in this report.

Figure 7.4 : Number of innovation results. Count increased by one for every user

The quantified innovation results (new/improved/ methods/models/prototypes/products/processes/ services) summarised in Figure 7.4 were mainly compiled as two different snapshots, the mid-life evaluation in 2010 and the last full year of 2014, including the innovations listed in section 8.4. It is remarkable that MIMT during its life time has produced this many quantifiable innovation results. This is clearly related to the structure of MIMT where scientific and user partners are pulled together in the projects themselves rather than a structure where innovation is delivered to user partners not actively taking part in the projects. Submitted patent applications and granted patents emerging from MIMT’s activities may also have been reported to the RCN through other channels. Ownership of the patents differs from case to case in accordance with the IPR clauses in each project agreement: • Project ‘Fish Welfare & Quality: −− Granted Norwegian patent no 325942 related (later rejected due to third-party objections). Related to configurations for pumping of live fish on to fishing vessels so that fish quality is not degraded. • Project ‘Fiscal Flow Metering’ has generated a family of granted patents:

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−− Norway: NO331687 – title: ‘Strømningsmåleapparat’ −− Great Britain: GB2479115 – title: ‘Flow measuring apparatus’ −− United States: USA8,141,434 – title: ‘Flow measuring apparatus’ −− Australia: AU2010335057 – title: ‘Measuring Apparatus’ −− A patent application is pending: Brazil: BR1120120156462 – title: ‘Aparelho de medicao’ • Seed activities −− European patent application EP 2 634 246 A1 ‘Vorrichtung und Verfahren zur Identifikation, Separation und/oder zelltypspezifischen Manipulation wenigstens einer Zelle eines Zellsystems sowie von Mikroorganismen’

• Seed activities and some co-funding with NCE Subsea (recently granted status as Global Centre of Excellence) have triggered another family of patent applications: −− WO2011133046 A1 ) – title ‘Inline measuring apparatus and method’ −− EP2561339A1 −− US20130033272 • Project ‘Optical Technologies’: −− One patent application will be submitted Q3 2015.

Technology Manager Stian Magnussen (left) and Senior Development Engineer Erik Mannseth (right) with components for optical oil & gas measurement products from ProAnalysis. Nanotechnology developed by a MIMT spin-off project will provide optical surfaces with protection against harsh conditions (moist, ice, oil).

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8. Research 8.1 2007-2009: The initial research plan The original MIMT application was at the launch of MIMT in 2007 implemented as a portfolio of seven innovation projects as shown in Figure 8.1, all led by project leaders from CMR. Participation of the four departments at the University of Bergen was mainly in four projects which included plans for a first group of four MIMT-funded PhD or postdoc grants. It became increasingly clear over the first years of

MIMT that this initial research plan could not deliver according to the key performance indicators of the CRI programme (generic innovation, relation building, dissemination, internationalization, recruitment, external profiling, etc.). In 2008 an action plan 2009-2011 was established and approved by the board. Many of the activities described in subsequent sections 8.2 and 8.3 originated from this plan and were accelerated by the following mid-life evaluation process in 2010.

Figure 8.1 : Project portfolio 2007-2009 with seven single-user projects (in yellow) and four MIMT-funded PhD and postdoc grants.

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8.2 2010: Mid-life evaluation The mid-life evaluation in 2010 took place according to RCN’s process. This was initiated by an internal evaluation involving all partners and providing feedback directly to RCN’s group of five international experts on clusters and on the technology areas forming the basis of MIMT.

These issues were already prior to the mid-life evaluation being sought improved upon in the action plan 2009-2011 mentioned in the preceding section. The pace of change was accelerated by the mid-life evaluation which provided important leverage to the process of change described in the subsequent section.

The direct outcome was a request from RCN for a compulsory action plan in order to strengthen the weaknesses identified during the mid-life evaluation. Five of the fourteen CRIs that were evaluated, received similar requests. The key issues for MIMT were: • The establishment of an International Scientific Advisory Committee (see section 5.2.2 ‘International Scientific Advisory Committee ISAC (2011-2013)’) • Strengthening of MIMT’s identity to become more visible as an international research unit (see sections 9 and 11) • Efforts for recruitment of new user partners, strengthening of the interactions between the user partners and the user partners’ role in the centre management (see the subsequent section)

The projects ‘Fish Welfare & Quality’ and ‘Marine CO2 Sensor Technology’ pioneered closer links and collaboration between multiple industrial partners by launching a joint field measurement campaign already in 2009. The common interests identified during this joint effort led to a re-definition of the scopes of both projects, establishment in 2011 of the project ‘Water Quality Monitoring’ and the merger in 2012 of all three projects with the full participation of all related user partners, see Table 5.2.

8.3 2010-2015: Delivering innovation and re-entering the innovation cycle The strategic and structural changes were implemented by three major steps supported by corresponding changes in the budget strategy (see section 6 for details on the latter): 1. Developing new ideas (2009-2010) In all 13 different technology gaps were identified in a centre-wide joint brain-storming phase 2009-2010 involving the industry partners. The six most promising in terms of synergy and innovation potential were launched as prestudies in 2009-2010 as most Centre resources were still allocated to the projects launched in 2007.

2. Evaluating the existing project portfolio (2011 The first site visit paid by the International Scientific Advisory Committee in October 2011 was an excellent opportunity to evaluate the maturity of the seven projects launched 2007 and to consider different paths forward in- or outside MIMT in order to optimise the innovation effects of the Centre (see section 5.2.2). The projects and their respective project partners were involved in an internal pre-evaluation prior to the ISAC evaluation in October 2011 in order to provide evaluation material for the ISAC and to create self-insight.

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3. Spinning out older projects and launching new projects (2011-2012) MIMT’s board supported the suggestions from the ISAC concerning spinning out or modifying five of the seven innovation projects launched in 2007. This freed MIMT budget resources that allowed MIMT to launch five new or strongly modified pre-competitive full-scale innovation projects including significant industry in-kind covering all of MIMT’s three focus areas oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, and environmental monitoring. The budget re-structuring also allowed for strengthening of seed activities with a time horizon beyond MIMT’s life length, thereby supporting the exit strategy.

The company Proanalysis joined MIMT in 2011 as an associated partner, participating in MIMT’s centre-building and seed activities within optical technologies and nanotechnology. This evolved into a spin-off project co-funded by RCN within nanotechnology for protection of optical surfaces in harsh conditions (moist, ice, oil) see section 8.4.4. The resulting changes in the research plan and the organisation are shown in Figure 8.2, counting ‘Marine EM Sensors’ and ‘Multiphase Flow Sensors’ as one ‘EM Sensors’ project due to the strong re-orientation of the older projects.

Figure 8.2 : Snapshot of project portfolio 2014. Only two of the initial seven single-user projects (in yellow) have been continued inside MIMT, the rest of the projects and pre-studies are a result of a strategic renewal of the project portfolio

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The whole process was a rewarding effort as it moved the focus to more generic innovation projects covering technology gaps representative for a whole industry, see Table 5.2 for a detailed overview over the actual participation in individual projects. Bergen University College became much more involved, and the user partner Statoil found a closer connection to MIMT through seed activities. The user partners were stimulated to include a longer time line in their technology development in accordance with the CRI-programme. The four themes depicted in Figure 8.2 represent a thematic classification of projects although two older projects, Marine Electromagnetic Sensors and Multiphase Flow Sensors from two different themes had sufficient synergy to be combined into one, project, Electromagnetic Sensors: 1. Flow Measurements: Innovative measurement technology for increased accuracy of measurements of oil and gas flows in wells and in pipelines (application area Oil & Gas) 2. Downhole Instrumentation: Sensors for extreme temperatures and pressures encountered in oil and gas wells but also for the pressures encountered in deep-sea measurements in fisheries and oceanography (application areas Oil & Gas, Fisheries & Aquaculture, Environmental Monitoring) 3. Monitoring: Innovations within measurement technologies for investigation of subsea geological structures by exploiting seismic as well as electromagnetic signals, innovative sensors for monitoring of vital marine water parameters (CO2, NH3) and for monitoring of levels of chemicals (hydrogen peroxide) for removal of salmon lice (application areas Oil & Gas, Fisheries & Aquaculture, Environmental Monitoring) 4. Emerging Technologies: Sensors and sensor communication technology (telemetry) for harsh environments (application areas Oil & Gas, Fisheries & Aquaculture, Environmental Monitoring)

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Prototype of a marine CO2 sensor for deployment down to depths of 6000m, developed in a MIMT project with user partner AANDERAA

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8.4 Research achievements This section mentions only tangible deliverables from each project and not details concerning how the results are published, disseminated, or the effects concerning how the results are being applied in industrial innovation and value creation (see section 13 ‘Effects of MIMT for the user partners and the society at large’). For identification of the specific participation of user partners and scientific partners in the individual projects reported here, please refer to Figure 8.1 and Table 5.2. All projects launched in 2007 had only a single user partner, the projects launched later had two or more user partners each. The strategic process driving this renewal of the project portfolio is described in sections 8.2 and 8.3.

