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CENTRO DE MICRO-ANÁLISIS DE MATERIALES

ACTIVITY REPORT 2014 - 2015


TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword ..................................................................................................................................4 1. About CMAM .....................................................................................................................6 1.1. Presentation ..................................................................................................................8 1.2. Organization...............................................................................................................10 1.3. Members......................................................................................................................13 2. Research Infrastructures...............................................................................................24 2.1. Accelerator...................................................................................................................26 2.2. Beam extension lines..................................................................................................28 3. Scientific reports.............................................................................................................38 3.1. Beamtime distribution and ion beam statistics......................................................39 3.2. Relevant publications.................................................................................................42 3.3. PhD Theses..................................................................................................................66 3.4. MsC Theses..................................................................................................................67 3.5. Courses and training..................................................................................................68 3.6. Bibliography................................................................................................................70 4. Dissemination activities................................................................................................78 4.1. Accelerator for the youngest: Campus Summer Science......................................79 4.2. Open days at CMAM: Scientific week and Physics Degree.................................81 4.3. Informal Seminars: Ion accelerators and associated techniques.........................84 4.4. Course on ionizing radiations..................................................................................84 4.5. Master in Nuclear Physics.........................................................................................85 4.6. Dissemination and publications on Social Networks...........................................86 4.7. Guided visits...............................................................................................................87 5. Quality Management ISO 9001...................................................................................88


FOREWORD

This is the fourth number of the CMAM activity report series that I have the honour and pleasure to sign. It will also be the last because, by the time the following one will be printed, I will have handed over the direction of the CMAM. I’m sure the University will choose a person of outstanding scientific production, with experience in the management of research groups, a strong push towards international and collaborative research. His/her selection will, without any doubt, benefit the CMAM in the actual transition phase, marked by the will of the UAM to reorganize the whole of its research infrastructures in the sake of efficiency, productivity and international excellence and recognition. The next director will surely bring CMAM the new energy and fresh ideas that are needed to accomplish our university will and to make the centre even more competitive, innovative and leading in the field of materials research. In the past years, I did count and I´m glad to acknowledge, on the irreplaceable support of UAM’s government and on the extraordinary dedication and competence I found among the CMAM colleagues: a strength of our center. I had the responsibility and commitment to seek, in the complex and difficult conditions imposed by a long and hard international crisis, the growth opportunities that CMAM required. It is the duty of other to judge to what extent this was achieved. What I can surely say is that I did not spare efforts to keep the promise of growth in continuity, made when I accepted the direction. The years spent as director of CMAM, would not represent the most rewarding experience of my career, without the contribution of the many who have been on my side to support and complement my efforts, to help overcome the difficulties, to advise and criticise, if necessary, in the moment of decisions. While acknowledging the tremendous work done by our staff for the construction of the CMAM I had in mind, I would like to express my deep gratitude

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | Foreword


in particular to Fernando and Aurelio, former directors of CMAM, for their fantastic support and constant advice. Then the sub-directors, the heads of division and the members of the management committee, who have been my closest collaborators and my strongest constructive critics and motivators. I cannot forget you, dear colleagues and readers. I would like to thank you very much for having participated so closely to my adventure. Counting on your attention, and encouragement has been for me a resource of energy and confidence which I greatly profited in my work. Thank you very much indeed for your support: CMAM will surely continue to deserve it and enjoy it. I hope you will pardon me if I address the final words to my family. The direction of the CMAM has been, as I said, the most rewarding professional experience of mine, but it has implied the enormous sacrifice that my family has accepted and stood, like many times before, to allow me develop a necessarily international career. No words could thank them as much as they deserve. I will soon dedicate all my time to you: promised!

Alessandro Zucchiatti CMAM DIRECTOR

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Foreword

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01. A bout

cmam


About the Centre for Micro-Analysis of Materials The Centre for Micro-Analysis of Materials (CMAM) is a research infrastructure belonging to the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM). It is part of the research axis “Nanoscience and Advanced Materials” of the CEI UAM+CSIC, a campus of international excellence established in 2009 jointly by the UAM and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). Its main tool is an electrostatic ion accelerator that, in 2002, was the first in the world to reach 5MV with a coaxial Cockcroft-Walton acceleration system. CMAM’s mission is to conduct cutting-edge research in key areas of application of ion beam techniques, such as: Materials Science in general, Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Magnetism, Nanotechnology, Environmental Science, Biology and Biomedicine, Nuclear Physics, Materials for Energy Production, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. We also aim at spreading the ion beam techniques to the scientific and technological communities of Spain as well as to the business community and society as a whole. As a university centre we also provide advanced technological support to teaching and training activities, at various academic levels and both within national and international schemes. CMAM is the result of a project financed through the FEDER program and managed, from July 1998 until the official inauguration on March 23rd 2003, by a Technical Committee chaired by Prof. Fernando Agulló López, assisted by an Advisory Committee formed by outstanding members of the Spanish scientific, cultural and academic community. The experimental equipment consists of the tandem accelerator, provided with two sources: a plasma source for gaseous substances and a sputtering source for obtaining practically any element of the periodic table from a solid target. It is completed by several beam lines, specialized for various application areas and by a set of ancillary equipments (microanalytical techniques, sample preparation). The advanced construction parameters of the accelerator confers it characteristics among the most competitive as regards: deliverable ion range, maximum achievable energy (0.8 to 50 MeV), accuracy and stability of energy setting, fast operations and easy maintenance. CMAM is structured into three divisions: scientific, technical and administrative, to which are associated the staff members and collaborators. The governing body is the Steering Committee that includes the director, the heads of division, the elected representatives of scientific and technical-administrative staff and a PhD student’s representative. The director receives as well support from the Scientific Committee (all the doctors of the centre) and the Centre Council (the whole staff). There is an external advisory committee, composed of six international scientists renowned in the research areas covered by the CMAM, appointed and chaired by the Vice Chancellor for Science Policy and Research Infrastructures of the UAM. CMAM is a fully open infrastructure: the instrumentation and techniques developed are made available also to external researchers to perform studies within the field of materials science. We are committed to the widest possible collaboration with national and international research institutions. Ion beam delivery, the CMAM main activity, is certified according to ISO9001:2008. Our quality management system, deals with the different access schemes, fully open and competitive (thanks to a board of international referees), that are supervised by a commission (CATH) including a users representative.

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Activity Activity Report Report 2014-2015 2014-2015 || About About CMAM CMAM


ORGANIZATION CHART

Vice-Chancellor Research

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1.2. ORGANIZATION DIRECTOR:

Zucchiatti , Alessandro

DEPUTY D I R E C T O R :

Muñoz Martín, Ángel (until December 2014) Prieto de Castro, José Emilio (from February 2015)

ADMINISTRATION & HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION HEAD :

Renes Olalla, Beatriz Aparicio Villarroel, María Teresa Granados Simón, Ana Sierra Martos, Inmaculada SCIENTIFIC DIVISION

HEAD :

Zucchiatti , Alessandro Agulló López, Fernando (Honorary member. Former CMAM director) Climent Font, Aurelio (Former CMAM director) Martín y Marero, David Martínez Zapata, Orlando Olivares Villegas, José Pérez Casero, Rafael Prieto de Castro, José Emilio Ramos Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Redondo Cubero, Andrés Torres Costa, Vicente Ynsa Alcalá, Mª Dolores TECHNICAL DIVISION

HEAD :

Muñoz Martín, Ángel (until December 2014) Joco, Victor (from February 2015) Álvarez Echenique, Jorge Benedicto Córdoba, Marcos Díaz Hijar, Manuel Galán Montano, Patricia Maira Vidal, Aránzazu Nakbi, Abdennacer Narros Fernández, Jaime Rodríguez Nieva, Antonio J. Rojas Páez , Mary Carmen

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


INDIVIDUAL CHARGES ADMINISTRATION MANAGER:

Renes Olalla, Beatriz Fernández Ampuero, José Miguel Muñoz Martín, Ángel (until December 2014) Maira Vidal, Aránzazu (from February 2015) Fernández Ampuero, José Miguel

WORK SAFETY COORDINATOR: RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: QUALITY MANAGER:

P hD S T U D E N T S

Bachiller Perea, Diana

Punzón Quijorna, Esther

Gómez-Ferrer Herrán, Begoña

Tormo Márquez, Victoria (from February 2015)

MASTER STUDENTS

Tormo Márquez, Victoria (until September 2014) COMMITTEES S C I E N T I F I C A D V I S O R Y C O M M I T T E E (S A C )

The international SAC was appointed in march 2011 by the Vice Chancellor for Scientific Policy and Research Infrastructures. Its function is to evaluate the activity of the Centre and advise the VC and the CMAM Director on scientific plans, on new experimental facilities and on improvements in managerial and technical organization. CHAIR:

Prof. Rafael Garesse Alarcón

Vice Chancellor for Scientific Policy and Research Infrastructures, UAM

MEMBERS:

Prof. Ricardo Amils Pibernat

Chair of Microbiology, Department of Molecular Biology, UAM, and associate researcher at the Astro-Biology Centre (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain

Dr. Jorge García Gómez-Tejedor Director of the Restoration department of the “Centro de Arte Reina Sofía”, Madrid, Spain Prof. Ragnar Hellborg

Professor Emeritus of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Prof. Elías Muñoz Merino

Superior Technical School of Telecomunications Engineers, Universidad Politécnica, Director of the Institute of Optoelectronics Systems and Microtechnology, Madrid, Spain

Dr. Carlos Rossi Álvarez

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy

Prof. Leonardo Soriano de Arpe Full professor. Department of Applied Physics UAM. Former Director of the Materials Science Institute “Nicolás Cabrera”, Madrid, Spain

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MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE MEMBERS:

Zucchiatti, Alessandro

Director and Chairman

Muñoz Martín, Ángel

Deputy Director and head of the Technical Division (until December 2014)

Prieto de Castro, José Emilio

Deputy Director (from February 2015)

Joco, Victor

Head of the Technical Division (from February 2015)

Renes Olalla, Beatriz

Head of the Administration and HR Division and Committee´s secretary

Bachiller Perea, Diana

Elected spokesperson of the PhD students (until July 2015)

Tormo Márquez, Victoria

Prieto de Castro, José Emilio

Elected spokesperson of the PhD students (fom August 2015) Elected spokesperson of the technical and administrative staff Elected spokesperson of the scientific staff (until February 2014)

Ramos Ruiz, Miguel Ángel

Elected spokesperson of the scientific staff (from March 2015)

Álvarez Echenique, Jorge

SCIENTIFIC INTERNAL COMMITTEE

The scientific committee is a forum of discussion on the scientific issues relevant to CMAM. It is formed by all members of the staff owing a PhD degree; they report directly to the Director. MEMBERS:

All Scientific Division staff Joco, Victor Maira Vidal, Aránzazu Muñoz Martín, Ángel (until December 2014)

CMAM COUNCIL

The CMAM council is composed by all the members of the CMAM (staff and students) and meets at least once a year to discuss topics of general interest and to make suggestions to the direction about the organization and its improvement. BEAMTIME ALLOCATION COMMISSION MEMBERS:

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Zucchiatti, Alessandro

Chair

Prieto de Castro, José Emilio

Secretary

Muñoz Martín, Ángel

Technical advisor until December 2014

Joco, Victor

Technical advisor from February 2015

Carrascosa Rico, Mercedes

Users representative from UAM, Madrid

Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


1.3. MEMBERS Scientific Division Alessandro Zucchiatti Director of CMAM

Alessandro Zucchiatti directs the CMAM since December 2009 after having served INFN of Italy from 1975 onwards. He holds a degree in Physics from the University of Genova (Italy) and a PhD from the University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, South Africa). During his career he has been seconded as temporary research associate at the University of the Witwatersrand, as research director at CNRS of France and as visiting professor at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He has begun to work in nuclear physics, which has been his field of interest for many years before he progressively moved into ion beam analysis and its applications, in particular to the atmospheric environment and the cultural heritage. In both nuclear physics and IBA he has worked in prestigious international research centres, among which the ESRF, the GSI, the INFN-LNF, the INFN-LNL, the C2RMF and has been responsible for several research projects. He has also maintained a strong and constant interest to teaching: he has given courses at the University of Genoa and the University of the Witwatersrand; has directed international training schools and has supervised students work in nuclear and applied physics. José Emilio Prieto Deputy Director from February 2015 & Professor Under Contract

José Emilio Prieto is currently professor under contract (Profesor Contratado Doctor) at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, where he is a member of CMAM, of the Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada and of the Instituto Nicolás Cabrera. He got a degree and a PhD in Physics from the UAM working in the field of the growth and surface characterization of thin epitaxial films of magnetic materials. After a post-doctoral stage at the FU Berlin financed by a Humboldt fellowship, where he performed research in synchrotronbased magnetic spectroscopies, he joined the CMAM with a Ramón y Cajal contract. His current research interests are: the growth and characterization of new magnetic materials, the study of mechanisms of epitaxial growth and the use of ion beams for characterization and modification of materials properties.

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Fernando Agulló López Professor Emeritus and Former CMAM Director

Born in Mérida (Spain), got his degree of “licenciado” by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 1956. In 1964 he obtained the PhD degree by the same University. He started his scientific career in the Nuclear Energy Commission (JEN), presently CIEMAT, creating a pioneer research group on radiation damage in insulating materials. From 1970 until his retirement in 2004 had a position of full professor in the recently created Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He was responsible for setting up the teaching and experimental research activities in the Physics Division under the chairmanship of Prof. Nicolás Cabrera. In 1974 he was appointed director of the Department of Optics and Structure of Matter (presently Physics of Materials), leading a broad research program on: spectroscopy and optical properties of materials, defects and mechanical properties, crystal growth, dielectrics and ferroelectrics and nonlinear optics. Since 1999, he led, together with Prof. Aurelio Climent Font, a project to install a new laboratory for the analysis and modification of materials, CMAM, that was officially inaugurated in 2003. He became the first Director of CMAM in 2003. After his retirement he continued his research activity in CMAM as emeritus professor. Most of his effort was devoted to develop a specific research line on the ion-matter interaction and on the photonic applications of ion beams with the collaboration of Dr José Olivares from CSIC. As an output of his research activity, he has published around 350 papers, several books and monographs and has supervised 19 PhD students. He has been temporarily attached to several universities (Parma, Sussex, Dijon, Lisbon) and research centres (Brookhaven National Laboratory, IBM Zürich). He is recipient of the honour medal of the Royal Spanish Physical Society, the prize of research of UAM, and the Physical Sciences prize of CEOE for 1989. Aurelio Climent Font Full Professor and Former CMAM Director

Born in Tortosa (Spain), got his MsC by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 1973. In 1979 he obtained the PhD degree by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He started his scientific career at the Department of Applied Physics studying the electrical properties and conduction mechanisms of thin insulating films. In the period 1982-84 he stayed at Pennsylvania State University with a Fulbright-MEC fellowship using ion beam analytical techniques at the National Submicron facility at Cornell University for studying the damage produced in crystalline silicon by low energy ion beams and its effects on Schottky diodes and MOS structures. As an IBA scientist he has been attached to several universities (Denis Diderot- Paris VII, Lund) and research centres (Centre de Recherches Nucléaires in Strasbourg, European Commission JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, Centre de Recherches et Restauration des Musées de France in Paris, INFN-LABEC in Florence). Involved since the beginning in the CMAM project, he has served as director of the centre from 2004 until 2009. Since 2010 is full professor of Applied Physics at UAM.

