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SUbsurface CO2 storage - Critical Elements and Superior Strategy

Annual report 2013



2 Welcome 4 Summing up 2013 6 Chairman speaking 8 SUCCESS Midterm evaluation 10 CO impurities: positive or negative? 12 Partners 15 Hydrate risk analysis  16 Smart, fast and accurate modeling 18 Key figures 20 Staff and scientific advisors 21 Science and industry join forces 22 Seal sequence concept in Longyearbyen Field Pilot 26 Rock physics of CO -saturated Sandstone 28 Biomarkers and monitoring of CO storage sites 30 Education 33 Communication and outreach 34 National and international collaboration 38 Organization  2




Welcome “Geological storage is the key to many, maybe most CCS projects. - And Norway has a huge storage potential.� Niels Peter Christensen - professor Chief Geologist, Gassnova


The development of full-scale CCS projects in Europe has slowed down considerably over the past couple of years. The financial crisis has to a great extent overshadowed the need for CO2 emission reductions. While the European economy is now slowly recovering, the IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) is with increasing severity reminding us that we must act, and act soon to curb emissions. Carbon Capture and Storage is a necessary tool as long as modern society is dependent on fossil fuels. The International Energy Agency (IEA) states that CCS could reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 19%, and that fighting climate change could cost 70% more without CCS. Not only do we use coal and natural gas for power and heat generation, but many industrial processes also generate CO2 as an integral part of the manufacturing of for instance steel, cement, and fertilisers. The Norwegian emissions of carbon dioxide are moderate and mainly originating from industrial processes, including offshore hydrocarbon activities. Geological storage is the key to many, maybe most CCS projects, and Norway has a huge storage potential.

The FME SUCCESS Centre focusses on the many aspects related to geological storage of CO2. Actually, the works of the centre’s many participants are to a great extend based on knowledge and technology from related fields such as oil and gas exploitation. However, there are also many unique features related to geological storage of CO2, including the holistic approach to storage complex definition (storage reservoir and overlying cap rocks) as well as the understanding of potential surface effects. The SUCCESS Centre manages to cover many of these topics through a variety of sub-projects involving experienced researchers working alongside students, who also benefit from training in communication with the public. At the Fall Seminar 2013 this was one of the themes which, combined with a very lively panel debate featuring invited policy makers, made for a very fine event. During the past year, a cross-cutting activity aimed at developing the scientific basis for large scale CO2 storage (i.e. 10-100 Mt p.a.) was initiated as a separate CLIMIT activity. In this SUCCESS – in cooperation with another FME BIGCCS – has been instrumental in providing the framework for deliberations on how to prepare for the future for geological storage on the Norwegian Shelf.


The main purpose of the SUCCESS Centre is to gather sufficient knowledge to store CO2 underground, safely and permanently. We want to predict where CO2 can be stored, the rate at which it can be injected into a reservoir, how the injected CO2 is distributed in the reservoir, and how to prevent it from escaping through the cap rocks. There is also a need for monitoring potential leakage.

To answer all these questions, the SUCCESS Centre uses theoretical as well as experimental research methods, in a wide range of scales, including the CO2 research field laboratory in Longyearbyen as well as operational CO2 industry pilots at Snøhvit and Sleipner. The scientific results have been reported at meetings and in relevant journals, and are summarized below. Storage The KPN INJECT project, which is an integrated part of the SUCCESS Centre, studies processes that alter the injectivity in a reservoir in response to CO2 injection. The aim is to improve our understanding of reservoir injectivity. The convective mixing of CO2 in formation water is carefully analyzed and evaluated in order to better predict reservoir storage capacity. The interaction between movement of the CO2 plume and its convec6

tive dissolution has been modelled numerically. The same applies to the combined effect of trapping by dissolution and by mineral growth. The models developed are now partially implemented in commercial software. Phase transitions of CO2 may affect the physical properties of rocks during storage. This is studied in reference material and in collected samples from Svalbard.

“We want to predict where CO2 can be stored, the rate at which it can be injected into a reservoir, how the injected CO2 is distributed in the reservoir and how to prevent it from escaping through the caprocks. There is also a need for monitoring potential leakage.” FME SUCCESS

From left; Centre Manager Arvid Nøttvedt, Scientific leaders Ivar Aavatsmark and Per Aaagaard

Cap rock In an extension of the RAMORE project, the effect of dry supercritical CO2 on petrophysical properties of shale cap rocks have been studied (samples of organic rich shale from the Draupne field). Results show that hydrated and organic rich shales react with dry supercritical CO2. Longyearbyen CO2 Lab A gas and water database for the LYB pilot has been completed. Representative data for the whole overburden have been collected, as required for a full understanding of the sealing mechanisms. The reference system for geochemical liquids at LYB CO2 suggests an effective sequence of mainly tight cap rocks, with several important barriers to vertical flow and homogenization. Our own equations-of-state for CO2 rich fluid mixtures enable us to estimate the phase behavior of the reservoir.

of the reservoir and the overburden. These methods are based on integrated multidisciplinary data and modeling. Examples of ongoing activities are co-inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data, and co-interpretation of electromagnetic and gravimetric data. Dissemination Researchers in the SUCCESS Centre are active in creating and teaching courses in CCS at university level. We participate in Science Week activities and other forums. We publish popular scientific articles in journals, newspapers and in our own newsletter. The centre’s fall seminar had 17 presentations and a political debate. Close to 90 people attended.

A special Norwegian Journal of Geology issue on the LYB CO2 is in the works. It will feature a status report on the LYB CO2 pilot. Marine monitoring The SUCCESS Centre has studied the effects of seawater exposure on a low pH benthic environment and we have summarized results from mesocosm experiments in field conditions. There is also ongoing work with new types of sensors, including a newly acquired pCO2 sensor capable of taking measurements to a depth of 3000 meters. The centre has ongoing developments in optimal monitoring methods and techniques. These are used to describe not only the behavior of the injected CO2 in the reservoir and the cap rock, but also the geomechanical behavior


Chairman speaking


“Laboratory experiments are very important, but there is a need to close the gap from lab to field implementation of results. This can be achieved by getting access to and study real field cases through collaboration with the Operators. This will give the Centre an excellent opportunity to demonstrate expertize through offering solutions to real challenges. KĂĽre Vagle, ConocoPhillips Chairman of the Executive Board

