Annual report 2012 â€œWe have to work with the natural characteristics of the rocks in order to ensure a safe result for CO2 storage over the long term.â€?
Nick Riley, British Geological Survey SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee
SUbsurface CO2 storage- Critical Elements and Superior Strategy
as of 31.12.2012 WP1 Storage (Geo) Helge Hellevang Activity leader
WP2 Fluid flow Ivar Aavatsmark Activity leader
WP3 Sealing Harald Johansen Activity leader
General assembly All partners and Board Chairman
Executive board Kåre R. Vagle Chairman
Centre administration Arvid Nøttvedt Centre Manager Per Aagaard Scientific leader Ivar Aavatsmark Scientific leader Charlotte G. Krafft Centre coordinator
Scientific advisory committee Stefan Bachu Dag Nummedal Claus Otto Nick Riley
WP4 Monitoring Marion Børresen Activity leader
WP5 Marine component Truls Johannessen Activity leader WP6 Operations (INJECT) Magnus Wangen Activity leader WP7 CO2 school Therese K. F. Loe Activity leader
Organization 2 SUCCESS in perspective 4 Scientific leaders summing up 2012 6 Centre partners 10 Collaborating projects 11 Looking for good storage sites 12 Focus on the seabed 14 May fracture, but not leak 18 20 Monitoring CO2 in the subsurface SUCCESSful news 23 New infrastructure and methods 24 Meet Per Aagaard 26 Meet Ingrid Anell 28 Meet Maria Elenius 30 Meet Bahman Bohloli 32 Chairman speaking 34 Key figures 37 Scientific staff 2012 38 SUCCESS Centre publications 2012 42
SUCCESS in perspective
“We need to be able to calculate how much CO2 can be stored and where.”
The FME SUCCESS Centre is unique amongst European national research programmes on Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) relating to fossil fuel use in that it is entirely dedicated to the downstream part of the CCS chain, namely (geological) storage. CCS is the only technology that could mitigate, directly, fossil fuel emissions from combustion on the scale required to meet the atmospheric stabilisation targets of CO2. Such targets are needed in order to address the potential climate change & ocean acidification risks posed by rising levels of atmospheric & oceanic CO2. For CCS to be effective it is the CO2 storage aspect that is the most difficult part of the CCS chain to gain confidence in. Hence FME SUCCESS’ relevance to Norway, which is a maritime country, in the Holarctic/Arctic region (the Arctic is currently warming faster than anywhere else on the planet) with an economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels. Geological CO2 storage aims to isolate the captured CO2 from the atmosphere for timescales of thousands of years. Like a carpenter has to work with the grain of the wood, so we have to work with the natural characteristics of the rocks in order to ensure a safe result for CO2 storage over the long term. The FME SUCCESS Centre is researching into how to harness natural processes & features within the rocks to see if the vast geological potential (identified by oil
and gas operations) that Norway has for storing CO2 can be realized, particularly offshore at great depth beneath the seabed, and onshore in the Arctic. This requires the scientists and engineers who can develop and deploy methods for predicting how CO2 can be effectively trapped underground over long timescales, either by forming new minerals or by dissolving in deep brines held within pores in the rocks. We need to be able to calculate how much CO2 can be stored and where. Can we assess at what rate it can be injected & when? If the CO2 did move out of the intended storage depth what would happen? Could we intervene to stop it leaking out to the seabed or ground surface? What would be the effects of leakage on marine or Arctic life? Can we monitor the CO2 so that we can be sure it is behaving as predicted? How would we do this? These are some of the big challenges that the FME SUCCESS Centre research is addressing, bringing together a well integrated and critical mass of key Norwegian institutes and expertise in the geo- and biological sciences, mathematical modeling, physics, social sciences and engineering. The Centre has also attracted high quality post-graduate researchers from around the world, providing a focus for capacity building and training that will impact far into the future, not only for Norway, but globally. Nick Riley British Geological Survey SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee
Scientific leaders summing up 2012
In 2012, the SUCCESS Centre has been fully operational, with all planned PhD students enrolled and a high scientific output. The centre produced more than 30 conference abstracts and journal publications, and more than 70 conference and workshop contributions.
In 2012, the SUCCESS Centre has been fully operational, with all planned PhD students enrolled and a high scientific output. The centre produced more than 40 conference abstracts and journal publications, and more than 70 conference and workshop contributions. At GHGT in Kyoto, participants from the SUCCESS partners UiO, NGI, IFE, UiB and Uni contributed with altogether ten posters, abstracts and presentations.
CO2 for petroleum EOR, harvesting of the Norwegian petroleum expertise and exploitation of business opportunities related to CO2 storage shall have particular attention.” The SUCCESS scientific advisory committee (SAC) had its first meeting in Bergen the fall of 2012 and advised on research directions. They emphasize the importance of strong international collaboration and building of a formalized research network on CO2 storage with selected international institutions. This will be followed up. The centre increased its focus on outreach in 2012, which has led to more than 20 articles in news and media. Launching of the newsletter «SUCCESSful news» in May 2012 has been welcomed and appreciated by partners in the centre and the expanded SUCCESS network.
Photo from electron microscope shows early formed magnesite (red) being replaced by a more stable carbonate phase (purple).
An important strategy of the centre has been to grow a larger portfolio of collaborative research projects on CO2 storage under the SUCCESS umbrella. In 2012, three new research projects were linked to the centre through collaborative agreements. In 2012, the FME centres SUCCESS and BIGCCS, in cooperation with CLIMIT and the broader research community in Norway, initiated a project to identify key geoscience and petroleum technology gaps related to large scale storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf. An industry-political vision to guide further research on CO2 storage has been developed: “The Norwegian research community will contribute in developing the knowledge and technology necessary to enable large scale storage of CO2 (>10 Mt CO2/ yr) on the Norwegian shelf within 2018. Utilization of
The scientific results include developing of numerical tools for modeling of near well pressure and deformation, and the centre has planned experimental studies of near well flow and reactions. To constrain geochemical simulations of mineral trapping, experimental studies of carbonate mineral nucleation and growth on different mineral substrates have been started. An internal (SUCCESS) report with updated kinetic data of mineral reactions has been made. A study of equation of state for CO2 mixtures (CO2 + N2 + O2 + SO2 + H2S + light hydrocarbons) has been made. Model studies of CO2 dissolution in formation water due to gravity driven convection have focused on the effect of the distribution of horizontal barriers and the capillary zone between the CO2 plume and water. The overall dissolution rate was found to decrease exponentially with the length of permeability barriers and linearly with the opening between them. Although the flow structure is complex, an effective vertical permeability may be computed, and this can be used directly to obtain a first-order approximation to the mass flux into the domain. Inclusion of the capillary zone increased the dissolution rate and reduced the onset time considerably. In three of four cases the onset time was halved and the dissolution rate was doubled.