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


Miguel Ángel Ramos Professor

Born in Madrid (Spain), he graduated in Physics in 1985 and got his PhD degree in 1990, both at Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Along his doctoral thesis, he developed the first Lowtemperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Spain (and the third in the world), performing tunneling spectroscopy experiments in so-called High Critical Temperature Superconductors. During a post-doctoral stay in the KFA at Jülich (Germany), he worked on a theoretical model (the Soft-Potential Model) which rather successfully accounts for the low-energy excitations in glasses or non-crystalline solids. His current research lines focus on the study of thermal (and also acoustic, structural and vibrational) properties of glasses and other disordered solids, at low temperatures and/or low energies. Emphasis is put on correlating these with their thermodynamic properties at higher temperatures, that is, around the glass transition region, an open and much debated unsolved topic in physics since longer than 100 years. In the last years, his group has mainly studied polymorphic molecular solids made of simple monoalcohols (such as ethanol, propanol, butanol and their isomers) which exhibit glassy phases together with crystalline ones including sometimes orientational disorder, as well as extremely stable glasses, such as hyperaged geological amber or physical vapor deposited indomethacin. Finally, he has also started a new research line on the possible existence of ferromagnetism in carbon materials by ion-beam irradiation, employing the 5 MV ion-beam accelerator at CMAM-UAM.

José Olivares Villegas Scientific Investigator

José Olivares is currently Investigador Científico, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, and associated to CMAM-UAM. He received his PhD in Physics from the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid (UAM), Spain, in 1994, for work on the topic of proton exchanged waveguides in lithium niobate. From 1994 to 1996 he was a posdoctoral fellow at the University of Sussex, UK, working on the topics of ion implanted waveguides and of laser damage and ablation for film deposition and micro structuring. From 1997 to 1998 he worked at the University of Oviedo, Spain, in the field of integrated optics in lithium niobate. From 1999 to 2001 he worked at Instituto de Optica, CSIC, in the field of third-order optical nonlinearities of metallic nanocomposites. In 2001 he became Tenured Scientist of CSIC. Since 2003 he is working, in collaboration with the Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM) of UAM, Madrid, in the field of photonic applications with high energy ions, particularly leading the topic of novel and efficient optical waveguide fabrication with swift heavy ions and researching in the fundamental aspects of the origin of electronic damage. Recently, he is involved in understanding the ion damage in optical materials like SiO2 that are also relevant to the fusion community.

Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM

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Rafael Pérez Casero Professor

Rafael Pérez Casero has recently joined the scientific staff of CMAM. He is currently professor at the Department of Applied Physics at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He obtained the PhD degree by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 1989 and has developed his scientific activity at the Department of Applied Physics, the Groupe de Physique des Solides de l’École Normale Supérieure de Paris and the Institut de Nanosciences de Paris. His research activity has been principally focused on the study of the mechanisms of ordered growth of complex oxide thin films by laser evaporation and on the growth of organic materials by laser assisted evaporation. Rafael Pérez Casero has also an extensive experience in the compositional and structural characterization of thin films by high energy ion beam techniques, mainly, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Nuclear Reaction Analysis.

Andrés Redondo Cubero Juan de La Cierva Researcher

Andrés Redondo Cubero got his Physics (2003) and Mathematics (2007) grades at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM). He joined the CMAM in 2005, where he developed his doctoral activity focused on ion beam analysis and modification of semiconductor materials. He got his PhD in Physics in 2010 and spent a 3-year post-doc at the ion beam laboratory of the Instituto Superior Técnico (formerly Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Portugal). In 2014 he returned to UAM with a ‘Juan de la Cierva’ contract, working at the Microelectronics Laboratory and becoming a member of the Applied Physics Department. At the same time he joined the scientific staff of CMAM.

Vicente Torres Costa Permanent professor

Vicente Torres Costa is a permanent professor at the Department of Applied Physics at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He obtained his PhD degree in 2006 at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid with a thesis about the optical properties and applications of nanostructured porous silicon. His research career has focused mainly on properties and applications of nanostructured semiconductors -porous silicon mainly- in fields such as optics, electronics, biomedicine, chemical and biological optical sensing. Most recently, he has been focused on the localized modification of porous silicon’s properties by means of focused ion beams and laser irradiation for advanced applications.

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


María Dolores Ynsa Alcalá Permanent professor

Born in Berga (Spain), she graduated in Physics in 1996 and got her PhD degree in 2003, both at Universidad de Sevilla. Her PhD research work was carried out at CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores) and completed with numerous stays in the Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN) of Portugal where she used regularly the 3.1MV Van de Graaff accelerator. During this period her activities were focused on the analysis of biological samples with IBA techniques although she also carried out some archaeometrical and material science studies. Her post-doctoral activity have been carried out in different centers with acce lerator facilities mainly working with microbeam lines such as ITN, the Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG) in France, the Center for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA) in Singapore and the Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology in Melbourne. Her association with the Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM) began in September of 2005 with a temporal contract as a specialist in ion beam analysis (PIXE technique) at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. During this period she has had several research contracts such as Juan de la Cierva and Ramón y Cajal among other. The activity in the CMAM is mainly dedicated to its internal microbeam line where diverse analytical and implantation experiments have been carried out. During the last years the use of heavy ions with high energy in this line, has opened new research fields to modify the physical, chemical and structural properties of different materials. Since 2009 she has been teaching graduated courses at UAM.

Technical Division

Ángel Muñoz Martín Deputy Director & Head of Technical Division until December 2014

Ángel Muñoz Martín got his degree in Physics in 1997 and, since 2002, he holds a PhD in Materials Science from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. In 2003, Ángel joined Fundación Parque Científico de Madrid, being addressed to the Centre for Micro Analysis of Materials, where he devoted his time to the development of new infrastructure and local assistance to external users. In 2006 he obtained a position as Accelerator Chief Engineer at CMAM and, since 2007, he is responsible of the whole Technical Division. In 2009 he was appointed deputy director of CMAM. Dr Muñoz-Martín has participated in several national and international committees for the development of new infrastructures related to ion acce-lerators and ion accelerator techniques, and he is actively participating in the development of new instrumentation at CMAM.

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Victor Joco Head of Technical Division from January 2015. Research & Development Engineer

Victor Joco works at CMAM as a Research & Development engineer. He obtained his degree in Physics at Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj Napoca, Romania in 1999, and the PhD in Physics from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Spain, in 2008. The work in CMAM consists in developing instrumentation for Surface Physics and Ion Beam related methods. Besides, his work is strongly related with the beamline and experimental chamber fine tuning and release to users. He is an expert in different communication protocols, digital and analogue electronics, microcontrollers, detectors, converters, software, vacuum techniques and various scientific methods. He actively participates in training and educational activities.

Aránzazu Maira Vidal Technical Support Engineer

Aránzazu Maira Vidal works at CMAM as technical support engineer. She obtained her degree in Physics at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) in 1997 and the PhD in condensed materials physics at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) in 2005. Before she started to work at CMAM, she was working in the fields of astrophysics, condensed materials science and nuclear physics. Her work at CMAM consists in the operation of the accelerator, the supervision of the radioactive installation, the participation in the maintenance tasks related with the accelerator and with the ion sources, the supervisión of the auxiliary installations (as the refrigerated water circuits or the compressed air circuit) and the development and improvement of the accelerator and the complementary equipments. She actively participates in training and educational activities.

Abdennacer Nakbi Technical Support Engineer

He obtained his degree in Physics at Med Ben Abdullah University, Fez, Morocco in 1995, and Diploma of Electronic Engineer from the University of Granada, Spain, in 2003. His work in CMAM consists in taking part in tasks of maintenance of Ion Beam Accelerator; centering in developing analog and digital electronic circuits, electric installations, and development of beam lines.

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


Jorge Álvarez Echenique Computer Support Engineer

Jorge Álvarez Echenique works at CMAM as a computer support engineer, system administrator and webmaster and has done so for eleven years. He obtained his degree in Chemistry at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) in 2002. He soon discovered his interest in computer science, graphic design and web design. Whilst working as a Computer Support Technician at UAM information technologies centre, he completed several courses and masters, including systems management (windows and linux environment), networks administrator, web development and graphic design. In addition to his work as IT for CMAM, he has worked as a freelance in various web and graphic design projects and IT support for a wide variety of clients.

Antonio Rodríguez Nieva Accelerator Technician

Antonio Rodríguez works at CMAM since December 2000. He joined the technical team of the center and keeps developing his job until nowadays. His work in the CMAM consists in the operation of the accelerator, under the guidance of the supervisor of radioactive installation. He participates in the maintenance tasks related with the accelerator, the ion sources and the auxiliary installations. He also takes part in the development of the acce-lerator, the complementary equipment and beam lines in collaboration with the responsible of the installation and beam lines.

Jaime Narros Fernández Accelerator Technician

Jaime Narros works at CMAM as a technician since November 2001. He joined the technical team of the center and keeps developing his job until nowadays. His work in the CMAM consists in the operation of the accelerator, under the guidance of the supervisor of the radioactive installation. He participates in the maintenance tasks related with the accelerator, the ion sources, and the auxiliary installations. He also takes part in the development of the accelerator, the complementary equipments and beam lines in collaboration with the responsible of the installation and beam lines.

Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM

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Mary Carmen Rojas Páez Laboratory technician

She works at CMAM since December of 2015 as a laboratory technician. Her work in the CMAM consists in the preparation of samples for user’s experiments at the accelerator, target preparation and mounting for the sputtering ion source, participation in maintenance tasks related to accelerator ion sources, auxiliary facilities and stock control laboratories.

Patricia Galán Montano External users Technical Support Assistant

Patricia Galán Montano works at CMAM as external users assistant and technical support. She obtained her Physics degree at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) in 2011 and Biomedical Engineering Master Degree at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) in 2015. Her work at CMAM is to provide assistance to users who may need it in mounting and carrying out experiments at the accelerator, as well as data analysis of the different IBA techniques (RBS, PIXE, PIGE, etc.)

PhD Students Esther Punzón Quijorna PhD Student

She is from the land of Don Quixote, Consuegra (Toledo). Gra-duated in Physics from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), she finished the M.Sc. in “Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology” in 2010 at the Applied Physics Department (UAM). She initiated a PhD granted by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (FPI grant), at Applied Physics Department and Center for Micro Analysis of Materials (CMAM) at UAM, with Aurelio Climent Font as director. During her thesis she is studying ion beam techniques (with light and heavy ions, at energies from keV to MeV) for the development of micro and nano structures with optical contrast (of interest in optoelectronics), and contrast of electrical properties (specific stimulation of biological processes of differentiation). She is interested in new branches of Nanobioscience and techniques of analysis by ion beams. She has completed a research stay for eleven months, as visitor PhD student at the Joint Research Center European Commission (JRC) in Ispra (Italy).

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


Diana Bachiller Perea PhD Student

Diana Bachiller Perea has a Degree in Physics from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain (2005-2010) and an Interuniversitary Master´s Degree in Nuclear Physics (2010-2011). Her current status is PhD student at CMAM-UAM with a FPI Fe llowship of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. She was co llaborating with the Nuclear Physics Department at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (2009-2010) and working at the Microelectronics Institute of Madrid (IMM-CSIC) (2010-2011). Her work at CMAM started in 2011 for a master thesis related to a Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the aim of creating a nuclear database containing cross sections for the most commonly demanded PIGE reactions. Her thesis work is focused on the damage produced by ionic irradiation on materials for fusion applications. Begoña Gómez-Ferrer Herrán PhD Student

Begoña Gómez-Ferrer Herrán has a M.Sc. in physics from Universidad de Valencia (2002-2007) including a year stage at Physics department of Imperial College London (2005-2006) and a European Master on Nuclear Fusion Science and Engineering Physics at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (2010). She was working for a year at an international consulting company, Accenture (2007-2008). In 2009 she started her PhD studies in Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) in collaboration with CMAM at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Her thesis is about studying radiation damage on fusion structural materials, more specifically is based on developing Resistivity Recovery (RR) experiments at cryogenic temperatures which might be able to verify computing simulations in the context of multiscale modeling.

Victoria Tormo Márquez PhD Student

Victoria Tormo Márquez started collaborating in Center of Micro Anlaysis of Materials (CMAM) in the last year of her Physics Degree, from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, as a technical assistant for external users’ experiments. Afterwards, she developed her master thesis in this centre regarding optical waveguides fabricated in lithium tantalate obtaining the highest grading and being selected as the best thesis within the MsC in Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (Photonics branch) and therefore published by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. She started her PhD in 2015 at CMAM, with José Olivares as her director, and her thesis is about the fabrication of high quality optical waveguides using swift heavy ion irradiations in interesting materials in the field of photonic applications, as well as the study of ion damage processes in those materials.

Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM

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Administration & Human Resources Division Beatriz Renes Olalla Administration and Human Resources Manager

Beatriz Renes joined the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 1994. She has a wide experience in administration and foreign trade and she has worked for several years as Import/export manager in an American multinational corporation. During the first years at the university she worked as the Administrator assistant at the Faculty of Science. Afterwards she joined the Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, where she was in charge of the institute administration, and also coordinating summer schools, congress and scientific events. In 2002 she was appointed Administration Manager of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales (CMAM). She is responsible for the entire administration control of the centre, including support for external scientific projects, and she takes care of the auxiliary building maintenance. From 2007 she is also officially in charge of the Human Resources of the CMAM and she supervises the external staff attached to the centre.