2013 was the year of graduation for the SUCCESS Centre, as it passed the Research Council of Norway mid-term evaluation. The Research Council of Norway (RCN) has granted continuation of the SUCCESS Centre for the final 3 years of the planned eight-year period, a confirmation of research quality and direction in the centre. The total number of Master students, PhDs and Post docs in the total SUCCESS Centre portfolio in 2013 was 33. The count of FME SUCCESS scientific peer reviewed journals and reports has reached a total of 96 since startup in 2010. Collaboration agreements with 3 new projects have been established: IMPACT, MatMoRa II and Virtual CO2 Lab. In addition, the SUCCESS consortium signed a new collaboration agreement late fall 2013 with a KPN hosted by Uni CIPR: LCSANS. This project is included in the Centre Portfolio for 2014. Following recommendations from the RCN mid-term evaluation, a process of restructuring of the SUCCESS Centre has been initiated, which will strengthen and facilitate increased integration of the work packages. An internationally recognized strength of FME SUCCESS is its expertise within theoretical research. Hence, the centre will still have a strong foundation within basic research, interpreting the results of field and laboratory experiments, in order to predict the long-term effects of CO2 storage. However, future scientific activities should gradually become more applied and be targeted towards solving challenges experienced during CO2 injection and storage operations in field. Laboratory experiments are very important, but there is a need to close the gap from lab to field implementation of results. This can be achieved by getting access to and study real field cases through collaboration with the Operators. This will give the Centre an excellent opportunity to demonstrate expertize through offering solutions to real challenges.


The SUCCESS Centre was established in 2010 as one of Norway’s centers of environmentally-friendly energy research (CEER). These centers have a guaranteed financing of five years, with a possible prolonging for three years after a midterm evaluation staged by the Research Council (RCN). A good process The midway evaluation of SUCCESS took place during 2013. The process started already in the fall of 2012, when all partners delivered self-evaluation reports. An international expert panel appointed to evaluate met with the SUCCESS Centre in Bergen March 13. The self-evaluation process has been very useful, as it is of great value to take the time to get an overview of the work in a complex project such as ours. As part of this task, the management has discussed possible adjustments to the project plan for the second half of the period.

“... the overall quality of the research performed by the Centre is excellent and of high international calibre.” The Evaluation Committee 10

The evaluation The evaluators found SUCCESS to be a productive centre that has developed a large R&D portfolio and an impressive postgraduate educational program in the first three years. In the considerations from RCN, plans for the remaining three years were requested. The answer is that “the vision and overall direction of the centre stands firm”. However, adjustments aiming at scientific issues in geological CO2 storage are underway. The theoretical research, which is well internationally recognized, should be used as a platform to develop a more applied edge, having an even clearer focus on science critically related to demo projects and selected field pilots. Contract prolonged with three years For SUCCESS the conclusion was that we – on certain conditions – will have our contract prolonged with three years after the initial five year period. The conditions set for SUCCESS were based on the evaluation panel’s recommendations, which should be answered by a plan on issues like

The Evaluation Committee consisted of two groups Scientific experts to evaluate the scientific quality etc: Christian Bernstone, Vattenfall, Sweden Vit Hladik, Czech Geological Survey (CGS), Czech Republic Generalists to evaluate the centre management, organization etc: Per Stenius, prof emeritus, Finland Mattias Lundberg, VINNOVA, Sweden

strengthened international cooperation, better work package integration, updated innovation strategy, and better integration of the industrial partners into the Centre’s research activities. An internal process in the Centre has been initiated and will be a direct follow-up of the evaluation until the summer of 2014. Dissemination of results and outreach activities will play an important role in the Centre, including high quality peer review papers and communication of results to the public. During the final period, there will be a continued focus on this.

“Achievements of the Centre in the area of researcher training, engagement and education are excellent.� The Evaluation Committee

Read more about the FME evaluations here:


Rohaldin Miri, PhD Research Fellow (Inject), University of Oslo, Department of Geosciences


Focus on Phase Equilibria and Thermophysical Properties of CO2 For us to be sure that transport and injection of CO2 go without problems, it is necessary that we have knowledge of its phase-state and thermophysical properties. By phase-state we mean if the CO2 is fluid or in gasform, or even in what is called supercritical state, with density as a liquid and viscosity as a gas. Determining the phase-state is essential for both pipeline transportation design and for modelling how the plume of CO2 in the reservoir might migrate. For example, if the CO2 transported in a pipeline varies between two phases, this would cause additional pressure drop, requiring more energy to pump the CO2 and thereby giving higher transportation costs. Furthermore, the variation (phase splitting) may increase the possibility of forming dense fluids that corrode the pipeline, and also it may decrease the performance of the injection pumps and compressors. In addition, when modelling fluid flow in the reservoir we need knowledge of available phases so that phase dependent parameters (i.e. capillary pressure and relative permeability) can be entered into the models in a proper way.

(ionic interactions) and other gases such as CH4, SO2, and H2S (dispersive interactions). These impurities make the use of standard engineering EoS’s of the Van der Waals type (Peng-Robinson or Soave-Redlich-Kwong) almost impossible. Therefore, during the last year, the SUCCESS Centre has conducted a comprehensive research in order to face these challenges via a modern and more advanced equation of state. The Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) is one promising approach that can account for different intermolecular interactions such as association, polarity and formation of chains. Among different versions of SAFT EoS, we are now trying out SAFT1-RPM to calculate the composition of each component in available phases of a CO2-H2O-salt-impurities mixture. This is because of its accuracy and predictive capabilities in modelling of associating electrolyte fluids.

Among the thermophysical properties, density and viscosity are the most important of parameters directly affecting the transport velocity of CO2. It is well accepted that in order to minimize the cost of CO2 transport through pipelines, one should keep the pressure sufficiently high (i.e. higher density), retain viscosity low (i.e. lower pressure drop) and perform the whole operation in one single phase. The most efficient CO2 state for achieving these goals is ‘supercritical’ (density of a liquid, but viscosity of a gas). Moreover, CO2 at supercritical state has much higher density than at gas state, which implies higher storage capacity. We achieve this state if both temperature and pressure are increased to a level higher than the critical point (where you cannot distinguish between liquid and gas). Challenge and solution To describe the relation between measurable properties of a system, such as pressure, temperature and volume, we use formulas called equations of state (EoS). These in general work for “simple fluids”, where the interactions between molecules are very weak (the system is very close to “ideal conditions”). The challenge with respect to predicting the phase-state and thermophysical properties of CO2 is that the CO2-water system in general is a “complex fluid” with strong non-idealities. The non-idealities mostly originate from water molecules (due to hydrogen bonding), dissolved salts

