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methodologies Claire Milligan


methodologies Claire Milligan

Methodologies is a collection of case studies revealing the strategy and tactics behind my design decisionmaking process. These cases are culled from the work I have produced both in school and on a freelance basis during the completion of a Graphic Design BFA from Academy of Art University in San Francisco. For more information about my strategies, designs and background please visit: www.clairemilligan.com


Methodologies Book design copyright © 2010 Claire Milligan Book content copyright © 2007–2010 Claire Milligan Published by Claire Milligan to fulfill graduation requirements for the Academy of Art University, San Francisco, ca. hp Indigo printed by Giant Horse Printing of San Bruno, ca and bound by The Key Printing & Binding of Oakland, ca. Printed on Finch Fine iD Bright White paper, 100lb text and 80lb cover weights. Typeset in Tungsten typeface designed by Hoefler & Frere-Jones and ff Unit typeface designed by Erik Spiekermann. All rights reserved.


contents 1

Exhale / The Draw

2

Waste Not

3

Cafe Seventy8

4

Patagonia

5

Pi

6

Hand_Book

7

Honduras

8

ShearFORCE

9

Identities

Special Thanks


01 Exhale / the Draw I n st r u c to r tom sieu s e m e s t e r fall 2 0 0 9 c l a ss p r i n t two / r 3 labs

1 .1

Overview

1 .4

Manner of Approach

1 .4

Sustainability Research

1.5

Market Analysis

1 .6

Inspiration

1 .6

The Draw Pacing Pattern

1 .7

Exhale Conceptual Renderings

r3 Labs is a group of graphic design students committed to reconceiving the products in our marketplace, thus reducing human contributions to climate change. In my participation with r3, I focused my sights on cigarettes, a product responsible for one third of American waste by volume. The core design challenge became the need to parse visual language regarding health dangers from that regarding environmental dangers in an effort to pragmatically tackle one problem at a time.


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


E x hale / T he d r aw s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k 1 .8 — 1 .9

F I GURE 1 . 5

the ph y sical book is just double the si z e of a sta n da r d ciga r ette pack , le n di n g the p r oject a po r table feel .


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Sustainability Research

I am thrilled to have been included in the r3 Labs project, led by designer Tom Sieu. My colleagues and I each have identified a consumer item that causes environmental harm, then designed ways to alleviate that negative impact through product redesign.

Just as the solution to the environmental question of cigarettes is tied to health dangers, so too is the physical structure of these products. The Draw, published by r3 Labs to accompany the new Exhale product, details the history and potential for the improvement of the cigarette product.

I have focused on cigarettes because they present our society with an interesting paradox: despite pervasive knowledge of their dangerous side effects, consumption of these products remains. If smoking cessation were just a matter of more education and publicity, the environmental harm of cigarette butts could be reduced, but as this method has not proven to be effective, there is an opportunity to develop alternative cigarette construction methods in order to achieve a reduction in environmental harm. Unlike many other r3 projects, my approach took the tone of pragmatism, following a harm-reduction model and acknowledging that cigarette eradication would be the ultimate solution in a perfect world.

Cigarettes filters are constructed from the common nonbiodegradable polymers that permeate our consumer landscape. Not only do these polymers not biodegrade, but once filters have been smoked, they retain a vast proportion of the toxins and poisons found in cigarettes, which leech out from discarded butts over time. In order to achieve a pragmatic solution for environmental harm reduction, we must take a two-pronged attack: first focus on preventing toxic leech, then consider how to eliminate the use of nonbiodegradable materials. Unfortunately, these two ends are mutually exclusive to a certain degree. The scientific solution to the problem could be very simple: eliminate cigarette filters. However, health perceptions held by the consumer market make this option non-viable. In order to combat toxic leeching, I propose introducing an activated charcoal prefilter. To combat the degradability concern, I presented carbohydrate-based filters derived from agricultural by-products. While the charcoal prefilter will never biodegrade, the scientific community is confident that it will never transmit toxicity to the surrounding environment. Both of these technologies exist and could be easily applied to the cigarette industry.


E x hale / T he d r aw

Exhale / The Draw Methodology

Market Analysis

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k

A filterless cigarette is sustainable. However, these filters are generally believed to provide protection for the smoker. The market is ready for a sustainable cigarette, but not one that is filterless. Frustratingly, while the alternative filter technologies I propose have been significantly researched and developed by the cigarette industry, they have been shelved for over ten years. These technologies were deemed to be too expensive and too significantly different in taste to warrant being introduced to the marketplace. I posit that much has changed in ten years, such that a sector of the consumer market is willing to alter taste expectations in order to take an active effort in reducing environmental harm. The challenge of this product is not its conception or viability in terms of physical design, but rather its potential for success as a brand in the marketplace. This is my focus.

Not only do left over cigarette butts not biodegrade, they leech out the toxins and poisons from cigarette smoke directly into our ecosystem.

1 .8 — 1 .9


Methodologies

Inspiration

The Draw Pacing Pattern g r a n d, compelli n g

C lai r e M illiga n

stateme n t

i n vasio n of packagi n g desig n by wa r n i n g te x t

detailed follow cop y

smoke r smoke r photo stats

ciga r ette smoke wafti n g lu x u r iously

smoke r smoke r q uote photo & self - bio

p r ima r y p r ima r y n a r r ati v e n a r r ati v e co n te n t co n te n t

mo n och r omatic patte r n c r eated by butts

g r itt y, di r t y co n t r ast

T r aditio n al packagi n g desig n s

wa r n i n g te x t set with blata n t dis r ega r d fo r co n v e n tio n

photog r aph with statistics o v e r lay


E x hale / T he d r aw

Exhale / The Draw Methodology

Exhale Conceptual Renderings

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k

1 .8

—

1 .9


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


E x hale / T he d r aw s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k 1 .8 — 1 .9

F I GURE 1 . 2

E x hale , the n ew sustai n able ciga r ette b r a n d, is p r ese n ted i n the pages of the d r aw


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 1 . 3

e x hale ciga r ette desig n is mi n imalist a n d sleek . T h r ough use , the wo r d is bu r n ed f r om sight, r eflecti n g the p r oduct ’s futu r e .


E x hale / T he d r aw s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k 1 .1 0 — 1 .1 1

F I GURE 1 .4

Packagi n g is subtly b r a n ded a n d becomes a fashio n able keepsake , easily r efilled b y pape r r esupply packs sold sepa r ately.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 1 . 5

the d r aw featu r es pe r so n al sto r ies of smoke r affiliatio n as a way to e n cou r age co n sumptio n of the n ew sustai n able b r a n d.