Ana Granados Simón Administration Assistant

Ana Granados works at CMAM as administration assistant since January 2005. Before that, she was doing secretarial, translation and assistant jobs for years. Her main work in CMAM consists in issuing, keeping updated and filing all the administrative documents of the centre, especially those of the order’s processing system in accordance to the Quality Management System. She gives support and advice to the staff in matters related to their travels to Congresses, and to external visitors, being also in contact with the different departments of the university as well as suppliers. She issues the orders for the general service and maintenance of the building and she also takes care of the library. Teresa Aparicio Villarroel Reception Desk Assistant

Teresa Aparicio has been working at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid for more than 15 years, mainly as general service assistant in different centres and faculties. She joined the CMAM in 2012. Her main work consists on reception tasks, such as switchboard and visitors attention, external and internal mail, parcels and incoming orders registration and keys distribution and control. She also does the control of the office material and equipment and the reservation of the meeting room.

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | About CMAM


Inmaculada Sierra Martos Reception Desk Assistant

Inmaculada Sierra works at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid since 2008. Prior to that she worked for private and public companies, doing administrative, reception and lay out works. She joined the CMAM in 2011. Her main work consists on reception tasks, such as switchboard and visitors attention, external and internal mail, parcels and incoming orders registration and keys distribution and control. She also does the control of the office material and equipment and the reservation of the meeting room. Due to her experience and knowledge in lay out works, she actively participates in the graphic design of the activity reports of the CMAM.

Quality Assurance José Miguel Fernández Ampuero Quality Manager

Born in Madrid (Spain), he got his degree in Geology (speciality geotechnical engineering, geophysics and hydrogeology) in 2002 from Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Since 2002, he has worked in companies connected with civil and quality control engineering (TRAGSA, S.A, FCC, S.A). In 2010-2011 he completed a Master in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering from Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In 2012, José Miguel joined Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, as Quality Assurance Manager and Safety Coordinator of the Centre for MicroAnalysis of Materials.

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0 2. A ccelerator and beamlines


2.1. ACCELERATOR The accelerator at CMAM, designed and constructed by High Voltage Engineering Europa (HVEE), was the first Coaxial High Current Tandetron Accelerator of 5 MV using the Cockcroft Walton power supply system (previously, terminal voltages were never higher than 3 MV with this system and the power supply itself was perpendicular to the acceleration stage). It has a remarkable stability and low ripple (less than 50 V at 5 MV). Two ion sources, sputtering and duoplasmatron, are used to provide almost any element from Hydrogen to Bismuth. Two major updates during 2014-2015 are to be mentioned:

Tank extraordinary maintenance After 11 years of operation, during March 2013, the maximum terminal voltage (5 MV) could no longer be achieved. This condition was limiting implantation experiments, also ERDA experiments requiring the maximum terminal voltage. Several diagnostics were performed, all leading to the conclusion that an important number of diodes from the amplifying system were faulty. During 2013, for the first time after 2002, the accelerator tank was opened and the number of faulty diodes was quantified. In 2014, all the faulty and suspicious diodes were replaced (562 out of 2200). The amount of nitrogen stripper gas was also verified to be sufficient, the original bottle being at more than 80% of its capacity.

Implementation of an unified control system The expansion of the beamlines and accelerator items to be controlled was always pointing to an unified control system to cover them all. The control system of the accelerator alone (TOS - Tandetron Operating System) had been designed as a closed system. In 2015, a new compiled version of TOS was been connected to a software bus designed for large installation control (TANGO CONTROL SYSTEM). Moreover, auxiliary control items such as the magnetic field of the magnets, beamline pressure values, accelerator temperature, were added. Several control panels have been designed for accessing and controlling those values at the accelerator and beamline side. Other tools as a database server for registering control values have also been implemented (MAMBO).

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | Accelerator and Beamlines


CMAM technical team working on the accelerator extraordinary maintenance

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27


2.2. BEAM EXTENSION LINES

The Standard Multiporpose line The Standard Line of the CMAM accelerator is mainly devoted to High Energy Ion Spectrometry (H.E.I.S.) Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Elastic Recoil Detection experiments are currently carried out. The line is located at 30o with respect to the accelerator axis. The beam can be measured and managed by means of two Faraday cups and two collimating slits. The analysis chamber is pumped to high vacuum. The sample holder is mounted on a goniometer that permits to position the samples and to orient them with respect to the incident beam, so random and channelling experiments can be performed. The sample holder can be monitored by a small camera. Two solid state detectors can be used for ion collection. A fixed detector is located at 170o with respect to the incident beam and a movable detector can be positioned at any angle with respect to the incident beam. Foils and slits can be located in front of the movable detector. Data collection is made by a 2048 channels analyser. A non-permanent set up (optical and infrared cameras and view-ports) can be fitted to the vacuum chamber in order to perform ionoluminescence measurements. A new set up that will permit to perform Particle Induce X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is currently being implemented into the vacuum chamber.

View of the standard beamline chamber

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Interior view of the standard beamline chamber

Full-view of the standard beamline

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The External Microbeam line The external microbeam was one of the first extension beam lines installed at CMAM's accelerator by 2004. Its main application so far has been on the study of cultural heritage objects, including ink drawings, pigments, glasses, ceramics, gems, metal alloys like bronzes, gilded metals, or gold artifacts. The most commonly used technique is PIXE, giving the overall composition of the elements Na and heavier. RBS can be performed simultaneously with PIXE when there is interest on the in depth distribution of the elements. PIGE can be done as well installing an additional gamma-ray detector of lanthanum bromide, LaBr3(Ce), to measure, for instance, the concentration of lighter elements like C, O or Na. The advantage of an external ion microbeam is the possibility of analyzing parts of an object without sampling and with minor preparation or manipulation of the object itself, as it remains in air at atmospheric pressure, or at most under a soft jet of He gas. The beam focusing system with two magnetic quadrupoles manufactures by Oxford Microbeams provides an average size of the beam in air of about 50 mm. An interchangeable window of silicon nitride 100 or 200 nm thick, separating vacuum inside the line from atmospheric pressure lets the ion beam trough the external air. The end station is equipped with two PIXE detectors: one for high energy photons, detecting X rays more energetic than about 3 or 4 keV, elements heavier than Ca, and covered with a thin foil filtering out the lower X-rays, and another for low energy photons, where the air between sample and detector is displaced by a He stream decreasing the absorbing power and allowing for the detection of lighter elements like Na. The object under analysis is placed in front of the extracted to the air beam on a three axis XYZ moving table. The sample object can be displaced step by step with precision of 15 mm. The impact point of the beam with the sample is localized with the help of a lateral laser and a video camera. The irradiating fluence is computed measuring the number of characteristic Si X-rays emitted by the silicon nitride window and detected by a dedicated X-ray detector.

Full-view of the microbeam line

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | Accelerator and Beamlines


Detailed view of the silicon nitride window

View of the external beam line setup

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The Internal Microbeam line CMAM’s internal microbeam line sits at +30º, just after the standard chamber. In this beamline it is possible to work with a particle beam focused to a diameter of the order of the micrometer and even below. The beam can scan the target in a controlled way to obtain distribution maps or to modify the physical, chemical or structural properties of the sample. These two beam features turn this kind of lines into powerful tools for studies covering quite diverse fields like biomedicine, materials science, archaeometry, earth sciences, among other. This microprobe line was built in the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC, Melbourne). To focus the beam the system uses two sets of slits, a motorized object slits manufactured by Technisches Büro S. Fischer (Germany) and the recently installed collimator slits, manufactured in Croatia, and five magnetic quadrupole lenses similar to the CSIRO– GEMOC system [1, 2]. A magnetic deflector scans the beam through the sample. The samples are positioned inside a vacuum chamber where they can be moved along the x, y, z axes. The reaction chamber is provided with an optical microscope to control, at any time, the target area that is irradiated or analysed, as well as several particle detectors, a photodiode and an X-ray detector. The set-up allows equally well the analysis and irradiation of both thin (the beam crosses the sample) and thick targets of limited size (not above 1 cm2). This beamline is particularly suitable to work with high current. At this moment, the beam size is about 1 x 2 μm2 for a 2 MeV proton beam with a current of about 700 pA (Figure 1). The maximum scan size for this beam is about 250 x 1250 μm2. Although the beam size is not as small as for proton, heavy ions (N, Si, B, C, O) with high current (frequently higher than 500 pA) have also been focused in our microprobe line [3] with a beam size of about 5 x 3 μm2 (Figure 2). This fact allows to carry out important experiments of material modification.

Fig. 1. PIXE Cu map of a 2000 mesh Cu grid (with a pitch of 12.5 µm). The 2 MeV proton beam current was about 700 pA.

Fig.2. RBS Cu maps of a 1000 mesh Cu grid (with a pitch of 25 µm).

Up to now, it is possible to apply routinely the PIXE and RBS techniques and occasionally PIGE technique to obtain elemental distribution maps and the STIM-off technique on thin samples to study the density variations. In a closer future, thanks to the new collimator slits, IBIC and STIM-on techniques will be available. [1] D.N. Jamieson, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 136 (1998) 1. [2] M.J.J. van den Putte, J.F.J. van den Brand, D.N. Jamieson, B. Rout, R. Szymanski, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 210 (2003) 21. [3] M.D. Ynsa, M.A. Ramos, N. Skukan, V. Torres-Costa, M. Jakšić, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 348 (2015) 174.

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Views of the internal microbeam line

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The NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) line A new scattering chamber has been installed at the end of 2015 for the purpose of measuring, in optimal conditions, gamma-production X-sections and perform PIGE analysis in vacuum. The purpose of this new chamber is to assure a good control of charge reproducibility and avoid the background that has been experienced, for example in gamma ray production by proton of energies above 4MeV impinging on the carbon Faraday cup of our standard beamline. For this reason it has been fitted with a tantalum FC, provided with a suppressor ring. Another important issue has been assuring the highest possible detector efficiency to obtain statistically significant spectra in shorter times thus helping the preservation of the target using lower currents or shorter times. It has a radius of 25 cm and is provided with two different gamma detectors and a motorized target holder. The first gamma detector is a 61 mm by 61mm Reverse Electrode Germanium (REGe), equipped with a polymer entrance window; the second is a 2�x2� Lantanum Bromide scintillator (LaRr3). Both the light entrance window and the short target-detector distance give, e.g. the REGe superior efficiency performance (Figure 1).

Fig.1. The REGe efficiency measured with a set of certified sources

The chamber has been used so far for the measurement of gamma production cross section induced by protons up to 3300 keV. At higher energies the focusing of the beam on target becomes difficult and the chamber will need further development (realignment, installation of a quadrupole doublet) to operate at higher energies in the required conditions. An example of the work done in the actual configuration is given in Figure 2.

Fig.2. Example of the work done in the actual configuration

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | Accelerator and Beamlines


Views of the NRA line

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The Implantation line The implantation beamline allows to perform homogeneous irradiations/implantations in large areas, up to 100x100 mm, even for the most restrictive case of H 10 MeV, by means of scanning the beam. The implantation CMAM beamline is located at 20º (left) with respect to the Tandem accelerator axis, after the second switching magnet. Figure 1 shows a panoramic view of the entire line with its main elements, namely the switching magnet, the Faraday cups (FCs), the vacuum valves, the sweep system, and the pumping flanges. The irradiation chamber (Figure 2) is electrically isolated, and it is designed for ultra-high vacuum (UHV), provided with ConFlat flanges (CF), and compatible with load-lock loading of 3” wafers. The irradiation fluence is controlled by measuring the beam current in two different ways. The system, provided in origin by High Voltage Engineering Europa (HVE), consists either of a single FC, located before the vacuum valve, or a combination of four FCs (4FCs), located after the vacuum valve, immediately before the irradiation chamber (Figure 1 and 2). There is a cryostat/furnace designed at the CMAM and fabricated by TRINOS Vacuum, that allows modifying the heating and cooling ramps in order to vary the sample temperature, from LN2 (-196 ºC) to 600 ºC, during the irradiations. The sample can be oriented in the chamber from 0º to ±90º, with respect to the beam axis, for transfer and on line/in situ characterization. The sample holder is made of copper to favour a uniform temperature gradient. Additionally, the beamline is provided with an InfraTec VarioCAM thermographic camera, to in-situ study the distribution on the surface sample temperature during the irradiations. Several optical techniques for in-situ measurements are available: reflectance and transmittance; and ellipsometry, all in the broad range UV-VIS.

Pulsed fs Laser infraestructure In 2015 a fs pulsed laser (Spectra Physics, Solstice ACE model, regenerative amplifier) was installed at CMAM next to the implantation chamber (see top panoramic view in Figure 1) with the main objective of researching on new avenues of material processing exploiting the synergy of combining both types of irradiations (ion and laser). The main laser characteristics are: delivers 100 fs pulses of 6mJ/pulse, at 1 kHz repetition rate, at 800 nm wavelength. There is also an additional external wavelength conversion module to generate pulses at 400 or 266 nm wavelengths, as desired. With suitable opto-mechanics (and security tubing) the laser beam is directed towards the implantation chamber through one of the silica windows as shown in the Figure 2. Certainly, standard laser processing alone experiments are possible in the available space in the large optical table installed).

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Activity Report 2014-2015 | Accelerator and Beamlines


Fig 1. Panoramic view of the implantation line and pulsed fs laser attachment

Fig 2. The irradiation chamber of implantation beamline

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0 3. S cientific reports


3.1. BEAMTIME DISTRIBUTION AND ION BEAM STATISTICS The accelerator at CMAM, designed and constructed by High Voltage Engineering Europe (HVEE), was the first coaxial high-current Tandetron accelerator of 5 MV using the Cockcroft-Walton power supply system (in previous designs, terminal voltages were never higher than 3 MV with this system and the power supply itself was mounted perpendicular to the acceleration stage). It has a remarkable stability and low ripple level (less than 50 V at 5 MV). By the end of 2013 and for the first time after 2002, the accelerator tank was opened and the number of defective diodes was quantified. In 2014, all the broken and suspicious diodes were replaced (562 of 2200), during several extraordinary maintenance actions. Two ion sources, sputtering and duoplasmatron, are used to provide ions of almost any element from Hydrogen to Lead. IONS

TIME DISTRIBUTION

Not used

Fig. 1. Distribution of ion beams over the period 2014-2015

Fig. 2. Distribution of total time for the period 2014-2015

Figures 1 and 2 show the demand of ions during the period 2014-2105 and the time distribution of activities involving the accelerator. Several beamlines have been commissioned and others upgraded during 2014-2105, but the number of hours devoted (percentage: 11%) has been decreased in comparison with previous periods. More than half of total time (57% of beamtime) was allocated to scientific experiments. The most demanded ions have been Hidrogen and Helium, but also new ions (Ge, 15N, 57Fe) have been produced and increase our supply of ion beams. Figure 3 shows statistics about the use of different beamlines, both for experiments and commissioning.