Quality of CO2 The impurities mentioned above may be leftovers from the capture phase, while others like light hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) are mixed with the injected CO2 stream deep in the well. Separation of the impurities may in some cases not be economically beneficial. article cont. on page 14 13

Publications R. Miri, H. Hellevang,P. Aagaard, A. Braathen, Phase relations in the Longyearbyen CO2 lab reservoir - forecasts for CO2 injection and migration, 2014, submitted to Norwegian Journal of Geology. R. Miri, P. Aagaard, H. Hellevang, Examination of CO2-SO2 Solubility in Water by SAFT1 Equation of State – Implications for CO2 Transport and Storage, In progress. Figure: (left) Pressure-temperature diagram of CO2 along with other impurities. Some of the impurities (like CH4) reduce the critical point of CO2, while others (like SO2) give the reverse consequence. (right) Gas solubilities in the H2O-rich phase at given temperature vs pressure. Light hydrocarbons such as CH4 show negative effect and consequently reduce the potential of solubility trapping of CO2.

Beside this, some impurities are toxic and emissions of them may show to be hazardous from an environmental and human health viewpoint. Therefore, co-injection of toxic gases together with CO2 in deep geological formation aquifers may be an appealing solution. However, careful attention must be given to specification of the stored impure CO2, as both transportation and long-term storage stages could be affected. Our prediction using SAFT EoS has shown that, regardless of the source, the existence of impurities (in some cases even with small percentages) affects the two-phase region, the critical point of carbon dioxide, the mutual solubility of CO2-water as well as the density of mixtures. This might be positive or negative, depending on operating conditions and the concentration of impurities. For instance, hydrocarbon impurities like CH4 – relevant to the Longyearbyen CO2 Lab pilot project (LYB CO2) – would result in a favourable density difference and faster plume migration. In addition, methane impurities reduce the critical temperature, which at Sleipner


R. Miri, M. Halvorsen, P. Aagaard, H. Hellevang, Degradation of Steel in the H2O-CO2-SO2 System – Implications for CO2 Transport and Storage, In progress.

might be a useful way to keep the CO2 in supercritical state. However, even small percentages of methane will decrease the solubility of CO2 in water resulting in less CO2 storage via dissolution trapping at the end. (Figure above). Future Plans In future our focus will be mostly on prediction of more thermophysical properties such as viscosity, surface tension etc. Moreover, in order to make our research practical to use for other SUCCESS partners, we plan to prepare a friendly user-interface to the EoS codes. This interface should be capable of exporting the results in a format compatible with commercial simulators like Eclipse and CMG. It should also be possible to directly integrate the code with other geochemical, geomechanical and fluid flow models for more accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties.

Partners Industry partners CGG ConocoPhillips Lundin Norway AS RWE Dea Norge AS Statoil Petroleum ASA Research partners Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) UniResearch (Uni) University of Bergen (UiB) University of Oslo (UiO) University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)


Erosion and corrosion of the cement in wells The solid surfaces in pipelines and injection wells used in connection with CO2 storage will serve as adsorption sites for hydrate formers. In addition, CO2 and H2S will promote corrosion and conversion of iron oxides to iron carbonates and other components. Water will adsorb out onto a rusty surface at a factor of 5 times that of water condensing out as liquid water. On a nano-scale, the structure of any type of cement used for well completion is incompatible with rust (dominated by Fe2O3), which leaves space between the cement and the iron reinforcement. Water and CO2 will enter the space and lead to erosion of the cement as well as corrosion under these low pH conditions. In a worst-case scenario, this may lead to leakage pathways through the injection well completion.

Photo shows hydrate plug formed in pipeline

Hydrate risk analysis In FME SUCCESS Work Package 6, in the integrated project INJECT, Bjørn Kvamme and his internationally renowned research group study hydrate formation from water dissolved in CO2. Hydrate formation is clearly favored by low temperature and high pressure. Hydrate formation is known to the oil industry to create plugs in pipelines. There is a need for revision of «Best practice» for evaluation of risk for hydrate formation during transport of hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide containing water. 16

Figure shows CO2 (enhanced red and grey) adsorbing onto Hematite from water solution. Adsorbed CO2chemical potential: -39.21 kJ/mole

Gas hydrate formations occur naturally and large sub-sea reserves are also discovered, usually at a depth ranging between 500 and 2,000 metres, also off the West coast of Norway. Source:

Fundamental multi-scale study In order to investigate these processes, a fundamental multi-scale study is in progress. First stage of the study is a combination of quantum mechanics and molecular dynamic simulation modeling intended to establish all relevant thermodynamic processes, as well as transport properties. The main goal of this part is to establish necessary information to enable implementation into a reactive transport reservoir simulator for a risk analysis. Impact of hydrate formation in cold regions of storage reservoirs. A second activity has focused on the impact of hydrate formation in cold regions of storage reservoirs. This is relevant even for the field Snøhvit located in the northern part of the Norwegian Sea 140 kilometres (87 mi) northwest of Hammerfest, Norway, if the CO2 plume reaches the upper few hundred meters. Published results from these studies indicate that the vertical permeability goes drastically down in hydrate regions. But, in those regions the horizontal permeability also goes down, so horizontal spreading of the CO2 plume is reduced by hydrate formation. It is also demonstrated that hydrate cannot seal imperfections in shale or clay layers. It can slow down vertical fluxes of CO2, but the hydrate will dissociate towards undersaturated groundwater. There is a balance between the fracture size, the rate of dissociation and the dissolution of released CO2 into the groundwater.


Clathrate hydrates (or gas hydrates) are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside “cages� of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water.