The importance of the capillary zone was greatest for formations with large absolute permeability and small porosity. This is because the length scale of instability is smallest for these formations. Marine monitoring baselines (the marine carbonate system) and methodology studies, by geochemical and microbiological analyses of the water column, sediment pore water, and directly in the sediment, have been carried out in the North Sea with focus on the Sleipner area. A long term sediment exposure study with high levels of CO2 (up to 20,000 ppm) is currently running, to see if there are any changes in biodiversity and ecosystems. Biomarkers for high levels of CO2 have been identified, and metagenomic analyses are under evaluation as a new monitoring tool. Planning of a new activity in SUCCESS on CO2 as a heat-carrier in geothermal-energy systems, has been done for work in 2013. The SUCCESS Centre has a strong emphasis on industrial relevance, and many of the centre activities are linked directly to critical challenges in CO2 research and commercial field pilots: 1. UNIS CO2 Lab. The regional characterization of the Longyearbyen storage complex has been complemented with interpretation of 2D seismic
data from the northern Barents Sea. Compartmentalization of the Longyearbyen reservoir and seal has been studied by new organic gas sampling techniques as well as residual salt Sr isotope data, as input to a 2nd generation reservoir model (UNIS). 2. SnĂ¸hvit field pilot. Experimental studies on geomechanical response to CO2 injection and fracture related rock physics are ongoing, i.e biot coefficient determinations, friction and creep of both intact rock and on fractures, effect of CO2 on fracture permeability. An internal report on the potential for fault-reactivation and fracturing of TubĂĽen Formation has been made. 3. Sleipner field pilot. New interpretation of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic) data from Utsira Formation (Pseudo 2D-inversion) has resulted in a new geological model based on well resistivity data (3D FE model). A corresponding sensitivity study has improved the accuracy of estimated CO2 saturation in the reservoir. 4. Johansen Formation. An improved reservoir model for Johansen Formation has been developed, focusing on intra-reservoir geometries and other heterogeneities. The sun sets on the fantastic Triassic cliff exposures of Kvalpynten on the southwest coast of EdgeĂ¸ya
Research partners Christian Michelsen Research AS (host institution) Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) Uni Research (Uni) University of Bergen (UiB) University of Oslo (UiO) University Centre of Svalbard (UNIS) Industry partners CGG Veritas ConocoPhillips Lundin Norway AS (new partner in 2012) RWE Dea Norge AS Statoil Petroleum ASA Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani AS
Centre Portfolio 2012 An important strategy of the centre has been to grow a larger portfolio of collaborative research projects on CO2 storage under the SUCCESS umbrella.
In 2012, three new projects joined the Centre Portfolio: • IMPACT, hosted by UniResearch • MATMORA II, hosted by UiB • VIRCOLA, hosted by CMR
The SUCCESS Centre has entered into formal collaboration agreements with several other Norwegian research projects on CO2 storage.
Existing collaborations prior to 2012: • RAMORE, hosted by UiO • MATMORA I, hosted by UiB • INJECT, hosted by IFE • IGeMS CO2, hosted by UiB
Looking for good storage sites Helge Hellevang
“Finding and studying good CO2 storage sites along the Norwegian coast is a major task in the SUCCESS Centre”.
Researcher Helge Hellevang at the University of Oslo is leading a work package that consists of a wide range of researchers with five specified fields of study. Their mission is to chart good CO2 storage sites along the Norwegian coast and in Svalbard. Extensive work is also being conducted to simulate the ‘behaviour’ of CO2 in the reservoir from the time when it is pumped into the storage site until it has been stored for thousands of years. “Looking for storage reservoirs and creating models for them is a key task. Nothing can be stored until we have found suitable sites,” says Hellevang. Statoil has stored CO2 from the Sleipner field in the adjacent Utsira structure since 1996. Utsira has all of the qualities required of a good reservoir. It has high injectivity, porosity and permeability. It also has a 800 m layer of clay on top that protects it from leaks. Finds qualities Few reservoirs meet up to the very high standard of Utsira. Still they can be fully usable. To achieve sufficient storage capacity for the large volumes of CO2 we need to store, it is essential that researchers describe the reservoirs as completely as possible, and find out what qualities CO2 develops during different types of storage, at varying pressures and temperature. This is analyzed in closely-controlled laboratory experiments. “When we inject CO2, it always contains impurities and a different density than pure CO2, and it will flow in a slightly different way in the reservoir. Small differences in density can be critical to the distance flowed by the gas. Studying gas flows under high pressure and high temperatures is particularly important. There is space for more at higher densities (with liquid qualities). It is therefore very important to know when CO2 achieves these qualities,” says Hellevang. Carbonate formation Other reactions also take place during storage that can increase the security of the storage. CO2 dissolved
in water forms carbonic acid, which makes water acid. The acidity releases metals like magnesium, iron and calcium from surrounding rock. Carbonates are formed when the released metals react with CO2. The CO2 is then tied to a solid, the gas no longer is mobile, and the risk of leaks is reduced. The amount of CO2 that can be converted depends on the amount of metal in the minerals, and the researchers still have some work left to find out how quickly these reactions take place. Understanding mineral growth is important in order to predict the effect of CO2 on the reservoir over a period of thousands of years. One to five per cent “One to five per cent of the minerals in a reservoir may usually be converted into carbonates. In reservoirs that slant upwards and are open at the top, leaks will normally arise over time, but if there are enough mineral reactions, these may prevent CO2 from escaping this way,” says Hellevang, who emphasizes that this is something the researchers have not modelled yet. Another field of study in this work package uses an advanced flow rig to, among other things, identify the flow qualities of CO2 through a type of rock. Research is also done on similarities in the processes for geothermal energy and CO2 storage.
Work Package 1 is led by Helge Hellevang at University of Oslo. Several partners in FME SUCCESS are collaborating and working on activities in WP1: Uni Research, Christian Michelsen Research and University of Bergen. Like to know more about the FME SUCCESS activities on this topic? Contact Helge Hellevang at University in Oslo, firstname.lastname@example.org
Focus on the seabed
Monitoring water masses and sediments on the seabed should provide good indications of leakage from subsea CO2 storage sites. The challenge is to describe the baseline prior to the CO2 injection, and this is what Laila Johanne Reigstad and Abdirahman M. Omar are trying to solve with their work.