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Detailed information about the improvements carried out in the experimental stations and accelerator can be found in the following reports. Updated information about the beam lines at CMAM can be found in Chapter 2: Accelerator and Beamlines. BEAMLINES

Fig. 3. Use of beamtime, including experiments and commissioning, over the period 2014-2015

An amount of hours lower than usual has been needed for maintenance during 2014 and 2015. Fig. 4 shows the evolution of the number of hours for maintenance and beamtime in the last eight years. The maintenance time which has been required for dismounting, cleaning and alignment of the accelerator injector has been decreased. This has been due to the improvements achieved in the performance of the ion sources.

Fig. 4. Beamtime and maintenance time during the last 8 years

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FAILURE/BEAM ON SAMPLE (%)

Fig. 5. Beamtime and maintenance time during the last 8 years

Since 2012, operation and maintenance of the accelerator and its related facilities are audited according to the ISO 9001:2008 standard. This standard guarantees the observance of dedicated protocols for each individual task and a continuous improvement of the operation. Figure 5 shows the evolution of the number of failures in the supply of ion beams normalized to the total number of beamtime hours. There has been a continuous reduction in the number of failures during 2015 because of the improvements achieved in the accelerator and the sources. We expect to continue this trend in the following years.

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3.2. RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS Study of color alterations in Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) of modern pigments and papers A. Climent-Font (1), J. García Gómez-Tejedor (2), S. Martina (1,2), C. Muro García (2), A. Zucchiatti (1) (1)

(2)

Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Departamento de Restauración, Madrid

Introduction

In paintings and drawings the analytical identification of coloring agents (pigments or dyes) is essential whenever technical, attribution, conservation and restoration issues have to be considered. The convenience and efficacy of PIXE for non-invasive identification of inorganic pigments has been proved in several studies [1,2] and specifically, in paintings and drawings [3-5, 6-10]. In the analysis process we must, in any case, consider the transformations [5] that the ion-material interaction generates inevitably in the object. The majority of minerals and metal alloys are practically not affected by the analysis. Organic compounds, on the contrary, may suffer the cleavage of chemical bonds (radiolysis), with the result of polymer molecules breaking, gaseous degradation, water loss and possible migration of mobile elements. Some pigments and most papers experience visible darkening at the beam impact point. It is fortunately not general but sometimes inevitable even at the moderate fluences required to obtain statistically meaningful analyses. It is difficult to predict a priori the behavior of a sample, as demonstrated by literature data [7,8,10, 11-16], where the safe operation conditions (no visible damage), in various painting and drawing media and supports, span three orders of magnitude from some 1012 to some 1015 p/cm2. Lower doses reduce the probability of visible damage and can be obtained by improving as much as possible detection efficiency (appropriate geometry, large diameter detector) [17]. We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) an ensemble of about 180, specifically prepared, test samples of modern commercial media (pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints) and papers. We have assessed, in a previous paper [18], the capability of identifying either the coloring agent or peculiar markers in each product and the possibility of compiling a database. We will report here on the damage processes that were observed during the analysis. Damage on Modern Pigments and Papers

Knowing that the damage on ancient paper is most likely observed, we performed a series of tests aimed at reaching a compromise between good statistics, analytical accuracy and minimum exposure to the beam. The dose on modern A4 paper sheets of 80 g/m2, was changed by varying the current from 50 to 500 pA while maintaining constant the irradiation time. The surface was exposed to the beam either in single spot mode (about 50 microns diameter) or in scan mode (1.5x1.5 mm2). We must point out that the “in-beam” images on which we based our analysis (both for papers and pigments) were taken with a 20X camera and that, even at the highest currents (500 pA), the damage to the naked eye is barely perceptible. In scanning mode, because of ion distribution over a larger area, the

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stain is more easily perceived by the naked eye than in single spot irradiations, despite the fluence is lower. The most evident visible effects appear for point analysis at 500 pA and scan mode at 350 pA. However there are not substantial differences between damage caused respectively by irradiation at 50 pA and at 350 pA (see Figure 1 and table 1) for an exposure time of 400s. Therefore it was possible to operate with relatively high currents, just below ​​the 300 pA limit, sufficient for a good statistics and not so harmful for paper support.

Fig 1. Irradiations in scanning mode) @50pA (left) and @350pA (right) of commercial A4 white paper. Measuring time 400s. Images captured with the camera Toshiba 1K - HM51H, lens ELMO 8 mm, 20X magnification. White balance has not been adjusted and exposure changed by 1.14.

Concerning commercial drawing media, it has to be underlined that single spot analysis was necessary only where the color distribution was not uniform or where limited dimensions of color strokes did not allow to perform scanning. In the cumulative PIXE analysis of 180 modern drawing media, some samples, mostly of organic composition, have proved particularly sensitive to radiation. The damage produced there is often permanent even after months of storage. Examples are given in figure 2 (panels a-d). In other cases (figure 2 panels e-f)) the beam mark is strongly attenuated with time, at least in the visible range. We have observed that under UV light the beam mark remains visible. In the case of figure 2 (panels a-b) we cannot exclude that the damage is that on paper seen through/between a thin transparent layer of highlighter while in the case of figure 2 (panels c-d) the damage is that on the pigment. On chemically developed Fuji RC photographic paper, luster finishing, @140 pA 400s we observe the worst situation (figure 3). The beam focused on a point completely deteriorated the color layer, leaving a white dot visible to the naked eye and permanent after months. The results of our irradiations on some of the critical samples are reported in Table 1. PIXE must be therefore used with great caution in the types of materials listed above and an appropriate cost/benefit evaluation must be done before analysis. We have done a semi-quantitative evaluation of the effect of irradiation and its recovery after some storage time. In strict terms, for images taken under controlled illumination, one could analyze the color values, for example the L*a*b coordinates, on different samples and area and calculate the color difference between any two points by the Euclidean formula:

In our case we had available digital photos, taken under very different illumination conditions (in the beamline, under a microscope etc.) and elaborated, in an unknown way (as regards white balance, contrast, etc.), by the camera on-board software. We had therefore to restrict the calculation of color differences induced by the ion beam or modified by storage time

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(Table 1), to each single image, averaging L*a*b coordinates on a certain amount of pixels, both for the irradiated and untouched areas.

a

b

c

d

e

f

Fig. 2. Damage observed on some modern drawing media. Panel a): Marker Pelikan Textamarker 490 Rose @ 210 pA 400s. Panel b): Marker Staedtler Textsurfer Classic Yellow (right) @ 250 pA 400 s. Panel c): Olive Tone Marshall retouching ink @230 pA for 400s immediately after irradiation. Panel d): Olive Tone Marshall a few months after irradiation. Panel e): Pelikan china ink Carmine immediately after irradiation@ 240 pA 400s. Panel f): Pelikan china ink Carmine a few months after irradiation.

Fig. 3. Permanent damage produced by the focused CMAM external microbeam on chemically developed Fuji RC photographic paper, luster finishing, @140 pA 400s and visible after a few months.

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TABLE 1. Conditions under which paper and some organic compounds have shown visible damage. Approximate color numerical value and color distances for some irradiated sample immediately after and time after the PIXE irradiation. Irradiation conditions Sample

Current [pA]

Area [cm2]

Fluence [p/cm2]

Colour relative measurements Pixels

Beam region

Untouched region

L

a

b

L

a

b

Distance beamuntouched

Paper A4

50

0,0225

5,56E+12

51x51

50

15

0

44

16

11

12,57

Paper A4

120

0,0225

1,33E+13

Paper A4

220

0,0225

2,44E+13

Paper A4

250

0,0225

2,78E+13

51x51

45

15

9

49

15

-1

10,77

Paper A4

350

0,0225

3,89E+13

51x51

46

15

10

50

14

-3

13,64

Paper A4 Spot

500

1,96E-05

6,37E+16

FT-101-Marshalls olive

230

0,0225

53

4

19

52

5

12

7,14

FT-101-Marshalls olive

after time

51x51

24

0

12

18

3

8

7,81

Pelikan Orange

240

0,0225

2,67E+13

28

37

23

34

50

33

17,46

Pelikan Orange

after time

51x51

34

42

38

36

40

39

3,00

Pelikan Carmin

240

0,0225

2,67E+13

54

63

13

40

45

2

25,32

Pelikan Carmin

after time

51x51

51

44

13

53

45

10

3,74

Fuji RC photographic paper

140

1,96E-05

1,78E+16

Fuji RC photographic paper

after time

3x3

51

2

34

3

1

1

58,26

Pelikan textmarker pink

210

0,0225

2,33E+13

Pelikan textmarker pink

after time

51x51

62

44

23

72

35

6

21,68

Staedler textsurfer yellow

250

0,0225

2,78E+13

Staedler textsurfer yellow

after time

51x51

85

-8

53

93

-10

41

14,56

It is seen that Pelikan Orange and Pelikan Carmine china inks reduce considerably color distance between the irradiated and untouched area after storage (a few months) thus attenuating strongly the visible effect as seen as well on figure 4. It is also seen that the color difference between the irradiation at low and higher fluence of an A4 paper is not so big as already shown in figure 1. The Marshall Olive retouching liquid does not show significant changes with time and the highlighters and the photographic paper, together with the china inks, show the highest color differences between the irradiated and untouched areas immediately after irradiation. The results (table 1), although approximate, as explained above, are coherent with the visual inspection of samples; the technique could be further developed for modern pigments. Conclusions

IBA techniques are used routinely in archaeometry. Their success is due to the clear perception, by the final user, curator or conservator, that the integrity of the sample is maintained throughout and after the analysis. Beam conditions must be maintained within

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limits where the potential damage, consequent to the large number of possible beamsample interactions [5], is negligible or the analysis is justifiable on the basis of the benefit/ cost ratio. These limits must in principle be determined for each specific material or class of materials. We observed that, for modern A4 commercial paper, damage is produced from 50 pA upward and exposure times of 400 s. This damage is however barely visible to the naked eye until about 350pA, which allows setting a limit for reasonably conservative conditions. The onset of damage appears at fluences one or two orders of magnitude lower than those reported in literature for ancient paper. Modern A4 sheet is probably more reactive because of surface whitening processes. For coloring agents (pigments, dyes) we have observed a clear damage on organic compounds already around 3x1013 p/cm2, which is one order of magnitude lower that the “safe” fluence for metallo-gallic inks reported in literature. The worst case is that of chemically developed photographic paper, which we had to analyze in spot mode, bringing the fluence to the 1016 p/cm2 level. Our general conclusion is that PIXE remains a technique able to produce statistically significant information with negligible or reduced visible damage on many modern commercial pigments and papers. However the damage is not easily predictable and careful tests before proceeding to serial measurements on large sets of samples are absolutely necessary.

References [1]A.Zucchiatti, A. Climent Font, M.C. Galassi, Studies in Conservation, Volume 57, Issue 3, Jul 2012, Pages 131-141 [2] A.Zucchiatti, A. Bouquillon, G. Lanterna, F. Lucarelli, P.A. Mandó, P. Prati, J. Salomon, M.G. Vaccari, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, Volume 189, Apr 2002, Pages 358–363 [3] N. Grassi, A. Migliori, Mando P.A., H.C. del Castillo, X-ray Spectrometry Volume 34 , Issue 4, Jul-Aug 2005, Pages 306-309 [4] L. de Viguerie, L. Beck, J. Salomon, L. Pichon, Ph. Walter, Analytical Chemistry Volume 81, Issue 19, Oct 2009, Pages 79607966 [5] A. Zucchiatti, F. Agulló-Lopez, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, 278, 2012, pp. 106-114 [6] S. Roascio, A. Zucchiatti, P. Prati, A. Cagnana, Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 3, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2002, Pages 289-29 [7] N. Grassi, P. Bonanni, C. Mazzotta, A. Migliori and P. A. Mandò, X-Ray Spectrometry, Volume 38, Issue 4, July/August 2009, Pages 301–307 [8] A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent-Font, O. Enguita, M.T. Fernandez-Jimenez, G. Finaldi, C. Garrido, J.M. Matillas, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, Volume 240, Issue 1-2, Oct 2005, Pages 520–526 [9] A. Duval, H. Guicharnaud, J.C. Dran, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, Volume 226, Issue 1-2, Nov 2004, Pages 60–74 [10] P. Milota, I. Reiche, A. Duval, O. Forstner, H. Guicharnaud, W. Kutschera, S. Merchel, A. Priller, M. Schreiner, P. Steier, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, Volume 266, Issue 10, May 2008, Pages 2279–2285 [11] M. Budnar, J. Simcic, M. Ursic, Z. Rupnik, P. Pelicon, Transition Metals in historic documents “Iron gall inks.on, manufacture characterization degradation and stabilization, edited by J. Kolar and M. Strlic (2006) pg. 141-146. [12] F. Lucarelli, P.A. Mandò, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B, 109/110 (1996), pp. 644–652 [13] N. Grassi, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, 267 (2009), pp. 825–831 [14] N. Grassi, A. Migliori, P.A. Mandò, H. Calvo del Castillo, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, 219-220 (2004), pp. 48–52 [15] C. Neelmeijer, W. Wagner, H.P. Schramm, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, 118 (1996), pp. 338–345 [16] T. Calligaro, V. Gonzalez, L. Pichon, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, 363 (2015), pp. 135–143 [17] T. Calligaro, J.-C.Dran, J.Salomon, 2004. Ion beam microanalysis - Chapter 5. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 42, pp. 227-276. [18] A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent-Font, J.García Gómez-Tejedor, S. Martina, C.Muro García, E. Gimeno, P. Hernández, N. Canelo, Nucl. Instr. And Meth. B, 363 (2015), pp. 150–155.