Source: Wikipedia


Smart, fast and accurate modeling Vertical equilibrium models allow for very accurate resolution of thin plume migration, thus simplifying the discretization requirements and computational overhead. Sarah Gasda, researcher at UniCIPR


Motivation CO2 storage in saline aquifers faces unique computational challenges due to the significant density difference and unfavorable mobility ratio between CO2 and brine, as well as the large spatial and temporal scales required to assess the feasibility of long-term storage. These features result in a gravity-dominated flow regime characterized by a relatively thin CO2 plume migrating beneath a sealing caprock layer. The flow will be impacted by the caprock topography, residual entrapment, and mutual solubility. To track this phenomenon, a high vertical resolution is necessary when using traditional commercial simulators. However, having a high resolution in all directions creates a computationally intractable problem. The convection of CO2 dissolution may even cause simulation instabilities. To mitigate these difficulties, vertical equilibrium models have been proposed. Figure 1: Cross-section

Model The model assumes vertical equilibrium, meaning that fluids segregate according to gravity and capillary forces on a shorter time-scale than that of investigation. Figure 1 illustrates this concept of how a vertical crosssection is now divided into three partitions. The vertical configuration can then be analytically handled, giving a virtual, infinite resolution on that axis. The field is thus reduced from a full, three-dimensional description to a two-dimensional equivalent. article cont. on page 20

Figure 2: Simulation from the IGEMS project; Left: Surface, colored after elevation, blue is deepest, red is most shallow; Right: Cross-section, brine in blue, mobile CO2 in dark red, zone with residual CO2 in light red.


In the new two-dimensional grid, pressure and saturation are replaced with upscaled variants, and the model provides pseudo-functions for relative permeability and capillary pressure, which capture the behavior of the upscaled columns. Model impacts Vertical equilibrium models allow for very accurate resolution of thin plume migration, thus simplifying the discretization requirements and computational overhead. The running time of a model using the vertical equilibrium model may thus be an order of magnitude faster than a conventional simulation. The preprocessing to set up the model is negligible compared to the reduction in running time. It has not been investigated which effect impacts the running time the most. This increase in performance makes the vertical equilibrium model excellent for fast prototyping of features such as well placement, or ensemble simulations for inverse modeling or sensitivity analysis. Within the upscaled modeling framework, a number of other physical, chemical and thermal processes can be included, either through upscaling or via coupling with three-dimensional models. This increases the model capability to many different types of geological systems relevant for CO2 storage.

Key figures FME SUCCESS 2013 - Cost (All figures in 1000 NOK) WP 1 - Storage, geocharacterization WP 2 - Storage, flow WP 3 - Sealing properties WP 4 - Monitoring of reservoir overburden WP 5 - The marine component WP 6 - Operatons (excl INJECT) WP 7 - CO2 School Equipment and running costs Centre coordination and scientific management Centre builiding initiatives and SUCCESS seminars Prof II positions Industry participation (in kind) Total budget

4 367 1 588 2 298 3 809 4 004 2 435 517 414 2 768 579 388 1 778 24 943

FME SUCCESS 2013 - Funding Total Public funding 9 298 Industry funding 6 046 Research Council of Norway 9 599 TOTAL 24 943 Publications Journal publications 23 Reports 5 Presentations and posters 78 In media 17 For a complete overview, please visit


Staff and scientific advisors as of December 2013

Executive Board Members Arne Rokkan, CGG Kåre R. Vagle, Conoco Phillips (Chair) Bjørg Andresen, Institute for Energy Technology Søren Hegndal Andersen, Lundin Norway Bahman Bohloli, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Anne Skjærstein, RWE Dea Sveinung Hagen, Statoil Petroleum AS Arne Skauge, UniResearch/CIPR Truls Johannessen, University of Bergen Aage Stangeland, Research Council of Norway (Observer) Niels Peter Christensen, Gassnova (Observer) Arvid Nøttvedt (Centre Manager) SUCCESS Scientific Advisory Committee Stefan Bachu, CO2 Geological Storage, Alberta Research Council. Dag Nummedal, Colorado School of Mines Claus Otto, Exploratory Research and CO2 Solutions in Shell Nick Riley, British Geological Survey

Work Package Team Work Package 1 leader: Helge Hellevang (University of Oslo) Work Package 2 leader: Ivar Aavatsmark (UniResearch) Work Package 3 leader: Nina Simon (Institute for Energy Technology) Work Package 4 leader: Marion Børresen (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) Work Package 5 leader: Abdir Omar (UniResearch) Work Package 6 leader: Magnus Wangen (Institute for Energy Technology) Work Package 7 leader: Thor A. Thorsen (University of Oslo) Contact person Norwegian Institute of Water Research, Kai Sørensen Contact person University Centre in Svalbard, Alvar Braathen Contact person, Institute of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bjørn Kvamme Centre Management Arvid Nøttvedt, CMR (Centre Manager) Per Aagaard, UiO (Scientific Leader) Ivar Aavatsmark, Uni CIPR (Scientific Leader) Charlotte G. Krafft, CMR (Centre Coordinator) Gudmund A. Dalsbø (CO2 project Coordinator UiO)


Christian Hermanrud from Statoil/Associate Professor at UiB with his Master students


Collaboration between academia and research is vital to the FME Centres, and FME SUCCESS clearly states in the Centre vision that an important deliverable from the Centre should be training of personnel and recruitment to the subject of CO2 storage. The Centre early established a new course at University of Bergen (UiB): GEOV367 Hydrocarbon Exploration and CO2 Storage. As responsible for the Course, FME SUCCESS has since 2010 financed Christian Hermanrud from Statoil, as Associate Professor at UiB. Christian’s background, as a geologist and his long experience from Statoil, perfectly illustrates one of the main goals of the FME Centers: science and industry joining their efforts and combining their knowledge and results on CO2 storage. Course GEOV367 The course GEOV367 consists of two parts. The first part familiarizes the students with the most important CO2 storage projects, lessons learned, and what geology-based decisions are made during site selection and operation of CO2 storage sites. The second part covers practical hydrocarbon exploration based on real exploration prospects. We met Christian and the students at Vil Vite Senteret in Bergen during the intensive course in 2014, where 15 students were attending. Three of them were Christian’s most recent Master students: Karoline Aylin Atakan, Kjersti Nylend and Ole Christian Sollie. All found the course very interesting. They underline the importance of having a lecturer with hands-on experience from actual cases, and state that the possibility to work on practical tasks based on real prospects is highly appreciated among the students. They feel the course enlightens the topic of CO2 storage in a good way, being a field, which for many, is new and unknown.