E x hale / T he d r aw

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k

1 .1 2

—

1 .1 3


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 1 .6

T he p r ocess of smoki n g ( lighti n g , i n hali n g , e x hali n g , stubbi n g out ) is used as a v isual la n guage to p r ese n t e v ide n ce


E x hale / T he d r aw

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k

1 .1 4

—

1 .1 5


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


E x hale / T he d r aw

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 1 .7

the d r aw closes o n the same to n e that it ope n ed : the idea of light, wafti n g seductio n .


E x hale / T he d r aw

s u s ta i n a b l e p r o d u c t r e i n v e n t i o n a n d p r o m ot i o n a l b o o k

1 .1 8

—

1 .19


02 Waste Not i n st r u c to r Nicole F lo r es semester

Spring 2009

c l a ss g r aphic desig n th r ee

2 .1

Overview

2 .4

Manner of Approach

2 .4

Research Findings

2.5

Positioning

2 .6

Inspiration

2 .6

Conceptual Renderings

In order to select a conference for a rebranding project, I reviewed the fields of business and design as they stand today. I found half-complete attempts to achieve sustainability by myself and others. As a result, I conceived of a brand new conference for Freegans. While I do not espouse their beliefs, this project enabled me to both reconceive what it means to share beliefs in conference and reconsider the limits of possibility in sustainable design solutions.


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


Waste n ot b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e 2 .8 — 2 .9

F I GURE 2 .1

the co n fe r e n ce b r ochu r e is g r ass - r oots i n e v e r y detail : built o n r epu r posed pape r sou r ces usi n g ste n cils, pai n t a n d ma r ke r


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Research Findings

When asked to brand any conference of my choice, I considered the crucial issues facing our culture and profession today. With climate change upon us, sustainable and responsible design solutions come not just at a premium, but as a necessity. At this juncture, design ‘green-washing’ should no longer be acceptable; true sustainability must be explored.

Freegans are people who employ alternative tactics for living based on a limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources. Freegans embrace community, generosity, social concern, freedom, cooperation, and sharing. This is in opposition to their perception of a society based on materialism, moral apathy, competition, conformity, and, most of all, greed.

While analyzing which business sector would most logically use such a theme for a conference, I realized the only way to address this issue head on was to remove the capitalist element from the equation. I conceived of a conference that could operate on an alternative basis by envisioning a Freegan political gathering.

Freeganism is a total boycott of the economic system where the profit motive has eclipsed ethical considerations and where massively complex systems of production ensure that all the products we buy will have detrimental impacts, most of which we may never even consider. Thus, instead of avoiding the purchase of products from one bad company only to support another, Freegans avoid buying anything to the greatest degree possible. The word Freegan is compounded from “free” and “vegan”. Vegans are people who avoid products from animal sources or products tested on animals in an effort to avoid harming animals. Freegans take this a step further by recognizing that in a massproduction economy driven by profit, the abuse of humans, animals, and the earth abound at all levels of production in just about every product we buy.


Waste n ot

Waste Not Methodology

Positioning

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

Waste Not is conceived as a Freegan activist political gathering. The brand avoids any similarity to the capitalist business practices. Indeed, in all aspects the event is an anti-conference oriented contrary to the norms of standard operations.

Core Audience Committed, self-identified Freegans attend Waste Not to help create a national platform for their practices and politics. Typically, Freegans are men and women between the ages of 20-40, without children, likely from middle- to upper-class backgrounds and from urban areas.

Secondary Audience Likely involved in other social, cultural and environmental movements but are dissatisfied with the limited effect of these actions, the secondary audience comprises individuals who are intrigued by the Freegan mission. The group will have roughly the same demographic characteristics as Freegans and will attend Waste Not to inform themselves about membership and participation in Freeganism.

With climate change upon us, sustainable and responsible design solutions come not just at a premium, but as a necessity.

2 .8 — 2 .9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Inspiration

r eused a n d r epu r posed p r i n ti n g subst r ates

ha n d - culled n otebooks

di y t y pog r aph y

maki n g somethi n g old i n to somethi n g n ew

desig n sig n atu r es of gue r illa a r tists

Conceptual Renderings


waste not

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

WASTE waste not

Waste n ot

Waste Not Methodology

2 .8

—

2 .9


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


Waste n ot b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e 2 .8 — 2 .9

F I GURE 2 . 2

the website adopts the gue r illa desig n aesthetic of the co n fe r e n ce despite its mo r e co n v e n tio n al p r ese n tatio n


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 . 3

the site employ s a simple n av igatio n sy stem that is de v oid of the st y le we t y pically associate with web desig n


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2 .1 0

—

2.11


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 .4

adv e r tisi n g a n d ide n tificatio n a r e c r eated with ste n cils, t r a n sfe r s a n d sp r ay pai n t; each a bit diffe r e n t tha n the othe r s


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2 .1 2

—

2 .1 3


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 . 5

each b r ochu r e is ha n d - co n st r ucted a n d assembled f r om a va r iet y of pape r p r oducts sou r ced f r om dumpste r s


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2.14

—

2 .1 5


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 .6

each b r ochu r e is a ma n ifesto of the pu r pose of the f r eega n mov eme n t, co n tai n s co n fe r e n ce logistics a n d helpful r esou r ces


waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2 .16

—

2 .17


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 .7

a se r ies of p r ovocati v e sloga n s d r aw people to the aba n do n ed facto r y that will se r v e as the co n fe r e n ce locatio n


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2 .1 8

—

2 .19


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 . 8

b r a n di n g poste r s a r e desig n ed with ma r ke r s a n d sp r ay pai n t ste n cils


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2.20

—

2.21


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 2 .9

ste n ciled poste r s a r e posted gue r illa st y le ov e r posti n g adv e r tiseme n ts i n u r ba n a r eas


Waste n ot

b r a n d i n g t h e s u s ta i n a b i l i t y a n t i - co n f e r e n c e

2.22

—

2.23


03 Cafe Seventy8 c l i e n t cafe se v e n t y 8 d e l i v e r e d fall 2 0 0 8 i n d u st r y food & B e v e r age

3 .1

Overview

3 .4

Manner of Approach

3 .4

Competitive Analysis

3.5

Positioning

3 .6

Inspiration

3 .6

Conceptual Renderings

The new owners of an existing coffee shop location in the San Francisco neighborhood of Bernal Heights asked for an identity that suited their eclectic interests and differentiated the new shop from its previous incarnation. The owners’ only request was that the new identity and brand reflect their dry, blunt sense of humor.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 3 . 1

ho n est, st r aightfo r wa r d, di r ect st y le of deli v e r y satisfies the commuti n g custome r


C afe se v e n t y 8

b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n

3 .8

—

3 .9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Competitive Analysis

The clients approached me with their intention to create a new company following their purchase of an existing coffee shop location. The previous shop had been a satellite operation of the popular Muddy Waters local San Francisco Mission District chain, however the shop had failed to cultivate much success at that location.