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On the relevance of large scale PLD: evidence of structural heterogeneities in ZnO thin films J. Perrière (1,2), C. Hebert (1,2), N. Jedrecy (1,2), W. Seiler (3), O. Zanellato (3), X. Portier (4), R. PérezCasero (5), E. Millon (6), M. Nistor (7) Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France (2) CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France (3) PIMM, UMR CNRS 8006 Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris, France (4) CIMAP, CEA/CNRS UMR 6252/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex, France (5) Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid, Spain (6) Univ Orleans, UMR CNRS 7344, GREMI, 14 Rue Issoudun, F-45067 Orleans 2, France (7) National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, L22 POB MG-36, 77125 Bucharest, Romania (1)

Abstract

Pulsed-laser deposition is known as a well-suited method for growing thin films of oxide compounds presenting a wide range of functional properties. A limitation of this method for industrial process is the very anisotropic expansion dynamics of the plasma plume which induces difficulties to grow on a large scale films with homogeneous thickness and composition. The specific aspect of the crystalline or orientational uniformity has not been investigated, despite its important role on oxide films properties. The crystalline parameters and the texture of zinc oxide films are studied as a function of position with respect to the central axis of the plasma plume.

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We demonstrate the existence of large nonuniformities in the films. The stoichiometry, the lattice parameter and the distribution of crystallites orientations drastically depend on the position with respect to the plume axis, i.e. on the oblique incidence of the ablated species. The origin of these non-uniformities, in particular the unexpected tilted orientation of the ZnO c-axis may be attributed to the combined effects of the oblique incidence and of the ratio between oxygen and zinc fluxes reaching the surface of the growing film.

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Ion beam induced luminescence in amorphous silica: role of the silanol group content and the ion stopping power D. Bachiller-Perea (1,2,3*), D. Jiménez-Rey (4), A. Muñoz-Martín (1) and F. Agulló-López (1) (1)

Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Faraday 3, E-28049, Spain (2) Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain (3) Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Université Paris-Sud, Bât 108, 91405 Orsay, France. (4) Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Ciemat, Madrid, Spain.

Comparative in situ ionoluminescence (IL) experiments using light (H, He) and heavy ions (C, Si, Br) at MeV energies have been performed on three types of silica with different silanol group content (negligible, medium and high). Table 1: List of the three types of silica used and their OH content experimentally estimated from their IR absorption spectra.

In all cases the IL spectra consist of two predominant features (see Figure 1): a blue band peaked at 460 nm (2.7 eV) and a red band peaked at 650 nm (1.9 eV). The relative yields of these two emissions and their kinetics as a function of fluence are strongly sensitive to the ion stopping power and are, also, moderately dependent on the OH content. Non-Bridging Oxygen Hole Centers (NBOHCs) and Oxygen-Deficient Centers (in particular, ODCII), created by irradiation, are assumed to be the predominant light emission process for the red (1.9 eV) and blue (2.7 eV) emissions, respectively.

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Fig. 1: Emission spectra obtained under irradiation with 2 MeV H+ and 24 MeV Br5+ beams at low (~1012-1013 cm-2) and high (~1014 cm-2) fluence.

In what concerns the role of the OH contents, the blue band reaches higher values for the samples having a lower OH content, whereas the red band experiences a rather inverse behavior: its intensity increases when increasing the OH content. This behavior, not reported so far, could be expected if one considers an efficient additional channel for generation of NBOH centers due to the scission of silanol groups (Si-OH):

Figure 2 displays the evolution with fluence for the red (650 nm, 1.9 eV) and blue (450 nm, 2.7 eV) band heights for different ions (H, He, C, Si, and Br) and for the three different types of samples used in this work. For heavy mass ion irradiations there is an initial rapid growth of the two yields with fluence that reach a maximum at a fluence ÎŚM followed by a slower decrease in yield.

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Fig. 2: Evolution of the height of the blue (2.7 eV) and red (1.9 eV) bands with fluence for different irradiations and samples.

As seen in Figure 2 the fluence at which the maximum intensity is produced (ΦM) decreases strongly with increasing mass and energy of the projectile ion, i.e., with increasing electronic stopping power. The structural disorder produced in silica by irradiation has been investigated by spectroscopic techniques (IR absorption and Raman) and finally leads to the compaction of the SiO2 network [1]. The structural change starts at decreasing fluences for increasing ion stopping power. This behavior resembles that one found in our IL experiments. In Figure 3, the values of ΦM have been compared to the fluences at which the frequency of the ω4 band, associated to the Si-O bonds, changes abruptly its decreasing rate (from Figure 5 in [1]).

Fig. 3: ΦM versus the ion stopping power for the peak at 460 nm (blue peak) compared to Awazu’s data. Note that some points overlap due to the scale so we cannot see clearly the black square at S=3.4 keV/nm because it is behind the red circle.

The data by Awazu et al. [1] show a reasonable accordance with our data. Our view is that the structural disorder caused by the SHI irradiations slow down the hoping migration of the STEs preventing that they reach the appropriate recombination centers and give rise to light emission. We conclude, in summary, that the novel results obtained by comparing the IL behavior under light and heavy ions offer a useful tool to investigate structural damage and compaction in silica samples. More details can be found in [2]. References [1] K. Awazu, S. Ishii, K. Shima, S. Roorda and J.L. Brebner, Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 3689-3698. [2] D. Bachiller-Perea, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Muñoz-Martín, F. Agulló-López. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 428 (2015) 36-41.

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Exciton mechanisms and modeling of the ionoluminescence in silica D. Bachiller-Perea (1,2,3*), D. Jiménez-Rey (4), A. Muñoz-Martín(1) and F. Agulló-López(1) Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle Faraday 3, E-28049, Spain 2 Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain 3 Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Université Paris-Sud, Bât 108, 91405 Orsay, France. 4 Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Ciemat, Madrid, Spain. 1

A theoretical model has been developed to discuss detailed kinetic data describing the evolution of the two main ionoluminescence (IL) bands at 650 nm (1.9 eV) and 460 nm (2.7 eV) in silica as a function of the irradiation fluence at room temperature. The model is based on the generation of self-trapped excitons (STEs), their hoping migration through the silica network and their recombination at Non-Bridging Oxygen Hole (NBOH) and OxygenDeficient (ODCII) centers to produce the red and blue emission bands, respectively. We used dry silica samples designed for infrared transmission from Crystran Ltd (Poole, UK), they contain an OH concentration of 13 ppm and metal impurities in the lower ppm range. The samples were irradiated in a standard scattering chamber, at a vacuum of 10-6 mbar and at RT, connected to a 5 MV tandem accelerator at the Center for Micro Analysis of Materials (CMAM). A sketch and a picture of the experimental setup at RT are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.

Fig. 1. Sketch of the experimental setup used at CMAM to perform the IBIL experiments at room temperature.

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Fig. 2. Pictures of the IBIL experimental setup used at CMAM (for the RT measurements). The photograph on the left shows the sample holder with the silica samples. The photograph on the right shows the sample holder, the optical fiber and the beam direction.

As shown in [1] and in the contribution “Ion beam induced luminescence in amorphous silica: role of the silanol group content and the ion stopping power” of this Activity Report, for heavy mass ions, having a high electronic stopping power, the two emission yields experience a fast initial growth with fluence up to a maximum value and then decrease at a rather comparable rate. On decreasing ion mass and stopping power, the fluence for such a maximum strongly increases. This kinetic behavior is explained in terms of the heavy structural distortions (compaction) induced by the heavy-ion irradiations. A phenomenological model is proposed that is based on STE generation by the ion-beam irradiation, their hoping motion through the silica network and their recombination at NBOH and ODC centers to give the red and blue emissions, respectively. The intrinsic STE recombination does not contribute to the light emission, but it determines the diffusion length travelled during its lifetime and so the IL rate. According to the model, the decreasing stage of the kinetic curves is associated to the change in the diffusion length of the STE as a consequence of the structural damage caused by the irradiation. Although the IL mechanism described in this work is, in principle, independent of the mechanisms for color center production, it provides interesting information on the synergy between microscopic damage (coloring) and macroscopic damage (structural modifications and compaction). The model proposed is very extensive to be explained here, but the details of this work can be found in [2].

References [1] D. Bachiller-Perea, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Muñoz-Martín, F. Agulló-López. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 428 (2015) 36-41. [2] D. Bachiller-Perea, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Muñoz-Martín, F. Agulló-López. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49 (2016) 085501.

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Impact of inflammation on iron stores in involved and non-involved psoriatic skin T. Pinheiro (1), M. D. Ynsa (2), L. C. Alves (3), P. Teixeira (4), J. Ferreira (4), P. Filipe (4) Instituto de Bioengenharia e Biociências, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidad de Lisboa, Portugal (2) Centro de Micro-análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (3) Centro de Ciências e Tecnologías Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidad de Lisboa, Portugal (4) Unidade de Investigaç Investigação em Dermatologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Falcultade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal (1)

Accumulating evidence supports a role for cellular Fe in cell proliferation, inflammation, and disease tolerance. Psoriasis is a severe inflammatory and hyper proliferative condition of human skin whose aetiology remains poorly understood. Herein, we performed nuclear microscopy techniques to quantify with cellular resolution and high sensitivity the concentration of Fe in lesional (psoriatic plaques) and non-lesional adjacent skin of psoriatic patients. Fe contents were measured across skin depth and along epidermal strata either by quantitatively imaging Fe distribution in regions of interest, or by determining Fe profiles through analysis of sequential points along selected transepts. Both procedures require deconvolution of spectra to project quantitative elemental data through the application of different software codes. Using these approaches a detailed quantitative distribution of Fe was resolved. We show that in both lesional and non-lesional skin, the epidermal profiles of Fe contents showed a peak at the basal layer and that Fe concentration along the basal layer was not uniformly distributed. Typically, Fe levels were significantly higher in epidermal ridges relative to regions above dermal papillae. Lesional skin displayed excess Fe over extended regions above basal layer. In conclusion, we found significantly increased Fe deposits in the epidermis of psoriatic patients, particularly in areas of epidermal hyper proliferation. These findings suggest an important role for Fe in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. They also raise the possibility that manipulation of Fe levels in the skin may become relevant for the clinical management of psoriasis.

Lesional skin: optical micrographs nuclear microscopy images of Fe distribution at basal cell layer region in hyperproliferative areas. (A) immunocytochemical detection of ferritin (green) displayed its localization to basal cell layer; magnification 50×; (B) reflection microscopy of the dried skin section analyzed in (C) (square spots the scanned region), where extensive cell proliferation areas are visible; dashed line delineate the epidermis (epi) contour above dermis (d), with elongated ridges (R) and prominent supra papillary (SP); magnification 100×. (C) quantitative Fe map of basal layer detail in a hyperproliferative region (area scanned indicated in (C) – square).

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Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be M.D. Ynsa (1,2), M.A. Ramos (1,3), N. Skukan (4), V. Torres-Costa (1,2), M. Jakšić (4) Centro de Micro-análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (2) Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (3) Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (4) Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Rud-er Boškovi´c Institute, Bijenicˇka 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia

(1)

Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that borondoped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work

Boron map of a pattern of implanted-boron areas into a polycrystalline CVD diamond. The labels indicate the used fluences (cm−2). The scanned area is 350 × 400 μm2. The solid angle of the particle detector was 47.7 msr and the total integrated charge within the scan was 9.87 μC. (b) Profile in arbitrary units of the boron-area pattern of (a).

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Improvement of Bismuth Telluride electrodeposited films by the addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate O. Caballero-Calero (1), P. Díaz-Chao (1), B. Abad (1), C.V. Manzano (1), M. D. Ynsa (1,2), J. J. Romero (1), M. Muñoz Rojo (1), M. S. Martín-González (1) (1)

IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Spain (2) Centro de Micro-análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Faraday 3, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain (3) Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain

In this work we report the improvement on the electrodeposition of Bi 2Te3 films with the c-axis parallel to the surface of the substrate. This has been done with the addition of a surfactant agent (sodium lignosulfonate) to the electrochemical bath. A thorough study of the electrodeposition parameters and the material composition, morphology, crystallographic orientation and transport properties was performed. High quality films oriented along the (1 1 0) plane and with a dense morphology were obtained, showing an improved Seebeck coefficient up to 33% bigger than previously reported values. The differences in the morphology due to the presence of the surfactant have been further analyzed studying the shape of films grown from discrete nucleation sites

a)

b)

Experimental RBS data (dots) and simulated spectra (line) of the films a) without SLS and b) with SLS.

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PIXE analysis of gold leaf of polychrome sculptures O. Martínez-Zapata,(1) A Zucchiatti (2) (1)

Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica, Escuela Nacional de Conservación, Restauración y Museografia-INAH, 04120, Ciudad de México, México (2) Centro de Micro-análisis de Materiales. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid, Spain

The characterization of gilded surfaces in polychrome wooden is important for establishing the compositional, structural, morphological and physical-chemical parameters useful for monitoring the conservation state, behavior, consolidation and evolution in time of their aging process, the restoration treatments and also for a rationale choice of methods and materials of intervention, compatible with the original ones [1,2]. The analytical approach has, as main requirement, to be noninvasive and non- or microdestructive, therefore, sampling is to be avoided o reduced to a minimum. For this reason, in the present work we used the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis to study the gold leaf composition on small rectangular shape samples (~2.0 × 2.0 mm) of wooden polychromed sculptures [3, 4]. The samples were provided by the Workshop on Polychrome Sculpture Restoration, which forms a part of the Escuela Nacional de Conservación, Restauración y Museografía. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENCRyM), Mexico. The avocations correspond to the Inmaculada Concepción de Nuestra Señora de la Defensa, San Francisco Javier, Dios Padre and San José, all from Mexico. After a first characterization by optical microscopy, OM (see figure 1), PIXE measurements were carried out in the external microbeam line at the CMAM facility with a proton beam of 3 MeV. The proton beam crosses an exit Si3N4 windows and 4 mm in air or atmosphere of helium (to minimize absorption of the incident beam and emitted X-rays) until it reaches the sample [5].

Fig. 1: Images at OM of the gold leaf surface samples: a) San José, b) Inmaculada Concepción de Nuestra Señora de la Defensa, c) San Francisco Javier, d) Dios Padre.

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Emitted X-rays were collected by two Si(Li) detectors located both at 45° with respect to the sample normal. The first one, with an active area of 10 mm2, collimated and without additional filter, was used for the detection of low energy X-rays, while the second detector with active area of 80 mm2 and filtered by 500 mm PET (Polyethylene terephthalate, (C10H8O4)n ) was employed for high energy X-ray detection. In general, several spots in each sample were chosen for analysis. Quantification of PIXE spectra was done with the GUPIXWIN software in the layered sample structure. Samples were assumed that each layer has uniform composition [6], see Figure 2.

Fig. 2: Comparison of 3.0 MeV PIXE spectra from the four polychrome sculptures samples: a) San José, b) Inmaculada Concepción de Nuestra Señora de la Defensa, c) San Francisco Javier, d) Dios Padre.