Why, What, How, Results and Implications In addition to the responsibility for the GEOV367 Course, Christian has been supervising Master students at UiB on these topics for several years leading to four students already examined. Christian thinks it is very important that his students are able to explain the importance of their work both to other professionals and to the public, with a clear reference to challenges in “the real world”. “It is important to be able to convey to an audience, WHY the research done is important, WHAT has been done, HOW the work was done and finally communicate the RESULTS and IMPLICATIONS”, he eagerly explains. article cont. at page 24 GEOV367 at University of Bergen: The course consists of two parts. The first part familiarizes the students with the most important CO2 storage projects. The second part covers practical hydrocarbon exploration. This part consists primarily of prospect evaluation drills, based on real exploration prospects. Completing the course GEOV367 the students should be able to: • describe the most important geological experiences and challenges related to CO2 storage in the subsurface • recognize the most critical elements associated with a hydrocarbon exploration prospect • give a reasonable assessment of the potential of an undrilled target More info on link to course page at UiB: 23

Maiken Haugvaldstad , Elisa Christensen and Christian Hermanrud

Current Master students of Christian Hermanrud

Master students in PeStoH Maiken Haugvaldsrud and Elisa Christensen participated in the GEOV367 Course in 2013, and are currently finalizing their Master projects. Christian is their supervisor and described as committed, enthusiastic and with great knowledge of the subjects. He has founded a group at UiB: Petroleum and CO2 Storage Students of Hermanrud –PeStoH. The group has regular meetings where the students give presentations to each other and Christian. They present their goals, methods, tentative results and the “claims” of their research -what is it that we do not know, and what motivates the research? The forum demands that a reasonably bright 11 year old kid understand the main subject of the presentation. In addition, research progress is evaluated, as well as the clarity of communication and new approaches or angles to the research.

Christian‘s supervision has given the students a point of entry towards the industry. Both Maiken and Elisa have their work office at Statoil in Bergen and feel that they work on applied and relevant problems. They have been given the opportunity to present their results for both industry and government, like the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD). “We have been trained and drilled in PeStoH meetings to explain what we’re working on and how to communicate the implications of the results. This is an extremely valuable training for future work and prepares us for meetings with different stakeholders and intricate questions from the audience”. They both appreciate the possibility to work on a Master thesis with an applied use and interest to the industry as well as academia. Maiken already has a job back home in Stavanger and is in no doubt that the choice of Master thesis and supervisor has given her a kick-start in her career and working life.


“We have been trained and drilled in PeStoH meetings to explain what we’re working on and how to communicate the implications of the results. This is an extremely valuable training for future work and prepares us for meetings with different stakeholders and intricate questions from the audience”. Maiken Haugvaldstad and Elisa Christensen, Master students

Current Master Students of Christian Hermanrud at UiB Maiken Haugvaldstad: «Importance of remobilized sand for the sand distribution in the Utsira Formation» Elisa Christensen: «Sediment remobilization in the Hordaland Group with emphasis on the Sleipner and Johan Sverdrup areas» Kjersti Nylend: «Vertical fault leakage from stacked reservoirs in the Barents Sea» Ole Christian Sollie: «Vertical Fault leakage in the northern and eastern parts of the Viking Graben» Karoline Aylin Atakan: «Hydrocarbon column height controls at the eastern part of Haltenbanken» Remi Ersland (not on photo): «Vertical fault leakage at the western (overpressured) part of Haltenbanken»


In Work Package 3 in FME SUCCESS, Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) has utilized geochemical data from core material from the UNIS CO2 Lab wells to define a seal sequence concept above and within the CO2 reservoir in the Longyearbyen subsurface sediments. The input data for this concept are compositional and stable isotope data from gas samples and Sr isotope data from residual salts in cores (reconstructed present day formation water). Longyearbyen caprock and reservoir sediments appear in outcrop (Fig 1) and geochemical data (here gas stable isotope data) can be obtained through sampling (Fig 3) from the core material. Gas wetness and Sr isotopes in water define three major fluid stratigraphic breaks in the depth profile down to and through the Longyearbyen reservoir (Fig 2). The upper break occurs in the interval 200-250 m, and is evident for both water and gas, while the middle break occurs at about 400-420 m. The middle break is expressed by strongly increased gas wetness below a major thrust fault zone, while the lower break is in the reservoir, and is expressed by a Sr isotope jump close to an important pressure barrier. The seal sequence concept defined in this way implies that the compartmentalization pattern observed has been operative over the geologic history of the basin. The concept further implies that this natural behaviour is expected to be the best predictive guide for the behaviour of the seal sequence in a situation where stored CO2 will try to make its way towards the surface. The break at 200-250 m is interpreted as the depth limit of influence of the meteoric system. We tentatively define the sequence between this depth and the reservoir as the effective thickness of the proven 26

Figure 1 shows how the Longyearbyen caprock and reservoir sediments appear in outcrop and core sample perspective, with an inset of the kind of geochemical data (here gas stable isotope data) that can be obtained from the core material.

Figure 2. Gas wetness and water Sr isotope data that define geochemical compartments in the Longyearbyen seal and reservoir sequence. The figure illustrates how gas wetness and Sr isotopes in water define three major fluid stratigraphic breaks in the depth profile down to and through the reservoir.

seal sequence. Above this limit, migrating CO2 may be subjected to surface processes including artesian water flow, while the sequence below this limit appears to have been out of communication with the surface in the past, and is by inference assumed to behave in a similar manner in a CO2 storage context. This interpretation is highly consistent with the observed pressure-depth profile. A zone of significant underpressure below hydrostatic is observed in the deeper part of the well, while the upper aquifer at around 180-200 m depth is giving overpressure evidence for artesian water flow.

Figure 3. The specially designed sampling containers used to produce the gas data.

The strategy applied here is that “the past geological history is a key to the behaviour during future operations�. The gas barriers and fluid pathways identified from geochemistry, are assumed to be the same elements that will control fluid flow during future CO2 injection. Each storage site will have its specific geologic architecture, but this method of geochemical fluid mapping can be applied everywhere. This Longyearbyen example thus demonstrates in a general way that geochemical mapping of the overburden has the potential to define the effective thickness and quality of the seal sequence. 27

Physical properties of CO2-saturated rock are noticeably different from those of brine- or oil-saturated formation. Consequently, injecting CO2 into target reservoir formation may considerably alter the seismic signature propagating from the storage formation, which in turn makes possible both qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the sequestrated CO2, for ex-

Ă˜istein Johnsen in the laboratory at NGI

ample, by utilizing seismic field data to track the CO2 plume movement and to assess the geomechanical integrity of the target reservoir and caprock formations. In contrast with typical formation pore fluids, CO2 in the reservoir condition can be present in three different phases; gas, liquid and supercritical states. Practically, the liquid and supercritical states are preferred due to easier handling and more economical transportation. Importantly with respect to the geological storage, the two states are beneficial for efficient CO2 storage into the subsurface thanks to the higher viscosity and sweep efficiency. A series of rock physics laboratory experiment is made at Norwegian Geotechnical institute (NGI) by utilizing a pressure cell. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique is used to acquire both of longitudinal, VP, and shear, VS of a Red Wildmoor Sandstone core that is fully saturated with CO2. Work performed by Javad Naseryan Moghadam (UiO PhD student) in cooperation with Ă˜istein Johnsen (NGI). Figures and conclusions from abstract Accepted for 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, Amsterdam, 16 - 19 June 2014. Javad is supervised by Nazmul Haque Mondol at NGI i collaboration with UiO.