8.4.1 Theme 1: Flow Measurement (application area oil & gas)

netic and gamma-ray) with advanced signal processing to extract flow rates, but rely also on accurate knowledge of fluid properties and flow behaviour in order to optimize the calibration. All the project’s achievements contribute to a significantly increased accuracy and reliability of multiphase flow meters as well as an extension of the range of flow parameters (temperature, pressure, actual composition of flow) that multiphase flow meters can measure accurately: • A range of chemical and physical properties of crude oils from a variety of petroleum fields has been characterized (see Figure 4.1 for example of three different North Sea crude oils). This gives MIMT’s user and scientific partners access to a comprehensive database of fluid properties that can be taken advantage of for improvement of current measurement technologies and for future product innovations.

Multiphase Flow Metering (2007-2012) / Electromagnetic Sensors (2012-2014) The project was launched in 2007 with a single user partner (Roxar Flow Measurement AS), but was reoriented in 2012 to become a joint effort with project ‘Marine EM Resistivity Mapping’ (user partner Seabed Geosolutions) called project ‘Electromagnetic Sensors’ (2012-2014) profiting from joint numerical modelling. Multiphase flow meters (MPFM) measure the flow rates of the oil, water and gas emerging from oil & gas wells and the flow through oil & gas pipelines. This provides real-time data of vital importance for safety as well as for production optimization. The commercial and industrial significance is easier to understand when we know that more than 12% of the world’s entire oil production flow through these meters. The number of installed multiphase flow meters is expected to double over the next 5-10 years to more than 6000. A more recent application is to ensure correct allocation of income for oil & gas fields with multiple owners which is a more and more common situation as new fields are developed as satellites to existing infrastructure for the purpose of saving cost. Multiphase flow meters combine several measurement technologies (e.g. differential pressure, electromag-

Figure 8.3 : Dielectric spectra plotted vs. frequency for three North Sea crude oils illustrating the difference in both the imaginary part of the electrical permittivity when measured over a wider frequency interval. The three different oils are clearly distinguishable based on this single fluid property.

• A new software tool for predicting the dielectric constant of a crude oil from its chemical composition has been developed in a close collaboration with a MIMT-funded PhD project at the Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen by applying advanced multivariate modelling on data in the established database

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of fluid properties. The dielectric constant (permittivity) of the crude oil is an important parameter used to calibrate a multiphase flow meter, and this tool thus contributes to the project goal of increasing the accuracy and reliability of multiphase flow metering. Viscosity Effects on Flow Measurement Systems (2011-2014) Commercially available flow meters based on acoustic measurement technology are designed and optimized for conventional oils with low viscosity (‘easy-flowing’ oil). However, 70% of the remaining oil reserves have high or very high viscosity, or even in the form of oil sand and bitumen which will require new understanding for how to optimize future measurement technology for these oils. Such measurement challenges will occur during both drilling, production, and well services and maintenance. There are two main measurement challenges related to oil with high viscosity: 1. The attenuation of ultrasound signals increase, so that it is not possible to bridge the cross section of oil pipe lines with ultrasound signals. 2. The viscosity is strongly temperature dependent. A change of temperature may change the viscosity so much that it may even influence the flow profile in the pipe and thereby the flow regime. Main project achievements developed with user partners FMC and Archer: • Flow conditioners are devices permanently installed in front of flow measurement equipment in order to create a flow regime favour-

able to the selected measurement technology by creating a more homogenous mix of oil, gas, and water. There is a lack of understanding of the performance of flow conditioners in a flow of oil with high viscosity. The optimum configuration was found by numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools verified by comparison to experimentally measurement data; see some numerical results in Figure 8.4. • D ifferent acoustic tools are used during service and maintenance of oil & gas wells. It is vital to establish how such ultrasound measurements are affected by the actual composition of the propagation medium (oil, gas, water, and sand). This was studied by numerical CFD tools and a tailored numerical model set up for the inclusion of sand flow, mapping the critical factors deciding the efficiency of the measurement tool. • Measurement of acoustic attenuation in viscous fluids: Precise ultrasonic measurement methods have been used to measure fluid properties as a function of temperature, giving valuable application criteria for ultrasound measurement systems. Fiscal Flow Metering (2007-2014) Most oil & gas wells produce a mixture of oil, water and gas called a multiphase flow (see also project ‘Multiphase Flow Metering (2007-2012) / Multiphase Flow Sensors (2012-2014)’). The oil & gas are then separated into so-called single-phase flows consisting of either

Figure 8.4: Simulated flow velocity (from left to right) in three points along a pipe line including a flow straightener (middle) used to create favourable flow conditions for ultrasonic flow meters (Copyright: Christian Michelsen Research AS)

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oil or gas before being sold. Natural gas is sold and allocated on basis of its energy content, meaning that accurate and cost-efficient measurement of the energy content of the natural gas is of crucial interest at all points where taxes are calculated (which explains the adjective ‘fiscal’ in the project title) or where ownership changes. The importance of accurate and non-disputable measurements can be illustrated by the fact that 17% of Norway’s export of natural gas

Figure 8.5 : Gas metering station using ultrasonic flow meters (USMs, marked by red circle) in Easington, UK, where 17% of Norway’s export of natural gas is metered.

goes through a measuring station in Easington, UK. The main measurement technology is ultrasonic flow meters (USM) where the amount of gas is estimated by measuring the time delay of ultrasound signal propagating through the cross section of the gas pipe. However, no sufficiently accurate and reasonably priced calibration technology is available today for measurement of the gas’ energy content by these

commonly used industrial meters which therefore need to be combined with gas cromatography in order to decide the actual composition of the gas. The main achievements of this project involving user partner FMC were: • Development of a calibration cell for precision calibration of industrial ultrasound flow meters, making cost-efficient use of the industrial ultrasonic gas meters already installed. • Development of new acoustic transducers for ultrasonic gas meters (USMs) • Direct impact on the ISO standard ISO 17089 for ultrasonic gas flow meters in close dialogue with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD). The correction methods developed under the study are used in the metering station for the Ormen Lange gas at Nyhamna, Norway, which handles about 20 % of Norway’s export of natural gas.

8.4.2 Theme 2: Downhole Instrumentation (application areas oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, environmental monitoring) Downhole Ultrasonic Camera (2007-2012) Oil & gas wells need periodic service and maintenance in order to guarantee safe and cost-efficient operation. The oil & gas production from a well under service has to be stopped during these operations, making them extremely costly (MNOK/day). The overall aim with the project was to reduce time and thereby the

Figure 8.6: Left: Schematics of the 2m long forward-looking downhole acoustic camera inside an oil & gas well. Right: The ultrasound image of an undesired object (in this case a shackle) t as seen by the downhole camera (Copyright: Christian Michelsen Research AS)

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amount of deferred production of oil & gas during well operations by developing a forward-looking camera providing detailed knowledge about obstacles ahead in an oil & gas well during service and maintenance. These downhole service and maintenance operations are today carried out more or less in blind as no optical camera will function due to the opaque well fluids. A very limited range of forward-looking imaging technologies are available, causing primitive techniques such as letting a lead block attached to the end of a cable fall down on the unidentified obstacle in order to achieve an impression are still in use. Project achievements together with user partner Archer: • Implementation of first prototype forwardlooking downhole acoustic camera based on modelling and acoustic characterisation of different typical well fluids (brine, mud). Test program consisting of various shock, vibration, pressure and temperature tests was executed together with extensive imaging testing in various fluids and lessons learned. • A second prototype with upgraded mechanics and image interpretation software was implemented and tested under realistic well conditions of simultaneous pressure and temperature of 600 bar and 120C, see an example in Figure 8.6: • The generic part on acoustic transducer technology was continued as a part of the MIMT project ‘Acoustic Transducer Technology for High Pressure & High Temperature’ Acoustic Transducer Technology for High Pressure & High Temperature (2011-2014) Many measurements based on acoustic sensors require acoustic transducers with stable and predictable properties under High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) requirements: Oil & gas exploration and production are moving into more challenging environments (user partners Archer and FMC) while oceanographic sensors for larger ocean depths are required (user partner AANDERAA). Although these application areas belong to different markets, the design challenges faced have many similarities. The main achievements of the project will shorten the time line and reduce the risk level in running and future projects as summarized in Figure 8.7: • Viable transducer concepts for HPHT and HP applications are investigated and evaluated

Figure 8.7 : Schematics of the developed work flow for studying the influence of temperature variation on an ultrasonic transducer

• An acoustic material database on selected materials of interest is established including measurements of acoustical parameters as a function of temperature and measurements of materials suitable for high pressure • Established methodology for investigation of the change in transducer response as a function of temperature and pressure Special emphasis has been on methods for measurement of selected material parameters and investigating the change in acoustic material parameters with temperature.

8.4.3 Theme 3: Monitoring (application areas oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, environmental monitoring) Seismic Sensor Coupling to the Sea Bed (2007-2014) Oil & gas offshore exploration as well as emerging long term monitoring of offshore oil & gas fields and future CO2 storage in subsea reservoirs profit from permanent or semi-permanent installation of seismic sensors on the ocean bottom for collection of seismic data. However, the lack of understanding and optimisation of the acoustic coupling between the seismic sensor and the sea bed is a major challenge identified by user partner Seabed Geosolutions to be overcome in order to achieve high quality seismic data. Future sensor technology for oceanography or fisheries & aquaculture may also profit from these advances. The main achievements of this project were focussed on implementing a lab test device where seismic signals can be applied in a controlled manner for testing

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Figure 8.8: Left: Schematics of an artificial seabed (lab facility) where seismic signals can be applied in a controlled manner for testing of ocean bottom sensors in combination with different types of seabed and a water column (DUT = Device Under Test). Right: Photo of lab test where the blue tarpaulin contains the water column.

of ocean bottom sensors in combination with different types of seabed and a water column as shown by Figure 8.8:

CO2 storage. However, electromagnetic techniques can give complementary information; see the schematics in Figure 8.9.

