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SUbsurface CO2 storage - Critical Elements and Superior Strategy

Annual report 2014


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5 Partners 6 New Centre structure 7 Chair speaking 9

Welcome

10 Salt, water films and CO 14 Tracing subsea CO leakage 16 PhD Reza Alikarami 20 PhD Trine Mykkeltvedt 21 PhD Kristian Fossum 22 PhD Svenn Tveit 23 PhD Anja Sundal 24 PhD Elin Skurtveit 25 Large Scale Storage on the Norwegian Shelf 26 Centre portfolio 2014 28 New Projects 29 Infrastructure 30 Field pilots 31 Snøhvit activities 32 Communication and outreach 34 National and international collaboration 36 WP management team 40 Key figures 44 Board and scientific advisors 45 SUCCESS 2014 in a nutshell -summing up the first newly structured year  2

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“The FME SUCCESS Centre on CO2 storage addresses an important part of the CCS value chain. Focusing on understanding the behavior of CO2 reservoirs, flow and seal, the Centre contributes to unlocking the significant potential for subsurface storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf. “ Arvid Nøttvedt Centre Manager

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Curbing CO2 emissions is becoming equally more important as well as difficult every year. It is obvious, for the time being, that the world lacks adequate tools and political will to curb emissions. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as a key tool to mitigate fossil fuel emissions on a scale to meet international atmospheric CO2 stabilization targets. Regrettably, deployment of CCS on a global scale is severely hampered by low CO2 quote prices. Over the past ten years, however, several new demonstration projects have been launched, demonstrating the capabilities of CCS, particularly in combination with utilization of CO2 for EOR. The FME SUCCESS Centre on CO2 storage addresses an important part of the CCS value chain. Focusing on understanding the behavior of CO2 reservoirs, flow and seal, the Centre contributes to unlocking the significant potential for subsurface storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf. The (Norwegian) North Sea is recognized as a key to establishing an effective CCS value chain and transformation to low-carbon economy in Europe says many international reports. A collaborative effort by the Norwegian research community on CO2 storage, including the two FMEs on CCS, SUCCESS and BIGCCS, addresses this issue, through the separate project Large-scale storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf (see page 26).

Looking forward, the FME SUCCESS Centre has entered into the final three-year period of the grant. For the final period, the Centre has adopted a new Centre structure reflecting the CO2 storage value chain. The new structure includes three wok packages: WP1: reservoir, WP2: Containment and WP3: Monitoring, as well as cross-collaborative efforts on the Snøhvit and Sleipner industrial field pilots (see page 31). Accordingly, the Centre focus has turned increasingly applied and the board of directors and Centre management have entertained in discussions on a set of key, final deliverables, summarizing the main results and findings of the research activities in the Centre portfolio (see address by SUCCESS Chair of board of directors). These deliverables will be promoted and elaborated in preparatory workshops and seminars during 2015, before being fully incorporated into the Centre workplan for 2016. Arvid Nøttvedt, Christian Michelsen Research SUCCESS Centre Manager

The research performed by the FME SUCCESS Centre provides increased insight into small-scale processes related to fluid-mineral-rock reactions kinetics, fluid flow behavior and geomechanical deformation, as well as to large-scale reservoir capacity, containment and monitoring issues. The publication record of the Centre is excellent and the expertise in the Centre is internationally well recognized (see page 44). fme-success.no

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Industry partners CGG * ConocoPhillips* DEA Norge AS Lundin Norway AS* Statoil Petroleum ASA Research partners Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) UniResearch (Uni) University of Bergen (UiB) University of Oslo (UiO) University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)

* partner left the consortium from 01.01.2015

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The FME SUCCESS response to the midterm evaluation in 2013 led to a strategy process resulting in an altered structure and organization of the Centre. A reorganization of the work package structure and a decreased number of work packages have been done as part of the preparation of a plan for the final three-year period. This reflects an increased focus on applied science and research and will encourage further integration and collaboration in the SUCCESS Centre. Activities in the Centre is compiled in three new Work Packages : Work Package 1: Reservoir Work Package 2: Containment Work Package 3: Monitoring

WP leaders Joonsang Park (NGI), Sarah Gasda (Uni) and Helge Hellevang (UiO)

Work Package Management team The new Work Package Team will be an important management group. The WP Team will consist of the three appointed WP leaders (from UiO, Uni Research and NGI), Centre Manager and two scientific leaders, and representatives from institutions not having WP leaders (IFE, NIVA, UiB, UNIS), all contact persons are presented in our report from page 40 to 44. This will ensure the communication and flow of information to all partners in the Centre. Hence, all research partners in the SUCCESS Centre will be represented at Work Package Team Meetings. fme-success.no

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When FME SUCCESS was established, one of the main goals for the Centre was to be able to; “….make the best plans for storage operations and abandonment/surveillance, research and development is required within a range of areas. The Centre will involve fundamental, cross-disciplinary research on a variety of scale”. From the very beginning of the Centre this statement has been, and still is, the focus area of the SUCCESS Board and the Centre management. As we are turning our fifth year, the Centre produces high quality results and good research is ongoing; on both large and small scale. Entering into the final three-year period it is now time to increase our focus also on the final products through two main goals. The first goal is to secure that the results of fundamental scientific research is followed up with technological research, and transferred into practical working methodology. The Centre will present the achievements linked and integrated, so that the research and industry partners can feel proud to partake in this development. Secondly, the Centre partners will be able to return to their organizations with results and research that are useful for their ongoing and future activities.

FME SUCCESS will through inter-disciplinary approach, continue to strengthen the link between fundamental research and applications these final years. The Centre will increase the focus on the two main points previously described, to enable high quality results presented in a package with the main deliveries to our sponsors, and at the same time strengthen the position for the research institutions involved. According to the IEA, the world must capture and store huge amounts of CO2 to limit the rise in global temperature to two degrees. Our aim is that SUCCESS Centre final deliverables will make a difference in reducing the cost of carbon storage on national and global terms, and state: That by common effort and the centers cross-disciplinary knowledge we reached our main goals, and contribute to new commercial opportunities and solutions. Anne Skjærstein, DEA Norge Chair of the SUCCESS Board

In 2014, a significant part of the activity was still fundamental research and several of the PhD students in the Centre portfolio have finalized their work this year (on which you can read more of in pages 20-25). They will further contribute by bringing their knowledge on CO2 storage with them to new employers in the industry, academia or government.