“... this study gives valuable information relevant for monitoring field scale CO2 injection”

reduction can be interpreted as an indication of CO2 phase transition from gaseous to liquid and super-critical states. After exceeding the critical pressure, the observed VP is first rather stable and then increasing slightly. Shear wave velocity (VS) shows the same decreasing trend up to the critical pressure. Increasing the CO2 pressure beyond the critical point, however, does not affect the observed VS values (Figure 2). This phenomenon can be justified by the rock physics interpretation, as follows. With increasing the CO2 pressure up to the critical value, the increment of density domi-

Figure 1 & 2: Observed VP and VS values at different temperature (T) and CO2 pressure (PCO2) conditions Figure 1 & 2: Observed VP and VS values at different temperature (T) and CO2 pressure (PCO2) conditions

Even though the sample is an analogue sandstone, this study gives valuable information relevant for monitoring field scale CO2 injection (i.e. Sleipner and Snøhvit). A less porous sandstone sample from Longyearbyen CO2 pilot has been tested in this study as well. The velocity measurement is made as the CO2 pressure (pore pressure) increases from 0 to 17 MPa, while maintaining the effective confining stress at 10MPa. The series of measurements are repeated at three different temperatures of 22, 30 and 40ºC. During the experiment the reduction in longitudinal velocity (VP) is observed, up to 150 m/s (6%) around the critical pressure (Figure 1). This

nates that of both bulk and shear moduli, and the overall velocity decreases. Beyond the critical pressure, the situation is in the other way around for the bulk modulus, resulting in the increasing VP. On the other hand, the shear wave velocity is only a function of rock shear modulus, which remains unchanged beyond the critical pressure. Finally, it is also observed that the critical pressure (i.e. CO2 liquid to supercritical phase transition) at T=40 ºC is between 7-9 MPa, which is higher than that at T=22 ºC (between 4-6 MPa). The phenomenon is in total agreement with the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 under different temperature and pressure conditions. 29

Macroinvertebrates has been used in environmental monitoring for more than a 100 years and are very useful as health indicators in both laboratory experiments and in situ investigations because of community sensitivity to hypoxia, organic matter enrichment and several other impacts. In 2013, SUCCESS partner NIVA has performed two benthic mesocosm studies to investigate the potential benthic impacts and effects of formation waters with high CO2, low oxygen (hypoxic) and high salinity (hyper-saline “brine�) on sediment community structure and functions. Objectives: Mesocosm experiments will be used to quantify the relationships between elevated CO2 levels, hypoxic and hyper-saline bottom waters and the response of benthic organism communities and biogeochemistry. The data produced will support the prediction of potential leakage impacts, the assessment of risk and will identify community level biomarkers that could be used in biological monitoring and modelling of CO2 storage sites. 30

Karl Norling , researcher at NIVA, during fieldwork

Mesocosm setup at Solbergstrand

Polychaete on top of sediment sample

Sediments with intact fauna communities were sampled in the field prior to experimental manipulations in a mesocosm. The setup contained five different experimental water treatments to investigate short and long term impacts on organism communities and biogeochemical fluxes, pathways and pore-water characteristics.

NIVA primarily investigates impacts on macroinvertebrate animal (> 1 mm) communities living on the sediment surface or buried in sediments. Species richness (diversity) is often above 50 macroinvertebrate taxa per box mesocosm and animal densities are between 1000 and 3000 ind. per m2. Dominating animal groups are polychaetes, molluscs (mussels and snails), echinoderms and crustaceans.

Seafloor sediments and carbon capture Sediment communities play a major role in climate regulation and global carbon sequestration as the dominating seafloor habitat covering ~ 70% of the world surface area. Since 1850, oceans have been able to sequester approximately 25% of the CO2 released by human activities. This natural carbon capture involves incorporation into biomass due to the biological activity and the sequestration of carbon in the seafloor sediments.

In previous studies polychaetes has been described as less sensitive to high pCO2 concentrations (low pH) compared to other animal groups. In general all species are sensitive to severe hypoxia (anoxia), but hyper-saline treatments have to our knowledge not been studied previously. NIVA and collaborators investigated multiple stressors in similar experiments to enable comparisons between different single, as well as multiple, effects on similar organism communities. Results from the experiments will be presented at scientific symposiums during 2014. article cont. on page 32


Remaining work contains analyses of the last samples from the mesocosm study and statistical analysis of the data set, before the final results will be published in a manuscript during 2014.

on benthic ecosystem functions mediated by macrofauna, and impacts on meiofauna communities, foraminifera (UiO), microorganisms and viruses (UNIVMP). In addition, biogeochemical characteristics will be further investigated to facilitate rapid in situ benthic monitoring in areas of interest (NIVA and PML).

Benthic: The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Source: Wikipedia Macroinvertebrates: Organisms without backbones, which are visible to the eye without the aid of a microscope, i.e worms, urchins, mussels and snails. Source: Wiktionary

Photo showing Ana M QueirĂłs, benthic ecologist at PML working during the mesocosm experiments, which also were funded by the FP7 project ECO2 (website:

Sediment community experiments were conducted in collaboration with Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), University of Oslo (UiO) and Universita Politecnica della Marche (UNIVMP). Collaborating partners will investigate effects on other organism communities’. PML will investigate the impacts 32

Mesocosmos: An experimental tool that brings a small part of the natural environment under controlled conditions. In this way it provides a link between observational field studies that take place in natural environments, but without replication, and controlled laboratory experiments that may take place under somewhat unnatural conditions. Source: Wikipedia Taxa: In biology, a taxon (plural: taxa) is a group of one (or more) populations of organism(s), which a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit. Source: Wikipedia