How are leaks from CO2 storage facilities detected, and how is life on the seabed affected in the event of a leak? This is what University of Bergen researchers Laila Johanne Reigstad, Centre for Geobiology, Department of Earth Science, and Abdirahman M. Omar at Uni Research AS (UNI) and the Geophysical Institute (GFI), are trying to solve with their work. The research project primarily focuses on a large area around the Sleipner field, where both the seabed and the water column must be monitored in order to detect any leaks from the storage site. 40,000 photos The researchers are using an autonomous underwater vehicle to screen large areas of the seabed by moving in a zigzag pattern over the seafloor. It carries a multitude of state-of-the-art equipment to the deep, including high-resolution sonar, multibeam echo sounder,
Sleipner field: Every year since 1996, around one million tons of carbon dioxide have been captured from natural gas production at the Sleipner field in the North Sea, and stored in an aquifer more than 800 metres below the seabed. The reservoir where the CO2 is stored is called the Utsira formation, and contains porous sandstone filled with saline water. About14 million tons of carbon dioxide are now stored in the Utsira formation. The reservoir is continuously monitored by means of various geophysical techniques, including seismic surveys, and it is developed extensive models for calculating how CO2 most probably will move in the reservoir. A seismic survey in 2010 showed that the storage goes as planned. Source: Statoil
digital geo-referenced high-resolution camera and sensors to measure CO2 and methane concentration in water. “We have taken over 40,000 digital photos, which have been compiled into a single high-resolution photo that covers an area of several sq.km. The resolution is so good that it is possible to zoom in on juvenile fish swarming right above the seabed. Such a photo mosaic makes it easy to detect unnatural structures and places with gas leaks from the seabed. We also compare photos from year to year, and can thus directly see whether anything has changed on the seabed, for example if fractures suddenly appear,” says Reigstad. If the analyses reveal abnormalities in the water or seabed, the researchers send a remotely-operated tethered underwater vehicle, an ROV, which can collect samples of seabed sediments, water masses, bottom water and gas bubbles, and check the temperature, pH and other parameters directly in the seabed. Chemical signals In order to be able to identify unnatural changes, there must be a benchmark for comparison. Defining such a baseline for the water column and the seabed is an extensive and time-demanding operation, because many factors need to be taken into consideration when researchers define which environmental variations are normal and which are abnormal. “Baseline studies involve both data gathering and understanding of the processes to monitor. This is a complex task, because there may be great seasonal variations and natural year-to-year changes, while at the same time changes due to daily events, like tides and water circulation, must be taken into consideration,” says Omar. Natural CO2 variations in the North Sea are described in general in the literature, but frequent, area specific background measurements are also required for an accurate baseline. So far, researchers from GFI and UNI
Photo to the left shows the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV ) taking sediment samples of the seafloor. This is typical background/baseline seafloor (brown, flat, without microbial mats). The “white dots” visible on the seabed are crushed seashells, remnants of the enormous shellfish banks that used to cover large seabed areas of the North Sea. Photo to the right shows the ROV taking sediment cores in areas with white microbial mats, a clear evidence of presence of liquids or gas bubbles rising from the seafloor. In this case, the pore water from deeper layers is pushed up to the surface.
have charted the background concentration of CO2 around the Sleipner storage reservoir for one season. New automatic sensors have also been tested that can be installed on rigs for extended periods of time (up to one year) to conduct high-frequency measurements of CO2 and pH every 15 minutes at different depths of the water column. Active micro-organisms “We have begun to understand how to conduct baseline studies of the microbiology on the seabed. It is also easy to observe gas or water leaks from the deep up to the seabed because microbial mats appear to form on the seabed quickly,” says Reigstad. The interdisciplinary research group at the Centre for Geobiology at the University of Bergen has conducted simulations where intact sediment cores from the Sleipner area were exposed to sea water that had been acidified by CO2.
The results indicate that an acidified water layer on the seabed caused by a CO2 leak will change the life of at least 15 cm of the top layer, where most animals live.
Like to know more about the FME SUCCESS activities on this topic? Contact Abdir Omar at Uni Research AS, Bergen, Abdir.email@example.com and/or Laila Johanne Reigstad at Centre for Geobiology, Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Laila.Reigstad@geo.uib.no
May fracture, but not leak Magnus Wangen
“How much can a CO2 reservoir handle before it begins to leak?”
When large amounts of CO2 are injected into a reservoir, the pressure will increase. The rock may begin to fracture if the pressure is great enough. The process is called hydraulic fracturing; a method that is used by the oil industry to increase the throughput in blocked reservoirs. In principle, hydraulic fracturing is also beneficial during CO2 injection because the fractures provide fast paths into the reservoir. Hydraulic fracturing can also create problems. If the fractures become too large and run too high in the rock above the formation, the CO2 may begin to leak. Absolutely necessary In order to store CO2 safely and effectively in permeable formations, it is absolutely necessary to understand hydraulic fracturing. At present, simple models have been developed, but a definitive understanding of the process has yet to be achieved. One of the activities of the SUCCESS project’s work package 6 – Inject is to create simulation models for hydraulic fracturing. “We try to understand when rock fractures and how it fractures. Does it fracture in a way that is beneficial to CO2 storage, or does it fracture in a way that creates holes in the sealing roof and creates leak paths up to the surface? This fracture process has been poorly documented. We are trying to understand pressure responses and to say something more definitive about the process that takes place,” says researcher Magnus Wangen at the Institute for Energy Technology, who heads the work package. Tests in Svalbard Here, the researchers have further developed a geomechanical simulator for hydraulic fracturing. Well tests have also been conducted in the Adventdalen valley in Svalbard, where there are plans for a site to store CO2 from the coal power plant. In collaboration with the University Centre in Svalbard, one is searching for a suitable formation at a depth of about 1,000 m, which could provide a good storage site.
Minerals can cause trouble With large-scale CO2 injection, water must be pumped out of the reservoirs to make space for the gas. In this process, problems may arise that can disrupt the injectivity (or productivity) – the reservoir’s ability to receive the gas (or produce the water). “When pumping up water, the productivity may be ruined due to precipitation of minerals,” says Wangen. The problems arise at the location where the water exits the reservoir. If the minerals plug the pore necks, and reduce or block the water flow that must be released, the water production will stop. Finding solutions to this problem is an important part of Inject’s research. INJECT- Subsurface storage of CO2 - Injection well management during the operational phase. The project addresses the effects of CO2 injection on rock properties, with a special focus on the injectivity. The injectivity is a measure of the “easiness” of injection. The reservoir injectivity is studied with geochemical and geomechanical models. Rock samples from wells drilled at Svalbard are characterized and tested with respect to injectivity. Results from the project will form the basis for development of software tools and for guidelines for CO2 injection. The project is fully integrated in FME SUCCESS as the major part of Work Package 6. The project period is from 2010 – 2014 with a total budget of more than 21 MNOK. The research partners are IFE, NGI, UiO and UiB. Source: Institute for Energy Technology Like to know more about the FME SUCCESS activities on this topic? Contact Magnus Wangen at Institute for Energy Technology, firstname.lastname@example.org
Monitoring CO2 in the subsurface Martha Lien
Marion BĂ¸rresen fme-success
“How does CO2 move in the subsurface, and how can it be measured accurately?” The SUCCESS Centre currently works on developing methods for integrated interpretation of seismic and electromagnetic measurements.