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Following the advice of the midterm evaluation, the SUCCESS Centre decided to reorganize from seven to three work packages. 2014 has been the first year with this new structure. The aim of the SUCCESS Centre is to acquire sufficient knowledge for subsurface CO2 storage in a secure and lasting way. Elements are finding ways of determining the best storage locations, studying CO2 behavior in the storage, and ensuring that we have ways of detecting any leaks out of the reservoir and assessing potential environmental impacts. In 2014, researchers in Work package 1: Reservoir have studied near-well geochemical reactions, conducting experiments where dry CO2 was injected into salt formation water. Results show the formation of salt plugs, and this process can be modeled using a combination of methods developed in SUCCESS. Salt formation can reduce the injectivity of the reservoir, particularly under conditions of high salinity, like at the Snøhvit field. Furthermore, in-depth studies have been carried out at the Johansen and Sognefjord formations to see what effects heterogeneities in reservoirs may have on CO2 storage. This is relevant to improve our simulations of CO2 movement, of how the CO2 dissolves in formation water, and of mineralization. To better understand the risk of leaks we have completed seal-bypass analyses, as these systems show how liquids / fluids migrate to the surface. Risk analysis have also been performed within a mathematical framework 10

Salt forming at the vapor-side of the formation water – vapor interface and growing into the pore space, eventually leading to a complete clogging of the flow.

for representation of uncertainty, and implemented in a simplified-physics numerical model. The method produces statistics of outputs, including sensitivities with respect to input uncertainties in physical parameters. In addition, we have worked with phase equilibria and properties of impure CO2 and the behavior of greenhouse gases affected by hydrocarbons. This can be useful if the CO2 is injected into a former oil or gas field, or to increase the recovery rate of oil mixtures. The results of the work are also valuable with regard to future use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. fme-success.no


In Work package 2: Containment we have performed a mechanical analysis of sealing materials at the LYB-pilot. The results suggest that a generally fractured rock with high resistance towards stress and stretch is unlikely to form new cracks during a CO2 injection. On the other hand, existing cracks will be a primary way of increasing the injectivity in this type of rock. Furthermore, we have completed tests and geochemical analyses on samples from the LYB reservoir. These show that there has been very little vertical migration on geological timescales. We therefore find it unlikely that there will be any CO2 migration during injection in this reservoir. The methodology can be used to assess the risk of vertical migration in future reservoirs. For the Sleipner pilot, we have carried out complex rheology modeling in hydromechanical simulations showing that dense CO2 in interaction with shale as a cap rock in the Utsira Sand may have led to formation of the “chimneys” clearly seen on 4D seismic from the field. Validation of the Utsira data is ongoing. A resent analysis of shallow seismic data from a small sector of the “Greater Sleipner” area revealed an extensive network of canals, fractures and gas pockets in the seal of the Utsira Sand. We are now developing a flow model based on the observations. This will enable us to evaluate the seal integrity of the entire Utsira.

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Non-linear rheology results in self-propagating high-porosity chimneys.

Within Work package 3: Monitoring, we have initiated to combine two monitoring aspects of geophysics and the marine component. Further work on this cross-institutional activity (Development of reference geo-models and leakage scenarios) will hopefully result in a unique monitoring research platform for the CCS society. In the geophysical aspect, we have jointly interpreted gravitational and CSEM data from the Sleipner field in an attempt to estimate the actual total thickness (~ 20 m) and in situ resistivity (~ 22 ohm-m) of the CO2 plume at the time of the CSEM data collection (i.e. 2008). Through this work, we 11


CCS-related geological and environmental systems to monitor (what, when, where and how), including leakage scenarios.

can improve surveillance methods for storage reservoirs. This will be a complementary tool to existing seismic methods. In addition, a fast CSEM 3D forward modelling tool has been developed, where only the required parts of a full 3D space are updated and efficiently simulated, e.g. for inversion. In the marine component aspect, we have observed gas bubbles rising from the seabed at several of the abandoned wells in the Sleipner area over the past years. Samples have been analyzed and the results will be presented in an upcoming article. A study of annual and interannual variations of carbon cycling parameters is made for Arctic as well as temperate Norwegian fjords, showing that the influence of freshwater dilution dominates over seasonal variations regarding salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity. Details of biogeochemical transfer of matter at the sediment–water boundary have been modelled by a one-dimensional vertical transport-reaction model. Results confirm that seasonality in production and decay of organic matter significantly affect the redox conditions and carbon species distributions and fluxes. 12

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- Experiment Investigation of the Water Films Connectivity during CO2 Injection into Saline Aquifers

Field observation, in several cases, shows extra pressure build-up and injectivity decline following the CO2 injection. This has been attributed partly to salt precipitation. Considering the mutual solubility of brine and CO2, it is very often that, after injection of CO2, swept region is dried and dissolved salt is precipitated and clog the porous media. The physics of salt formation is rather simple and includes formation of an evaporating front and initiating phase change.

camera are used to gather the information. It was desired to see pore level behaviour of water films and also if the salt grows in the gas phase.

Many theoretical works have been accomplished to predict location and the amount of the precipitated salt and consequence effects on the injectivity. However, less attention is given to the characteristic and behaviour of the evaporation front. In the available models, the front is frequently treated stagnant with respect to capillary feeding. Nevertheless, considerable injectivity reduction observed in the field could better be explained via a feeding front. In other words, it is hypothesized that brine could continuously be transported to the evaporation front via a capillary continous water film over the grains. These stable water films act like a conduit and continuously feed the evaporating front. To study the stability of these water films, UiO in collaboration with IFE, performed some experiments on micro scale to get supporting evidences for evaluating the hypothesis. In these types of experiments a synthetic porous medium is etched on silicon wafer or glass. The size of the chip is around 10cm×5cm. There are some types of microchips that can handle very high pressures up to 70 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. But at current stage we tested only on atmospheric conditions. An Isco-pump with very high injection rate precision (0.001 cc/sec), a microscope and a normal 14

Fig 1. Image shows (A) distribution of water (red) and CO2 (colorless) in a waterwet microchip, (B) formation of water films around the CO2 invaded pores and (C) formation of large salt crystals in both water and gas phase. fme-success.no


Figure 1 shows one of the experiments. The microchip had 15% porosity and was initially saturated with brine. The injection rate was set to 5 cc/min. The figure shows that relatively high residual water saturation was achieved after CO2 breakthrough. This percolation experiment also shows that water can be present in different forms such as: water films, water bridges, water domes and water droplets (Figure 1B). Over time, the trapped water evaporates into the CO2 phase and dissolved salts will precipitate out of solution. We have observed formation of salt crystals (on the order of the pore size) in the trapped water phase and especially at water-CO2 interface. Figure 1C shows formation of salt crystals in the gas phase. However, the amount is much lower than the salt which is formed in the water phase. This implies that water films around the grain could also be an important contributor to the salt precipitation. Salt formation in the CO2 phase is of great importance since the formed salt in the gas phase directly impacts the gas flow and therefore reduces the CO2 injectivity into the reservoir. These results provide insight into the dynamic of salt precipitation and provide a better understanding of water-CO2 distribution at pore scale.

“Salt formation in the CO2 phase is of great importance since the formed salt in the gas phase directly impacts the gas flow and therefore reduces the CO2 injectivity into the reservoir.” fme-success.no

Rohaldin Miri is currently PhD Research Fellow, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, KPN INJECT. His thesis: Geologic CO2 storage: Understanding of Uncertainties in Modeling of Injectivity Considering Near Wellbore Phenomenon. His background is a MSc in engineering from University of Calgary and MSc from Petroleum University of Technology, Teheran. Reinier van Noort started as a postdoc at IFE in 2014 and performs experimental research on CO2–shale interaction within the SUCCESS project. He graduated from Utrecht University in 2003 and continued at Utrecht with a PhD at the High Pressure and Temperature Laboratory, focusing on the properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries during compaction by pressure solution creep. Beyene Girma Haile is a PhD research fellow at UiO. His research interest are in the category of inorganic geochemistry and its applications to petroleum geology. He is particularly focused on diagenesis in sedimentary systems, shale fracture networks and CO2 mineral storage. His background is one MSc in Geoscience and one MSc in Chemistry from the University of Oslo. Helge Hellevang and Per Aagaard have also partaken in this work and are are presented on page 40.