Coffee shops are ubiquitous retail establishments in the city of San Francisco, which means that a deep analysis of competitors was required. The target customer base was divided into two classes: 1) the commuter and 2) the ambiance-seeker.

The task to reinvigorate the location would be solved by creating a brand that resonates with the Bernal Heights community and create differentiation from the previous ownership. Site research revealed that the location had once housed a gas station. That discovery granted the brand a sense of authenticity with the community.

Commuters For the public transit commuters, Cafe Seventy8 is by far the most convenient shop in the area, however it has been significantly underfrequented under previous ownership. For vehiclebased commuters, there aren’t very many options in the neighborhood, so there is growth potential for Cafe Seventy8 in this market.

Ambiance-Seekers For those who spend a great deal of time in a coffee shop during each visit, there are a couple neighborhood competitors that are more popular than this location. These coffee shops have more homey atmospheres, with soft chairs and books available for reading. While Cafe Seventy8 has ample light, it’s not built in a way to provide such an atmosphere quite as well as the others.


C afe se v e n t y 8

Cafe Seventy8 Methodology

Positioning

b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n

Cafe Seventy8 has potential for growth in the to-go commuter market primarily, with potential to grow into the ambiance market over time, pending efforts in creating ambiance and the cultivation of a unique and comfortable company personality. In order to cultivate this personality, I encouraged the shop to adopt a gas station-esque appearance with a blunt, straightforward narrative. The staff give you exactly what you want when you want it: serving all the requirements of a time-sensitive commuter. Over time, this personality has developed to one of a trusted neighbor as the shop has become more integrated with the community.

Brand Essence Neighborhood filling station

The staff give you exactly what you want when you want it: serving all the requirements of a time-sensitive commuter.

3 .8 — 3 .9


Methodologies

Conceptual Renderings

CAFE pai n ted e x te r io r s, classic b r a n d r ep r oductio n s

S

EV

ENTY

8

C lai r e M illiga n

Inspiration

mode r n ist packagi n g a n d layout

use of simple shapes a n d li n es to c r eate depth

basic , fully satu r ated colo r palettes

sa n s se r if t y pog r aph y with subtle hie r a r ch y

Cafe Seventy8


C afe se v e n t y 8

Cafe Seventy8 Methodology

b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n

3 .8

—

3 .9


Methodologies


cafe se v e n t y 8 b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n 3 .8 — 3 .9

F I GURE 3 . 2

the aw n i n g of the shop was ha n d - pai n ted to match the ide n tit y, r eflecti n g the ha n d - pai n ted sig n age of classic filli n g statio n s


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 3 . 3

i n sto r e me n us a n d poi n t of pu r chase display s mi x classic st y le with the n eeds of a smalle r sta r t- up budget


C afe se v e n t y 8

b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n

4.3 — 4.4


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F IG U R E 5 . 1

b o o k t i t l e s e t s t h e stag e f o r t h e co n c e p t: b o l d, u n e v e n , p r e pa r i n g to ta k e a t u m b l e


C afe se v e n t y 8

b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n

4.3 — 4.4


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


cafe se v e n t y 8 b r a n d i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d fi l l i n g stat i o n 3 .1 4 — 3 .1 5

F I GURE 3 .4

busi n ess ca r ds r ou n d out the to n gue -i n - cheek st r aightfo r wa r d to n e of the b r a n d


04 Patagonia i n st r u c to r todd hedgepeth s e m e s t e r fall 2 0 0 9 c l a ss ide n tit y two

4 .1

Overview

4 .4

Manner of Approach

4 .4

Research Findings

4.5

Competitive Analysis

4.5

Positioning

4 .6

Inspiration

4 .6

Conceptual Renderings

Redesigning an identity for a brand as respected as Patagonia is exciting and challenging. The founder’s vision to consider environment first and profit second seems idealistically naive at first glance, but is very successful in practice. My approach to the redesign was to better capture the spirit of a journey, commitment and personal exploration true to Yvon Chouinard’s mission for his company. This spirit rings true in a customer’s relationship with his or her Patagonia products.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 . 1

the r ei n v isio n ed Patago n ia b r a n d is pe r so n al , r eflecti n g jou r n e y s a n d g r owth . T he st y le guide becomes a tool i n this p r ocess .


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .8

—

4 .9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Research Findings

Patagonia is a very successful company that has maintained the same corporate identity for over thirty years. On one hand, the company is ripe for a revamp, but on the other hand it could be argued that not bothering to update the identity has granted Patagonia a brand ignorant of fad, capable of forging its own definition of style.

Patagonia was founded in 1970 by Ventura, ca native Yvon Chouinard as an extension of his alpine climbing equipment company. The company developed the first outdoor apparel made of non-natural fibers, including polyester fleece and polypropylene base layers. These inventions revolutionized the outdoor apparel industry, both in style and construction.

This effort attempts to tackle the challenge of brand redesign while honoring the authenticity that has been developed by the longevity of the former mark. I place emphasis on retaining the equity found in the existing identity by retaining a lowercase word mark and mountain range, meanwhile incorporating retro flavor into secondary graphical elements and the supporting color palette.

In the mid-1970s the company became involved in local environmental protection efforts and in the early 1990s Patagonia conducted an audit of the environmental affects of all its products in the hopes of authentically addressing environmental concerns. By 1996 all cotton Patagonia products were made of organic fibers and today the company accepts over 50% of its product line for complete recycling in all of its retail locations. Throughout the history of the company, Patagonia has set the standard for outdoor clothing product design. Field testers travel to all corners of the globe to better innovate products to suit the needs of athletes in a wide variety of technical and specialized sports. Rarely adopting current trends, the company believes that function should always dictate the form of its apparel.

e x isti n g logo


Positioning Patagonia is the only outdoor clothing and gear designer that produces the best performing products for outdoor enthusiasts of all ages, at all reaches of the globe who want their purchases to reflect their symbiotic relationship with the environment in an era of climate change. The following is a detailed analysis of positioning to be implemented with the identity redesign.