The new course, CO2 storage - Physical and Chemical Processes, was taught for the first time over two weeks in October 2013. The course included the participation in the SUCCESS Fall Seminar and was summed up by a practical two-day workshop on the Illinois Basin - Decatur CCS project. Both Master and PhD-students attended the course. SUCCESS students and future researchers Capacity building and expert training in all aspects of containment and storage of CO2 is one of the main pillars in SUCCESS. In 2013 there were about 20 master students and 20 PhD students involved in research projects on monitoring and storage of CO2 under the SUCCESS umbrella as well as 4 postdoctoral researchers. They will all be a valuable asset to the future work with containment and storage of CO2, for Norwegian research institutes, international industry and global society. New CO2 course established at University of Oslo Knowledge transfer and competence building is a strong commitment and motivation for the SUCCESS Centre. Therefore, our researchers have been developing specially designed courses for students interested in containment and storage of CO2 (see courses at The SUCCESS group at UiO has developed a course GEO5910/ GEO9910, focusing on the physical and chemical processes involved when injecting CO2 into permeable sandstone capped with a tight fine-grained seal – CO2 storage. To ensure the latest knowledge on themes as kinetics and chemical reactions of CO2, modelling of fluid-flow equilibria and multiphase flow and trapping mechanisms of CO2 as well as geomechanics in reservoirs and seals, the students were taught by SUCCESS-researchers as well as international experts.

FME SUCCESS PhD students and Post docs also participated in Summer Schools like NORDICCS Summer School, an intensive, one-week course in Bergen/Trondheim organized by the Nordic CCS Competence Centre, and the Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration (RECS) 2013 training program in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Other established courses relevant for CO2 storage The University Centre in Svalbard offers two courses, Polar Seismic Exploration (AG-335) and Geological constraints of CO2 sequestration (AG-341). Both courses give 10 ECTS ( University of Bergen offers the course Geological processes: Use in hydrocarbon exploration and CO2 storage (GEOV367), for more information see page 23. 33

SUCCESS Fall Seminar The annual SUCCESS Fall Seminar 2013 consisted of 17 talks with highlights from SUCCESS projects and the associated Longyearbyen CO2Lab as well as invited keynote lectures placing the centre’s research into an international context. As communication and public dissemination is an important skill that urge for practice and training, our most advanced PhD-students and junior researchers presented their latest results and findings by simple words in the greater context in a TED-like fashion after individual coaching at this year’s seminar.


A panel debate closed the seminar. Just a few weeks prior to the seminar, there was election to the Norwegian parliament resulting in a new government. Furthermore, the outgoing government had announced a change in direction of commitment to Carbon Capture and Storage which was a real setback for anyone working with CCS. The some 90 delegates at the seminar were therefore anxious to hear the visions and positions on CCS from politicians from both sides as well as the views of Norwegian industry and environmental organizations on the current uncertain situation. The members of the panel were all in strong favour of a continuation of the Norwegian dedication to combat climate change with CCS and by doing so, reaching the high ambitions of the 2-degree target.

Communication of results Communication of our latest results and findings is an another main pillar. Our annual fall seminar is mentioned. In addition, our associated researchers discuss their results, not only with their peers through conference contributions and articles, but with the public through media and in other forums. In 2013, as well as previous years, our researchers met with the public discussing the role of CCS in the future energy mix at science fairs and other forms of visits and public meetings. In addition, we distribute our newsletter to the partners and other interested parties every other month informing about our latest activities on containment and storage of CO2. The newsletter archive is to be found at our webpage, In media FME SUCCESS has had an increased focus on public and scientific outreach from the Centre. In 2013, 17 articles etc was in media, two of them being TV interviews. Several web articles have been printed in Teknisk Ukeblad ,, ABC-nyheter, Climit etc. article cont. on page 36


Can researchers be good storytellers? This year SUCCESS ran a coaching program for PhD students and junior researchers, aiming at improving their skills in communicating research to the general public. The idea of the SUCCESS Outreach School is to give the Centre’s young scientists inspiration, tools and methods they can utilize in order to reach across with their results and describe their work to an audience.

Six of the participants each gave a five-minute presentation at the Fall Seminar, thus providing the audience with an alternative look at dissemination. Reaching out to all ages: CO2 Week in Longyearbyen UNIS CO2 Labs outreach program, coordinated with the local schools to create CO2 week between the 29th of April and the 3rd of May. The classes incorporated global warming into their curriculum and several people from UNIS and Store Norske mining company were involved in various lectures, exercises and excursions during the week. While the idea behind teaching each group was ultimately the same, the approach and the amount of information varied greatly depending on the age of the children/adolescents. Most of the learning was interactive using simple tools. Among other things the children made CO2 which expanded balloons over the concoction of vinegar and baking soda, they had the chance to watch how CO2 behaves in water and even get an understanding of porosity as they experimented with rocks and water in a container. FME SUCCESS Post doc Ingrid Anell as Dioxy during CO2 week in Longyearbyen

Photo: Rohaldin Miri, Anja Sundal, Karin Landschulze, centre manager Arvid Nøttvedt, Hilde Kristine Hvidevold, Beyene Girma Haile, Javad Naseryan-Moghadam

Two workshops were held March 11 and 12, at the SUCCESS Winter seminar. March 11th Marianne Nødtvedt Knudsen ( Msc. drama pedagogy) working as a music teacher, a freelance drama teacher, director and actor, held a workshop focusing on teambuilding with theater games. March 12th the participants were challenged to make scientific results become funny and interesting stories by the coaching team from Researchers Grand Prix in Bergen, at Christian Michelsen Research. Two rounds of individual coaching were held in Oslo and Bergen in spring and early fall. 36

The youngest children blew bubbles, heated a plastic box with a mini earth inside, drew pictures and of course, watched ‘the arctic adventures of Dioxy’ (the movie). Several groups also had excursions to the CO2 site and to Store Norsk Core storage lab. Oslo Science Fair September 19th and 20th Oslo Science Fair was held with thousands of visitors attending. UiO represented SUCCESS. At our stand, visitors of all ages could study reservoir rocks (sandstones) and caprocks (shale) in hand specimen and in microscope. Kids helped out with a small experiment illustrating how CO2 gas moves upwards and thereby the importance of a good caprock. This simple experiment engaged a lot of attention to the stand and to discuss the principals of subsurface CO2 storage. Conferences In 2013, SUCCESS researchers and students participated at several conferences like: • LE STUDIUM conference «Geochemical Reactivity in CO2 Geological Storage Sites», held in Orléans • EGU, Vienna April 7–12 • Carbonchain project meeting, Norwich, April 24–26 • ACI 5th Carbon Capture & Storage Summit, Rotterdam May 15–16 • The 7th Trondheim CCS Conference (TCCS-7),June 4–6 • 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, London June 10–13 • IEAGHG Combined Modelling and Risk Management Network Meeting, Trondheim June 10–13 • SIAM Conference on Mathematical and Computational Issues in the Geosciences, Padova June 17–20 • ASLO meetings • The Svalbard Course, August 5–15