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Researchers have developed a new method for tracing subsea CO2 seepage in the water column. The technique can be used to monitor subsea CO2 sequestration projects. A research team at the University of Bergen, UNI Research AS and the Bjerknes Centre, has developed a monitoring technique which is thought to be sensitive enough to detect if a fraction of the CO2 stored in the Sleipner subsea storage complex in the North Sea should leak out into the water column and dilute in an area of several thousand square meters.

The new study addresses the immense scientific and technological challenge of how to detect and quantify the effect of a leak occurring from a CO2 source under the seabed into the seawater. Helle Augdal Botnen is Phd candidate at Geophysical Instiute, University of Bergen, in the group of biogeochemistry, and is supervised by Abdirahman Omar (Uni). Truls Johannessen is Helle Botnens supervisor at GFI/UiB, and is presented in page 42. Abdirahman Omar is currently a researcher at Uni Research Climate and Biogeochemistry. His research topics are Subsea CO2 storage, ocean acidification and Ocean-atmospheric gas exchange. In SUCCESS, he works on the Marine Component in WorkPackage 3: Monitoring.

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This is difficult because the CO2 spreads rapidly by dissolution, dilution and currents in the ocean especially in areas with deeper water column and / or greater water movements and mixing. To circumvent these difficulties, the study breaks with the commonly used “concentration based monitoring�; a technique in which one monitors seawater CO2 gas concentration hoping that leakage will produce values that are well above natural background variations. fme-success.no


Unfortunately, however, the signal expected from leakage is very often minute compared to natural background variations due to additional natural and/or anthropogenic processes. Therefore, the new study uses a “process-based monitoring”; a technique where one isolates the signal of subsea CO2 seepage by applying knowledge of (and removing the effect of) all other processes that influence seawater CO2 content of the study area. The first study describing this technique, led by PhD student Helle Botnen, has recently been published in the journal Limnology and Oceanography. The study is innovative in several respects.

“...the new study uses a “processbased monitoring”; a technique where one isolates the signal of subsea CO2 seepage by applying knowledge of (and removing the effect of) all other processes that influence seawater CO2 content of the study area.” fme-success.no

Firstly, instead of performing an expensive in situ CO2 leakage experiment, which might have raised ethical questions, this study used field data from around two CO2-rich subsea hydrothermal vents and a seepage-free reference station, all in the Norwegian Sea near the Jan Mayen Island (Figure 1a). For both types of sites, we have calculated a theoretical background carbon concentration in which all natural variations have been estimated from other indicators and removed so that the remaining variability is ascribed solely to CO2 seepage. By subtracting the “theoretical background concentration” for the reference location from that of the leaking, i.e. a venting location, we have been able to estimate the excess carbon which has been added to the seawater by the subsea hydrothermal vents.

Figure 1a): 3-dimensional sketch of the location of the hydrothermal vents, the reference station, and sampling depths during the measurement campaign, July-Aug 2012. Figure 1b): The excess DIC input from subsea hydrothermal vents (in micro moles Carbon per kg seawater) determined for various depths in the water column.

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We found that the total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the seawater surrounding the vents was on average 12 micro moles Carbon per kg seawater (µmol kg-1) higher compared to samples obtained from the reference station.

We therefore believe that the present method is sensitive enough to reveal possible DIC change if a tiny fraction of the CO2 stored in Sleipner would leak into the water column and hence diluted into an area several thousand meters long.

For comparison, the background DIC concentration in the Norwegian Sea is around 2150 µmol kg-1 with natural variations of about 100 - 150 µmol kg-1. The observed excess DIC was most significant between 100 m and 200 m but was noticeable in all depths with the exception of the upper 10-20 m (Figure 1b).

However, a good deal of work remains before the preset method can lay the basis for operational monitoring of subsea CO2 leakage in the water column. For instance, the present work required resource intensive discrete sampling and analyses of the seawater immediately around/above a known CO2 seep i.e. hydrothermal vents. The next step is to optimize the technique for in situ autonomous instrumentation which can be used for location and/ or 3-dimentional mapping of CO2 seepage into the water column.

The strong signal observed in 100 – 200 m suggests that the warm and CO2rich fluid venting from the seafloor at 700 m is lighter than the ambient cold deep water and, thus, it rises and accumulates higher in the water column where density is similar to that of the venting fluid. The method itself is not new, but has been originally developed to detect and quantify the minute DIC changes resulting from the oceanic uptake of excess CO2 from the atmosphere. Thus, the study is innovative in that it optimizes existing methodology and technology for a new application. This is a small, but important and necessary step towards bridging the gap between the fields of marine carbon cycle research which has advanced considerably in the past decades and subsea carbon sequestration which is at the development stage. Owing to the high sensitivity it showed during this study, we believe the method is promising for the monitoring (detection and quantification) of CO2 leakage into the water column from subsea CO2 storage. Through highly simplified calculations we estimated that the ocean volume around the hydrothermal vents (≈1 km2 with 700 m depth) contained a CO2 inventory of about 2.6 108 g CO2, which is five orders of magnitude less than the CO2 expected to have accumulated in the Sleipner storage complex, 1.83 1013 g CO2, since the start of the project in 1996.

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Facts : The study has been done as part of the EU FP7 project ECO2, and Norwegian Research Council projects SECURE and FME SUCCESS. Reference: Botnen, H. A., Omar, A. M., Thorseth, I., Johannessen, T. and Alendal, G. (2015), The effect of submarine CO2 vents on seawater: Implications for detection of subsea carbon sequestration leakage. Limnology and Oceanography, 60: 402–410. A number of subsea storage demonstration projects are in operation worldwide and two of these are located in Norway: Sleipner in the North Sea and Snøhvit in the Barents Sea where 1.0 and 0.7 million tonnes CO2 per annum (Mt CO2 yr-1), respectively, is separated from produced gas and re-injected into deep saline formations. Regulations require monitoring of the storage site to determine the whereabouts of stored CO2 and to detect/prevent adverse effects for the surrounding environment (e.g., Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament; OECD/IEA 2012). In particular, monitoring of the water column is important because the EU Emissions Trading Scheme treats leakage of the stored CO2 into seawater as emissions (IEA GHG 2012). fme-success.no


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Natural CO2 seeps, Italy


What is your scientific background? Petroleum engineering and Geomechanics What topic is addressed in your PhD? The topic was deformation bands in Sand and Sandstone; the conditions for development of different types of deformation bands and their impact on fluid flow. How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? It was a part of KPN IMPACT which is a collaboration project in the SUCCESS Centre portfolio. What are your main results? Permeability and strength/elasticity of deformed rock change in accordance with the density and type of deformation structures. Grain shape is an important factor on both the stress level needed to break grains as well as the patterns of deformation in sand (localised vs. diffuse). Two stages of strain localisation during deformation of sand were identified. What are you doing now? I am working in a research company. I am doing mostly laboratory studies on Enhanced Oil Recovery. 20

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What is your scientific background? In December 2014 I finished a PhD in applied mathematics at the University of Bergen

of CO2 storage) and quantification of uncertainties in connection with the CO2 plume flow beneath a cap rock.