An important challenge when injecting CO2 into the subsurface is to monitor how the CO2 plume moves within the formations. As CO2 is usually stored at very great depths below the seabed, it is not possible to measure it directly. It is therefore necessary to adopt more indirect measurement methods in order to receive information on the development of the CO2 plume. Examples of such indirect measurement methods are use of seismic and electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys, where sound waves and electromagnetic signals that are reflected from the subsurface are collected. The bedrock conditions can be estimated using different methods to interpret these data.
Data from the North Sea and the Barents Sea “Seismic and CSEM data have been collected from both Sleipner in the North Sea and Snøhvit in the Barents Sea. These are the two areas on the Norwegian continental shelf in which CO2 is injected for storage today,” says researcher Martha Lien of Uni Research. She is part of a research group in the SUCCESS Centres work package 4 that works with testing and development of models to identify and simulate CO2 flow in the bedrock. Other partners are Norwegian Geotechnical Institute , Christian Michelsen Research and the University of Bergen.
CO2 estimation results (Uni Research) from using only seismic data (left) and from integrated interpretation of seismic and CSEM data (right). The black curve refers to the true position of the CO2 plume.
Different information sources have traditionally been interpreted separately, but as one data type is only sensitive to certain properties or combinations of properties in the reservoir, such interpretations will seldom be unique. Combining information about several properties of the reservoir at the same time makes it possible to receive more accurate information about how the CO2 plume behaves in the bedrock. “How is this done specifically?” “There are several methods for integrating different data sets. At Uni Research we have developed a method for so-called structure-coupled joint inversion. Here the goal is to identify structures in the bedrock that shares sensitivity to the different data types. Such a structure may be the transition between the CO2-saturated and the water-filled parts of the reservoir.”
Securing greenhouse gases “What will the results of the work be used for in connection with CO2 storage?” “Better methods to monitor CO2 are important during both the injection phase and in the long-term to ensure that the gas is stored safely. During the injection phase, information on where the CO2 plume moves will be key to optimizing the injection strategy and planning the placement of potential injection wells. In the long-term, accurate and reliable information of the CO2 density in the different parts of the reservoir will be important in order to validate safe CO2 storage. This information will also be valuable in order to calibrate the models of the storage formation. Better models will yield better forecasts of how the CO2 plume will develop over time,” says Martha Lien.
Controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveying produces electromagnetic data which can assist traditional seismic data to improve the image of CO2 in a reservoir. Large antennas towed near the seabed emit electromagnetic energy which then propagates into the subsurface and is reflected back to receivers on the seabed. The magnitude and phase of the reflected signal depend on the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Higher resistance in the reservoir than the surrounding structures may correspond to where most of the injected CO2 is located. For example, when the background values for the conductivity of the reservoir and surrounding structures are available, one can model the CSEM response without CO2 in the reservoir, and compare it to the acquired CSEM data to improve their interpretation (i.e. inversion). This can be used to increase the accuracy of the estimates for CO2 concentrations and improve the models for the CO2 plume in the reservoir. Source: Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Like to know more about the FME SUCCESS activities on this topic? Contact Martha Lien at Uni Research, email@example.com and/or Marion Børresen at NGI, Marion.Borresen@ngi.no Receiver being deployed
In May 2012, the SUCCESS Centre distributed its first Newsletter. Our intention is to inform about the activities in our project in a brief and easy-to-read way. The newsletter has been welcomed and appreciated by partners in the centre and the expanded SUCCESS network.
Archive of the newsletters can be found at the website www.fme-success.no. Subscribe to newsletter: contact Centre Coordinator Charlotte Krafft: firstname.lastname@example.org or send an email to email@example.com
In 2012, new infrastructure has been tested and is now up and running, ready to produce results. For example at NGI new geomechanical instruments arrived in the lab; a direct shear box and a carbon fiber triaxial cell to be used in the CT-scanner. The new instrumentation will increase our understanding of fractured rocks. We will learn more about the strength and stiffness of fractures, and how liquids such as water, CO2 or oil affect fractures. The shear box enables testing of the shear strength of fractured rock in contact with fluids, which is relevant for CO2 storage and hydrocarbon production. The new carbon fiber triaxial cell makes possible realtime studies of fracture formation and fluid transport in the rock, along with resistivity and acoustic measurements. This is possible since the cell is made
of carbon fiber, which makes it penetrable by X-rays during the experiments. The instrumentation will be implemented in SUCCESS and will be customized for experiments with fractured rocks in contact with CO2 containing fluids. FME SUCCESS and the University of Oslo (UiO) awarded money for the purchase of experimental equipment to measure flow velocity in rocks. With this flow rig, a Core Lab AFS-200, reactor experiments can be done with the pressure and temperature conditions found in the subsurface where CO2 is to be stored. In addition, one can precisely measure multiphase flow, i.e. flow where both gas and liquid are represented, as well as the pressure in the whole rock sample under test. This equipment extends the CO2 research laboratory at the University and gives us the
Eyvind Aker and Marion BĂ¸rresen at NGI in front of the CT-scanner, in which the direct shear box and a carbon fiber triaxial cell, will be used. Photo to the left shows the carbon fiber triaxial cell. The new instrumentation will be implemented in SUCCESS and customized for experiments with fractured rocks in contact with CO2 containing fluids.
Flow rig (Core Lab AFS-200) and PhD student at NGI/UiO; Javad Naseryan Moghadam
opportunity to conduct research at a high international level. Preliminary testing shows that the device is able to reproduce data from other research, showing that the reactor system is reliable and ready to be used for research.
later monitoring data of various kinds. The workflow is now being tested on reservoir and seal sediments in Svalbard, in connection with the Longyearbyen CO2 Pilot Storage Project.
Several improvements of existing methods and establishment of new methods to produce excellent and accurate results are important in the SUCCESS Centre. One example from 2012 is new methods which Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has developed in conjunction with baseline data and compartmentalization. Sr isotope data from residual salts in core material, used in conjunction with a new method for gas sampling from cores, are the cornerstones for a new concept for the characterization of reservoir and seal sediments in CO2 storage projects. The data are used to define which parts of the sediments that are in fluid communication, and which parts that are separated by tight barriers. In this way, the gas and water data constitute a very important baseline in advance of CO2 injection. The data set will be used to predict the mode of storage infilling, and will in addition be a very important reference system for the interpretation of
Three of the containers developed by IFE to sample gas from core material. The geometry of the containers is adapted to the diametre of the core samples available.