Curious children attending Longyearbyen CO2 week


Expanding the Centre portfolio The SUCCESS Centre continues to expand and has in 2013 signed collaboration agreements with two new projects: LCSANS and Large Scale Storage on Norwegian Shelf. The total SUCCESS portfolio now has a total value of more than 350 mill NOK

Fully integrated SUCCESS project Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2011 Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2012 Signed collaboration agreements with SUCCESS 2013 38

LCSANS – Capacity of large-scale CO2 storage in North Sea sloping aquifers from numerical simulation is a three year project based at the Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research (Uni CIPR) and sponsored by the Research Council of Norway (Climit program), Foundation CMG, Total Norge and RWE Dea Norge. The project was launched in April 2013.The research focuses on the reliability of simulation tools for assessment of CO2 storage in sloping aquifers. The objective is to develop a best practice manual for numerical simulation of CO2 storage in North Sea sloping aquifers. The project involves studies of sensitivities, uncertainties and comparison of simulators. Different physical processes and geological information which are important for CO2 storage will be applied in these studies. November 2013 a collaboration agreement was signed between the LCSANS project and the SUCCESS Centre. For more information, see Large scale storage of CO2 on Norwegian Shelf A joint collaboration between the research partners in FME SUCCESS, FME BIGCCS, Tel-tek, IRIS and NORSAR, looked into how a joint Norwegian research community can help develop the necessary knowledge and technology needed to implement large-scale CO2 storage on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2018. A report from a national research team was published June 2013, “Large

Scale Storage of CO2 on the Norwegian shelf” (Sentrallager), identifying the most critical knowledge gaps in regards to large-scale CO2 storage by 2018. Some of the challenges identified in the report were to develop better simulation tools, gain more knowledge about the geological characteristics and processes in the reservoir over time. Knowledge of the sealing of the reservoir, well drilling and construction of wells are other important research fields that need further investigation. The report also points to the potential of combining CO2 storage with the use of CO2 to get more oil out of the fields, known as EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). To follow up the report, the research partners forwarded an application for a pre-project to Gassnova. Funding was awarded and the pre-project had its kick off in November 11, 2013, and will be finalized by June 2014. Read the report on FME SUCCESS webpage: SUCCESS Climit application In 2013 Climit approved 11 new CCS projects, the largest being PROTECT (Protection of Caprock Integrity for Large-Scale CO2 Storage), which is a joint application from FME SUCCESS, with 5 of 8 SUCCESS partners included, in which UNI Research is the host institution.


“I appreciated every moment. Not only the knowledge of the teachers and professors was of the highest level, their personal approach was really nice. Collaboration with Joint Research Centre- Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET), Petten, The Netherlands An initiative was taken by RCN in 2012 to increase Norwegian collaboration with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. In June 2013, at a meeting in Bergen, Dr Evangelos Tzimas and FME SUCCESS established contact and presented activities of both parties in areas of shared interests. At a follow up meeting on 19th October in Petten, several topics for potential collaboration were discussed, with further follow up planned for 2014. In parallel, Dr Tzimas’ PhD student, Laura Moya Rodríguez de Tudanca visited UiO in October 2013 to join the new course on Physical and Chemical Processes of CO2 Storage. She also attended to the SUCCESS Fall Seminar and the Decatur CCS Project Workshop.

Since all of them are reputed experts on their field of knowledge, I had the possibility to learn a lot from them. Moreover, I had the chance to have excellent classmates from different countries that enriched a lot our coffee breaks.” Laura Moya Rodríguez de Tudanca PhD student at JRC-IET, Petten, The Netherlands


Enjoyable Decatur workshop In conjunction with SUCCESS, the US-based Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) conducted a two-day intensive workshop on lessons learned from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP). IBDP is a 1-million tonne saline reservoir carbon dioxide storage demonstration in Decatur, Illinois, USA. The Decatur workshop was arranged over two days, 24–25 October in Oslo, following the SUCCESS Fall Seminar. From the Decatur side; Drs. Robert Finley, Sallie Greenberg (Illinois State Geological Survey) and Philip Jagucki (Schlumberger Carbon Services) enriched the audience through discussions on the setting, learnings and observations encountered by the Decatur Project of the US Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium. This unique industrial scale research and development project on CCS spans from CO2 capture from an ethanol plant to subsurface storage of one Mt CO2 in sandstones at more than 2000 m

depth. Main subjects covered was the site selection, reservoir and cap rock characteristics, and geophysical base line and plume monitoring by 2D and 3D seismics and repeated Vertical Seismic Profiling. A session on public engagement and outreach offered new tints to challenges around CCS, helping scientists to understand how public opinion fluctuates and can be critical for project development. The workshop participants were divided into groups representing very different roles and concerns, one representing the legislators and the interests of the State, and one the project developer or stakeholders. The last group represented the public with special concern on the long-term safety of the storage site. Both learnings from the CO2 storage project and the way of addressing community engagement were very enlightening lessons for the participants of the workshop.

Robert J. Finley turns the main valve to start injection of CO2 into the Mount Simon Sandstone. Finley is the Director of the Advanced Energy Technology Initiative at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Champaign, Illinois. He is currently leading the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), aimed at addressing concerns with global climate change.



Photos and illustrations Marit Hommedal, Daniel Byers (ISGS), Alvar Braathen (UiO/UNIS), Claude R. Olsen (CLIMIT), Gudmund Dalsbø (UiO), Bjørn Kvamme, UiB, Pia Norling, Karl Norling (NIVA) CMR , IFE, JRC , NGI , NIVA, Uni CIPR, Uni Research, University of Bergen, University of Oslo, UNIS, UNIS CO2 Lab Idea, layout/design Per Gunnar Lunde, CMR Editor Charlotte Gannefors Krafft, CMR


Postal Address FME-SUCCESS Christian Michelsen Research AS P.O. Box 6031 NO-5892 Bergen, Norway Visiting Address Christian Michelsen Research AS Fantoftvegen 38 Bergen, Norway Contact info

SUCCESS Annual report 2013  

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