What topic is addressed in your PhD? The title of the thesis is “Numerical solutions of two-phase flow with applications to CO2 sequestration and polymer flooding� and the work addresses challenges related to mathematical and numerical modeling of flow in porous media.

What are your main results? One of the things done in this work is that an upscaled model for CO2 migration is used to estimate effective rates of convective mixing from commercial-scale injection. The ongoing CO2-injection at the Utsira formation is considered as a field-scale study for CO2 storage. Through an upscaled model we get the first field-scale estimates of the effective upscaled convective mixing rates in this context.

How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? My PhD concerns general methods of solution of hyperbolic differential equations and systems of such equations. Applications in regards to CO2 storage will be buoyant excessive CO2 flow (which is the dominant process fme-success.no

What will you be doing now? After I finished my PhD, I started as a research scientist at IRIS (International Research Institute of Stavanger) and I am currently involved in the National IOR Centre of Norway. 21


What is your scientific background? MSc in reservoir mechanics from the University of Bergen (2011) PhD in applied mathematics from the University of Bergen (2015) What topic is addressed in your PhD? My PhD addressed the sampling capabilities of various ensemble-based data assimilation methods, with a special emphasis on the difference between methods that utilize the data in a sequential manner and methods that utilize the data in a simultaneous manner. How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? My topic relates to general method development for parameter estimation and data assimilation problems using ensemble-based methods. What are your main results? The main result of my thesis shows that the sequential data assimilation strategy outperforms the simultaneous data assimilation strategy, especially if the data are ordered after ascending degree of nonlinearity. My work focuses on reducing uncertainty in geological parameters using available data in an optimal way. A reduction of the geological uncertainty leads to more accurate numerical models CO2 flow, which is used to evaluate safe CO2 storage

Kristian Fossum 22

What will you be doing now? I’m currently employed as a senior researcher at Uni Research CIPR.

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What is your scientific background? MSc in reservoir mechanics from University of Bergen (2011). What topic is addressed in your PhD? In my PhD I developed methodologies for inversion of controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data using structural prior information from seismic data. In addition, I did a numerical investigation of the widely used upstream mobility scheme for reservoir simulation. How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? The methodologies developed for inversion of CSEM data can also be used for monitoring CO2 sequestration using electromagnetic data (and/or seismic data). The numerical investigation of the upstream mobility scheme may have implications for simulation of CO2 flow in the subsurface. What are your main results? The CSEM inversion methodologies were successful in identifying relatively complex geological formations. The numerical investigation of the upstream mobility scheme showed that it may produce large errors in countercurrent flow situations. Methodologies developed for inversion of CSEM can be used to provide a more accurate picture of how the CO2 plume flowing in the underground. Accurate pictures of how CO2 flowing underground can be important in the short term to check , for example, leakage, but also in the long term to say how CO2 will propagate in the future. The numerical study of counter -weighting (“upstream mobility scheme�) is important to understand the limitations of the simulator tools we normally use to simulate CO2 flow in the subsurface. What will you be doing now? Currently I am a researcher at Uni Research CIPR.

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Svenn Tveit 23


What is your scientific background? I am a hydrogeologist, and have been working within and across the scientific fields of sedimentology, multi-phase fluid flow and geochemistry. What topic is addressed in your PhD? Geological reservoir characterization for subsurface CO2 storage; methodology and evaluation of the effects of depositional heterogeneity on fluid flow at different scales. Physical processes and chemical reactions between gas, water and rock. Consideration of long term storage security and relative effects of trapping mechanisms. How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? Distribution of fluids and mineral reactions within sandstone reservoirs have been the main focus of my studies. These research activities are defined within SUCCESS work package 1: Reservoir. The resulting reservoir characterizations are also relevant to research on geomechanical response, monitoring and sealing properties. 24

What are your main results? My work includes, among other efforts, a revision of the depositional model for the Early Jurassic Johansen Fm. in the North Sea, which is a proposed CO2 reservoir candidate. A thorough, geological reservoir characterization has been presented, with focus on properties affecting multiphase fluid flow and the relative effect of trapping mechanisms for CO2. A methodology for scenario-based modelling of the effect of site-typical geological heterogeneities on fluid distribution and dissolution potential was established, and simulations run for the Johansen Fm. This is highly relevant for evaluating CO2 storage security and for comparison of subsurface reservoir candidates with depositional analogues in the field. Reservoir-specific mineral trapping potential was quantified for the prospective Utsira, Johansen and Sognefjord formations, taking into account in situ reservoir conditions, mineralogy, petrography and sedimentary facies. Geochemical simulations confirm the importance of grain size variation and mineral speciation, as well as the relevance of carbonatization on time scales less than 100 years. What will you be doing now? I have applied for a post-doc position within SUCCESS, and various other research-related positions, as I would like to continue some of my projects as well as pursue new research ideas. Currently I am working freelance with reservoir characterization for CO2 storage, reservoir modelling and teaching. fme-success.no


What is your scientific background? I have a hovedfag (master) in Geology from University of Bergen from 2000 and joined NGI in 2001. During my years at NGI my main topics have been faults and fractures, their formation and impact on fluid flow properties. First, I worked on several project on groundwater flow in fractures, application to tunnels in Norway, then my work focused on fault sealing in the North Sea, and finally the challenges related to CO2 storage. What topic is addressed in your PhD? My PhD addressed the localization of deformation within sandstone reservoir. I am trying to understand deformation processes in sandstone and to see how these influence on the fluid flow properties. My approach has been to combine geological field observation with mechanical testing and application of mechanical models. How does your topic relate to previous /other on-going research within the SUCCESS Centre portfolio? My work relates to the SUCCESS WP1 and WP2 activities on fault integrity and stability during injection. My PhD work mainly considered faults within the reservoir, whereas the same challenges apply for caprock and overburden. What are your main results? My results show the link between stress conditions, sand textural parameters, deformation mechanisms and the formation of microstructures in sand and poorly lithified sandstone. The work combines field observations from sandstone reservoirs and mechanical testing of sand in the laborafme-success.no

tory. We observe a stress dependent transition from grain rolling to crushing as deformation mechanism, but also the grain size and grain packing density is important for the deformation. My work addresses mechanical processes and stress conditions for porosity reduction within reservoirs and faults. Variation in porosity and permeability is important parameters for capacity estimations and pressure limitations for a potential CO2 storage reservoir. Understanding the heterogeneities of faulted reservoirs provides better models for storage capacity and integrity. What will you be doing now? I am back to my position at NGI, where I will be involved in ongoing CO2 research projects like SUCCESS, and new projects like COPASS where I will continue the work on mechanical understanding of faults. At NGI I follow up projects on standard mechanical testing and I am also involved in the development and implementation of new equipment in our laboratory. My current focus is to provide input data for advanced fault model and their implementation into fault and reservoir models. 25


Joint national project between SUCCESS, BIGCCS, Tel-tek and IRIS In 2012, the Norwegian research community on CO2 storage joined forces together with Climit to link the current research efforts on CO2 storage with the identified challenges related to implementation of large-scale CO2 storage. In the absence of a commercial market a vision was formulated: to enable large-scale storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf. Inspired by this vision, a report was prepared which stated that there are no technical showstoppers for storing CO2 in large quantities on Norwegian Shelf.