Meet Per Aagaard 26
What is your scientific background, and what is your motivation? PhD University of California, Berkeley, 1979. Main fields of interest are geochemical interactions involving pore fluids, minerals and organic matter with special reference to petroleum geology, hydrogeology and environmental geology. The broad research field over my whole academic carriere has been low temperature geochemistry, focusing on reactions among solid phases and water.
itation. This work has benefitted from being a partner in the EU-RTN Min-Gro network, which is dedicated to mineral nucleation and precipitation kinetics. Work on mineral trapping later formed the base of several new larger CO2 storage activities: seal interaction with CO2 (SSC-Ramore), geological consideration for potential CO2 storage systems (Skagerrak-Kattegat area), and now the national centre for CO2 storage (SUCCESS), where I am the scientific leader for the research institutions in the Oslo area.
My scientific contributions are within adsorption/ ion-exchange, mineral dissolution kinetics and mineral stability as well as binding and degradation of organic contaminants in geo-systems. I have contributed to the understanding of mineral water reactions during burial diagenesis and compaction, specially by combining chemical data on formation waters and studies on authigenic minerals.
How do you think FME SUCCESS can contribute to the development of subsurface CO2 storage? Safe CO2 storage needs solid knowledge and understanding of CO2 behavior in the subsurface. FME SUCCESS can provide sound advice to find and develop good CO2storage projects.
Papers from the Norwegian offshore basins are now classics within diagenetic studies. From the early nineties, my research focus was shifted towards hydrogeology and environmental aspects, especially on contaminant fate and transport. Since 2003, I have worked with CO2 storage, with major emphasis on geochemical reactions, reservoir geology and multi-phase flow.
What are your plans for the future? I will retire in 2014; but besides being an emeritus, my first project is to hike Norway along the eastern border from south to north. Follow me on Facebook! Per Aagaard is currently working as Professor at Department of GeoSciences, University of Oslo.
What issue within CO2 storage is addressed by your work? Geological CO2 storage requires a multi-displinary approach, and it caught my interest rather early as I could combine my background in hydrogeology, diagenesis and shale/mudstone behavior. I started up by research on mineral trapping, with laboratory studies on the kinetics of mineral dissolution carbonate mineral precip-
Meet Ingrid Anell What is your scientific background, and what is your motivation? I have a Master of Geology from the University of Lund where my research was focused on subsidence in riftzones with field-work onshore Iceland. For my doctoral thesis at Copenhagen University I studied large scale sedimentary patterns in reflection seismic data in order to better constrain the uplift history of the north Atlantic margins. This was followed by a post-graduate certificate in geological risk management and climate change at the University of Geneva, after which I accepted a Postdoctoral position at UNIS and returned to geology, but now angled slightly toward implementation towards global problems. My motivation in applying for the research position I now hold, where I work with detailing the regional geological development of the succession of Triassic rocks in which we plan to store CO2 in Longyearbyen, comes from importance of the project itself. The Longyearbyen CO2 Lab is a unique research site, and the project the first of its kind with a goal to create a green showcase community which deals with its emissions of CO2. Hopefully the project can inspire not only other similar projects but also a new way of thinking about handling CO2 emissions locally and each community taking responsibility.
What issue within CO2 storage is addressed by your work? My work relates to understanding the big picture of a specific storage site, in essence to further insight into where the sands and muds were sourced from, what happened to them after deposition, what changes they have been subjected to once deposited. When we know this we can better predict injection potential, storage capacity and migration after injection. How do you think FME SUCCESS can contribute to the development of subsurface CO2 storage? FME SUCCESS contributes to the development of CO2 storage not only through its wide range of research areas, which can target the multiple complexities associated with CO2 storage, and also link them together and collaborate between projects, but also focuses on education, outreach and dissemination of progress and new understanding. This is vital if CO2 storage is to become part of a solution towards lowering our CO2 emissions. What are your plans for the future? Iâ€™ll let fate have a hand in exactly what happens, but certainly the route life is taking me on now is exciting. To work with geology, which I love, to work in research, which I find rewarding, and to work with CO2 storage, which I find meaningful, is a fantastic combination. Ingrid Anell is currently holds a Postdoctoral position at the University Centre in Svalbard in Longyearbyen.
Geologists look out on the sealing shales of the Aghardfjellet Fm halvway up Janusfjellet
Meet Ingrid Anell fme-success 29
Meet Maria Elenius 30
What is your scientific background, and what is your motivation? I am an engineer/applied mathematician in the field of porous media flow. After finishing my Master’s degree in Environmental Engineering, with Master’s Thesis on multiphase flow in porous media, I was already aware of my great enthusiasm for this subject. I used that during 7 years of consulting in contaminated land and groundwater in the global consultancy company WSP. From March 2008, I returned to research driven by my academic curiosity. In 2011, I obtained the degree of PhD at the University of Bergen/Department of Mathematics. I currently work as a Senior Researcher at Uni Research/CIPR. What issue within CO2 storage is addressed by your work? My special interest is on miscible displacement transport, including instability, and on multiphase flow, with applications to environmental science. My focus in the SUCCESS Centre is on the dissolution of CO2 into the formation brine. This is an important mechanism for safe storage and it is largely determined by convective mixing, where CO2 is redistributed in the water column in the shape of fingers.
How do you think FME SUCCESS can contribute to the development of subsurface CO2 storage? FME SUCCESS is Norway’s largest center regarding storage of CO2. With the large number of qualified and motivated participants that meet regularly to exchange ideas, this center contributes greatly to the understanding of critical elements for storage. What are your plans for the future? I am fascinated by the in-depth understanding of small-scale processes and their relation to solutions of environmental problems. At the end of March, I will move to Boston where I will work as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Tufts University. I will work on reactive transport in porous media flow, related to remediation of contaminated land, and though my part will be on modeling, I will work closely with experimentalists. I see this as a great step in my further development. Maria Elenius has recently left her research position at Uni Research in Bergen, for a new Postdoctoral position in Boston, USA.
Figure: Simulated concentration of CO2 in brine in the Utsira (left) and Krechba (right) formations. Red color represents concentration at the solubility limit and the top region has dissolution to the brine from a CO2 plume. The more pronounced finger propagation in the Utsira formation is due to enhanced interaction with the top region, the capillary transition zone, in this formation. fme-success 31
Meet Bahman Bohloli 32
What is your scientific background? Engineering Geology with focus on reservoir geomechanics. Have a PhD from Chalmers University, Gรถteborg in Engineering Geology, a Postdoc from Delft University in the Netherlands on hydraulic fracturing, faculty member of University of Tehran Iran for 7 years, then research work at University of Alberta, Canada before joining Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in summer 2011. Why have you selected this topic, what is your motivation? To understand mechanics behind geological systems for effective utilization of underground resources. No matter if it is oil and gas production, groundwater extraction or CO2 storage, the mechanics is the same. What issue within CO2 storage is addressed by your work? Maximum allowable injection pressure for safe CO2 storage. Currently, I am working on assessment of safe injection pressure. We use well logs, well tests, laboratory tests, geological data and modeling tools to determine fracture pressure which should not be exceeded throughout injection operation.