Arc’teryx “Due to the present state of textile technology and our unwillingness to sacrifice technical performance, the majority of Arc’teryx products are made with materials derived from non-renewable resources. We have not yet found acceptable renewable alternatives that don’t substantially affect our product’s performance.”

Price Very expensive ($300+ for a ski jacket)

Columbia Sportswear “At Columbia Sportswear,

few outlets across the US.

Corporate Responsibility is part of what we do every day — for our employees, the communities where we operate and for the environment. To us, responsible business practices mean balancing our economic goals with social and environmental considerations. “

Place Roughly 25 Patagonia retail locations across

The North Face “We have identified four areas of focus: Reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, eliminate waste in our operations, inspire employees, customers & communities to Live the Brand. Never stop exploring.”

Product Extremely high quality with minimal environmental impact in production, use or end of life, due to recycling programs.

Promotion Few seasonal sales at retail locations,

the globe. Products also sold at major outdoor clothing retailers as well as independent retailers.

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

Competitive Analysis Three major brands attempt to occupy the same high-tech outdoor clothing market niche and each believes ecological protection is relevant to their industry. However, their commitments to the environment are not as ingrained into their corporate ethos or at the forefront of their design process as at Patagonia:

Patago n ia

Patagonia Methodology

Tagline Climb higher Unique Selling Position Keeping people and the environment protected since 1976.

Throughout the history of the company, Patagonia has consistently set the standard for outdoor clothing product design.

4 .8 — 4 .9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Inspiration

topog r aphic maps , r epu r posed mate r ials

pe r so n al jou r n e y s a n d s n apshots

di y aesthetic of cu r r e n t sto r e display s

b r ai n sto r mi n g to e n able i n n ovatio n

slab se r if t y pog r aph y with a r et r o flai r

Conceptual Renderings


Patago n ia

Patagonia Methodology

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .8

—

4 .9


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


Patago n ia r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y 4 .8 — 4 .9

F I GURE 4 . 2

the website ca r r ies the idea of e x plo r atio n f r om the i n te r n al b r a n di n g docume n tatio n to the public face of the compa n y


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 . 3

while telli n g the sto r y of a pe r so n al jou r n e y, the st y le guide makes clea r to its use r s the be n efits of the Patago n ia b r a n d


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .1 0

—

4 .1 1


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 .4

the st y le guide is p r i n ted o n r ec ycled pape r stocks o n ly, a n d uses cha n ges i n stock to i n dicate sectio n di v isio n s


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .1 2

—

4 .1 3


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 . 5

the seco n da r y colo r palette me r ges colo r s of n atu r al o r igi n s with a se n se of r et r o st y le


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .1 4

—

4 .1 5


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 .6

while mo r e fo r mal that othe r aspects of the b r a n d, the busi n ess sy stem r etai n s the E X P L O R AT IO N A L to n e with map - like desig n s


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .16

—

4 .17


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 .7

the st y le guide demo n st r ates the fluidit y of the seco n da r y g r aphical eleme n ts to po r t r ay the b r a n d i n a va r iet y of sce n a r ios


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4 .1 8

—

4 .19


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4.20

—

4.21

F I GURE 4 .8

seco n da r y g r aphical eleme n ts t r a n slate i n to

comme r cial r etail p r oducts


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 4 .9

co r po r ate a n d sto r ef r o n t display s i n te n d to imme r se the custome r i n a n outdoo r s jou r n e y, the Patago n ia e x pe r ie n ce .


Patago n ia

r e d e s i g n i n g t h e b r a n d f o r t h e p r e m i e r e e n v i r o n m e n ta l c lot h i n g co m pa n y

4.23

—

4.24


05 pi i n st r u c to r

M atthew Wakema n

s e m e st e r

S p r i n g 2 0 07

c l a ss

G r aphic desig n O n e

5 .1

Overview

5 .4

Manner of Approach

5 .4

General Pacing Pattern

5.5

Inspiration

5.5

Conceptual Renderings

The joy in this project was that the process became the result. Having been prompted to conceive of a natural phenomenon in a variety of ways, I tackled the mathematical calculation of pi. I sought to push boundaries and definitions to fully flesh out the phenomenon’s various interpretations. The results of this exploration became a scientific text that directs you through my path of definition and discovery.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 5 . 1

title page a r two r k r e v eals a n u n de r ly i n g g r id based o n the r elatio n ship betwee n a ci r cle , its ci r cumfe r e n ce a n d its r adius


P i

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

5 .6

—

5 .7


Methodologies

Methodology C lai r e M illiga n

Manner of Approach The project was intended as a visual exploration into a natural phenomenon through a variety of ideas and techniques. My love for all things math lead me to pursuing the subject of pi, or 3.14159..., for my chosen phenomenon. This pi project turned into a means for me to delve visually into a subject matter that I had always viewed more analytically. In approaching the assignment I researched conceptual interpretations of pi as well as different design techniques to best display these concepts. I sought to present each concept using at least one technique, selected for its appropriateness to the concept. In many cases each concept was presented using a variety of styles and techniques.

General Pacing Pattern bla n k g r idded sectio n title w/ cut- out

backside sectio n of g r id detail w/ cut- out cop y

figu r e o n e of sectio n co n cept desig n

figu r e two of sectio n co n cept desig n

figu r e th r ee of sectio n co n cept desig n


Inspiration

P i

Pi Methodology

Conceptual Renderings

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

comple x , ci r cula r i n fo r matio n g r aphics

fou n d objects maki n g a g r eate r image

compute r i z ed app r ox imatio n s of co n ti n uous se r ies

C L A I R E M I L LPI IG/AANN A N A L Y S I S O F T H E F O R M

GRAPHIC D

mathematical p r oblem st r uctu r e a n d solv i n g p r ocess

CLAIRE MILLIGAN CLAIRE MILLIGAN

5 .6 — 5 .7

te x tbook display a n d diag r am P I / Aco N nA LY v eNnA tio n sS I S O F T H E F O R M

GRAPHIC DESIGN ON GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


P i a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i 5 .6 — 5 .7

F I GURE 5 . 2

sectio n di v ide r s hav e i n set t r a n spa r e n cies display i n g app r ox imated u n its of pi i n ci r cula r cut- out shapes


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


P i

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

5 .8

—

5 .9


Methodologies F I GURE 5 . 3

te x tu r e a n d patte r n is c r eated f r om the geomet r ic shapes of pi


pi

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

5 .1 0

—

5.11


Methodologies

CON TEN TS It’s All Greek To Me

03

ALPHA, BETA, PI

Perfectly Circular GEOM E T R IC SY M M E T RY

PI

Thought Patterns M A k I NG CON N ECT IONS

A N A N A LY S I S OF THE FORM

Geometric Process HISTOR ICAL EST I MAT ES

C lai r e M illiga n

Let me take you on a winding journey into pi...