A great variety of different alloys have been determined in the study of this set of sculptures. However, in general each sample presents a quite homogeneous composition (see figure 3). This fact allowed us to calculate a representative value (wt.%) of the composition of each gold leaf witch Au, Ag and Cu contents are presented in.

Fig. 3: Elemental composition of four samples showing superficial homogeneity.

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Besides gold, silver and copper, other elements have been detected: Al, Ca, Si, Fe, Pb, in higher levels appeared in most of the spectra. Recent studies on gilded sculptures and altarpieces from Baroque period showed how the quality and chemical composition of the leaf, like this cases. An extensive and comparative study performed on several polychrome statues of 17th century showed the use of a highly gold-content alloy (87% Au) [2]. References

[1] F. Descamps, Methodology for the Conservation of Polychromed WoodenAltarpieces. The Getty Conservation Institute, Seville, 2002. [2] Sandu, I., Afonso, l., Murta, e., De Sa, m. Gilding techniques in religious art between east and west, 14th –18th centuries. International journal of conservation science. 1 (2010) 47-62. [3] Beck, L., Pichon, L., Moignard, B., Guillou. T., Walter, P., IBA Techniques: Examples of Useful Combinations for the Characterization of Cultural Heritage Materials. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 269 (2011) 29993005. [4] Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á., Gómez Tubío, B., de la Bandera, M.L., Respaldiza, M.Á., PIXE-PIGE analysis of a Visigothic gold cross. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 226 (2004) 199-207. [5] A. Perea, P. C. Gutierrez-Neira, A. Climent-Font, et al., Pre-hispanic Goldwork Technology. The Quimbaya Treasure, Colombia. Journal of Archaeological Science. 40, 2013, p. 2326-2334. [6] Maxwell, J. A., Campell, W. J., (1989). Foil thickness measurement via the intensity ratio of protoninduced X-Rays. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 43, 197–202. doi:10.1016/0168-583X(89)90038-4.

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Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition P. Prieto (1), J.E. Prieto (2), R. Gargallo-Caballero (3), J.F. Marco (3) and J. de la Figuera (3) Dpto. Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain Centro de Micro-análisis de Materiales and Dpto. Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain (3) Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, 28006 Madrid, Spain

(1) (2)

Magnetite, Fe3O4, has attracted recently great attention for spintronic applications due to its presumed full spin-polarization of the charge carriers at the Fermi level, its relatively high electronic conductivity at room temperature and its high Curie temperature of 860 K. An important issue for the application of magnetite thin films in new devices is to control their magnetic anisotropy when the thickness is reduced to the nanometer scale. Overall, the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films are influenced by the interfacial strain induced by the substrate and by the film growth microstructure. In this work we have used dual-ion-beam sputtering to grow magnetite thin films on several oxide single crystals [MgO(001), SrTiO3(001) and LaAlO3(001)] as well as on amorphous or amorphous-like substrates such as glass or silicon with its native oxide layer. Since the magnetic properties of magnetite films are strongly influenced by the deposition conditions, deposition parameters were kept constant (sputter and assisting ion energies and current densities, substrate temperature, etc.). Only the substrates were changed to reveal the role of the substrate in the microstructure and magnetic properties of the films. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford-backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode (see Figure 1). The magnetic anisotropy has been analyzed by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is influenced specially by the substrateinduced microstructure. For magnetite films on MgO(001) and SrTiO3(001) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [100] and [010] directions, as shown in Figure 2, left panel. The magnetic properties on these two substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields. For LaAlO3 substrates, with substantial lattice mismatch with the Fe3O4 films, a weaker in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy is the cause of the fourfold anisotropy observed in oxide single-crystal substrates. The mismatch at the interface and the morphology of the substrate are responsible for the quality of the fourfold anisotropy. Small changes in the deposition rate of Fe3O4 films on MgO and SrTiO3 substrates do not affect the well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Only a decrease of the coercive fields at the easy and hard axes with increasing deposition rate increases is detected. In contrast, magnetite films deposited on silicon and amorphous glass substrates show in-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy, respectively (see Figure 2, right panel). The transition between both types of behavior depends on grain size, which is the key factor controlling the magnetic anisotropy. When the grain size is smaller than the characteristic length of the exchange interaction, an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy is obtained. Our results show that the magnetic anisotropy as well as the coercivity at the easy and hard axes can

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be controlled by both substrate engineering and an appropriate choice of the deposition parameters.

Fig. 1. RBS spectra along random and aligned directions, together with simulations by SIMNRA of Fe3O4 thin films deposited on (a) MgO, (b) SrTiO3 and (c) LaAlO3. The experiments were performed with 4He+ ions of 3.045 MeV at a scattering angle of 170.5°. In the inset of (a) only the Fe signal is represented for clarity. (d) Minimum yield relative to the corresponding random spectrum as a function of lattice mismatch at the Fe3O4 surface and interface.

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Fig. 2. Room-temperature hysteresis cycles acquired at αH = 0° and αH = 45° corresponding to the [1 0 0] and [1 1 0] directions of the substrate and angular dependence of the coercivity in polar-plot representation for Fe3O4 thin films grown on (a) MgO, (b) SrTiO3 and (c) LaAlO3 substrates.

Fig. 3. Same representation for Fe3O4 thin films grown on (a) silicon and (b) glass substrates.

Applied Surface Science 359, 742 ( 2015).

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Step energies and equilibrium shape of strained monolayer islands J.E. Prieto (1) and I. Markov (2) (1)

Centro de Micro-anĂĄlisis de Materiales and Dpto. FĂ­sica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad AutĂłnoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain (2) Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

The problem of the equilibrium shape of crystals has a long history. Recently and in connection with epitaxial stress, it has attracted much attention in the case of the formation of self-assembled quantum dots. Also, since the initial stages of the epitaxy of thin films include the formation and growth of elastically strained monolayer (two-dimensional) islands, there is a great interest in the study of their equilibrium shapes.

While there have been several studies of islands on four-fold symmetric substrates, including systems with highly anisotropic surface stress, as for example, reconstructed, single-domain Si(100) terraces, studies on hexagonal substrates have been rather scarce. In the present work we consider islands on highly symmetric six-fold coordinated surfaces such as fcc(111) and hcp(0001) for which the surface stress tensor is isotropic. We study the contribution of strain to the step energies and in turn to the aspect ratio by using a simple model that contains the essential ingredients. We perform atomistic calculations using model potentials of anharmonic nearest-neighbors interaction for simulating hexagonal islands. These are enclosed by steps of two different types: (100)-faceted or A steps and (111)-faceted or B steps (see Figure 1). In these highly symmetric surfaces, equilibrium island shapes are expected to be largely determined by the ratio r of the free energies of B and A steps.

Our calculations of the step energies of strained hexagonal monolayer islands show that they depend on the amount of strain induced by the lattice misfit., decreasing with the absolute value of the misfit due to the strain relaxation at steps. The effect is much more pronounced in the case of positive misfits owing to the stronger repulsive interatomic forces (see Figure 2). Furthermore, (111)-faceted steps are favored at positive misfit (compressed islands) and, to a lesser extent, (100)-faceted steps at negative misfits (tensile islands). Thus, the equilibrium shape transforms from regular hexagons at zero misfit to islands with threefold symmetric hexagonal shape with increasing misfit (Figure 3). The results can be understood in terms of the different bonding geometries at the two different types of steps. Depending on the sign of the misfit, the atomic displacements produced by strain relaxation at steps are such that island atoms are pushed either towards on-top or towards bridge positions with respect to the underlying substrate layer, with different cost in energy. As shown in Table 1, our results have been found to compare reasonably well with available experiments. Thus, they provide a simple guide to understand the equilibrium shape of strained epitaxial islands on surfaces with hexagonal symmetry.

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Fig. 1: Hexagonal, threefold symmetric island of 5 atoms in the (111)-faceted, A steps and 7 atoms in the (100)-faceted, B steps. The color scale denotes the height of the considered atom. This height is measured above the level of the corresponding crystallographic plane, but a constant fraction of the interlayer distance has been added in order to better distinguish atoms from different levels. The height is biggest at edges and corners due to the atoms “climbing up” on their neighbours underneath due to strain relaxation. The lattice misfit is −7%.

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Fig. 2: Dependence of the energies of A and B steps, in units of V0/a, on the lattice misfit. The third curve represents the difference of the step energies. The triangular points are the values calculated from triangular islands, as shown in the insert. Insert: difference of the total energies of triangular islands, in units of V0, as a function of the square root of the total number of atoms. These islands are enclosed by only either A or B steps depending on the orientation. Results for three values of the lattice misfit are given: 3, 6 and −8%.

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Fig. 3: Polar plot γ(θ) and Wulff’s construction of an island under compression of 5%

Table 1: Compilation of experimental results on equilibrium shapes of epitaxial systems with threefold or sixfold symmetry for which a reasonable comparison with the results of our simulations can be performed. Abbreviations used: Pref.: preferred; Comm.: comments; 3-f: threefold; 6-f: sixfold; hex.: hexagonal; triang.: triangular; recons.: reconstructed; poss.: possibly; kinet.: kinetics. The systems Co/Pt(111), Au/Au(111) show a positive surface strain due to surface reconstructions in which additional rows of atoms are inserted. The Pt(111) surface is also prone to a similar surface reconstruction at the growth temperatures required for achieving equilibrium shapes.

Europhysics Letters 108, 46007 (2014)

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3.3. PhD THESES Study of the evolution of irradiation induced defect in FeCrx Model alloys for fusion applications by means of in-situ resistivity techniques”

Presented by Begoña Gómez-Ferrer Herrán at the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid on 31th October 2014. Advisors: Rafael Alberto Vila Vázquez (CIEMAT), David Jiménez Rey (CMAM)

Abstract: The aim of the thesis has been to study Fe-Cr alloys that are interesting in nuclear fusion reactors, developing an experimental system for irradiation and taking Resistivity Recovery (RR) measurements in-situ in CMAM. Furthermore, an improved measurement method has been presented which allows to study the effects of mobile defects produced by the radiation in the short-range order of Cr and obtains more reliable results which attend as a validation for the computer simulations of radiation damage.

Desarrollo de patrones biofuncionales sobre Si y TiN mediante haces de iones

Presented by Esther Punzón Quijorna at the Department of Applied Physics of Universidad Autónoma de Madrid cum laude on December 18th, 2015. Advisors: Aurelio Climent Font, Miguel Manso Silván, Vicente Torres Costa.

Abstract: The recent breakthrough in Biomedicine implies an intrinsically interdisciplinary approach. In this context, science and technology of surfaces opens new opportunities to exploit the biomaterials potential. The possibility to selectively modify the surface, by chemical or topographic patterns, allows controlling factors that govern cell behavior in contact with the biomaterial.

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In this work, the use of biofunctional patterns on Si and TiN as platforms to study cell response is presented. To obtain such patterns ion implantation through metallic masks has been used as main tool, following two differentiated strategies. The Si/PSi patterns have been obtained by the MeV implantation process, which inhibits PSi formation at irradiated areas, followed by an electrochemical etching. In order to obtain the TiN/TiNO patterns the incorporation of keV oxygen ions at surface level has been employed. Both types of patterns have been optimized, studying composition, structure and morphology, paying special attention to the implantation effects. The obtained patterns have allowed controlling the response of human mesenchymal cells varying the patterns dimensions, in the case of Si/PSi, or by means of applied external potentials in the case of TiN/TiNO.

3.4. MsC THESES Master in advanced materials and manotecnology Optical waveguides formed in LiTaO3 crystals by Swiftheavy ion irradiation

Presented by Victoria Tormo Márquez at the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid on 1st September 2014. Advisors: José Olivares Villegas (CSIC-CMAM), Mercedes Carrascosa Rico (UAM). Grade: Outstanding (10).

Abstract: The thesis has focused on the fabrication of optical waveguides in lithium tantalate crystals using swift heavy ion irradiations and the subsequent study of these structures. In order to investigate the structural profile of the irradiated layers several optical techniques, such as dark-modes prism-coupling spectroscopy, have been used, as well as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy in channeling configuration experiments to explore the damage induced by ion irradiation in the crystal. In addition, the optical propagation losses of the waveguides are investigated after the annealing necessary to remove color centers formed during the irradiations.

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3.5. COURSES AND TRAINING Silvia Martina Duration: January - July 2014 Program: Lifelong Learning Programme Erasmus. Project description: PIXE technique at CMAM studying modern and contemporary pigments and dyes provided by contemporary art museum Reina Sofía of Madrid. Tutor: Alessandro Zucchiatti Williama. A. Guerrero D’azevedo Duration: March - June 2014. Program: Agreement nº 295 between IES Joan Miró Institute and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Project description: Practical training (Electricity-Electronic). FP Electronic Maintenance Grade Tutor: Victor Joco Mathis G. Lacombe Duration: April - July 2014. Program: Training Erasmus. Agreement between Toulouse University and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Project description: To install an ionization chamber at the ERDA-TOF beamline. To acquire vacuum and detectors knowledge, mount an aquired charge preamplifier, connect the chamber with the beamline and participate in commissioning and analyze data. Tutor: Mª Dolores Ynsa Alcalá and Victor Joco Jorge Fuster Domínguez Duration: May - July 2014 Program: Experimental work at CMAM for achieving his Grade in Aeronautical Engineering at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Project description: Study and optimization of micro- and nano-structures fabricated by means of irradiation with swift heavy ions for photonics applications. Tutor: José Olivares Villegas Manuel Carmona Quiroga Duration: May - July 2014 Program: Experimental work at CMAM for achieving his Grade in Aeronautical Engineering at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Project description: Development of electronic system for current measurement Tutor: Victor Joco

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Monika Noga Duration: September 2014 - January 2015. Program: Agreement between the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Rzeszow, Poland and the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Project description: The activity consisted in the training of students in leading academic institutions. At CMAM, the student received an introduction to experimental methods using high vacuum: knowledge of the basics of vacuum science and technology, introduction to surface characterization techniques (LEED, LEIS, AES) and thin film deposition methods. Tutor: José Emilio Prieto Sergio Arranz González Duration: April - June 2015 Program: Agreement nº 295 between IES Joan Miró Institute and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Project description: Practical training (Electricity-Electronic). FP Electronic Maintenance Grade Tutor: Victor Joco Laura Piñera Caso Duration: May - July 2015 Program: Professional practice as part of her master’s in Public Communication for Science. Project description: The project aims to increase the impact and visibility on CMAM social networks and to announce the centre and their principal works in investigation and teaching with the creation of two corporates videos about the CMAM scientific activities and the accelerator extraordinary maintenance. Tutor: Jorge Alvarez Echenique Raimond Niels Frentrop Duration: September - December 2015 Program: Student from University of Twente, The Netherlands with Erasmus intership stay for performing a work for his Ms Degree. Project description: Fabrication of waveguides in KYW crystal using swift heavy ions. He was involved in learning and using several experimental techniques: - Use and optimization of the implantation beamline of CMAM. This implies the use of high vacuum chambers and sytems, and ion beam handling. - Implementation, optimization, use of in-situ optical measurements during ion irradiation - Analysis of damage induced in the irradiated crystals by using Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), mainly Rutherford Backscattering in Channeling configuration (RBC-c). - Waveguide optical characterization by prism-coupling techniques. Refractive index profile and propagation loss determination Tutor: José Olivares Villegas