How do you think FME SUCCESS can contribute to the development of subsurface CO2 storage? FME SUCCESS addresses several key subjects required for secure and economic CO2 injection as well as safe long term storage. Many of these elements are in the research front worldwide. Through educating people, solving scientific challenges, creating new knowledge and initiating professional networks, SUCCESS has been an important forum for developing underground CO2 storage. What are your plans for the future? My intention is to focus on effective geomechanical characterization of reservoir systems for both CO2 storage and hydrocarbon production purposes. This involves challenges in testing methods, field data interpretation and monitoring techniques. Bahman Bohloli is currently working as a senior scientist at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo.
Chairman speaking “2012 is best characterized as a year of operation for the SUCCESS Centre, with all planned research programs running with full strength and all PhD positions filled.”
In 2012, the total number of Master students, PhDs and Post docs in the SUCCESS Centre portfolio was 42, and the count of publications and reports reached a total of 119 since 2010. The collaborative project KMB RAMORE was completed and an end of project seminar was arranged at the University of Oslo. The annual Winter and Fall Scientific seminars were successfully executed, with an increase in attendance from research and industry partners, observers and members of the Scientific Advisory Committee. The collaboration with the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS), which is heading the Longyearbyen CO2 Laboratory JIP, has been strengthened and it is expected that a collaboration agreement will be signed off during spring 2013. GASSNOVA was invited to the Centre in November and has accepted the offer to join the Executive Board with observer status. This will add competence to the SUCCESS Centre and increase communication with national authorities.
situation is good, with a surplus industry funding in the centre. So far the Centre has experienced several changes in the industry partnership, emphasizing the need for continued focus on attracting new industry partners. From the board’s perspective, ensuring scientific scope and production is critical to stay relevant and attractive. The various work groups are delivering good scientific results and the scientific output is expected to increase. Although centre activities are running smoothly, however, the centre is continuously looking for improvements. It is important that the centre is able to link and communicate scientific tasks and results. This will raise the relevance of the centre, internally between research groups and industry partners, as well as with external stakeholders and the public. Kåre Vagle, ConocoPhillips Chairman of SUCCESS Centre’s Executive Board
Ability to manage change will be important going forward. Unfortunately, Store Norske decided to withdraw from the centre from 2013, whereas, fortunately, Lundin came in as a new partner. The current funding
Chairman speaking fme-success 35
First meeting of the SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in Bergen, both SAC and Work Package Management Team. From left: Ivar Aavatsmark ( Scientific- and WP2 leader), Nick Riley (SAC), Claus Otto (SAC), Magnus Wangen (WP6 leader), Dag Nummedal (SAC), Therese K.F. Loe (WP7 leader), Abdirahman Omar (WP5 co-leader), Marion Børresen (WP4 leader), Truls Johannessen (WP5 leader), Bjørn Kvamme (Institute of Physiscs and Technology) and Gudmund Dalsbø (CO2 Project Coordinator at UiO). In front from left: Charlotte Gannefors Krafft (Centre Coordinator), Astri Kvassnes (NIVA), Per Aagaard (Scientific leader) and Helge Hellevang (WP1 leader).
SUCCESS Board members Arne Rokkan, CGG Veritas Kåre Vagle, Conoco Phillips (Chair) Bjørg Andresen, Institute for Energy Technology Eyvind Aker, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Anne Skjærstein, RWE Dea Sveinung Hagen, Statoil Petroleum Malte Jochmann, Store Norske Kulkompani Arne Skauge, Uni CIPR Helge Dahle, University of Bergen
SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee Stefan Bachu, Alberta Research Council. Dag Nummedal, Colorado School of Mines Claus Otto, Shell Nick Riley, British Geological Survey
Aage Stangeland, Research Council of Norway (observer) Niels Peter Christensen ,Gassnova (observer from 2012) Arvid Nøttvedt, Christian Michelsen Research (Centre Manager) 36
SUCCESS Centre Accounts 2012 (all numbers in kNOK) Funding
Research Council of Norway
TOTAL Centre Costs 2012 (all numbers in kNOK) Work package WP 1 - Storage - Geo-characterization and geochemical/ geomechanical response
WP 3 - Sealing properties
WP 4 - Monitoring of reservoir and overburden
WP 5 - The marine component
WP 6 - Operations
WP 7 - CO2 school
Industry Centre contribution, in kind
Centre management, seminars, equipment and running costs
WP 2 - Fluid flow and reservoir modeling. Unstable displacement
Status human resources 2012 Research Scientists: 40 Guest Research Scientists: 2 PhD students funded by the Centre and associated projects: 20 Post doctorates funded by the Centre and associated projects: 8 Master students: 14 SUCCESS Centre results 2012 (incl INJECT) Journal papers: 22 Conference proceedings and abstracts: 19 Presentation at conferences, workshops and seminars: 76 Technical reports: 7 Book contributions: 1 In media and popular science: 23 Seminars and workshops: 4
PhD students in the Centre Portfolio Name
Affiliation and funding
Geological heterogeneities on CO2 storage in sandstone reservoirs
Tore Ingvald Bjørnarå
NGI/Univ of Durham/ INJECT
Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical modeling
Hilde Kristine Hvidevold
Parameter estimation in models tailored to simulate CO2 seeps to marine waters
Modeling of CO2 leakage
Homogenization of vertically averaged models
Elsa du Plessis
Mathemical modeling of flow with hysteresis
Molecular simulation studies of reactions between minerals and CO2
Sand injection at Utsira
Erlend Morisbak Jarsve
Oligocene succession in the North Sea area
Screening potential for CO2 storage
CO2 Seal, WP 3,6 in SUCCESS
Screening potential for CO2 storage
Javad Naseryan Moghadam
Effects of Injected CO2
The impact of geological heterogeneity on CO2 sequestration
Kinetics of hydrate formation during CO2 storage
Potential Triassic and Jurassic CO2 storage reservoirs in the SkagerrakKattegat
Impact of faults on the mechanical and petrophysical properties of sandstone reservoirs
Geologic CO2 storage - Understanding of uncertainties in modeling of injectivity
Master students Centre Portfolio Name
Leaky faults in the Barents Sea
Leaky faults at Haltenbanken
Fluid flow conduits at the Utsira formation
Mathematical modeling of thermal interaction between CO2 and brine-filled formation at Utsira
Petrophysical properties of deformed sandstone reservoirs
Are Gabriel HĂ¸yland
New techniques in the flow simulator MRST
Compressibility in vertically averaged models
Mathematical modeling of flow through discontinuous media
Impacts of CO2 exposure on microbial communities in deep-sea sediments, Experiments benthic chamber, marine monitoring
Experimental Precipitation of Carbonate Minerals: Effect of pH, Supersaturation and Substrate.