“The Norwegian debate on carbon capture and storage must be based on Norway’s capacity to store CO2 on a scale that can make a difference in global terms, as well as the commercial opportunities from the large-scale storage of CO2 on the Norwegian continental shelf.” 26

Grethe Tangen (BIGCCS, SINTEF Petroleum Research) and Arvid Nøttvedt (FME SUCCESS, Christian Michelsen Research) as led the work in this project.

This report formed the basis for a national Climit Demo pre project granted by Gassnova autumn 2013. The ambition was to develop a main project to demonstrate that technological solutions for large-scale CCS are within reach even if the market for CO2 handling not yet exists. In the absence of a commercial market, Norwegian R&D actors formulated a vision that implies storage of > 10 million tons CO2 per year on the Norwegian continental shelf. Based on a review of technology needs, a case-based study is proposed to apply and improve the knowledge and technologies needed by industry to undertake field development studies by 2018.

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The objectives of the suggested case studies in the main project proposal shall: • Test methods for optimizing reservoir capacity and density in large formations. • Recommend work flow to improve risk assessment with respect to caprock and fault integrity. • Analyse possible scenarios for leakage from old gas wells. • Develop optimal CO2 injection strategies to avoid pressure build up and fracturing. • Recommend strategies for monitoring beyond conventional methods. • Outline concepts for large-scale CO2 storage in identified sites including sources, transport systems, and simplified cost estimates. • Collaborate with international initiatives on CO2 storage in the North Sea.

In dialogue with industry, four candidates of CO2 storage sites, with complementary characteristics, were identified in this project (Figure 1). The sites pose a range of different challenges relevant for developing large-scale CO2 storage: 1. Frigg: Depleted gas reservoir with integrity challenges due to old wells. 2. Bryne/Sandnes: Deep formation with faults. Immature field with limited data. 3. Utsira/Skade: Shallow aquifer with extensive data and knowledge (mature), suited as reference. Possible conflict with petroleum activities. 4. Troll kystnær: Shallow, homogenous reservoir with high quality data available. fme-success.no

The pre- project has further matured an idea of a central large-scale storage of CO2 on the national and international agenda, through feature articles, publications and participation in various forums. It has outlined a main project that aims to align the Norwegian research institutions in a common effort to validate the current knowledge base relevant for enabling largescale CO2 storage on the Norwegian continental shelf. Industry participation and international collaboration will be essential. The consortium will continue the dialogue with Gassnova and potential industry partners to investigate possible strategies for establishing the project.

Motivation According to the IEA, the world must capture and store huge amounts of CO2 to limit the rise in global temperature to two degrees. Three challenges follow from this message: 1) it is vital to start immediately; 2) we must prioritize projects that really make a difference; and 3) we must identify solutions that will reduce the cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS). All this suggests that Norway ought to create a storage site for Europe’s CO2 on its continental shelf.

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Fully integrated SUCCESS project Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2011 Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2012 Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2013 New collaboration agreement with SUCCESS 2014 28

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New Projects The CLIMIT program of the Research Council received a total of 37 proposals fall of 2014 responding to its announcement of funds for CCS research. Nine projects was granted money, and we are happy that two of these are led by SUCCESS partners and hopefully will connect to our Centre! COPASS The COPASS project starts in 2015 and finishes in 2018, and is fully RCN funded. The project targets active and recently active CO2 leakage systems in Utah, USA, and will in detail establish flow paths of CO2 charged (reducing) fluids in sedimentary bodies and fault architecture. Another aspect is the geomechanical properties of reservoirs and faults to establish critical pressures for failure of seals and collapse of reservoirs, spanning over to datasets on sedimentary and fault architecture and geomechanics (diagenetic effects, and laboratory and model data) in a fault facies reservoir model (3D sedimentary and fault model) that will be calibrated on modern leakage paths and known critical pressures (from drill hole) to assess leakage modeling through sealing cap rocks. Alvar Braathen at UiO will lead the project. CONQUER CONQUER is a project on quantification of uncertainties and error reduction in carbon dioxide storage predictions. There are two cooperating partners in the project: Uni Research CIPR and the Department of Mathematics at UiB. Per Pettersson at CIPR is project manager. The project started early 2015 and will have a duration of four years.

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Characterizing fracture flow and deformation A direct shear test apparatus for fracture flow and deformation is now ready to launch at SUCCESS partner NGI.

methodologies will be a major topic for research in 2015. Currently, we have one Master thesis related to the shear box and we hope this equipment will attract more students in 2015, both at Master and PhD levels, and also industry interest. The direct shear test can be used to determine shear strength parameters (cohesion and friction angle) of intact and pre-fractured rock samples at high stress. A normal load is applied to the test specimen and the specimen is sheared across a pre-defined horizontal plane. Shear load, shear displacement, normal load and normal displacement are recorded and used to determine shear strength properties of rocks. It is also possible to measure flow in fracture to evaluate flow behaviour under realistic stress condition. Shear box testing is used to simulate fracture and fault re-activation and assess geomechanical integrity of CO2 storage sites

A fractured shale sample that can be tested in the direct shear box.

This new equipment is specially developed for determining fracture properties in reservoir and caprock units. An extensive pilot testing is successfully completed and we are now ready to start testing on “real� rock samples. First testing in 2015 will be on material from the Longyearbyen CO2 pilot site, through which fractures can be understood better in terms of injection and storage. Samples from the North Sea and European projects are also waiting to be tested. The shear box is a research infrastructure facility funded by the Norwegian Research Council in 2009 through the SAFFT project. After an extensive design and development period at MTS and NGI, the equipment is now ready to facilitate the SUCCESS Centre and the PROTECT project with possibilities to study fracture properties and provide relevant input parameters for fracture modelling. Further development of test procedures and 30

The machine surrounded by (from left) Joonsang Park, Elin Skurtveit, and Heidi Debreczeny Wilkinson.

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Pilot, demonstration and commercial projects are emerging at a world basis and Norway has been in the front with commercial projects. The SUCCESS Centre is actively cooperating with and utilizes data from commercial field pilots, in particular the Sleipner, Snøhvit and InSalah fields. In the Sleipner project, which was launched in 1996, CO2 is injected into the Utsira Formation aquifer at some 800–1100 m depth. The reservoir contains relatively homogeneous, unconsolidated fine-grained sandstones with high porosity and permeability. Snøhvit is Norway’s second commercial CO2 storage. The storage site, the Tubåen Formation aquifer, is at approximately 2500 m depth, and both reservoir and cap rocks are consolidated. A comprehensive data package, including seismic data, well data and pressure data, has been released from the Snøhvit license to the SUCCESS center. Read more on the Snøhvit results on page 32. Longyearbyen CO2 Lab in Svalbard is a research pilot. Svalbard has unique premises for studying and testing new technologies related to CCS; coal, a coal combusting power plant and an explored subsurface storage unit. The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) has been carrying out a pilot project for assessment of possible subsurface storage sites since 2007. Apart from Plug and Abandonment (P&A) of two wells the Longyearbyen CO2 Phase 2 project is finished, and the final report is now beeing written. This has been a project that FME SUCCESS is grateful to have been a part of. Large datasets have been compiled and important scientific results have been achieved. Now some of the results have recently been published and the papers are available on the open access by the Norwegian Journal of Geology 2014 Vol. 94 nr. 2 and 3 on (link: http://www.geologi.no/njg-list/457-njg-vol-94) fme-success.no

Ivar Aavatsmark, Alvar Braathen, Elin Skurtveit

Field Pilot coordinators were appointed in 2014 to ensure the integration between the Field Pilots in the SUCCESS Centre and the activities in the Work Packages. FP Coordinator of Snøhvit Ivar Aavatsmark (Uni) FP Coordinator of Sleipner Elin Skurtveit (NGI) FP coordinator of LYB CO2 Alvar Braathen (UNIS/UIO) Their task will be to coordinate the results in the Centre activities related to the respective Field Pilot and highlight opportunities for application of results. They will involve industry partners in the Centre and make results easily available for input on the relevance and correction on the direction of the activities etc.