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3.6. BIBLIOGRAPHY Research projects involving CMAM members 1. Fabricación con haces de iones de altas energías de micro- y nanocanales en silicio poroso y vítreo para aplicaciones fotónicas. (Proyectos de Cooperación Interuniversitaria UAM-Banco de Santander con Asia). Financed by: UAM-Banco de Santander Duration: July 2015 - December 2016 Main Researcher: Mª Dolores Ynsa Alcalá 2. Patrones micrométricos nanoestructurados fabricados mediante técnicas de haces de iones para la optimización del potencial regenerativo de células óseas” MAT201454826-C2-1-R Financed by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Duration: 2015 - 2017 Main Researcher: Raúl José Martín Palma 3. Crecimiento y proliferación celular sobre patrones micrométricos nanoestructurados. MAT2013-46572-C2-1-R Financed by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Duration: 2014 - 2015 Main Researcher: Raúl José Martín Palma 4. Fabricación de dispositivos fotónicos basados en silicio nanoestructurado mediante la escritura con haces de protones (Proyectos de Cooperación Interuniversitaria UAMBanco de Santander con Asia). Financed by: UAM-Banco de Santander Duration: 2013 - 2014 Main Researcher: Vicente Torres Costa 5. New Active Coatings for Photovoltaic Solar Cells (NACS) Financed by: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid- Banco Santander Entidades participantes: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Indian Institute of Technology of Delhi Duration:2015 - 2016 Main Researcher: Alejandro Braña de Cal

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6. Tecnologías Fotovoltaicas Sostenibles de bajo coste y alta eficiencia para nuevos módulos solares basados en elementos abundantes en la corteza terrestre (ENE 2013-49136-C4-3-R) Financed by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Jaume I Duration: 2014 - 2016 Main Researcher: José Manuel Merino y Raquel Caballero 7. Células solares de tercera generación Financed by: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid- Banco Santander, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Indian Institute of Technology of Delhi Duration: 2013 - 2014 Main Researcher: Rafael Pérez Casero 8. Utilisation of accelerator-based real-time methods in investigation of materials with high technological importance (IAEA Agreement 17647/R0) Financed by: International Atomic Energy Agency, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Indian Institute of Technology and 15 other intenational groups Duration:2013 - 2015 Main Researcher: Rafael Pérez Casero 9. Crecimiento y estructura electrónica de materiales para espintrónica: aleaciones, intercaras y aislantes topológicos. MAT201452477-C5-5-P Financed by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Duration: 2015 - 2017 Main Researcher: Enrique García Michel

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports


Publications of CMAM members 1. B. Gómez-Ferrer, I. García-Cortés, J. F. Marco, D. Jiménez-Rey, R. Vila, Decoupling of defect and short-range order contributions to resistivity recovery measurements in binary alloys, Physical Review B, 90, 22, 220102, DOI: 10.1103/Phys Rev B. 90.220102, 2014 . 2. J. E. Prieto, I. Markov, Step energies and equilibrium shape of strained monolayer islands, EPL, 108, 4, 46007, DOI: 10.1209/02955075/108/46007, 2014. 3. P. Martín, D. Jiménez-Rey, R. Vila, F. Sánchez, R. Saavedra, Optical absorption defects created in SiO2 by Si, O and He ion irradiation, Fusion Engineering and Design, 89, 7-8, 1679-1683, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2014.02.041, 2014. 4. O. Peña-Rodríguez, J. González-Izquierdo, A. Rivera, G. Balabanian, J. Olivares, J. M. Perlado, L. Banares, Embedded silver nanoparticle multilayers fabricated by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition, Optical Materials Express, 4, 9, 1945-1952, DOI: 10.1364/OME.4.001945, 2014. 5. G. Molina, M. S. Tite, J. Molera, A. ClimentFont, T. Pradell, Technology of production of polychrome lustre, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 34, 10, 2563-2574, DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2014.03.010, 2014. 6. D. Martín y Marero, A. Madroñero, Critical findings during the optimisation of hydrogen storage in vapour grown carbon fibres, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39, 24, 1269012700, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.06.049, 2014. 7. M. Jubera, A. García-Cabanes, M. Carrascosa, J. Olivares, Nonlinear optical waveguides fabricated in Mg-doped LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion irradiation: anomalous photorefractive damage behavior, Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics, 116, 2, 507-514, 2014. 8. A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent-Font, P. C. Gutiérrez Neira, A. Perea, P. Fernández Esquivel, S. Rovira Llorens, J. L. Ruvalcaba Sil, A. Verde, Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports

Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 332, 160-164, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.052, 2014. 9. A. Climent-Font, R. Caballero, E. PunzónQuijorna, J. M. Merino, M. León, Deviations from Rutherford elastic scattering cross sections for Cu and Zn with He ions, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 332, 191-194, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.059, 2014. 10. A. Zucchiatti, U. Alonso, Q. Lemasson, T. Missana, B. Moignard, C. Pacheco, L. Pichon, S. Camarena de la Mora, Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection setup, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 332, 245-250, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.071, 2014. 11. A. Zucchiatti, A. Redondo-Cubero, Ion beam analysis: New trends and challenges, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 331, 48-54, DOI: 10.1016/j. nimb.2014.02.013, 2014. 12. D. Jiménez-Rey, M. Benedicto, A. MuñozMartín, D. Bachiller-Perea, J. Olivares, A. Climent-Font, B. Gómez-Ferrer, A. Rodríguez, J. Narros, A. Maira, J. Álvarez, A. Nakbi, A. Zucchiatti, F. de Aragón, J. M. Garcia, R. Vila, First tests of the ion irradiation and implantation beamline at the CMAM, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section BBeam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 331, 196-203, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.01.030, 2014. 13. J. Matarrubia, A. García-Cabanes, J. L. Plaza, F. Agulló-López, M. Carrascosa, Optimization of particle trapping and patterning via photovoltaic tweezers: role of light modulation and particle size, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, 47, 26, 265101, DOI: 10.1088/00223727/47/26/265101, 2014. 14. E. Z. Fratczak, J. E. Prieto, M. E. Moneta, Magnetic Study of alpha ‘’ and gamma ‘’-Phases of Iron Nitride Thin Films, Acta Physica Polonica A, 126, 1, 214-215, 2014.

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15. E. Z. Fratczak, J. E. Prieto, M. E. Moneta, Growth and characterization of expitaxial ironnitride thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 586, 375-379, 2014. 16. M. Barawi, C. Granero, P. Díaz-Chao, C. V. Manzano, M. Martín-González, D. JiménezRey, I. J. Ferrer, J. R. Ares, J. F. Fernández, C. Sánchez, Thermal decomposition of non-catalysed MgH2 films, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39, 18, 9865-9870, DOI: 10.1016//j. ijhydene.2014.01.030, 15, 2014. 17. C. E. Rodríguez, R. J. Peláez, C. N. Afonso, S. Riedel, P. Leiderer, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Climent-Font, Plasmonic response and transformation mechanism upon single laser exposure of metal discontinuous films, Applied Surface Science, 302, 32-36, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.10.104, 2014. 18. M. Roldán, P. Fernández, J. Rams, D. JiménezRey, C. J. Ortiz, R. Vila, Effect of helium implantation on mechanical properties of EUROFER97 evaluated by nanoindentation, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 448, 1-3, 301-309, DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.02.020, 2014. 19. M. D. Ynsa, Z. Y. Dang, M. Manso-Silván, J. Song, S. Azimi, J. F. Wu, H. D. Liang, V. Torres-Costa, E. Punzón-Quijorna, M. H. B. Breese, J. P. García-Ruiz, Reprogramming hMSCs morphology with silicon/porous silicon geometric micro-patterns, Biomedical Microdevices, 16, 2, 229-236, DOI: 10.1007/s10544013-9826-0, 2014. 20. O. Caballero-Calero, P. Díaz-Chao, B. Abad, C. V. Manzano, M. D. Ynsa, J. J. Romero, M. Muñoz Rojo, M. S. Martín-González, Improvement of Bismuth Telluride electrodeposited films by the addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate, Electrochimica Acta 123, 117 – 126, 2014. 21. B. Gómez-Ferrer, R. Vila, D. Jiménez-Rey, C. J. Ortiz, F. Mota, J. M. García, A. Rodríguez, In situ resistivity measurements of RAFM base alloys at cryogenic temperatures: The effect of proton irradiation, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 447, 1-3, 225-232, DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.01.016, 2014. 22. O. Caballero-Calero, P. Díaz-Chao, B. Abad, C. V. Manzano, M. D. Ynsa, J. J. Romero, M.

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Muñoz Rojo, M. S. Martín-González, Improvement of Bismuth Telluride electrodeposited films by the addition of Sodium Lignosulfonate, Electrochimica ACTA, 123, 117-126, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2013.12.185, 2014. 23. N. M. Figueiredo, T. Kubart, J. A. SánchezGarcía, R. Escobar Galindo, A. ClimentFont, A. Cavaleiro, Optical properties and refractive index sensitivity of reactive sputtered oxide coatings with embedded Au clusters, Journal of Applied Physics, 115, 6, 063512, DOI: 10.1063/1.4861136, 2014. 24. M. Jubera, A. García-Cabanes, J. Olivares, A. Alcázar, M. Carrascosa, Particle trapping and structuring on the surface of LiNbO3:Fe optical waveguides using photovoltaic fields, Optics Letters, 39, 3, 649-652, DOI: 10.1364/ OL.39.000649, 2014. 25. J. Hernández-Montelongo, D. Gallach, N. Naveas, V. Torres-Costa, A. Climent-Font, J. P. García-Ruiz, M. Manso-Silván, Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation, Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, 34, 245-251, DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.09.022, 2014. 26. J. Perrière, C. Herbert, N. Jedrecy, W. Seiler, O. Zanellato, X. Portier, R. Pérez Casero, E. Million, M. Nistor On the relevance of large scale PLD: evidence of structural heterogeneities in ZnO thin films Journal of Applied Physics 116 (2014) 123502-1. 27. D. Bachiller-Perea, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Muñoz-Martín, F. Agulló-López. Ion beam induced luminescence in amorphous silica: Role of the silanol group content and the ion stopping power. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 428:36-41, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol. 2015. 28. D. Bachiller-Perea, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. MuñozMartín, F. Agulló-López. Exciton mechanisms and modeling of the ionoluminescence in silica. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Accepted for publication: 2015. 29. A. Redondo-Cubero, K. Lorenz, E. Wendler, S. Magalhaes, E. Alves, D. Carvalho, T. Ben, F. M. Morales, R. GarcÍa, K. P. O’Donnell, C. Wetzel, Analysis of the stability of InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells against ion beam intermi-

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports


xing, NANOTECHNOLOGY, 26, 42, 425703, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/42/425703, 2015. 30. R. Saavedra, P. Martín, D. Jiménez-Rey, R. Vila, Structural changes induced in silica by ion irradiation observed by IR reflectance spectroscopy, Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, 2034-2037, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2015.04.060, B, 2015. 31. G. Garcia, M. Diaz-Hijar, V. Tormo-Marquez, I. Preda, I, O. Pena-Rodriguez, J. Olivares, Structural damage on single-crystal diamond by swift heavy ion irradiation, Diamond And Related Materials, 58, 226-229, 10.1016/j. diamond.2015.08.014, 2015. 32. O. Peña-Rodríguez, J. Olivares, I. Banyasz, Optical properties of crystalline and ion-beam amorphized Bi12GeO20: Relevance for waveguide applications, Optical Materials, 47, 328-332, 10.1016/j.optmat.2015.05.050, 2015. 33. D. Gallach, L. Le Brizoual, N. Gautier, M. D. Ynsa, V. Torres-Costa, G. Ceccone, J. P. Landesman, M. Manso-Silván, Microstructure based optical modeling of ZnO-porous silicon permeated nanocomposites, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, 48, 29, 295102, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/48/29/295102, 2015. 34. G. M. Foster, J. Perkins, M. Myer, S. Mehra, J. M. Chauveau, A. Hierro, A. Redondo-Cubero, W. Windl, L. J. Brillson, Native point defect energies, densities, and electrostatic repulsion across (Mg, Zn)O alloys, Physica Status Solidi A-Applications and Materials Science, 212, 1448-1454, DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201532285, 2015. 35. J. Perkins, G. M. Foster, M. Myer, S. Mehra, J. M. Chauveau, A. Hierro, A. Redondo-Cubero, W Windl, L. J. Brillson, Impact of Mg content on native point defects in MgxZn1-xO (0 <= x <= 0.56), APL Materials, 3, 6, 062801, DOI: 10.1063/1.4915491, 2015. 36. A. R. Páramo, F. Sordo, D. Garoz, O. PeñaRodríguez, A. Prada, J. Olivares, M. L. Crespillo, J. M. Perlado, A. Rivera, Mechanical response to swift ion irradiation-induced nanotracks in silica, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 352, 145-147, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.12.073, 2015.

