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20th

century architects

an artistic comparision


Peter Zumthor "it reflects light and colour and gives an intimation of its inner life" Instead, he reacts to the needs of each individual commission. The Kunsthaus Bregenz art museum stands in the light of Lake Constance. It is made of glass and steel and a cast concrete stone mass which endows the interior of the building with texture and spatial composition. From the outside, the building looks like a lamp. It absorbs the changing light of the sky, the haze of the lake, it reflects light and colour and gives an intimation of its inner life according to the angle of vision, the daylight and the weather. Peter Zumthor, born April 26, 1943, Basel, Switzerland ,the son of a furniture maker and master joiner, graduated from the Kunstgewerbeschule in Basel, Switzerland, in 1963. In 1966 continued his studies at the Pratt Institute in New York City and n 1979 he established a practice in Switzerland. From the beginning, Zumthor purposefully kept his practice small so that he could be intimately involved with all elements of planning and construction.

right:

Although sometimes classified as a

middle:

minimalist because of the austerity of his spaces, Zumthor does not have a single style or material of choice.

Thermal Baths Vals

Graub存nden, Switzerland

left:

Kolumba Museum

cologne, germany

Bruder Klaus Chapel

wachendorf, germany


Kunsthaus Bregenz art museum, lake constance

bregenz, germany


Frank Gehry was born in Toronto,

a ship. Its brilliantly reflective titanium

Ontario, Canada in 1929. He studied at

panels resemble fish scales, echoing

the Universities of Southern California

the other organic life (and, in particular,

and Harvard, before he established

fish-like) forms that recur commonly

his first practice, Frank O. Gehry and

in Gehry’s designs, as well as the

Associates in 1963.

river Nervión upon which the museum

Over the years, Gehry has moved

sits. Also in typical Gehry fashion, the

away from a conventional commercial

building is uniquely a product of the

practice to a artistically directed atelier.

period’s technology.

His deconstructed architectural style began to emerge in the late 1970s when Gehry, directed by a personal vision of architecture, created collage-like compositions out of found materials. Instead of creating buildings, Gehry creates ad-hoc pieces of functional sculpture. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, is a magnificent example of the most groundbreaking architecture to have come out of the 20th century. The curves on the building have been designed to appear random. The architect has been quoted as saying that “the randomness of the curves are designed to catch the light”. The museum’s design and construction serve as an object lesson in Gehry’s style and method. Like much of Gehry’s other works, the structure consists of radically sculpted, organic contours. Sited as it is in a port town, it is intended to resemble

the Dancing House Nationale-Nederlanden

top:

Prague, Czech Republic

bottom: Ray and Maria Stata Center Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, Massachusetts, usa


Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain

"that is so stupid-looking it's great"

Frank Gehry


renZo Piano "My inspiration came from the land, ... and, of course, from Paul Klee . . . and the poetics of his paintings."


Renzo Piano was born in Genoa (ITALY)

as museums, galleries, churches, music parks, institutes and

on September 14, 1937. He graduated in

national centers, shopping centers, bridges, reconstructions of

1964 from the school of Architecture of

squares, airports.

the Milan Polytechnic.

Piano, a member of the “High-Tech” movement, established

As a student, he was working under the

technology as a starting point for his designs. Fortunately, he

design guidance of Franco Albini, while

modified his attempts to generate an architectural character

also regularly attending his father’s

based on technological forms with a concern for user comfort

building sites where he got a valuable

and needs.

practical experience.

The Paul Klee Centre is a multifunctional space: in addition to

Between 1965 and 1970, he completed

the permanent collection, it also houses temporary exhibitions

his formation and work experiments

concert hall, and a centre with ateliers for children.

with study travels in Britain and

The shapes of the building recall the curves of the surrounding

America.

landscape, thus becoming an integral part of it.

Renzo Piano ‘s principal work includes

The centre is composed of three hills made of glass and steel.

more than 40 worid-famous projects,

Each ‘hill’ corresponds to one different function of the centre, and runs through the life of the artist, who was a painter, a musician and a poet.

Zentrum Paul Klee Bern, Switzerland

The light, potentially harmful to the extremely fragile art pieces, is diffused by a system of translucent screens that delicately reflect the light.

Auditorium Parco Della Musica Rome Itlay


Milwaukee Art Museum, milwaukee, usa

Architect and sculptor Santiago Calatrava was born in

turn this maxim on its head. His designs

Valencia, Spain, in 1951. He earned a degree in architecture

suggest stylized natural objects—waves,

and then in civil engineering, intrigued by the mathematics

wings, or sun-bleached skeletons, with

behind historic architecture.

rows of white concrete ribs curved into

In the mid-1980s, Calatrava began to get hired for large-

distorted parabolic arches. The true

scale public projects, and opened offices for his company in

purpose of these dramatic contours are

Zurich, Paris. and Valencia. During this period, he also began

typically more aesthetic than structural.

to exhibit his abstract sculptures in museums and galleries.

The Milwaukee Art Museum addition

Calatrava regularly traverses the lines between art and

was Calatrava’s first project in the United

architecture; his buildings are frequently called sculptural,

States. Feeling insecure about working

while his sculptures and paintings are like sketches of

in the U.S., he actually withdrew himself

buildings.Calatrava is known for his flowing, curved buildings.

from the selection process in 1994, only

He uses steel, concrete, and new computer modeling to create

to be coaxed back. Today, Calatrava

compositions that appear at once natural and structurally

has completed dozens of buildings and

impossible. If “form follows function” was a rallying cry of

bridges around the world, with many

modern architecture, Calatrava’s postmodern structures

more in the works. His theat


Puente del Alamillo at night, Seville, Spain

Tenerife Opera House, Canary Islands, Spain

rical, uplifting designs are immediately recognizable, and often his buildings, like the Quadracci Pavilion, look poised to soar away on the breeze.

"I hope that we have designed not a building, but a piece of the city."

santiaGo calatrava


20th

century architects

an artistic comparision


Architect Editorial