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In the Snøhvit project, production started in 2007. From 2008 until 2011 carbon dioxide has been injected in the Tubåen formation. From 2011 the injection has taken place in the Stø formation. The Tubåen formation is located at approximately 2600 m depth bsl. The initial reservoir pressure is around 290 bar and the reservoir temperature is around 99 °C. The injection in the Stø formation takes place approximately 150 m above the Tubåen formation. Both reservoirs are aquifers with formation water salinity around 14%. The permeability varies from a few milliDarcy to Darcy. A new injection well is planned for the Stø formation.

Injection in the Tubåen formation was terminated because of large pressure buildup in the formation. A possible explanation could be strong compartmentalization. Salt precipitation due to dehydration caused by undersaturated carbon dioxide could also have contributed. Presently, the Stø formation is the formation from which the Snøhvit gas is produced and the formation in which carbon dioxide is injected. Production and injection take place in different segments, but there is a concern about how far the injected carbon dioxide will migrate towards the production zone during the production period.

Snøhvit at Melkøya

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Finite element model for simulation of stress changes

In 2014 two studies under the SUCCESS umbrella were conducted on Snøhvit data: Investigation of fault stability close to the CO2 injector in the Tubåen formation and investigation of the CO2 plume migration in the Stø formation. The stability of faults in the Tubåen formation was investigated using finite element simulation of stress changes in two vertical cross sections. The simulation results were then compared with results of 4D seismic surveys. The comparison showed good agreement. On a longer time horizon, however, undesirable failure may occur at the interface between reservoir and caprock. Analytical approach based on Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria also shows that subseismic faults may become critical when the pore pressure inside faults reaches reservoir pressure. However, reactivation of faults is dependent upon many parameters that have large uncertainties. The CO2 plume extension in the Stø formation has been investigated through 3D thermal simulations and 2D simulations based on vertical equilibrium. There is considerable uncertainty in the data. Through sensitivity fme-success.no

Simulation of chimneys between Stø layers

studies, one tries to determine the parameters that are most important for the migration pattern. Formation of chimneys between the Stø layers and compositional effects are also part of the study. Results from this activity will be available in 2015. For more information on activities and results from FME SUCCESS related to the Centre Field pilots, please contact our Field pilot coordinators: FP Coordinator of Snøhvit Ivar Aavatsmark (Uni) Ivar.avatsmark@uni.no FP Coordinator of Sleipner Elin Skurtveit (NGI) Elin.Skurtveit@ngi.no FP coordinator of LYB CO2 Alvar Braathen (UIO/UNIS) alvar.braathen@geo.uio.no. 33


Communication and outreach are a crosscutting theme for all the activities in FME SUCCESS. In 2014, several of SUCCESS partners have actively been conveying their research and results through different channels and forums to industry, academia, visitors and the public.

SUCCESS was presented to visitors from Colgate University at CMR, SUCCESS scientific leader Per Aagaard gave a presentation the TEKNA conference in Trondheim, a mini seminar with CSIRO was arranged at NGI, and several partners joined and presented SUCCESS activities at the Oslo Science fair. Several scientific results also have been presented in more popular science format through articles published in Geoforskning.no. The Centre also published five numbers of SUCCESful News in 2014 and scientists have stated their opinion in i.e. in the Climit newsletter and Dagens NĂŚringsliv.

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Oslo Science Fair: SUCCESS partners joined forces

As the last years, SUCCESS met with curious and enthusiastic school kids and grown-ups during two hectic days in September at the annual Science Fair (Forskningsdagene) downtown Oslo. This year SUCCESS partners IFE, NGI and NIVA had joined University of Oslo to engage the public in the wonders of CO2 storage and monitoring. A joint tent was filled with photos and sketches, rocks of sandstones and shales, marbles and post-it-notes demonstrating the basics of storage and monitoring.

“Measured by the fascination by some of the kids and the questions they have, the future is bright and many of them will grow up to become scientists.�

A simple repetitive experiment enables multiple discussions on how CO2 fills a reservoir: The CO2 seal breaks when water in a milk glass within a jar is fully substituted by CO2 (from Farris). The glass floats to the surface splashing water all over the table. Splashing water never fails in getting kids attention, and thus processes involved are demonstrated and discussed. Measured by the fascination by some of the kids and the questions they have, the future is bright and many of them will grow up to become scientists. Others have learned the basics in this measure to combat climate change as well as the short route between research and innovation to practical use of such knowhow in the industry.

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Climit and SUCCESS Fall seminar

SUCCESS Fall Seminar 2014 was part of a “mini-CO2 Week”, organized back to back with the annual PhD CLIMIT Seminar.

class: best presentation, while Odd Andersen from SUCCESS collaborating project MatMoRa II, won the award for best poster.

The Climit PhD seminar started October 21st and several senior researchers and industrial representatives from the SUCCESS center participated. SUCCESS Manager Arvid Nøttvedt delivered a keynote talk on large scale CO2 storage, Alvar Braathen (SUCCESS scientific leader) and Sveinung Hagen (Statoil researcher and board member of SUCCESS) also gave presentations. This allowed a very useful interaction between senior experts and the young scientists. The senior scientists also stated that the presented projects had very high quality. But chiefly, this was the students’ days. Ten PhD students presented their work in talks and several others on posters. Three of the talks were by SUCCESS students: Anja Sundal (UiO) on trapping mechanisms, Rohaldin Miri (UiO) on CO2 storage at pore-scale, Karin Landschulze (UiB) on seal integrity. “- The seminar has been very valuable in giving the young scientists a broader and valuable overview of CCS technologies. Furthermore, they have established new networks during the seminar that will be very useful in the future,” Aage Stangeland of the Research Council of Norway concluded. The seminar ended with the participants voting on best presentation and best poster, and we were proud and happy that Karin was the winner in her 36

SUCCESS PhD student Karin Landschultze received best presentation award from Aage Stangeland fme-success.no


“The SUCCESS Centre has existed for five years, and it is definitely appropriate for the Centre to actively convey independent and objective explanations that substantiate the viability of CO2-storage”.

The 4th SUCCESS Fall Seminar opened with lunch October 22nd, followed by a number of keynote speakers that provided a basis for stimulating discussions, both in plenum and during informal mingling afterwards. Interesting topics ranged from fundamental studies to more generalized reviews such as; “Large Scale Storage” in the North Sea, numerical simplifications in models, fault and fracture implications for CO2 integrity, North America CCUS, and Frigg field potential for storage of CO2. Sveinung Hagen and Aina Dahlø Janbu from Statoil thought that this year’s SUCCESS Fall Seminar gave valuable insights into ongoing research activities, as well as presenting and debating the strategic direction needed to be set for the last three years of the Centre. As a concluding remark, they challenged all SUCCESS-partners to actively communicate, using informal language, their key findings and knowledge gained in general public media.