Mad Scientist T A k E A WA L k W I T H M E

American Pie IN THE HEARTLANd

Letter Me Up FOR MS A N d FU NCT IONS

Let the Rhythm Move You SEEk I NG dI R ECT IONS

Free Your Mind UNLEASH T HE CR EAT IvI T Y

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

23

31

43

51

59

65

71

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

ALPHA, BETA, PI

I T’S ALL GREEk TO ME

13

05

The Greek alphabet emerged several centuries after the fall of the Cretan Mycenaean civilization and the resulting abandonment of its Linear B script, an early Greek writing system. Linear B is descended from Linear A, which was developed by the Minoans, whose language was probably unrelated to Greek; consequently the Minoan syllabary did not provide an ideal medium for the transliteration of the sounds of the Greek language. The Greek alphabet we recognize today arose after the era known as the Greek dark Ages—the period between the fall of Mycenae (1200 BC) and the rise of Classical Greece, which begins with the writing of the epics of Homer, near 800 BC, and the start of the Ancient Olympic Games in 776 BC. As a adaptation of the previously existing Phoenician alphabet, the Greek alphabet introduced the would-be European world to the use of vowels.

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

06

07

08

09

The lower- case p has long been used as a sy mbol in a range of disciplines. Uses of pi have included: the radial constant 3.14159..., the prime-counting function in general mathematics, the osmotic surface pressure in chemical engineering, the elementary particle in physics, profit in microeconomics, and inflation rate in macroeconomics.

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

10

11

The Ancient Greeks began

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

our modern western world.

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

GEOM E T R IC SYM M ETRY A circle is a basic shape of modern Euclidean geometry. It is the locus of all points in a plane at a constant distance, called the radius, from a fixed point. Through any three points not on the same line, there passes one and only one circle. A chord of a circle is a line segment whose both endpoints lie on the circle. A diameter is a chord passing through the center. The length of a diameter is twice the radius. A diameter is the largest chord in a circle. A circle is a simple closed curve which divides a plane into an interior and an exterior. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle, and the interior of the circle is called a disk. An arc is any subset, connected part of a circle. Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone.

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

F I GURE 5 .4

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

v ecto r output of the book a r t demo n st r ates paci n g of the book based o n sectio n co n cepts, such as patte r n s , mathematics a n d lette r fo r ms

15

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

PERFECT LY CI RCULAR


P i

21

The basic circle shape is defined by a set of permanent area for a given perimeter, it possesses both reflective and maintain a consistent ratio, any three points can be used to determine a unique circle and a circle can be plotted given just one point and a radius length.

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

THOUGHT PAT TERNS

25

MAkI NG CONNECTIONS Pi is a word that connotes a vast array of relationships and patterns. Not only can one literally translate the word to a ratio of a circle and its radius, which creates the foundation for modern geometry, but one can find various references to the use of the sound of the word, the shape of the word and the shape of the symbol in math equations. In searching for references, we zero in on simplicity of the message. If a single symbol tried to convey the entirely of pi, the viewer would be confused and lost. Focusing on one element of the definitions of pi, be it math-based, auditory, visual or otherwise, simplifies the experience of vision and provides the opportunity to clearly tell the audience that the message is “pi.”

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

28

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

properties. These include: it is the shape with the largest rotational symmetry, all circular radii and circumferences

29

F IG 1 // LOG O I M AGE dE v ELOPEd FOR NAT U R A L PH ENOM ENON OF PI

Modern identity design was developed at a time of market expansion following the end of World War II. At that time, the Swiss style of graphic design was becoming an world wide movement. This style was characterized by the use of proportion and grid systems to develop layout harmony. While contemporary identity design does not rely on this strict grid system, some of the most effective logo designs maintain a sense of even proportion reminiscent of the early international typographic style.

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

HISTORICAL ESTIMATES

GEOM ETRIC PROCESS

33

That the ratio of the circumference to the radius of a circle is the same for all circles, and that it is slightly more than 3, was already known to ancient mathematicians of Egypt, Babylon, India and Greece. The oldest known calculated measures of pi date from around 1900 BC; they are 25/8 (Babylonia) and 256/81 (Egypt), both of which are within 1% of the true value of pi. The Indian text Shatapatha Brahmana gives p as 339/108 = 3.139. The Tanakh appears to suggest, in the Book of kings, that p = 3, which is notably worse than other measures available at the time of writing (600 BC). The interpretation of the passage is disputed, as some say the ratio of 3:1 is of an exterior circumference to an interior diameter of a thinly walled basin, which could indeed be an accurate ratio, depending on the thickness of the walls.

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

5 .1 2 — 34

FIG 2 // v ISUA L A PPROX I M AT IONS OF T HE AR EA OF A CI RCLE

35

36

37

F I G 3 / / B L I N d C O N T O U R d R AW I N G O F A C A L C U L AT O R

A / TRIANGULAR METHOD

The modern calculator has been critical to recent attempts at the approximation of pi. One can go online at any time and find an accurate computation of pi to millions upon millions of digits. In fact, there are many online sites that produce real time reflections of current pi digit estimates.

B / RECTA NGUL A R METHOD

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

P I / A N A NA LY S I S O F T H E F O R M

GRAPHIC DESIGN ONE

CLAIRE MILLIGAN

5 .1 3


Methodologies F I GURE 5 . 5

a n app r ox imatio n of pi to mo r e tha n a thousa n d digits is ov e r laid o n t r a n spa r e n c y with a shadow of the fo r ms below


P i

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

5 .1 4

—

5 .1 5


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F IG U R E 5 . 1

b o o k t i t l e s e t s t h e stag e f o r t h e co n c e p t: b o l d, u n e v e n , p r e pa r i n g to ta k e a t u m b l e


P i

a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i

7.3 — 7.4

Whether we know it or not, pi is everywhere.