• A first generation artificial seabed was designed, assembled and went through verification. Different configurations of ocean bottom sensors were tested, giving valuable information about the acoustic coupling between the seabed and the sensor. • A second-generation test facility was implemented in order to improving the applied seismic signals, and to reduce undesired resonances in the test setup based on initial simulations and testing. This led to a more satisfying solution to achieve necessary mechanical stiffness Marine Electromagnetic Resistivity Mapping (20072012) / Electromagnetic Sensors (2012-2014) The project originated in 2007 with user partner Seabed Geosolutions and merged in 2012 with project ‘Multiphase Flow Metering’ (user partner Roxar Flow Measurement AS) into project ‘Electromagnetic Sensors’ (2012-2014) profiting from joint numerical modelling. Seismic exploration using low-frequency acoustic signals has been the traditional way of exploring subsea geological structures for the purpose of identifying oil & gas reservoirs or for monitoring of future subsea

Figure 8.9: The concept of a complete system for mapping subsea geological structures by electromagnetic signals operated over a CO2 storage facility in a subsea geological structure, including seabed sensors and an electromagnetic source towed by a ship

There are still several significant challenges involved in the development of this electromagnetic technique, in particular the stability and sensitivity of the electromagnetic sensor to be placed on the sea bed in combination with a reduced footprint for easier handling on board a ship.

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Achievements: • Establishment of necessary requirements to sensor sensitivity based on numerical modelling of electromagnetics properties of source, reservoir, and electromagnetic sensor. • Candidate sensor configurations were experimentally characterized and evaluated with regard to noise behaviour and stability. A short term sea test on shallow water was performed in order to verify the laboratory results under more realistic conditions (see Figure 8.10). • Influence of the local electric and magnetic fields by the geometry and materials of the electromagnetic sensor as well as electromagnetic noise from the necessary electronic logging equipment within the sensor.

Fish Welfare and Quality (2007-2012) Increasing demand for fish and high quality fish products as well as consciousness around ethical use of natural resources yields an increasing focus on quality and welfare in the fisheries and aquaculture industries. This need for continuous development of new technology for fish handling and transportation is the focus of user partner Havyard Tendos, including solutions for measurement and monitoring based on detailed knowledge of fish physiology and how fish interact with the ambient environment. Main achievements: • Improved monitoring of fish welfare by successful modifications on existing medical technology for human examinations. Confirmed by field experiments comparing this with traditional costly methods.

Figure 8.11: Commercial medical equipment for use on humans, modified and optimised for fish applications. Left: i-STAT blood analyser. Middle: HemoeCue for whole blood. Right: HemoeCue for diluted blood samples

Figure 8.10 : Initial sea tests of sensor (submerged) performed at shallow water

• Design of future well boats for transportation of live fish: Fish welfare parameters were evaluated for different fish densities during transport and storage in sea cages, including effects of tank design and fish density. It was found that the fish density could be raised to significantly higher levels than expected without increasing the stress level • Influence of pumping on fish welfare and quality was compared using two different types of fish pumps, traditional pressure pump and new type vacuum pump. Comparisons of welfare and quality parameters for fish pumped with the two systems showed higher stress levels in pressure pumped fish than in vacuum pumped fish, see Figure 8.12.

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MIMT-funded postdoc at the Department of Geophysics at the University of Bergen became a highly valuable scientific instrument successfully evaluated and demonstrated in lab and on several research cruises. . • Fisheries & aquaculture (elevated CO2 levels with medium accuracy): The relevance and good performance for the developed CO2 sensor technology has been proven for optimizing of fish feeding (see Figure 8.14) and for monitoring of fish welfare during transport of live fish. Figure 8.12: Live-harvesting of fish catch using vacuum pump. Picture shows fish pipe during loading of a catch, leading from a seine to the upstream-side of the fish pump. An in-line fish flow meter is seen near the centre of the pipe

• Ultrasonic fish tissue quality probe: A prototype was developed and laboratory and field testing showed promising results, see Figure 8.13.

Figure 8.13 : The ultrasound probe applied to a test fish

Marine CO2 Sensor Technology (2007-2012) This project took the lead in creating closer links between multiple user partners in order to establish new pre-competitive innovation projects. Reliable and compact in-situ measurement technology for monitoring of marine CO2 levels are not commercially available as recognised by user partner AANDERAA. Both scientific and commercially oriented CO2 measurement technologies have been developed by MIMT and successfully tested with potential applications within all of MIMT’s focus areas: • Climate studies (high accuracy at ambient CO2 levels in the ocean): Marine pH levels and marine CO2 levels are interrelated through the marine carbonate cycle. A very accurate pH measurement system developed by a

Figure 8.14: CO2 sensors (bluish objects) and fish in tank from one of the numerous field trials both on board well boats and in fish tanks

• Environmental monitoring (elevated CO2 levels with medium accuracy): A long-term cooperation with the University of Gothenburg (Sweden) developed through several joint field trials, see the simultaneous field measurements on O2 and CO2 in Figure 8.15 from the fjord of Koljo (Sweden). The results clearly demonstrated the suitability of the MIMT-developed CO2 sensors to long term monitoring applications. • Oil and gas applications (elevated CO2 levels with medium accuracy): The results shown in Figure 8.15 indicates good relevance to longterm monitoring of future storage of CO2 in subsea geological structures.

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Figure 8.15: Data from a 7 month long shallow water investigation in the fjord of Koljo (Sweden) during 2011/2012. The grey line is data from the CO2 sensor, the black line data taken from a commercially available O2 sensor. The anticorrelation between the O2 and CO2 data is due to biological processes occurring in the water and serves to validate the CO2 measurements.

Certain gases (NH3, CO2) dissolved in water have direct effects on the fish welfare level in both open and closed sea farming facilities. These and other parameters (pH) are important monitoring parameters during transportation of live fish and also for environmental monitoring relevant for user partner AANDERAA. Neither traditional laboratory analysis of spot samples nor currently available sensors meet the end user requirements for cost and accuracy, making solid state sensors attractive for the end-users both industry and research. Main achievements: • NH3 sensor technology: Prototype sensors were developed and tested in the lab with impressive sensitivity down to parts per billion. A successful 6 weeks field trial was made (see Figure 8.17).

Figure 8.16: Photo from joint field test with EU project HYPOX where the CO2 optode was tested attached to a test rig (photo: MIMT)

Water Quality Monitoring (2011-2014) This project was established as the focus of the fish welfare project discussed above shifted from the measurement of blood parameters to measurement technologies for water parameters related to fish welfare. This was partly in response to the user partner Havyard Tendos’s desire to equip their fish handling products with systems that will maintain a low stress environment for the fish, partly in response to the overall strategy shift (ref section 8.1 ‘2007-2009: The initial research plan’) and partly in line with changes in the staff at CMR.

Figure 8.17: Scientist Peter J Thomas (CMR) installing prototype NH3 sensors (blue boxes) inside the fish tank of the well boat ‘Ro Fjord’

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• pH sensor technology development: Prototypes were developed and successfully tested in lab trials and triggered the decision for a MIMT consortium based team to be entered for the international pH competition http:// oceanhealth.xprize.org/teams with a X-prize of MUSD 2 as the potential reward (“Challenge: To develop innovative pH sensors that will affordably, accurately and efficiently measure ocean pH from its shallowest shores, to its deepest depths. Improving our understanding of how CO2 emissions affect ocean acidification will go a long way toward helping us solve the problem”). • H2O2 sensor technology development: Hydrogen peroxide-based treatments of farmed live salmon to reduce the population of sea lice is potentially an environmentally acceptable as H2O2 dissolves completely in sea water without being accumulated in the food chain. However, careful control of the H2O2 level is a necessity to avoid hurting the salmon and the surrounding eco system. A novel UV absorption based technology for the measurement of H2O2 was investigated with good sensitivity at parts-per-million level.

Proanalysis who joined MIMT in 2011 as an associated user partner. The main achievements of the project are: • The research on geothermal wells as a future energy source requires exact long-term data on the vertical temperature profile. The project has made such field measurements in Bergen and at Svalbard, see Figure 8.18. Participation in larger geothermal applications in Norway and abroad is planned.

8.4.4 Theme 4: Emerging Technologies (application areas oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, environmental monitoring) Optical technologies, nano technology (2011-2014) Optical and nano technologies are widely used for instrumentation and communication, but are viewed as emerging technologies within the MIMT focus areas. The aim of this project was to develop optical solutions offer advantages relative to today’s solutions. It has also been a priority to establish optics and nanotechnology as new technology platforms for the user partners. This project triggered the employment in 2010-2011 of two optical scientists at CMR and off-MIMT investments in optical lab equipment. User partner Archer converted some of its in-kind contribution to cash towards lab hardware. User partners AANDERAA and Havyard Tendos particicipated based on the potential for their respective main markets, environmental monitoring and fisheries & aquaculture, respectively. This thematic area also served as a launching pad for a spin-off project evolving around

Figure 8.18 : Scientist Jon Oddvar Hellevang (CMR) installing an optical fibre in a 200 meter deep geothermal well in order to measure the temperature profile along the well.