Seismic chimney detection in the Barents Sea
Sand geometries in the Utsira Formation
Mathematical modeling of CO2 flow
Rock physics diagnostics for quantitative seismic interpretation
Postdoctoral reseachers in the Centre Portfolio Name
Bahman Bohloli (parts of 2012)
Jung Chan Choi
Therese K. F. Loe
Key researchers Researcher
Main research area
Kjetil K.M. Hals
Electromagnetic measure- firstname.lastname@example.org ment technology
Visualization and computional science
Geology, geothermal energy
Geology, Centre Manager
Sample characterisation, light microscopy, X-ray, electron microscopy
Numerical modeling of flow, hydraulic fracturing
Numerical modeling of flow
High pressure multiphase systems design
Anne Gunn Rike
Rock physics and micro seismicity
EM modelling and inversion
Rock mechanical testing
Coupled flow and geomechanical reservoir simulations and EM modelling
Rock mechanical testing/ email@example.com X-ray CT image processing
Marine biology - soft bottom ecosystem functioning
Astri Kvasness Sweetman
Coupled physical-biochemical marine systems
Geologist at Store Norske, firstname.lastname@example.org Longyearbyen CO2 pilot
Marine carbon cycle, moni- truls.johannessen@gfi. toring uib.no
Leader of CGB; geology, geophysics, cruise leader
Petroleums- og prosessteknologi
EM (+seismic) inversion
Computational modeling of multiphase flow problems
EM (+seismic) modelling and inversion
UNI Research AS
Abdirahman M. Omar
Marine carbon cycle, moni- email@example.com toring
Arctic Petroleum Geology
Journal publications Alemu, B.L., Aker, E., Soldal, M., Johnsen, O., and Aagaard, P. (2012). Effect of sub-core scale heterogeneities on acoustic and electrical properties of a reservoir rock: A CO2 flooding experiment of brine saturated sandstone in a computed tomography scanner. Geophys. Prosp. Chejara, A., Kvamme, B.,Vafaei, M. T., Jemai, K. (2012). Theoretical studies of Methane Hydrate Dissociation in porous media using RetrasoCodeBright simulator, 2012, Energy Procedia, Energy Procedia, Volume 18, issue, p. 1533-1540. Gasda, S.E., H.M. Nilsen, H.K. Dahle and W.G. Gray (2012). Effective models for CO2 migration in geological systems with varying topography, Water Resources Research, Gasda, S.E., J.M. Nordbotten and M.A. Celia (2012). Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 9: 72-84. Gasda, S.E., E. du Plessis, and H. K. Dahle (2012). Upscaled models for modeling CO2 injection and migration in geological systems, Radon Series on Computational and Applied Mathematics:Simulation of Flow in Porous Media, De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany. Herrera, P.A., S.E. Gasda, H.K. Dahle, W.G. Gray (2012). Modeling CO2 migration in aquifers with variable thickness using the vertical equilibrium approximation, International Journal of Numerical Analysis & Modeling,2012, 9(3): 745-776.
Hvidevold H.K., Alendal G., Johannessen T., and Mannseth T. (2012). Assessing model parameter uncertainties for rising velocity of CO2 droplets through experimental design, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 11, 2012, 283–289 Håvelsrud O.E., Haverkamp T.H.A., Kristensen T., Jacobsen, K.S., Rike A.G. (2012). Metagenomic and geochemical characterization of pockmarked sediments overlaying the Troll petroleum reservoir in the North Sea.BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:203. Ji, X. and Zhu C. A (2012). SAFT Equation of State for the Quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2012, 91, 40-59. Ji, X. and Zhu C. (2012). Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012, dx.doi.org/10.1021/es301292n Kvamme, B., Kuznetsova T., Kivelæ P-H (2012). Adsorption of water and carbon dioxide on Hematite and consequences for possible hydrate formation, PCCP, Apr 2012, 7;14(13):4410-24 Liu, F., Lu, P., Griffith, C., Hedges, S.W., Soong, Y, Hellevang, H., Zhu, C. (2012). CO2-brine-caprock interaction: Reactivity experiments on Eau Claire shale and a review of relevant literature. 2012, IJGGC 7, 153-167. Nordbotten, J.M. Flemisch B., Gasda S.E., Nilsen H.M., Fan Y., Pickup, G.E. Wiese B.,.Celia M.A, Dahle H.KEigestad., G.T., Pruess K. (2012). Uncertainties in simulation of CO2 storage, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012, 9:234-242, 2012.
Ogata, K., Senger, K., Braathen, A., Tveranger, J. and Olaussen, S. (2012). The importance of natural fractures in a tight reservoir for potential CO2 storage: case study of the upper Triassic to middle Jurassic Kapp Toscana Group (Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway) Advances in the Study of Fractured Reservoirs, Geological Society of London Special Publication, 2012,. Doi: 10.1144/SP374.9. Pham, V.T.H., Lu, P., Aagaard, P., Zhu, C., Hellevang, H. (2012). On the potential of CO2-water-rock interactions for CO2 storage: A modified kinetics model. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012, 5 (4), 1002-1015.
stability in geological formations, Molecular Physics, 2012, Volume 110, Issue 11-12, 1097-1106 Van Cuong, P.., Kvamme B., Kuznetsova T., Jensen B. (2012). The Impact of Short-Range Force Field Parameters and Temperature Effect On Selective Adsorption of Water and CO2 On Calcite, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 2012, Volume 6, 301-309 Wangen, M. (2012). Stability and width of reaction fronts in 3-D porous media, Journal of Porous Media, 15 (2012): 1093-1103.
Pham, V.T.H., Aagaard, P., Hellevang, H. (2012). On the potential for CO2 mineral storage in continental flood basalts â€“ PHREEQC batch- and 1D diffusion-reaction simulations. Geochem. Trans,2012,. 13, 12pp.
Conference abstracts and proceedings Baig, I., Aagaard, P., Sassier, C., et al. (2012). Potential Triassic and Jurassic CO2 storage reservoirs in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area. GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 18-22.
Pham, V.T.H., Aagaard, P., Hellevang, H. (2012). In press. On the potential for CO2 storage in continental flood basalts. Geochemical Transactions,2012.
Bergmo, P.E.S., Polak, S., Aagaard, P., et al. (2012). Evaluation of CO2 storage potential in Skagerrak. GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 18-22.
Tveit, Svenn and Aavatsmark, Ivar (2012). Errors in the upstream mobility scheme for countercurrent twophase flow in heterogeneous media, Computational Geosciences, 16:809-825, 2012.