Methodologies


pi a t e c h n i c a l b o o k e x p lo r i n g t h e d e fi n i t i o n o f p i 5 .1 8 — 5 .19

F I GURE 5 .6

mathematical st r uctu r e is used to c r eate a n ew t y peface based o n the digital output st y le a n d fo r m of O C Ra


06 Hand_Book I n st r u c to r

A r iel G r e y

s e m e st e r fall 2 0 0 8 c l a ss t y pog r aph y th r ee

6.1

Overview

6.4

Manner of Approach

6.4

Etymological Research

6. 5

Translation to Design

6. 5

Inspiration

The opportunity to develop a promotion for a paper company became a way to dig deep into etymology for me. Not only did I find a compelling concept from this process, but I satisfied my drive to build multi-faceted conceptual foundations in research bedrock for my design solutions.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 6. 1

begi n n i n g at the e n dsheet, the ideas of ha n ds a n d digiti z atio n duel it out fo r the audie n ce


H a n d _ B ook

G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r

6.6

—

6.7


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Etymological Research

The Gmund Digital line of papers required a system of promotion: a book, a poster and a set of swatch cards. After exploring the etymology of the term ‘digital,’ I have presented a system that is applied across these deliverables, one that reveals a duel between literal and cultural definitions.

The term ‘digital’ comes from Latin origins, and is derived from the word ‘digitus.’ Digitus translates roughly to ‘finger’ or ‘toe;’ specifically it refers to the limits of human extremities. In our common vernacular the word ‘digital’ is given two meanings: 1) the property of representing values as discrete numbers rather than a continuous spectrum and 2) of or relating to computers or the Computer Age. Our current dictionaries continue to reference the classical fingers and/or toes definition, but generally as a historical footnote.

While the term ‘digital’ brings to mind the idea of advanced technology for a new generation, the word has deep roots in western culture. This set of promotional items for the Gmund Digital paper line challenges the conventional assumptions about the term digital by taking a variety of literal approaches to the word. The book outlines four basic systems of hand-based communication. The style carries a technical tone, outlining structural properties of the various systems and historical analyses of their use.

How did we derive computers, numbers and the opposite of analog as concepts from the digits at the ends of our hands and feet? This is truly a story of human interaction and communication. In the early days of commerce, the concept of counting discrete objects was handled through the assigning of one finger or one toe to each item in a count. When that process was replaced with the use of numerical figures and math, the etymological vestige of hand communication remained attached to the process. The most interesting part about this history, for me, was the interpersonal communication needs of early counting that required the use of fingers and toes. Effective communication is the hinge point that makes the definitional jump from fingers to numbers a logical step in history.


Translation to Design The following three

H a n d _ B ook

Hand_Book Methodology

Inspiration

themes were chosen to influence the content and design of the Gmund Digital paper promotion:

communication were selected as topics for chapters in the promotional book. Those methods were signal systems, gestures and sign language.

Fingers and Hands These were the subject of diagrams, illustrations and photography. The use of hands in the course of human interaction drove my selection of communication types to highlight across the promotional system.

bi n a r y computi n g sy stems

digital catalogi n g sy stems

Digital Technology Classic references to digital systems are used as a foil to the generally organic subject matter of the promotional system. This produces a visual duel between more organic and inorganic subject areas.

G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r

Human Communication Various methods of

g r ee n a n d g r ay classic i n te r faces

i n st r uctio n al diag r ams

6.6 — 6.7

basic sig n la n guage gestu r es


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


H a n d _ B ook G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r 6.6 — 6.7

F I GURE 6. 2

i n st r uctio n al s y stems as applied to the topic of sig n la n guage i n the p r omotio n al book


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 6. 3

p r omotio n al book cov e r ties the co n cept togethe r succi n ctly


H a n d _ B ook

G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r

6.8

—

6.9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 6.4

desig n of the p r omotio n al book r eflects its i n te n ded use as a display of a va r iet y of p r i n ti n g n eeds a n d tech n iq ues


H a n d _ B ook

G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r

6.1 0

—

6.1 1


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 6. 5

the poste r makes use of the book ’s tech n ical desig n la n guage to commu n icate a simila r message i n o n e q uick r ead


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


H a n d _ B ook G m u n d d i g i ta l pa p e r l i n e p r o m ot i o n : b o o k , swatc h c a r ds, p ost e r 6.1 4 — 6.1 5

F I GURE 6.6

the swatch ca r ds a r e desig n ed as a game of memo r y a n d a r e used to fu r the r the i n fo r matio n al aspect of the p r omotio n


07 Honduras I n st r u c to r

Da r r ell H ay de n

s e m e st e r

Spring 2010

c l a ss ide n tit y th r ee

7.1

Overview

7.4

Manner of Approach

7.4

Research Findings

7. 5

Competitive Analysis

7. 5

Positioning

7.6

Inspiration

7.7

Conceptual Renderings

Politics and international relations have long thrilled me. When presented with the opportunity to develop a destination brand, I sought do work for a country that had been plagued by global misunderstanding. Despite my fascination with all things political, it became imperative for me to set aside my personal fascinations in order to cultivate a brand that could magnetize tourists and become a source of pride for Hondurans at home and abroad.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 7. 1

i was luck y e n ough to hav e access to authe n tic photog r aph y f r om H o n du r as fo r use i n this p r oject. the photog r aphe r is jessica n o r th .


H o n du r as

branding a diamond in the rough

7.8

—

7.9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Research Findings

In the spring of 2010, Honduras had recently gone through a period of public political upheaval, revealing to the world the instability that the Honduran people had long been accustomed to. Honduran families have been split at the seams with patriarchs casting out abroad in search of the paychecks that may sustain their children. Years upon years of life as illegal aliens far away from their homeland have wrecked the morale of those who could drive the success of the country.

The country relies on the cultivation of three resources alone to buoy its economy: lobster, bananas and coffee. Should the price of any of these drop, the country can be sent into a tailspin of economic depression. The infusion of tertiary industry in the form of tourism could spell long-term stability and prosperity for the Honduran, or as they like to say, Catracho, people.

The charge to create a destination brand for Honduras was one to 1) smooth over international political fears, 2) establish the country as a major ecotourism player and 3) build pride and national cohesion for the Honduran people. Ultimately, achieving these goals would allow the country a sense of internal stability from which a thriving economic and political system can grow.

Located in Central America, Honduras borders the waters of both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Its land is mountainous and provides one of the most diversified climates in the tropical latitudes. It has an auspicious history, being one of the sites of early landings by Columbus and his crew as well as being the site of major Maya developments, particularly in astrology and science. The country operated under relative autonomy despite its status as a Spanish colony between the 17th and 19th Centuries and served as a major hub for British and Dutch piracy at the same time. Since its independence from Spain in the middle of the 19th Century, Honduras has maintained a relatively peaceful existence in contrast to its neighbors’ civil strife and has established quite a few progressive measures such as the establishment of a national parks system and a universal labor code.