• Oil & gas wells need periodic service and maintenance in order to obtain safe and costefficient operation. The oil & gas production from a well under service has to be stopped during these operations, making them extremely costly (MNOK/day). A unique heat-resistant fibreoptic telemetry technology offering broadband communication with downhole tools

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during service operations in oil & gas wells has been developed, the resulting optical communication signal at 100 megabit/sec at 177C is shown in Figure 8.19. This new concept solves today’s bandwidth bottleneck in traditional copper-based communications, thereby losing the possibility for receiving adequate quantities of real time well data.

• A spin-off project with RCN funding (ClearView) develops solutions based on nano technology for self-cleaning optical lenses in harsh oil & gas environment led by user partner ProAnalysis while CMR and UoB Nanolab (see Figure 8.21) are among the research partners.

Figure 8.19 : Optical signal of 100 megabit/sec generated in a temperature of 177°C (similar to well temperatures) and thereafter transmitted through 10km fibre

A novel optical concept for monitoring of oil & gas flow in pipelines was developed which is in the process of being continued also after MIMT’s duration. A still image from an experiment is shown in Figure 8.20 below where a three-phase flow was filmed simultaneously in both the visible and infrared. Figure 8.21: Also nanotechnology needs space: Postdoc Sabrina Eder in the Nanolab of the University of Bergen.

Figure 8.20: Still images of a single transparent pipe taken simultaneously, showing the same flow of oil, gas, and water observed within the visible part of the optical spectrum (top) and when observed within the infrared part of the optical spectrum (bottom). Note that oil is as clear as water for infrared wavelengths while water is opaque. Gas is transparent in both cases.

BUC by Professor Velauthapillai has had a strong international activity related to nano technology for solar cells. Professor Velauthapillai was been instrumental in establishing the 2013 Indo-Norwegian Workshop on Advanced Materials for Solar Cell Applications in cooperation with the Coimbatore Institute of Technology (India) where MIMT was a proud cosponsor. Professor Velauthapillai has also together with Professor Helseth (UoB) co-hosted the guest researcher Dr Thambidurai from the University of Seoul November 2012-February 2013. The focus of the work has been in nanostructures for improvement of the efficiency of solar cells by creating nano-sized rods guiding the light down to the active region of the solar cell, see Figure 8.22.

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Pre-study: Tomographical methods for characterisation of multiphase flow of oil, gas, and water in pipelines (2011-2014)

Figure 8.22: Scanning Electron Microscope image (4 x 4 mm2) of flower-like ZnO nanorods for guiding of sun light down to the active region of a solar cell [M.Thambidurai, N.Muthukumarasamy, D Velauthapillai, C Lee, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 2013.] (Copyright: Bergen University College)

Professor Geir Anton Johansen and Professor Bjørn Tore Hjertaker at the Department of Physics & Technology (University of Bergen) in cooperation with the user partners Roxar Flow Measurement AS and Statoil have worked on a pre-study developing new algorithms and modalities for characterization of multiphase flow regimes in pipelines. One of the main challenges in measurement of multiphase flow is the change of flow regimes which challenges the accuracy of the multiphase flow meter technologies discussed in section 8.4.1 ’Theme 1: Flow Measurement (application area oil & gas)’ for background info on multiphase flow. Research has shown that this can be identified using multiple-beam gamma densiometry, which is the aim of this study. A postdoc (Camilla Sæthre) and an engineer (Rachid Maad) have also worked on this prestudy that will continue with external project funding in 2015.

• New concepts for oceanographic sensors were studied in master projects • A pre-study evaluating high temperature monitoring of metal industry process containers was performed with Norwegian research institute Teknova funded by the regional research fund.

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8.5 Highlights of scientific results MIMT has focused on creating innovation in close cooperation between science and industry, ref section 13 ‘Effects of MIMT for the user partners and the society at large’. The innovation results that have the potential for innovation and commercial activity are listed in detail in section 8.4. More fundamental scientific results can mainly be found in the publications from MIMT and PhD theses, both funded by MIMT and associated theses. CMR has already established a start-up company – XSENS – in order to further develop the IPR generated related to the MIMT project ‘Fiscal Flow Metering’, see also section 14. - The MIMT project allowed to establish a long-term and focused scientific effort in order to solve real-world measurement challenges, points Professor Lunde out. Left to right: Espen Storheim (MIMT-funded PhD thesis, current affiliation CMR where working full-time on spin-off project with user partner Archer), master student Andre Adelsten Søvik, former master student Rune Hauge (current affiliation CMR), Professor Per Lunde, former master student Eivind Nag Mosdal (current affiliation CMR), and master student Kenneth Andersen. The integration of associated PhD and master students has mutually multiplied the effects of the available resources. In front a MIMT prototype for measurements of the velocity of sound in gas, aiming for cost-efficient precision calibration of new and already installed industrial ultrasound flow meters for fiscal metering of natural gas.

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8.6 Invited speakers, etc. Seven researchers have received special attention at international conferences: 1. Halvor Hobæk: ‘Parametric acoustic arrays: A Bergen view’, Invited speaker at the 157th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Portland, USA, 18-22 May 2009. 2. Halvor Hobæk; ‘The Bellin and Beyer experiment: A paradox resolved?’, Invited paper at “Hydroacoustics in shallow water”, Jubilee of 70th birthday of Prof. Eugeniusz Kozaczka, Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, 22 November 2012. 3. Geir Anton Johansen, Uwe Hampel, Bjørn Tore Hjertaker: ‘Flow imaging by high speed transmission tomography’, Invited paper at the 7th International Topical Meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Application, Prague, 2010 4. Øivind Andersen, Ola Frang Wetten, Maria Cristina De Rosa, Carl Andre, Cristiana Carelli Alinovi, Mauro Colafranceschi, Ole Brix, and Alfredo Colosimo : ‘Haemoglobin polymorphisms affect the oxygen-binding properties in Atlantic cod populations’, Highlighted Paper: Proceedings B of the Royal Society (Biological Sciences), March 7, 2009 276:833-841; doi:10.1098/ rspb.2008.1529 (77% rejection ratio in this journal. Only 3 of 12 accepted papers are selected as “highlighted paper”) 5. Lars Egil Helseth: ‘Nonlinear fun with physics’, Invited lecture at the conference ‘Nonlinear Dynamics 2010’, 3-6th October, University of Bayreuth (Germany) 6. Geir Pedersen, Olav Rune Godø, Egil Ona, and Gavin J. Macaulay: ‘A revised target strength– length estimate for blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou): implications for biomass estimates’, ICES Journal of Marine Science 2011 (a more accurate estinate of the acoustic scattering from blue whiting led to a complete re-assesment of the North Sea population of this economically important fish for the period 2004-2011 (ref: ICES WKTSBLUES REPORT 2012) Professor Lars Egil Helseth (department of Physics & Technology, University of Bergen) has served as MIMT’s deputy manager since 2009. He has in addition supervised master students associated with MIMT in optical science and been an invited speaker.

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9. International cooperation The guest researcher arrangements and the international Professor II positions have stimulated a close collaboration between MIMT and international groups that has led to co-publishing, co-advising master and PhD students, guest lectures to students and contributions to MIMT seminars. MIMT has had collaboration with international research groups in 12 different countries as shown by Table 9.1. Country

Institution

Type of relation

Australia

School of Engineering and Science, Victoria University

Guest researcher from MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Brazil

Federal University of Pernambuco

Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Germany

EU Micro Nano Broker

Competence matching (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Fraunhofer Institute

Joint project (CMR)

Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Mea- Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, surement Techniques (iba), Heiligenstadt Dep. of Physics & Technology) Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Mea- Guest researcher from MIMT (UoB, surement Techniques (iba), Heiligenstadt Dep. of Physics & Technology)

India

Georg-August-Universität GÜttingen

Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Coimbatore Institute of Technology

Co-sponsoring conferences on nanotechnology for solar cells (BUC)

Coimbatore Institute of Technology

Guest researcher to MIMT (BUC, UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Coimbatore Institute of Technology

Guest researcher to MIMT (BUC)

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Guest researchers to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

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Indonesia

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Joint application for public funding of geothermal project

Italy

University of Genoa

Professor II (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Sapienza University of Rome

Professor II (UoB, Dep. of Biology)

Japan

Hokkaido University

Guest researcher from MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Poland

Technical University of Lodz

Guest researchers to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

South Korea

Seoul National University

Guest researchers to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

LuleĂĽ University of Technology

Professor II (UoB, Dep. of Chemistry)

University of Gothenburg

Joint marine field measurement campaigns, peer-reviewed copublishing

University of Manchester

Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

University of West London

Co-funding of Professor II (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

University of Southampton

Guest researcher to MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Phisics & Technology)

North Carolina State University

Guest researcher from MIMT (UoB, Dep. of Physics & Technology)