Sveinung Hagen and Aina Dahlø Janbu from Statoil

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Fourth EAGE CO2 Geological Storage Workshop, April 22-24, Stavanger, Norway.

The Workshop was mainly sponsored by Statoil and Gassnova and attracted around 100 participants from 15 countries. The accepted papers and posters addressed the current state of the art with respect to the overall integrity of a CO2 storage, through subsurface formation characterization, reservoir and well capabilities, enhancement of CO2 storage capacity, monitoring of the storage complex, designing and implementing remedial and mitigation actions in case of an undesired CO2 leakage, and considering HSE impacts of CO2 storage. FME SUCCESS partners gave 8 oral presentations and presented several posters. INJECT PhD student Rohaldin Miri was one of many SUCCESS researchers that participated at the workshop. Read his full report in the SUCCESS newsletter June 2014 published on www.fme-success.no.

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A small selection of other conferences/seminars attended by SUCCESS partners

The 12th Green House Gas Technology Conference, Austin Texas from October 5th to 9th, 2014. The conference assembled more than 900 participants from all over the world and from the entire CCS value chain, with a strong delegation (about 100 participants) from Norwegian academia and industry. SUCCESS was represented with an oral presentation from Anja Sundal (UiO) and a poster from Ludovic Räss (UNIL/IFE). 5th EAGE Passive Seismic Workshop, 28 September – 1 October, 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, Joonsang Park et al presented poster and contributed with extended abstract on; Microseismicdata vs. surface heave data-qualitative correlation. The 4th CCS-M (CCOP CO2 Storage Mapping Program) training course (T4), Penang Island, Malaysia, May 27-30 2014. Representing the Norwegian CCS community and FME SUCCESS, Helge Hellevang gave lectures on the general global status of CCS and CCS-EOR, and on the potential for largescale

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ECO2 Annual meeting, June, 2014, Lipari, Sicily, Italy, Centre for GeoBiology participated and presented a poster: Potential environmental impacts of CO2 leakage from sub-seafloor CO2 storage sites (Laila J. Reigstad et al). EU FP7 CARBOCHANGE annual meeting, which took place in Reykjavik, Iceland in April 2014; GFI/Uni Climate presented a poster: Annual and interannual variations of carbon cycling parameters in Arctic and temperate Norwegian fjords (Abdirahman M. Omar et al). Canada tour to CCS projects; news headlines in 2014 pointed out that Canada «landed on the moon» by opening the world’s first full-scale commercial plant for CCS, the Boundary Dam facility. ZERO in Norway, together with Canadian authorities and Air Canada, arranged a study tour to this plant and other interesting CCS arenas. Several members of the SUCCESS management group joined this tour.

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MoU agreement with Colorado School of Mines

During the SUCCESS Fall Seminar, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Centre and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was signed. Professor Marte Guiterrez represented CSM, and signed the MoU, together with the SUCCESS management: Alvar Braathen, Arvid Nøttvedt and Ivar Aavatsmark (See photo). The MoU expresses the parties’ intention to collaborate in research, and to exchange students, researchers and information. To follow up and strengthen the agreement, University of Oslo has for 2015 hired Marte Gutierrez from CSM, as an adjunct professor in Rock Physics. The collaboration will increase through this, and new SUCCESS PhD fellows / postdocs should strive to include research visits abroad within the network of the Centre. It is our goal for 2015 that SUCCESS should sign 1-2 new MoU or collaboration agreements with 1-2 institutions that are internationally recognized in the field of CCS. 39


as of 31.12.2014

Alvar Braathen

Alvar Braathen is professor of Structural Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, University of Oslo. His scientific focus is in structural geology, more specifically on fault and fracture systems and how they influence fluid flow in CO2 storage layers and CO2 may escape along such structures. This research has brought him to Svalbard and the Longyearbyen CO2 lab, where he has had a leading role in developing the work on this pilot project. His current role in SUCCESS covers scientific leadership and work on his favorite subjects in CO2 storage.

Per Aagaard

Per Aagaard is professor emeritus at Dept. of Geosciences, University of Oslo and holds a PhD in theoretical Geochemistry from University of California, Berkeley. His scientific focus is geochemical interactions involving pore fluids and rock matrix, with special reference to petroleum geology, hydrogeology and environmental geology. He has worked with CO2 storgae projects since 2003 and was the Oslo scientific manager at FME SUCCESS until summer 2014.

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Ivar Aavatsmark

Ivar Aavatsmark has a PhD in numerical mathematics from the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) 1981. He worked for twenty years as a researcher in computational methods for reservoir simulation at Norsk Hydro Research Center in Bergen. He is now a researcher at Center for Integrated Petroleum Research (CIPR) at Uni Research in Bergen. He also holds a position as adjunct professor in applied and computational mathematics at the University of Bergen. Since 2010 he has been Bergen scientific manager at FME SUCCESS.

Arvid Nøttvedt

Arvid Nøttvedt is currently CEO at the Christian Michelsen Research (CMR) institute in Bergen. He holds a PhD degree in geology from the University of Bergen (1982). His key qualifications are within the field of sedimentology, structural geology and petroleum technology. Before joining CMR, he worked for 23 years with Norsk Hydro, in various positions within research, exploration, drilling, field development, operations and international business. He is the manager of the SUCCESS Centre.

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Snorre Olaussen

Professor Snorre Olaussen graduated as a geologist at University in Oslo (Cand. Real.) and Bergen (PhD) within the topic sedimentology. He has since 1979 to 2010 been employed in the oil industry mainly within exploration for oil and gas on the Norwegian continental shelf. In this period research has been within in the topics; basin formation in a geotectonic framework, dynamics of sediment infill and controlling mechanisms, stratigraphy, depositional environment, geometric architecture of sedimentary bodies, subsidence and diagenesis, source rocks of hydrocarbons, migration and maturation, reservoir characteristics , resource evaluations and play types. He has spent several field seasons in Svalbard and East Greenland. Snorre was appointed as professor in Arctic Petroleum Geology at the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) 2010, and focus has been on UNIS CO2 LAB, to test the storage capacity of the subsurface in the Adventdalen. Snorre is one of the principal scientist in one of the SUCCESS field pilots; UNIS CO2 LAB, and the formal contact person for UNIS in SUCCESS.

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Joonsang Park

Joonsang Park is Technical Lead Rock Physics at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI). In 2002, he received his Ph.D at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the dissertation topic was theoretical and numerical modelling aspects of seismic wave propagation. In 2003, he started his professional career at NGI in the areas of geophysics (seismic and electromagnetic) and earthquake analysis/design. One of his main tasks has been modelling and inversion of marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data for both exploration and production monitoring. From 2009, he has been actively involved in the FME SUCCESS with a special focus on geophysical monitoring activity, e.g. Sleipner CSEM data inversion. Recently he has also been developing CO2related rock physics model, which is the key element in interpreting field data, via NGI’s advanced laboratory facility. Currently, Joonsang leads Work Package 3: Monitoring in the SUCCESS Centre.