E x isti n g logo


Positioning

Honduras possesses several unique qualities that sets itself apart from many of the neighboring countries that are its competition for tourist dollars. Primarily, the nation has a multitude of untouched land available for exploration due to the rugged terrain and relatively peaceful history. For every unique bird species that makes its home in Costa Rica, it is said that Honduras possesses five others that cannot be found beyond its borders. The ecosystem of Honduras is truly untouched.

Beneath its dense cloud forests and tropical coral reefs, Honduras holds an unmatched treasure trove of cultural history. Derived from a unique mestizo blend of indigenous tribes, including the profoundly intellectual Maya, Spanish military explorers, escaped Caribbean slaves of African descent as well as British and Dutch pirates, everything from Honduran daily life to its festival traditions is woven from this incredible heritage. Begin to understand the complex and diverse peoples, land and beauty that combine to make this diamond in the rough.

The cultural fabric of Honduras is incredibly unique as well. Native Central Americans, Western European colonists, pirates and escaped Caribbean slaves of African descent weaves together to form a people distinct and full of traditions.

branding a diamond in the rough

Competitive Analysis

H o n du r as

Honduras Methodology

Tagline Desenterre el tesoro. Unearth its treasures. Brand Essence Un diamante en bruto. A diamond in the rough.

Honduras considers the following countries to be its primary competitors: Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua. The following countries represent a secondary tier of competition for the country: Bahamas (for luxury resort travel), Barbados (for luxury resort travel), US Virgin Islands (for luxury resort travel), and Cuba (for cultural tourism).

Beneath its dense cloud forests and tropical coral reefs, Honduras holds an unmatched treasure trove of cultural history.

7.8 — 7.9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Inspiration

B a n a n a fa r mi n g

C loud F o r est

H a n d pai n ted sig n s

M aya p y r amids

C a r ibbea n coast

Touca n s a n d othe r i n dige n ous bi r ds

Conceptual Renderings


H o n du r as

Honduras Methodology

branding a diamond in the rough

7.8

—

7.9


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


H o n du r as branding a diamond in the rough 7.8 — 7.9

F I GURE 7. 2

the fi n al ide n tit y is p r ese n ted i n co n te x t with guideli n es fo r clea r space a n d si z e


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 7. 3

the fi r st sectio n of the sta n da r ds ma n ual outli n es the b r a n d la n guage a n d st y le i n photog r aph y, colo r a n d t y pe .


H o n du r as branding a diamond in the rough

F I GURE 7.4

official p r ese n tatio n of the sta n da r ds guide to gov e r n me n t officials


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 7. 5

the b r a n d allows fo r fle x ibilit y a n d va r iatio n i n applicatio n s ac r oss me r cha n dise


H o n du r as

branding a diamond in the rough

7.1 2

—

7.1 3


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 7.6

choice of b r a n ded applicatio n s r eflects the e x te r n al a n d i n te r n al n eeds fo r the cou n t r y


H o n du r as

branding a diamond in the rough


08 shearforce I n st r u c to r

C a r oli n a de ba r tolo

semester

Spring 2010

c l a ss

T y pog r aph y fou r

8.1

Overview

8.4

Manner of Approach

8.4

Research Findings

8. 5

Scientific Distillation

8.6

Typographic Concepts

8.7

Informational Design

When presented with the assignment to create a typographically-driven scientific text whose subject matter is closely related to the concept of survival, avalanche came to the top of my mind given the training I have received in avalanche as a member of the National Ski Patrol. In order to complete this project I reached out to many specialists in the Ski Patrol system, who facilitated my search for a depth of content and data to support the concept and dictate the design.


Methodologies F I GURE 8. 1

book title sets the stage fo r the co n cept: bold, u n e v e n , p r epa r i n g to take a tumble


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8.8

—

8.9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n

Methodology Manner of Approach

Research Findings

As a preliminary step, I collected many academic papers, training guides, avalanche prediction worksheets and works of nonfiction to get a broad range of references to drive both written and data content. In the end I chose an abridged section of text from a highly-regarded training guide by Bruce Tremper to be the backbone of the book content.

While I had been trained in avalanche prediction, safety and rescue prior to this assignment, My research is concentrated on which aspects of the phenomenon would best be conveyed in this text. I arrived at three topics that could be carried through the conceptual structure, data graphics and written content: the structure and physics of avalanche; prediction and causal factors; and preparation for survival and execution of a safe rescue procedure.

Next, I used key themes derived from the content to dictate conceptual directions for type and layout. These included the force of gravity, steepness of slope, process of beacon search, and a precariously unweighted balancing act. As layout came together, I developed a informational and photographic style that would complement the chosen concept: precariously unbalanced weight on a steep angle. Photography is stark, bold, taken from a low angle and treated to contain only black, white and blue tones. Informational graphics further the angled structure and bold tone adopted by the angled typographic layout grid.

In the text, you will note that a key message of the author is that one can never be concerned enough about one’s safety in an avalanche zone. The author writes about professionals who believe that their knowledge can protect them from danger. The truth is that avalanche is highly unpredictable and we are all in danger; perhaps even more danger the more capable we believe ourselves to be. This sense of impending doom around every corner is given a significant amount of weight in the design and typographic layout of this text. Research indicates that those who are at greatest risk of avalanche are those who have no knowledge of avalanche, followed by those with significant training but less recent exposure to danger. As a result the design makes the information accessible to both a novice and an avalanche expert.


shea r fo r ce

ShearFORCE Methodology

Scientific Distillation

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

There are a few key scientific elements pulled from snow science to determine the style of layout of the book. These are:

Layers As snow falls over a series of storm cycles, the snowpack forms a series of layers that possess quality, stability and appearance characteristics unique to each other.

Slope Avalanche occurs within a vary narrow range of slope steepness. A shallow or steep slope will rarely be an avalanche site, unlike the typical 39° prime avalanche slope angle.

Gravity Ultimately snow obeys gravity, just as all physical elements on earth. You may find overhangs or ledges of snow that appear to defy gravity, but in reality these features have forces stronger than gravity keeping them in place. A balance of force, however, is unpredictable and can be capable or reversal at any moment.

The truth is that avalanche is highly unpredictable and we are all in danger; perhaps even more danger the more capable we believe ourselves to be.

8.8 — 8.9


C lai r e M illiga n

Typographic Concepts

Methodologies


shea r fo r ce

ShearFORCE Methodology

Information Design

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8.8

—

8.9


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


shea r fo r ce a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e 8.8 — 8.9

F I GURE 8. 2

fi n al i n fo r matio n al g r aphics stay t r ue to thei r he r itage a n d de v elop thei r ow n slope .