Bohloli B., Grande L., Aker E. and Skurtveit E. (2012). Impact of tensile strength anisotropy on fracturing pressure of Svalbard sandstone and shale cap rocks. Submitted to the EAGE 3rd International Conference on Fault and Top Seals - From Characterization to Modelling, Montpellier, France.
Vafaei, M.T., Kvamme, B., Chejara, A., Jemai, K. (2012). Non-equilibrium modeling of hydrate dynamics in reservoir, Energy & Fuels, 2012,26 (6), pp 3564â€“3576 Van Cuong, P., Kvamme, B. Kuznetsova, T., Jensen, B. (2012). Molecular dynamics study of calcite and temperature effect on CO2 transport and adsorption
Elenius, M.T., and Gasda, S.E. (2012). Impact of tight horizontal layers on dissolutiontrapping in geological carbon storage, Proceedings of XIX International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Illinois, USA.
Elenius, M.T., Nordbotten, J.M. & Kalisch, H., (2012). Efficiency of dissolution trapping ingeological carbon storage, in Proceedings of 13th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery(ECMOR XIII). Gasda, S.E., H.M. Nilsen, H.K. Dahle and W.G. Gray (2012). Effective models for CO2 migration in geological systems with varying topography, in Proceedings of XIX International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Illinois, USA. Gasda, S.E., H.M. Nilsen, and H.K. Dahle (2012). Upscaled models for CO2 migration in Geological formations with structural heterogeneity, in Proceedings of ECMOR XIII, Biarritz,France. Gasda, S.E., M.A. Celia, J. Wang, and A. Duguid, (2012). Effective wellbore permeability estimates from vertical interference testing of existing wells, in Proceedings of the 11th Int. Conf. on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-11), Kyoto, Japan, 19-22 Nov, 2012. Haugen, H.A., Aagaard, P., et al. (2012). Infrastructure for CCS in the Skagerrak/Kattegat region, Southern Scandinavia: A feasibility study. GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 18-22. Hellevang, H., Liu, Y., Lu, P., Zhu, C. and Aagaard, P. (2012). On uncertainties in modeling CO2-brine-caprock interactions. GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 18-22.
Håvelsrud O.E., Haverkamp T.H.A., Kristensen T., Jacobsen, K.S., Rike A.G. (2012). Metagenomics in CO2 monitoring. GHGT-11, 18-22 November 2012, Kyoto, Japan. Ji, X. and Zhu, C. 2012. A SAFT Equation of State for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system and applications for CO2H2S transportation and geological storage. GHGT-11, Kyoto, JP. Nov. 18-22 Johnsen Ø., Alemu B., Aker E., Soldal M. (2012). Rock Physical Properties and CT Imaging of CO2-brine Displacement in Reservoir Sandstone. 74th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2012. Copenhagen, Denmark. Mykkeltvedt, T.S., Aavatsmark I. and Tveit, S. (2012). Errors in the upstream mobility scheme for countercurrent two-phase flow with discontinuous permeabilities, in Proceedings of ECMOR XIII, Biarritz, France. Park J., Fawad M., Viken I., Aker E. and Bjørnarå T.I. (2012). CSEM sensitivity study for Sleipner CO2-injection reservoir monitoring, GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan Sundal, A., Nystuen, J.P., Dypvik, H., Miri, R. and Aagaard, P. (2012). Effects of geological heterogeneity on CO2 distribution and migration – A case study from the Johansen Formation, Norway. GHGT-11, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 18-22. Sævik, P., Berre, I., Jakobsen, M., and Lien, M. (2012). Electrical conductivity of fractured media: A com-
putational study of the self-consistent method. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2012, p. 1-5. SEG 82nd annual meeting. 4-9 November 2012, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.Reports Vafaei, M. T., Kvamme, B., Chejara, A., Jemai, K. (2012). Simulation of Hydrate Dynamics in Reservoirs, Proceedings of the International Petroleum Technology Conference, 7-9 February Bangkok, Thailand, DOI: 10.2523/14609-MS Wangen, M. and N. Simon, N. (2012).Modelling hydraulic-fracturing in 2D, AAPG HEDBERG CONFERENCE, Petroleum Systems: Modelling the Past, Planning the Future 1-5 October 2012, Nice, France Reports Bjørnarå, T.I. and Aker E. (2012). COMSOL model vertically averaged models. NGI report no. 20081351-0028-R. Bohloli B. and Børresen M. (2012). Interpretation of CO2 injection data from the Snøhvit storage site. NGI report no. 20120265-01-R.
pilot – Based on core and log data in DH1, DH2 and DH4 Wells. NGI Report no. 20081352-00-25-R. Hals K. M. D. (2012). Modeling of Caprock Fracturing Caused by Large-Scale Carbon Dioxide Injection Hellevang, H. (2012). An isothermal flash algorithm for hydrocarbon and CO2 + N2 mixtures (non-polar nonassociating compounds). Kocbach J and Folgero, K. (2012). Uncertainty analysis for CSEM instrumentation related to detection of CO2 in the subsurface. SUCCESS Report number SUCCESS-RR-C-12-WP4-CMR Book Aker E., Skurtveit E., Grande L., Cuisiat F., Johnsen Ø., Soldal M., Bohloli B. (2012). Experimental methods for characterization of cap rock properties for CO2 storage. In: Laloui L. and Ferrari A. (Eds.) (2012). Multiphysical testing of soils and shales. SSGG, p. 303-308.
Fawad M. and Johnsen Ø. (2012). Literature review on resistivity measurements in CO2 saturation experiments. NGI report no. 20110786-00-2-R. Grande l., Bohloli B., Cuisiat F. (2012). Geomechanical characterization of the cap rock shale in the LYB CO2
Photos and illustrations Marit Hommedal University of Oslo Ingrid Anell, UNIS CO2 Lab Alvar Braathen, UNIS CO2 Lab Per Gunnar Lunde, Christian Michelsen Research AS Laila Johanne Reigstad, Centre for GeoBiology, University of Bergen Uni Research Geir Mogen / EMGS Ronny Sets책s, Geoforskning.no Harald Johansen, Institute for Energy Technology Maria Elenius, Uni Research AS Charlotte Gannefors Krafft, Christian Michelsen Research AS Idea, layout/design Gunn Janne Myrseth and Per Gunnar Lunde, CMR Editor Charlotte Gannefors Krafft
Contact info Arvid NĂ¸ttvedt, Centre Manager Per Aagaard , Scientific leader Ivar Aavatsmark, Scientific leader Charlotte Gannefors Krafft, Centre Coordinator
Postal Address CEER-SUCCESS Christian Michelsen Research AS P.O. Box 6031 NO-5892 Bergen, Norway Visiting Address Christian Michelsen Research AS Fantoftvegen 38 Bergen, Norway firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.fme-success.no