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

Peer-reviewed co-publishing

Florida International University

Peer-reviewed co-publishing

Sweden

United Kingdom

USA

Table 9.1 : MIMT’s international relations with research groups

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10. Training of researchers, subsequent employment situation 10.1 PhD students and postdocs The original research plan (section 8.1 ‘2007-2009: The initial research plan’) called for two MIMT-funded groups of four postdoc or PhD students in each. The first group was challenging to recruit due to the exceptionally strong growth in the Norwegian industry, regardless of the nationality of the candidates. This delayed the completion of the recruitment with 2 years to 2009, causing a lag in the spending of the MIMT cash budget. The resulting mix of nationalities was good, with an Italian postdoc, a Bulgarian PhD student and two Norwegian PhD students. The Norwegians were recruited amongst the master students at UoB. All grants were associated with a MIMT project where the PhD thesis or postdoc work was an integrated part of the project deliverables: • Fiscal flow metering (PhD grant at the Department of Physics & Technology, UoB) • Fish welfare & quality (PhD grant at the Department of Biology, UoB) • Multiphase flow monitoring (PhD grant at the Department of Chemistry, UoB) • Marine CO2 sensor technology (postdoc grant at the Department of Geophysics, UoB) One PhD student did unfortunately not complete his PhD studies. Part of the explanation can be found in changes of scientific priorities at the Department of Biology combined with multiple change of roles of involved personnel at CMR. This unfortunately resulted in reduced contact between MIMT and the

Department of Biology after the PhD student aborted his studies. After the first group was recruited, an unforeseen rise in cost levels of PhD and postdoc grants occurred which was noticeable due to MIMT’s relatively high ratio of in-kind funding (see section 6). In combination with the strategic choices based on the mid-life evaluation (see section 8.3), UoB in 2011 came to the understanding with MIMT’s board that UoB would to a larger extent focus on seed activities both to attract new industrial partners and to contribute to MIMT’s exit strategy. Only one short term postdoc position held by a UK citizen (Dr Paul Prentice) was funded by MIMT after this: • Optically transparent acoustic transducer (postdoc grant at the Department of Physics & Technology, UoB) Intermediate university positions for three PhD students (Espen Storheim, Magne Aanes, and Andreas Tomren) were also funded by MIMT. This was a very fertile arrangement that allowed for both valuable strengthening of the research groups and for additional work facilitating turning scientific achievements into knowledge-based innovation relevant for the industry and for the CMR controlled start-up XSENS (ref. section 14). Associated (no MIMT-funding): • 10 postdocs • 9 PhDs (defended theses)

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In 2011 and 2012 get-togethers and communication workshops were held by MIMT for all PhD and postdoc students associated to MIMT. The most significant was a joint seminar for improvement of communication and presentation skills with Centre for Researchbased Innovation : “The Craft of Scientific Presentations” given by Associate Professor in Engineering Communications Michael Alley from Penn State University. Professor Alley has cooperated with the Norwegian research centre Simula since 2003 and is

an internationally acknowledged expert on improving scientific communications skill. Twelve persons from the two CRIs participated; most of them were PhD students and postdocs. Two master students participated too. The employment situation for the PhD students and postdocs funded by MIMT is summarised in Table 10.1.

MIMT project, (application area)

Type

Name (nationality)

UoB Department

Start date [month, year]

Dissertation [month, year]

Employer 201501-01

Comment

‘Fiscal Flow Metering’, (Oil & Gas)

PhD

Espen Storheim (Norway)

Dept. of Physics and Technology

October 2009

June 18, 2015

CMR (Norwegian research institute)

Had MIMTfunded intermediate position at UoB prior to CMR position

‘Multiphase PhD Flow Metering’, (Oil & Gas)

Andreas Tomren (Norway)

Dept. of October Chemistry, 2008 in collaboration with Dept. of Physics and Technology

September 15, 2014

Intermediate position at the Norwegian National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research

Had MIMTfunded intermediate position at UoB prior to dissertation

‘CO2 Sensor Technology in Water’, (Environmental Monitoring)

Postdoc

Emmanuele Reggiani (Italy)

Dep. of Geophysics

April 2009

End of grant May 2011

The Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norwegian research institute)

Continues work on precision pH sensor started at MIMT

‘Optical technologies, nano technology’, (Oil & Gas)

Postdoc

Dr Paul Prentice (UK)

Dept. of Physics and Technology

April 2013 November 2013

Personal grant from the European Research Council (ERC), affiliated to the University of Dundee, Scotland

Table 10.1 : Overview over MIMT-funded PhD students and postdocs together with their affiliation as of January 1, 2015.

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Two associated PhD students were employed or partly employed at the host organisation after having defended their theses: • Magne Aanes is employed 50/50 at host organisation CMR and at the University of Bergen (Department of Physics & Technology) after having received intermediate MIMT funding. • Kjetil Haukalid was employed as a scientist at host organisation CMR in November 2014.

PhD student Kjetil Haukalid studies how measurements of electric parameters can be used to detect and monitor formation of gas hydrates in mixed (multiphase) flows of oil, water, gas, and sand emerging from oil & gas wells.

Dr Magne Aanes was a member of Professor Per Lundes ultrasound reserach group (Department of Physics & Technology, University of Bergen), working closely with the MIMT project in Fiscal Flow Metering as an associated PhD student. Magne is currently a part-time employee at both the University of Bergen as a lecturer and at CMR as a scientist.

- My master thesis at the Department of Physics & Technology was my first contact with MIMT. I subsequently received a PhD grant funded by Statoil through a frame work agreement with the University of Bergen, explains Kjetil who already prior to his planned dissertation is hired as a scientist at CMR. My PhD thesis is closely related to MIMT’s projects on Multiphase Flow Metering and on Electromagnetic Sensors. The MIMT connection gives me access to an important end-user as the Norwegian oil & gas operator Statoil and its test labs. My work has also profited from industry exposure during MIMT seminars and workshops, including a very useful two-day MIMT seminar on improvement of communication and presentation skills given by Associate Professor in Engineering Communications Michael Alley from Penn State University.

- The MIMT project represented a mixed scientific and industry environment that together provided both a solid scientific foundation and an applied angle to my PhD work, says Magne. The MIMT funding for an intermediate university position prior to my dissertation allowed for a better scientific quality of the thesis and for continued interaction with other PhD and master students which would not have been possible to combine with a full-time industry position.

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Postdoc Naureen Akhtar at the UoB’s nanophysics group is working closely with Professor Bodil Holst and CMR on the MIMT spin-off project ClearView led by associated user partner Proanalysis, developing nanotechnology for protection of optical surfaces in harsh conditions.

- I got my PhD from the University of Groningen (Netherlands) before Professor Holst offered me this position, tells Naureen. In my daily work I use the facilities at the UiB Nanoostructures laboratory. My links to Groeningen are very valuable and relevant for the ClearView project, as well as our networking with University of Madrid. This makes it possible to access characterisation equipment and experience not easily found or purchased. I was recently awarded a post doc fellowship from www.vista.no (a collaborative partnership between Norwegian oil & gas operator Statoil and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters) to continue the work on nanotechnology for optical surfaces. The project’s applied character is exciting and introduces me to the industry’s point of view through meetings and joint brain storming sessions.

Professor Tanja Barth (Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen) has supervised MIMT-funded PhD student Andreas Tomren and master students associated with MIMT.

- Andreas’ PhD thesis project was an exciting crossdisciplinary exploration of the borderland between chemistry and measurement science, says Tanja. His work was part of a MIMT project with user partner Roxar and host CMR. An unexpected challenge due to the multi-disciplinary nature occurred in the first evaluation of the thesis by the two relevant scientific communities, but this was solved by careful presentation of the basics in the final thesis version. The participation of MIMT-funded Professor II, Professor Johan Carlson from the University of Luleå, Sweden, enhanced the measurement science and statistical analysis parts of Andreas’ thesis work and was extended to advising master students as well as copublishing. - New cooperation between me, CMR, and Roxar has emerged and will continue also after the life cycle of MIMT.

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10.2 Master and bachelor students Forty-one master projects and fourteen bachelor projects have been a part of MIMT. The subject of these projects have all had industry relevance and in many cases served as pre-studies prior to decisions on developing larger activities. Assistant advisors from the host organisation have been provided when relevant and possible. The best integration of master students into MIMT projects have been where MIMT has funded PhD students or postdocs who have taken a major responsibility in fitting the master projects into the MIMT projects. MIMT’s seminars and workshop have been well attended by students from master to PhD level, including the series of workshops in numerical modelling and the seminar on scientific communication skills.

Vice Dean R&D Håvard Helstrup at the engineering faculty at Bergen University College: - The university colleges in Norway had prior to 1994 a purely educational mandate, meaning that we have a shorter scientific track record than the Norwegian universities. On the other side, our strong tradition of close educational contact with Norwegian industry means that the CRI programme is a very appropriate arena due to its focus on innovation. Our research activities, especially within nanotechnology and aquaculture, have profited from MIMT through collaboration and funding arrangements.

Håvard Helstrup is the vice dean for R&D at the engineering faculty at Bergen University College (Høgskolen i Bergen).

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11. Communication and dissemination of knowledge 11.1 Towards the scientific and industry target audience The major part of the external profiling of MIMT has been implemented through the scientific publishing together with communication and dissemination activities directed towards the target industry audience: More than 200 articles, lectures and presentations have been presented, and more than forty seminars and workshops have been held where all MIMT projects have contributed insight and results. MIMT launched in 2011 a seminar series on numerical modelling in applied physics and measurement technology. This resulted in a series of 10 workshops up to the end of 2014 where in total more than 150 persons attended. This became another meeting place for

MIMT’s PhD students, postdocs, and the industry. MIMT co-hosted the industry conference ‘Optics in Oil & Gas’ in Bergen in 2011 with 110 attendees, most of them international. The conference normally takes place in Aberdeen, but MIMT and the industry cluster ‘Norwegian Centre of Expertise – Subsea’ (also located in Bergen) promoted the idea of moving the conference to Bergen in 2011. There were also contributions from MIMT’s activities. MIMT has also co-hosted/funded a workshop and a conference in India on solar cell technology.