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 8. 3

a stack of th r ee te x ts r e v eal a lay e r ed effect c r eated b y the e x posed sig n atu r es r emi n isce n t of s n ow settleme n t i n lay e r s


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8.1 0

—

8.1 1


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 8.4

the table of co n te n ts sp r ead demo n st r ates the most top - heav y t y pog r aphic r elatio n ship


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8.1 2

—

8.1 3


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 8. 5

the t y pog r aphic g r id has the fle x ibilit y to shift depe n di n g o n the pu r poses of the sectio n , whethe r it be lists o r p r ose .


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8.1 4

—

8.1 5


C lai r e M illiga n

Methodologies


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e


Methodologies F I GURE 8.6

asso r ted g r id va r iatio n s r emi n d the e y e of the i n te r actio n betwee n s n ow slab a n d bed su r face


shea r fo r ce

8.1 8

8.19


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 8.7

P hotog r aph y of t y pical avala n che te r r ai n r ei n fo r ce t y pog r aphic st r uctu r e


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n F I GURE 8. 8

detailed t y pog r aphic shifts i n the i n de x r ei n fo r ce subcatego r y hie r a r ch y as well as the u n de r ly i n g g r id


shea r fo r ce

a t y p o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f ava l a n c h e

8. 2 2

—

8. 2 3


09 identities 9. 2

Honduras

9. 3

Pi

9.4

Exhale

9. 5

Drinkwel

9.6

Pagaz RF

9.7

La Posada del Quinde

Patagonia

9. 8

9.9

Cafe Seventy8

9. 1 0

9. 1 1

Breakthrough Collaborative

Waste Not

During my time pursuing my graphic design degree, I have focused my work primarily on strategic design solutions both inside and outside school walls. In addition to schoolwork, I have taken on quite a few freelance identity projects. My process for each of these projects is quite similar to those that have been highlighted as case studies in this portfolio. Market considerations have been included with each design in the following pages.


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n waste n ot

Waste Not Co n c e p t gue r illa sp r ay pai n t a n ti- logo au d i e n c e f r eega n s a n d simila r r adicals m a r k e t social acti v ism i n s t r u c to r

n icole flo r es

c l a ss g r aphic desig n th r ee semester

Spring 2009


I de n tities L a posada del q ui n de 9. 1 — 9. 2

La Posada del Quinde Co n c e p t hummi n gbi r d comi n g i n to r est au d i e n c e middle -i n come tou r ists market

E cuado r ia n lodgi n g

c l i e n t la posada del q ui n de product

B ed & B r eakfast i n

Otavalo, E cuado r

d e l i v e r e d fall 2 0 0 9


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n d r i n kwel

Drinkwel Co n c e p t social i n te r actio n s of pa r t y i n g au d i e n c e

you n g u r ba n p r ofessio n als,

p r ima r ily male market

n ut r itio n al suppleme n t

c l i e n t d r i n kwel , llc p r o d u c t ha n gov e r cu r e d e l i v e r e d fall 2 0 0 9


ide n tities H o n du r as 9.4 — 9. 5

Honduras Co n c e p t u n disco v e r ed t r easu r es : a n cie n t

r ui n s a n d p r isti n e n atu r e

au d i e n c e eco - o r ie n ted tou r ists m a r k e t desti n atio n b r a n di n g i n st r u c to r da r r ell hay de n c l a ss ide n tit y th r ee s e m e st e r

Spring 2010


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n cafe se v e n t y 8

Cafe Seventy8 Co n c e p t

n eighbo r hood filli n g statio n

au d i e n c e public t r a n sit commute r s m a r k e t food & be v e r age c l i e n t cafe se v e n t y 8 p r o d u c t be r n al heights coffee shop d e l i v e r e d wi n te r 2 0 0 9


ide n tities pi 9.6 — 9.7

Pi Co n c e p t wo r d ma r k of simple t y pog r aphic , geomet r ic fo r ms a u d i e n c e scie n tific desig n fa n s m a r k e t tech n ical book publicatio n i n st r u c to r matthew wakema n c l a ss g r aphic desig n o n e s e m e st e r

S p r i n g 2 0 07


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n Patago n ia

Patagonia C o n c e p t ca r v e you r ow n path i n the outdoo r s a u d i e n c e outdoo r acti v it y e n thusiasts m a r k e t tech n ical appa r el i n s t r u c to r todd hedgepeth c l a s s ide n tit y two s e m e s t e r fall 2 0 0 9


ide n tities b r eakth r ough collabo r ati v e 9.8 — 9.9

Breakthrough Collaborative Co n c e p t olde r stude n ts teachi n g you n ge r stude n ts , teachi n g themselv es au d i e n c e pa r ticipati n g schools, p r ospecti v e do n o r s m a r k e t educatio n al n o n - p r ofit i n st r u c to r

D o r is H a r r iso n

c l a ss fu n dame n tals of g r aphic desig n s e m e st e r

S p r i n g 2 0 07


Methodologies C lai r e M illiga n E x hale

Exhale C o n c e p t lighte r tha n ai r , the a n ti ciga r ette b r a n d wo r d ma r k a u d i e n c e eco - co n scious smoke r s m a r k e t tobacco p r oducts i n s t r u c to r tom sieu c l a s s p r i n t two s e m e s t e r fall 2 0 0 9


ide n tities b r eakth r ough collabo r ati v e 9.1 0 — 9. 1 1

Pagaz RF Co n c e p t

r adio t r a n smissio n sou r ce

au d i e n c e high - le v el pu r chasi n g office r s m a r k e t milita r y co n t r acto r c l i e n t paga z r f product

r adio f r e q ue n c y fi r mwa r e

d e l i v e r e d sp r i n g 2 0 07


special thanks Family Jessica, Marshall, Gretchen, Lucy, Drew, Toby and Gordon Inspiration Kristen, Katie, Mauricio, Jeanette, Sara, Rika, and Bryan

Instruction Mary, Matt, Nicole, Todd, Darrell, Carolina, Ariel, Tom, Jennifer, RenĂŠe, Doris, Rose, Claude, Jeremy, Amy, and Michael

Mentorship Jon, Winston, and Jesse Clients Anett, Mike, Greg, Molly, Matie, Maggie, David, and John

Without each of your perspectives, thoughts, notes, directions and support I would not be where I am today. Thank you.


Methodologies [A Graphic Design Portfolio]  

Methodologies is a collection of case studies revealing the strategy and tactics behind my design decision-making process. These cases are c...

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