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Sarah Gasda

Sarah Gasda is a senior researcher in reservoir simulation at Uni Research CIPR. Her main research interests are in the development of computational methods for multiphase flow in porous media. Sarah has worked for over 10 years in the field of geological CO2 storage, designing new upscaled models for efficient simulation of CO2 injection, migration and trapping in large-scale aquifers. Sarah Gasda is the leader of SUCCESS work package 2: Containment.

Truls Johannessen

Truls Johannessen is a full professor at Geophysical Institute/ UNI-Climate and the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, in Chemical Oceanography at the University of Bergen. He holds a PhD degree in marine geology from the University of Bergen. His research experience is in various aspects of climate research, geochemistry, oceanography and earth system science. He has been involved in several EC programs and projects e.g. MAST, ESOP1 and II, IMCORP, CAVASSOO, TRACTOR (as a Coordinator), CARBOOCEAN, CARBOCHANGE, GREENSEAS, EURO-BASINS, FIXO3, and ECO2. In 2002, Johannessen was involved in generating the BCCR as a centre of excellence (2002-2012). In FME SUCCESS his research evolves around water column biogeochemistry and the development of chemical indicators for CO2-leakage, he is also the formal contact person and Board Member for the University of Bergen. 42

Helge Hellevang

Helge Hellevang is a researcher in low-temperature geochemistry at University of Oslo. He also serves as an adjunct associate professor at UNIS. Helge has made key contributions to kinetic modeling of CO2 storage systems and the understanding of the long-term safety of CO2 storage reservoirs. His scientific interests also cover topics spanning from the environmental aspects of geology to the secrets of other planets in our solar system. Helge Hellevang is the leader of SUCCESS work package 1: Reservoir.

Bjørn Kvamme

Bjørn Kvamme has been a Professor in Department of Physics and Technology at University of Bergen since 2000 and currently have a research group of 12 PhD students and 2 post.doc. The group has extensive international communication and collaboration, of specific interest for FMESUCCESS is an exchange program between Montana State University. Kvamme’s interests are fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of phase transitions and reactions. In FME-SUCCESS his group has focused on development of next generation of thermodynamic models for reactions between mineral and water containing CO2 and corresponding dissociation products. His research is highly relevant for Snøhvit pilot and other storage reservoirs that involve hydrate-forming conditions, as an effect of hydrate formation, that can lead to reduced horizontal spreading of a CO2 plume. fme-success.no


Nina Simon

Nina Simon is currently a researcher at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). She has a PhD in in Earth Sciences from Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands and an MSc in Mineralogy from J. W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Germany Her research interests are fluidrock interactions, in particular in the feedback between flow, reactions and deformation, and their applications to CO2 storage, geothermal energy, hydrocarbon exploration and production, and unconventional use of minerals for new applications. She is also interested in thermodynamics and numerical modeling in combination with laboratory experiments and the study of natural rocks. In FME SUCCESS she has special interest in large-scale geodynamics, in particular the effect of mineral reactions on the evolution of sedimentary basins. Nina is the formal contact person for IFE.

Kai Sørensen

Kai Sørensen is Research Manager in section for Biogeochemistry and Oceanography ar Norweiganin Institute for Water Research. His scientific focus is in environmental monitoring sensortechnology, measuring platforms and infrastucture. Kai has his key activity on sensors for CO2, pH and optical sensor for different biogeochemical monitoring. In SUCCESS he is leading NIVAs activity on sensor developments for monitoring of CO2 and effects studies of CO2 leakages using NIVA mesocoms facilities and Deep Sea Infrastucture. fme-success.no

Gudmund A Dalsbø

Gudmund A Dalsbø is working with project administration at Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, where he attempts to reduce the bureaucratic stress on the researchers. Both SUCCESS and INJECT are in his portfolio, and within these projects he also contributes to the center management.

Charlotte G. Krafft

Charlotte works at Christian Michelsen Research as Centre coordinator of FME SUCCESS. She has an MSc degree in Marine Biology from the University of Tromsø/Univ. Center on Svalbard, and has experience from research management at Tromsø Aquaculture Research Station. Charlotte started working at Christian Michelsen Research in August 2010 as Centre Coordinator of FME SUCCESS and the KPN INJECT. As coordinator in a Centre with a high number of partners and activities, her tasks are many i.e.: facilitate the Centre researchers, management, SUCCESS Board and The Research Council of Norway, keep track of deadlines, contribute to public outreach and all the small things that need attention. 43


FME SUCCESS 2014- Cost (figures in 1000 NOK) Total cost WP1: RESERVOAR 7 127 WP2: CONTAINMENT 4 223 WP3: MONITORING 6 074 Equipment and running costs 1 551 Scientific coordination (UiO and Uni) 704 Centre Coordination and management (CMR) 1 511 Centre builiding initiatives (seminars, meetings, pre-projects, SAC, outreach, web, travels, student exchange) 1 388 Prof II and guest researchers 141 Industry participation 258 Total budget 22 977

FME SUCCESS 2014 - Funding (figures in 1000 NOK) Total Public funding 7 106 Industry funding 5 503 Research Council of Norway 10 368 TOTAL 22 977 Publications Journal publications 18 Reports 4 Presentations and posters 42 In media 11 For further details on publications, please visit fme-success.no

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Executive Board Members Arne Rokkan, CGG Kåre R. Vagle, Conoco Phillips (chair until October 1st 2014) Arve Holt, Institute for Energy Technology Søren Hegndal Andersen, Lundin Norway Bahman Bohloli, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Anne Skjærstein, DEA Norge (chair from October 1st 2014) Sveinung Hagen, Statoil Petroleum AS Arne Skauge, UniResearch/CIPR Truls Johannessen, University of Bergen Aage Stangeland, Research Council of Norway (observer) Niels Peter Christensen, Gassnova (observer) Arvid Nøttvedt (Centre Manager) SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee Auli Niemi, University of Uppsala Dag Nummedal, Colorado School of Mines Nick Riley, British Geological Survey Sylvain Thibeau, TOTAL E&P fme-success.no

Nick Riley and Sylvain Thibeau from SUCCESS scientific advisory committee

as of December 2014

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Photos and illustrations Ivar Midtkandal –front page photo, Marit Hommedal, Gudmund Dalsbø (UiO), Dag Inge Danielsen (NGI), Helge Hellevang (UiO), Tor de Lange, Daniel Byeers (ISGS), Laila J. Reigstad (UiB, Centre for GeoBiology), Åse Slagtern (Research Council of Norway), Grethe Tangen (Sintef Petroleum), Harald Pettersen (Statoil), Øyvind Hagen (Statoil), Snorre Olaussen Centre for GeoBiology (UiB), University of Rome, CMR, IFE, NGI, NIVA, Uni Research AS, UiB, UiO, Shutterstock Idea, layout/design Per Gunnar Lunde, CMR Editor Charlotte Gannefors Krafft, CMR

FME SUCCESS fme-success.no

SUBsurface CO2 storage

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Postal Address FME-SUCCESS Christian Michelsen Research AS P.O. Box 6031 NO-5892 Bergen, Norway Visiting Address Christian Michelsen Research AS Fantoftvegen 38 Bergen, Norway Contact info post@fme-success.no charlotte@cmr.no www.fme-success.no

Annual report success 2014  

CO2 storage, renewable energy, Christian Michelsen Research, research,fme-success

Annual report success 2014  

CO2 storage, renewable energy, Christian Michelsen Research, research,fme-success