One of the many invited experts to MIMT’s seminars and workshops was Professor Mathias Fink from ‘École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris‘ who with great vitality introduced the targeted audience to his latest findings within the field of focusing of acoustic waves. These scientific methods have already been introduced to application areas as medical ultrasound and hydroacoustics.

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11.2 Industry training courses in measurement science & technology Scientist Astrid Marie Skålevik is one of the responsibles for running CMR’s in-house multiphase flow loop and giving loop-related lessons during industry courses.

MIMT developed 2010-2015 a portfolio of 3-day industry courses in measurement science & technology focused on different aspects of flow metering for the oil & gas industry. In all more than 120 industry employees from 20 companies located in seven different countries profited from these courses that were held up to three times a year with mutual benefits: • The industry could easily tap into MIMT’s competency. • The course programme increased MIMT’s interface to industrial applications and our exposure to the larger measurement community within oil & gas.

A more altruistic effect came from similar courses held within the programme ‘Oil for Development’ which is funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation and executed by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The aim is to help third world countries which are in the initial phase of becoming oil & gas producers to establish professional and transparent regulatory regimes for fiscal metering of oil & gas, ensuring the national agencies the possibility to oversee the commercial transactions with the nation’s natural resources. Seven different countries in this situation profited from MIMT’s customised courses. CMR will continue both the industry courses and the contributions to ‘Oil for Development’.

CMR department manager Camilla Sætre is responsible for MIMT’s industry course programme and one of the main course instructors. She is currently also in charge of CMR’s in-house multiphase flow loop which is used for research and for third-party certification of multiphase flow meters prior to shipment to the customers. - The aggregated background of the course attendants varies a lot between the different groups of attendants, says Camilla. This makes good interaction already from the very first lesson important in order to help the attendants achieve the optimum learning curve.

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11.3 Newsletters In all five newsletters were distributed per email from September 2012 to September 2013 when the increase of hourly rates since the initial budgeting of 2006 was significant enough to call for cut-backs on the administrative budget in order to prioritise innovation activities and projects. Web pages for external profiling of MIMT were in place early, but no registration of actual visits started until June 2009 as shown in Figure 11.1. The arrows in the figure indicate that the statistics are a product of the incitements MIMT has created for external visitors to seek information on our web pages on industry courses and newsletters.

Figure 11.1 : Accumulated site visits on www.michelsencentre.no June 2000-April 2015, adding up to more than 17,000.

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12. Effects of centre for the host institution and research partners 12.1 The host organisation

• • The need for a constant growing of CMR’s international links is understood and implemented as memorandums of understanding

The vision of the host organisation Christian Michelsen Research AS is in its most compressed form ‘Research for Industrial Development’ which is very much in line with the overall CRI vision of creating research-based innovation to the benefit of industry as well as the society in general. Christian Michelsen Research AS has never before managed a project portfolio of the scale of MIMT, and the experiences have led to several operational prioritisations: • CMR’s internal processes for project management and for developing applications for public funding have been revised • A strategy process has been triggered where CMR as the initial stage has identified strategic programme areas where CMR is an acknowledged competence centre and where there is a relevant industry need for CMR’s competency. • A renewed focus on peer-reviewed publishing within the identified programme areas is implemented and are already giving results, likewise for dissemination to the user community through industry seminar and conferences

Dr Marie Bueie Holstad is one of CMR’s department manag¬ers responsible for allocation of CMR personnel to MIMT projects and for QA of CMR’s part of the projects. She was also responsible for CMR’s in-house multphase flow loop where the photo is taken.

- MIMT’s projects and activities have represented a very important opportunity for CMR to pursue longterm research of strategic importance, explains Marie: For a technology institute like CMR, the Research Council’s programme for Centres for Research-based Innovation represents a rare opportunity for mounting strategic initiatives. - My work as one of the main instructors for MIMT’s industry courses (see section 11.2) has involved examples from and hands-on lectures in CMR’s multiphase flow loop. The encounters with reasonably sized course classes limited to maximum 12 attendants has allowed for valuable interaction and unique insight in everyday industrial challenges.

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Professor Bjørn Tore Hjertaker (foreground) and master students Mang Li (left, background) and Sigve Naustdal (right, background) in the flow loop at the Department of Physics & Technology, University of Bergen.

12.2 Research partners - MIMT has provided industry contacts, industry input and co-advisors to master and PhD projects, explains Professor Bjørn Tore Hjertaker at the Department of Physics & Technology, University of Bergen. This has provided subjects with larger relevance to the industry’s challenges and has prepared the students for the challenges they will meet in future industry positions. MIMT’s support for lab hardware in the university’s flow loop has improved the quality of the lab courses in measurement science and flow metering and will

continue to profit the education of future students for years to come. Funding and co-funding from MIMT have facilitated extended international cooperation in terms of guest researchers to and from MIMT, Professor II positions, and co-advising of theses, guest lectures and co-publishing.

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Dr Ingunn Skjelvan and Dr Abdirahman Omar both hold Professor II positions at the Department of Geophysics, UoB while permanent affiliation is the Norwegian research institute UniResearch where they are mostly involved in the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research http://www.bjerknes.uib.no/#!/en/ . - Working with MIMT has built relations to CMR and industry, says Ingunn. It has also built understanding of the complex considerations of performance, cost, and commercial potential that must be balanced to support a successful sensor development by a commercial player. This has also been communicated to my students at UoB through MIMT guest lectures presenting the R&D cycle of commercial sensor technology - The CO2 sensor development in MIMT has provided understanding of how we can become less dependent on manned vessels, gradually transferring to costefficient moored buoys where applicable, explains Abdirahman. MIMT has funded a postdoc who worked on the implementation of a marine pH sensor with sufficiently high sensitivity for the extreme requirements in climate research. This device is now a part of the instrument pool supporting our research cruises based on manned vessels. MIMT has also co-supported a PhD-project investigating the long-term performance of commercially available autonomous pH sensor in the extreme environment of the Red Sea.

The scientific work of Dr Ingunn Skjelvan (right) and Dr Abdirahman Omar (left) is on the interaction between climate changes and the marine carbonate system.

Professor Sveinung Fivelstad at Bergen University College (Høgskolen i Bergen) has since 1988 explored the relations between vital water quality parameters and the welfare and quality of farmed fish. This is essential knowledge for today’s transport of live fish in well boats and for future commercial aquaculture based on closed tanks in order to reduce attacks and spread of sea lice and to control the emissions from sea farms.

- MIMT has provided a fruitful mix of contacts, collaboration, and some funding that has made new achievements possible, says Sveinung. Joint student projects have been possible due to similarities in technological needs.

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13. Effects of centre for the user partners and the society at large Innovation can be hard to quantify as discussed in section 7.3, but it is admirable that the RCN already during the mid-life evaluation encouraged such evaluation parameters. Based on this kind of quantification, some conclusion can be drawn on the importance of MIMT as experienced by the user partners: • Influence on R&D and Innovation strategy of the partners: 63% of max score • Development of new or improved products, processes or services: About 40 accumulated contributions identified in section 8.4 (in average 5 accumulated per user partner, significantly up from 1.7 in 2010), see also Figure 7.4 • Strengthened knowledge base for the partners: 71% of max score • Improved access to competent personnel and research institutions: 81% of max score • Recruitment of qualified personnel: 50% of max score • Improved network to other partners: 62% of full score The pattern above is supported by qualitative discussion with the user partners: • Innovation may have different time scales from case to case when it comes to actually generating additional revenue through new products, services, or access to new markets. • Maybe MIMT’s most appreciated effect has been the potential for projects with a higher risk and thereby higher potential upside than would have been possible without MIMT. This role as an innovation laboratory has turned out as very important: Even project results with a ‘negative’ outcome have been highly valuated by the users due to the insight in the limitations

of new potential innovations. This has and will reduce the risk level when selecting between alternative decisions. The benefits to the Norwegian society at large can primarily be found through the benefits to Norwegian industries and businesses serving the three application areas MIMT has focused on: Oil & gas, Fisheries & Aquaculture, and Environmental Monitoring. The benefits to the end-users within these three areas provided by MIMT’s innovation are listed in detail in section 8.4. These innovation results will contribute to make these three Norwegian industries safer, cleaner, and more efficient in terms of consumption of energy and time. This will be achieved through improved production processes due to new real-time measurement data provided by sensor networks where MIMT’s innovations will be integrated. Commercially, this will make Norwegian measurement industry as well as end-users of measurement technology industry more competitive on the international market.The overall long-term benefit will be a more sustainable society satisfying our increasing demands for a higher ethical standard.

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Some of the team members from MIMT project Multiphase Flow Metering gathered in CMR’s in-house multiphase flow loop in front of one of Roxar’s multiphase meters: Roxar Technology Project Manager Glenn Andreas Samuelsen (right foreground), CMR Scientist Kjetil Folgerø (middle foreground), Roxar Product Specialist Frode Hugo Aase (left foreground), Roxar Senior Systems Engineer Stig Frøyen (background).

- The scientific results of the project have provided fundamental scientific insight in the potential of solutions to increased accuracy and reliability of industrial multiphase flow meters, says Glenn, but I would also like to underline that two of Roxar’s development programmes in Roxar have already profited from the project’s innovation results: One programme for enhancement of the performance of one of our existing product series, and one programme for development of next generation products.

AANDERAA’s Product Development Manager Jostein Hovdenes (left, holding a blue coffee cup sized prototype of a marine CO2 sensor developed in a MIMT project) together with Technology Director Tor Arne Hetland (right) standing by a water-filled glass tank for CO2 sensor testing.

- AANDERAA’s participation in MIMT projects has built strong relations with MIMT’s host and scientific partners, this has been an important part for us although we could have harvested more direct results by an earlier integration into our internal strategies, tells Tor Arne. We have also established contacts with other industry through MIMT, especially within acoustics. Our joint MIMT projects have made it possible to explore blue sky concepts that would have been hard to prioritise due to their risk level.

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General Manager Terje Lie at Archer’s Bergen Technology Centre standing by a prototype tool for maintenance operations inside oil & gas wells.

- Archer’s participation has been split between four different MIMT projects in quantities according to our priority of the targets of the different projects, says Terje. We have always experienced that the access through MIMT to top-notch competencies have accelerated the progress of our project work. The oil & gas service business is very competitive, and it is therefore vital to maintain and develop our internal peak competencies in order to compensate for the drift towards a more blunt all-round capability created by day-to-day operations. - Innovation results from MIMT have already been incorporated into our products and our development projects, facilitating new and cost-cutting services to our customers. More MIMT spin-offs are in the pipeline, including results from the optics project. This can easily shorten the need for shut-down time for an oil & gas well during maintenance, thereby creating huge cost savings for the end user that could be Statoil or other oil & gas operators. - The links to R&D grups and to other industry in Bergen established through MIMT have been a useful experience that will be maintained.

Manager Engineering & Marketing Skule Smørgrav (FMC Kongsberg Metering AS) has served an impressive eight years on MIMT’s board:

- FMC Kongsberg Metering AS and international mother corporation FMC Technologies have profited significantly from MIMT’s scientific results, underlines Skule, especially those resulting from the direct contacts with the host CMR and the University of Bergen which have resulted in scientific achievements we can build upon in our development projects. Some of the projects have been facilitated by the support of also other user partners, this was a win-win situation. Our MIMT partnership has also triggered extended internal use of our own in-house test facilities!

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14. Future prospects Most innovations listed in section 8.4 are being integrated into the user partners’ technology development and future products, processes, or services. Section 13.1 lists a summary of the accumulated effects that will benefit all MIMT partners. In addition, more specific forward-oriented actions are taken: • More than 20 project initiatives with a potential life length beyond MIMT’s have emerged from MIMT’s project portfolio. • The international contacts established by MIMT will be continued by the host organisation (CMR) and the research partners. • Student projects with joint advisor responsibility are continuously launched • Also new patent processes are running • A start-up company, XSENS, has been launched by CMR in order to develop IPR generated by MIMT project ‘Fiscal Flow Metering’

need for simplification of the initial partner structure. At this point in the project, we think ClearView is a win-win arrangement supporting a very useful collaboration between us, UoB, and CMR. This is a type of contact we would like to expand. Both Erik and Stian are graduates from UoB, Erik from Professor Holst’s group and Stian from the group for space physics. - Gunnar has also been a member of the steering group for the ARENA application (see section 14.1) and explains a part of his motivation for this contribution: Having participated in the founding of several companies, I have experienced the challenges related to accessing private funding especially during the ‘valley of death’ in between the first successful prototype and the launch of the first commercial product. Public agencies must recognise the somewhat special Norwegian funding structure and tailor their programmes to partly compensate for this. If not, it means that innovative technology developers will be forced abroad long before reaching the commercial phase.

Gunnar Alfheim is the CEO (left), Technology Manager Stian Magnussen and Senior Development Engineer Erik Mannseth all from associated user partner ProAnalysis.

Gunnar Alfheim is the CEO of associated user partner Proanalysis who is leading the MIMT spin-off project ClearView: - The ClearView project had a somewhat slow start, tells Gunnar, partly due to the recruitment process of the right person for the postdoc position, partly due to change of project leader on our side, partly due to a 54 The Michelsen Centre


14.1 Joint network efforts and applications CRI application 2014: Integrated Well & Subsea Instrumentation

Application ARENA industrial cluster 2015: Intelligent Sensor Systems

A major joint exit effort was put down in the CRI application Integrated Well & Subsea Instrumentation which contained many ideas and experiences accumulated in MIMT. The main idea was to introduce Real Time Risk Management for optimum cost and safety in existing and future subsea field developments. The basis was a holistic approach to collecting and analysing real-time measurement data from the whole process (well, subsea factory, transport system) in order to utilise all available related information and correlations to the benefit of production safety & optimisation, flow assurance, and integrity management.

A more applied joint exit initiative was the application Intelligent Sensor Systems submitted to Norwegian Innovation Clusters’ ARENA programme. The vision was to develop intelligent and autonomous sensor architectures for integration into the Internet of Things. This would both allow the user partners to access higher levels of the value chain by offering the end-users real-time data with quantified measurement integrity rather than today’s hardware-oriented business.

The application was unfortunately rejected in November 2014. Efforts are under way to implement smaller parts within smaller financial frames.

The application was unfortunately rejected in June 2015. Efforts are under way to implement smaller parts within smaller financial frames.

will take on the majority of the value creation some decades from today, have probably not been funded yet! It is very important that the Norwegian public agencies like the Research Council and Innovation Norway understand how to establish the optimum mechanisms that can support the strong re-growth of start-ups which will become crucial for the Norwegian economy as older companies mature and go through mergers and acquisitions that may lead to re-allocation outside Norway.

Gunnar Andersen is R&D advisor with Archer’s Bergen Technology Centre, has served on MIMT’s board and was a member of the steering group for the ARENA application (see section 14.1)

- My background as a founder and co-founder of in total thirteen companies in Norway and abroad makes me very aware of the need for creating conditions favourable to start-ups, says Gunnar. These startup companies are significantly more innovative and responsive to changes in markets and in market needs than more established, larger and more bureaucratic organisations. In fact, the Norwegian companies that

- Private funding for long-term innovation is hard to find in Norway today as it is sucked into a few dominating high-profit industries, including oil & gas. This triggers a very tough prioritisation of how to allocate a small company’s scarce resources to short-term and long-term targets, leading to the necessity of asking the somewhat rude question ‘what’s in it for us?’ also when it comes to participation in public programmes.

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15 Conclusions 15.1 Lessons learnt The most noticeable and tangible result from MIMT is the more than 40 innovations that have been developed during the eight CRI years which is a relatively short time span innovation-wise (ref discussion in section 7.3). This high quantity is clearly related to the structure of MIMT where the projects themselves have developed relations between science and industry. Personell from both research and user partners have been pulled together by interactive projects. This would not have been easily achieved in a structure where the achievements were external deliverables to passive user partners. MIMT has represented a steep learning curve in cooperation and joint development of cross-disciplinary, cross-business innovation perspectives and strategies. We as a CRI consortium have improved on how to run a Centre of Research-based Innovation according to the expectations of the Research Council of Norway and according to the expectations of research and user partners. The type of project management required by such a high-performing and long-term virtual organisation have been apprehended.

This has developed the relations between all partners, also inside the two types of partners, research and user partners. As a host organisation, Christian Michelsen Research AS has acquired valuable insight in the relations and interdependencies between scientific achievements and innovation results. The feedback link from the user partners’ technology gaps to the scientific community is indispensable in order to create the desired innovation. An efficient way of establishing this link is to implement it within the frames of joint CRI projects at the right generic level where both research and multiple user partners contribute and collaborate actively. This makes it possible to both be attractive to the user partners and to create generic results to the benefit of the society at large far above the benefits experienced by the user partners.

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15.2 The strategic and structural development of MIMT MIMT demonstrated a strong ability to change and develop strategically and structurally according to the needs and requirements from stake holders: In 2007, the project portfolio was characterised by highly usercustomised projects focused on closing a specific technology gap identified by a single user partner as illustrated in Figure 15.1.

Figure 15.2 : The project portfolio was re-structured 20112012 and resulted in a majority of more generic projects (lavender arrows) focused on technology gaps relevant to multiple user partners which were to a much larger extent relevant for multiple application areas.

monitoring. In hindsight, this structure should have been aimed for from the very start of MIMT. Figure 15.1 : The seven project launched in 2007 (yellow arrows) had with one exception mostly a narrow focus on specific technology gaps experienced by a single partner and were relevant within only one application area.

In 2011-12, MIMT had developed a project portfolio consisting of projects solving more generic technology gaps relevant to a multitude of user partners and with less user partner customisation as illustrated by Figure 15.2. This re-structured portfolio was also much more relevant for multiple of MIMT’s three application areas: Oil & gas, fisheries & aquaculture, and environmental

The re-structured MIMT offered a spectrum of project types defined by two extremes: 1. Projects which grew strong research groups centred on PhD students (some funded by MIMT) and a network of related master students, delivering both innovation, patents, and scientific publishing. 2. Projects without PhD students and where permanent staff from the host, and research partners created innovation, patents, and scientific publishing that answered needs from the user partners. It must be noted that the quantity of scientific publishing was only a fraction of what was generated by the project type discussed above, and of course without producing PhD theses.

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It is noteworthy that the user partners in both types of projects were very satisfied with the innovation output and the patenting that took place. MIMT’s multi-user projects necessitated carefully tailored project agreements managing IPR and distributing such rights between the active project partners. This distribution was generally based on time-limited exclusivity arrangements securing the individual user partner within his main markets or applications. Team-

ing up user partners with different markets and end applications was a challenging necessity, but manageable. An additional advantage was that such considerations forced a more generic project scope than what was the case in the initial single-user MIMT projects launched in 2007. The introduction of new technology platforms as optics and nanotechnology simplified these challenges as these project explored possibilities that were new to all user partners.

15.3 Process for establishing strategy and annual work plans A ‘revolving-door’ principle was used for the combined strategy and work plan processes as depicted in Figure 15.3.

A top-down approach was applied for the strategy where the board through long-term action plans encompassing 2-3 years imposed the main strategies based on internal discussions, input from the annual site visits by the Research Council, mid-life evaluation and the two reports from the International Scientific Committee 2011-2013. A bottom-up strategy was applied for the annual work plans which were based on the long-term strategy communicated by the board and the project-specific feedback from the mid-life evaluation and the two reports from the International Scientific Board 20112013.

Figure 15.3 : The ‘revolving door’ interaction between top-down strategy in shape of long-term action plans and bottom-up annual work plans originating from the innovation projects.

15.4 Organisation of research work It was a major goal to establish joint project teams where individuals from different partners had organically interlaced tasks that encouraged a fruitful blend of different competencies and insights, see also section 5.2.4.

More efforts could have been made to avoid that organisational boundaries of the centre coincided with the borders between legal entities of the partnership.

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15.5 Project management A CRI is a large project compared to the regular Norwegian R&D&I project in terms of annual budget, total budget, duration, number of participating individuals and legal entities as well as structure, scope, and complexity. This requires a lean but efficient and hands-on project management at all levels of the centre. It is

crucial to apply well proven project management techniques and processes in order to allow the CRI to deliver as expected according to the stakeholders’ expectations. This was an area where MIMT did not mature sufficiently, partly due to the time and energy necessary to initiate and execute the structural challenges described in section 8.3.

15.6 Information and communication management Email was the preferred communication tool due to MIMT’s virtual character. A web-based secure project management tool www.projectplace.com based on user accounts with log-in passwords was used as long as an administrative assistant was available on parttime basis, but had to be stopped due to cut-back of administrative expenses, see section 11.3. Bi-monthly newsletters starting in September 2012, distributed by emails inside and outside MIMT, in total about 500 individual addresses gathered through meetings, industry courses, and subscription requests gathered from MIMT’s web site. The frequency of bi-monthly newsletters unfortunately degraded during the autumn of 2013 due to reduction of the administrative support, see section 11.3.

Documentation not meant for general distribution were disclosed on MIMT’s intranet available at MIMT’s public web site with a log-in account and partner-wide passwords. This was typically minutes of meetings from site visits by the Research Council, evaluation reports from the mid-life evaluation and the two reports 2011-2013 authored by International Scientific Advisory Committee 2011-2013, strategic plans and annual work plans.

15.7 How to secure active participation from the partners at different levels of their organization The key to awaken and keep the interest and priority of the user partners is to provide the right answers to their perfectly valid user question: ‘What’s in it for me?’ If this is satisfyingly answered, the active participation is given – at all levels of the user organisation.

The time and cash spent by a user partner on an eight-year partnership in a CRI will inevitably be taken from other urgent matters as product development, marketing, building of customer relations, and from internal R&D. In a rapidly globalised economy we must realise that potential user partners do have an

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alternative t in developing 1:1 relations with R&D&I environments in countries with a cost level at a fraction of what Norway can offer. The CRI has therefore to provide credible arguments that a CRI partnership will be crucial for increasing future competitiveness. This means that in many cases purely scientific achievements will have to take second priority relative to the user partners’ innovation needs. This does not mean aborting scientific efforts, but to accept that the scientific achievements will not necessarily follow the shortest possible time line. MIMT’s host and research partners have therefore always made an effort to ask the right questions in the dialogue with the user partners when exploring the technology gaps. This was on a centre level in focus during the joint brain storming during preparations for renewal of project portfolio in 2009-2010 and when planning the individual multi-user projects 2010-2012. Same attitude must be taken during the cycles of the individual projects. The fruits are listed in the summary of project innovation deliverables (see sections 3 and 8.4).

Department Manager Arne Ulrik Bindingsbø (Statoil) has served as a member of MIMT’s board during seven years.

- The most prominent intention from my side as a board member has been to convey the message from industry to scientists that ‘industry wants technology that solves a problem, not technology looking for a problem to solve’, explains Arne. This translates to a fundamental need for innovation projects with a clearly applied focus where science and industry are closely integrated, not general science. - Although Statoil’s funding contribution has been in the form of cash, a multitude of spin-offs from MIMT have emerged within a spectrum of measurement technologies, having a duration well beyond the life time of MIMT.

15.8 The challenges of mergers and acquisitions Five of MIMT’s eight industry partners have during 2007-2015 been through in all 11 mergers, acquisitions or take-overs. The stability of MIMT’s partner group is therefore remarkable although the changing internal industry partner structures have posed a challenge regarding the preservation and development of MIMT’s contacts with higher management levels and with the IPR management in multi-use projects. This underlines the need for a dynamic overall project management and planning, allowing for project renewal: 1. Norsk Hydro merged with Statoil 2. Smedvig Offshore became Seawell, then Archer through one merger and one acquisition 3. Roxar was acquired by CorrOcean, thereafter by the international corporation Emerson with a wide product portfolio 4. FMC Kongsberg Metering’s owner (FMC

Technologies) acquired a manufacturer of multiphase flow meters (MPM) and became effectively a competitor of MIMT’s other user partner Roxar Flow Measurement AS 5. AANDERAA has been acquired twice and is now a part of the international corporation Xylem with a wide product portfolio 6. MMC Tendos has been acquired by the Norwegian corporation Havyard with a wide product portfolio 7. French CGG became CGGVeritas through a merger, followed by another merger where the resulting MIMT partner Seabed Geosolutions was a joint venture between CGG and international corporation Fugro, being integrated into a correspondingly wider product portfolio

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15.9 The CRI programme: Research-based Innovation or Innovation-based Research? MIMT has throughout its eight years been faithful to its vision: To be a Centre of Research Based Innovation (CRI) where science and industry could meet and collaborate in joint projects in order to create innovation to the benefit for industry and for the society at large. This is illustrated in Figure 15.4.

Also larger companies will benefit from a personbased technology transfer to their internal R&D projects. This can be achieved through a funding model based on an appropriate mix between cash and in-kind contribution A different interpretation of a Centre of Researchbased Innovation (CRI) may seem to have emerged over the three generations of Norwegian CRIs granted so far (2006-2014). This has recently (2015) been phrased as a model where the research partners ‘deliver generic and publishable research that subsequently serves as a tool box for user innovation and activities’ (http://www.forskningsradet.no/prognett-sfi/Nyheter/Forste_samling_for_17_nye_SFIer/1254004847783/ p1224067021169 ), see Figure 15.5 which is an interpretation of how a CRI could be implemented according to this.

Figure 15.4 : MIMT’s structure as a Centre of Researchbased Innovation (CRI) whose main output is innovation created by joint efforts from research and user partners, all inside the CRI (research-based innovation).

This is a structure that lowers the threshold for participation for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as parts of their contribution can be in form of in-kind participation directly in the joint projects. This category of companies plays a more significant part in Norwegian economy than in other nations (Menon publication 13/2009, www.menon.no ): • More than 99% of Norwegian companies have less than 100 employees • This group represents 50% of the value creation • 100 SMEs created 22,000 jobs over a period of 10 years • SMEs are the most important source for innovation and re-structuring

Figure 15.5 : A different implementation of a Centre of Research-based Innovation (CRI) where the research partners create scientific results which subsequently have to be processed outside the CRI in user-internal R&D projects where the actual innovation is created (innovation-based research).

The scientific results created by this CRI implementation need subsequent processing outside the CRI in user-internal R&D projects in order to create innovation, much the same way as scientific results in general need to be digested by industry. Scientific achievements may be easier to quantify and evaluate

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Figure 15.6 : The CRIs granted in 2006, 2010, and 2014 grouped according to type of host organisation (University/University College, Technology Institute, Health Care, NonTechnological Institute, Industry)

through well-established measures as peer-reviewed publications, conference proceedings, theses, etc. than innovation is (ref sections 7.3 and 13.1). These challenges of measuring and quantifying innovation may also diffuse into the evaluation of applications for CRI status. There are indications that the host role has become increasingly dominated by universities and university colleges during the three generations of CRI 2006-2014 as shown by the statistics summarised in Figure 15.6.

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Contact Christian Michelsen Research AS PO. Box 6031 NO-5892 Bergen information@cmr.no Centre Manager Erling Kolltveit erling@cmr.no +47 992 33 201

The Michelsen Centre - final report  

MIMT centre, Christian Michelsen Research, Centre for Research-based Innovation. MIMT contributes to the development of innovative solutions...

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