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports

37. L. Beck, Y. Serruys, S. Miró, P. Trocellier, E. Bordas, F. Lepretre, D. Brimbal, . T. Loussouarn, H. Martin, S. Vaubaillon, S. Pellegrino, D. Bachiller-Perea, Ion irradiation and radiation effect characterization at the JANNUSSaclay triple beam facility, Journal of Materials Research, 30, 9, 1183-1194, DOI: 10.1557/ jmr.2014.414, 2015. 38. M. Roldán, P. Fernández, J. Rams, D. Jiménez-Rey, E. Materna-Morris, M. Klimenkov, Comparative study of helium effects on EU-ODS EUROFER and EUROFER97 by nanoindentation and Tem, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 460, 226-234, DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.02.025, 2015. 39. A. Moreno-Barrado, M. Castro, R. Gago, L. Vázquez, J. Muñoz-García, A. RedondoCubero, B. Galiana, C. Ballesteros, R. Cuerno, Nonuniversality due to inhomogeneous stress in semiconductor surface nanopatterning by low-energy ion-beam irradiation, Physical Review B, 91, 15, 155303, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.155303, 2015. 40. T. Pinheiro, M.D. Ynsa, L. C. Alves, P. Teixeira, J. Ferreira, P. Filipe, Impact of inflammation on iron stores in involved and non-involved psoriatic skin, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 348, 119-122, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.11.042, 2015. 41. M. D. Ynsa, M.A. Ramos, N. Skukan, V. Torres-Costa, M. Jaksic, Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction B-11(p, alpha)Be-8, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 348, 174-177, DOI: 10.1016/j. nimb.2014.11.036, 2015. 42. A. Redondo-Cubero, V. Corregidor, L. Vázquez, L. C. Alves, Self-consistent depth profiling and imaging of GaN-based transistors using ion microbeams, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 348, 246-250, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.11.040, 2015. 43. A. Moreno-Barrado, R. Gago, A. RedondoCubero, L. Vázquez, J. Muñoz-García, R. Cuerno, K. Lorenz, M. Castro, Ion damage overrides structural disorder in silicon surface

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nanopatterning by low-energy ion beam sputtering, EPL, 109, 4, 48003, DOI: 10.1209/02955075/109/48003, 2015. 44. D. G. Pérez, E.P. Quijorna, R. Sanz, V. Torres-Costa, J. P. García Ruiz, M. MansoSilván, Nanotopography enhanced mobility determines mesenchymal stem cell distribution on micropatterned semiconductors bearing nanorough areas, Colloids and Surfaces B-Biointerfaces, 126, 146-153, DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.11.047, 2015. 45. H. Alarcon, M. D. Ynsa, Z. Y. Dang, V. Torres-Costa, M. Manso-Silvan, J. F. Wu, M. B. H. Breese, J. P. García-Ruiz, Conditioned bio-interfaces of silicon/porous silicon micro-patterns lead to the chondrogenesis of hMSCs, RSC Advances, 5, 112, 92263-92269, DOI: 10.1039/ c5ra09069e, 2015. 46. D. Gallach, A. Muñoz-Noval, V. TorresCosta, M. Manso-Silván, Luminescence and fine structure correlation in ZnO permeated porous silicon nanocomposites, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17, 32, 20597-20604, DOI: 10.1039/C5cp02587g, 2015. 47. M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabanes, M. Jubera, I. Elvira, H. Burgos, J. L. Bella, F. AgullóLópez, J. F. Muñoz-Martínez, A. Alcázar, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, M. RitschMarte, D. Stifter, Photovoltaic tweezers an emergent tool for applications in nano and bio-technology, Optical Methods For Inspection, Characterization, And Imaging Of Biomaterials II, Proceedings of SPIE, 9529, 95290Q, DOI: 10.1117/12.2186173, 2015. 48. A. Zucchiatti, D. Jiménez-Rey, A. Climent-Font, S. Martina, R. Faieta, M. Maggi,

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L. Giuntini, S. Calusi, PIXE and IL analysis of an archeologically problematic XIII century ceramic production, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 363, 144-149, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2015.08.013, 2015. 49. A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent-Font, J. García Gómez Tenedor, S. Martina, C. Muro García, E. Gimeno, P. Hernandéz, N. Canelo, Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media. Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section BBeam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 363, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2015.08.076 150155, 2015. 50. D. Gallach, L. Le Brizoual, N. Gautier, M. D. Ynsa, V. Torres Costa, G. Ceccone, J. P. Landesmann, M. Manso Silván, Microstructure based optical modeling of ZnO- porous silicon permeated nanocomposites, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 48, 295102, 2015. 51. T. Pinheiro, M. D. Ynsa, L. C. Alves, P. Teixeira, J. Ferreira, P. Filipe, Impact of inflammation on iron stores in involved and non-involved psoriatic skin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 348 119 – 122, 2015. 52. P. Prieto, J. E. Prieto, R. Gargallo-Caballero, J. F. Marco, J. de la Figuera, Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition, Applied Surface Science 359, 742-748 (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.10.180, 2015.

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Conferences 1. M. D. Ynsa, M. Jaksic, V. Joco, N. Skukan, M. A. Ramos, V. Torres-Costa, Boron detection in diamond by the nuclear reaction 11B(p,α)8Be. Comunicación Oral, 14th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology & Applications (ICNMTA 2014), Padua, Italia, 2014. 2. M. D. Ynsa, V. de la Fuente, L. Rufo-Nieto, Study of the elemental distribution in the stigma of a Ni hyperaccumulator plant, Póster, 14th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology & Applications (ICNMTA 2014), Padua, Italia, 2014. 3. T. Pinheiro, M. D. Ynsa, L. Alves, P. Teixeria, J. Ferreira, P. Filipe, Impact of inflammation tissues stores of iron, Póster, 14th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology & Applications (ICNMTA 2014), Padua, Italia, 2014. 4. D. Gallach, L. Le Brizoual, N. Gautier, M.D. Ynsa Alcalá, V Torres Costa, JP Landesmann, M. Manso Silván, Microanalytical detection and microstructural role of C impurities in ZnO porous silicon nanostructured composite films, Póster, Spring Meeting 2014 European Materials Research Society (EMRS 2014), Lille, France, 2014. 5. A. Zucchiatti. Quality control: an option for the management of small scale accelerator facilities. Technical Meeting on Management Strategies for Accelerator Facilities, Synchrotron SOLEIL Saint-Aubin, France, 15-19 September 2014 6. A. Muñoz Martin. Starting from Scratch: Our Experience on how to get Experienced. Technical Meeting on Management Strategies for Accelerator Facilities, Synchrotron SOLEIL Saint-Aubin, France, 15-19 September 2014. 7. A. Zucchiatti. El uso del acelerador de iones del CMAM para el análisis del patrimonio. Semana de la Ciencia. SECYR, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 7 Noviembre 2014. 8. M. Carrascosa, J. Matarrubia, H. Burgos, M. Jubera, F. Agulló-López and A. GarcíaCabañes. Photovoltaic Tweezers as a flexible tool for micro- and nano-particle trapping and patterning. NanoSpain 2014 Conference, Madrid, 1114 Marzo 2014. 9. A. Zucchiatti, Measurement of gamma production in thin LiF targets at CMAM, Meeting of

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports

the CRP “Development of a Reference database for Particle Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) Spectroscopy”, Vienna, 7-11 April 2014. 10. A. Zucchiatti, The CMAM “Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales”, its facilities and the HIPIXE working group, Meeting of the CRP “Development of Molecular Concentration Mapping Techniques using MeV Focused Ion-beams”, Guildford, Surrey, 16-20 June 2014. 11. A. Zucchiatti, An Overview of the CMAM, Iberian Accelerators Meeting, Madrid, 27-28 October 2014. 12. J. Perriere, C. Herbert, N. Jedrecy , W. Seiler, O. Zanellato, X. Portier, R. Pérez-Casero, E. Millon, M. Nistor On the relevance of large scale pulsed laser deposition heterogeneities EMRS Spring Meeting 2015 Lille, Francia 1115 Mayo 2015. 13. C. Tchiffo-Tamenko, A. Mehlem, A. Stolz, N. Semmar, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, R. Pérez Casero, E. Millon Thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4O9 thin films grown by pulsed laser doposition EMRS Spring Meeting 2015 Lille (Francia) 11-15 Mayo 2015. 14. C. Tchiffo-Tamenko, E. Millon, C. Cachoncinlle, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, A. Petit, J. Perrière, M. Nistor, R. Pérez Casero Pulsed laser deposition of Nb/Nd-codoped TiOx (1.5<x<2) thin films for TCO-based devices EMRS Spring Meeting 2015 Lille (Francia) 11-15 Mayo 2015. 15. A. Zucchiatti, Planning PIGE Benchmarking experiments at CMAM, IAEA Technical Meeting on “Benchmarking Experiments for IBA”, Vienna 26-29 May 2015. 16. M. A. Reis, C. P Chaves, A. Muñoz-Martin, M. D. Ynsa, A. Zucchiatti, Ion beam particle and energy dependence of Fe2O3 yield. Comunicación Oral, 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE 2015), Cape Town, South Africa, 2015. 17. A. Zucchiatti, A. Climent-Font , J. García Gómez-Tejedor, S. Martina, C. Muro García, E. Gimeno, P. Hernández, N. Canelo. Ion beam particle and energy dependence of Fe2O3 yield. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced XRay Emission (PIXE 2015), Cape Town, South Africa, 2015.

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18. A. Zucchiatti, Ion behalf of CONECTA, CONECTA: Coordinación Nacional Española para la Ciencia y Tecnología de Aceleradores, Technical Meeting on Formulating strategies for keeping accelerator based technologies at the forefront of scientific endeavours, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon (Bobadela), Portuga, l19-23 October 2015. 19. A. Zucchiatti and A. Climent-Font, Applying Ion Beam Analysis to the study of ancient ceramics, 2nd Notre Dame-Europe Symposium on Nuclear Science and Society, Rome 4-6 November 2015.

20. J. E. Prieto and A. Zucchiatti, CMAM activity report, AEA Second Research Coordination Meeting on “Development of Molecular Concentration Mapping Techniques Using MeV Focused Ion Beams”, Kyoto, Japan 16 – 18 November 2015. 21. J. E. Prieto, R. Gargallo-Caballero, J. F. Marco, J. de la Figuera, Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by IAD. Recent Trends in Nanomagnetism, Spintronics and their Applications (RTNSA), Ordizia, Gipuzkoa, España, 30 de Junio-3 de Julio 2015.

Seminars at CMAM 1. Ruy Sanz, CNR-IMM Matis and Department of Physics and Astronomy - University of Catania (Italy), Ion beam modified TiO2 for advanced water purification in the frame of WATER Pro-ject, 17 February 2014. 2. Aurelio Climent Font, CMAM (UAM). Ion matter interaction and ion beam analysis, 9 May 2014. 3. Alessandro Zucchiatti, CMAM (UAM). La emisión de Rayos Gamma como método analítico, 22 May 2014. 4. Mathis Lacombe, CMAM (UAM) / Universidad de Toulouse. Characterization and commissioning of an ionization chamber as an energy detector, 2 July 2014. 5. Victor Joco, CMAM (UAM). Basic introduction to microcontrollers, 10 September 2014. 6. Elias Sideras-Haddad, University of Witwatersrand - Johannesburg (South Africa). The first Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility in Africa using a 6 MV EN Tandem Accelerator, 11 September 2014. 7. Victor Joco, CMAM (UAM). LEIS beamline at CMAM, Status and short term developing plans, 18 September 2014. 8. Victor Joco, CMAM (UAM). The Raspberry Pi computer, introduction and applications at CMAM, 25 september 2014 9. Ovidio Peña Rodríguez, Instituto de Fusión Nuclear (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid).

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Comparative study of high energy ion beamirradiation effects on a-quartz and silica based on in-situ optical measurements and MD simulations, 16 October 2014. 10. Begoña Gómez-Ferrer, CIEMAT / CMAM (UAM). Estudio de la evolución de los defectos inducidos por irradiación en aleaciones modelo FeCrx con aplicación en fusión mediante técnicas de resistividad in-situ, 23 October 2014. 11. Miguel Ángel Ramos Ruiz, CMAM (UAM). Una introducción informal a la transición vítrea y a la física de los vidrios, 30 October 2014. 12. Miguel Ángel Ramos Ruiz, CMAM (UAM). ¿Persisten las anomalías vítreas de bajas temperaturas en vidrios extremadamente estabilizados?, 7 November 2014. 13. Nuno Pessoa Barradas. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (Universidade de Lisboa). Everything you never wanted to know about “How to simulate a spectrum”, 13 November 2014. 14. Victoria Tormo Márquez, CMAM (UAM), Fabricación de guías de onda de LiTaO3 mediante irradiación con iones pesados de alta energía, 20 November 2014 15. Orlando Martínez Zapata, CMAM (UAM), Estudios analíticos enfocados a la conservación y restauración de bienes culturales, 11 December 2014

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Scientific Reports


16. Jan Schaefer, Toptica Photonics (Alemania). Ultrafast Fiber Lasers - The next generation, 26 January 2015. 17. Pedro A.N. Machado, Instituto de Física Teórica (UAM). Particle Physics for Pedestrians, 17 March 2015. 18. Arantza Maira Vidal, CMAM (UAM) RAD 2015: Tercera conferencia internacional sobre radiación y sus apliaciones en varios campos de investigación, 26 June 2015. 19. Lowry Conradie iThemba LABS (Sudáfrica), The current status and new projects at iThemba LABS, 29 June 2015. 20. Victor Joco, CMAM (UAM). Tango control system for electrostatic accelerators, 30 September 2015. 21. Pablo Esquinazi, Universidad de Leipzig (Alemania), Defect induced magnetism: A general phenomenon in solid state physics, 1 October 2015.

22. Elias Sideras-Haddad, MPRI School of Physics. University of Witwatersrand (WITS) (Sudáfrica). Radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, 7 October 2015. 23. Fernando Agulló López, CMAM (UAM). IonBeams at CMAM: Why using swift-heavy ions to modify materials, 29 October 2015. 24. Raymond Frentrop, Universidad de Twente (Países Bajos). Creating waveguides in KYW crystal using swift heavy ions, 2 December 2015. 25. Alessandro Zucchiatti, CMAM (UAM). CONECTA: Coordinación Nacional Española para la Ciencia y Tecnología de Aceleradores, 16 December 2015. 26. Sonia García Blanco, Universidad de Twente (Países Bajos). Integrated on-chip amplifiers and metallic tight bends: new building blocks for the Photonics “LEGO”, 12 December 2015.

Collaborations 1. Centre for Ion Beam Applications (IBA), National University of Singapore, Singapore.

3. Instituto de Bioengenharia e Biociências, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.

2. Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb, Croatia.

4. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Collaborators 1. Óscar Bomatí Miguel (UAM)

3. David Jiménez Rey (CIEMAT)

2. Manuel Díaz Hijar (Instituto de Óptica, CSIC)

4. J. Francisco Luque Gutiérrez (UAM)

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0 4.D issemination activity


4.1. ACCELERATOR FOR THE YOUNGEST: Scientific Campus Summer As a university centre the CMAM is fully committed to teaching and training at any level. Thanks to the initiative of the FECYT (Spanish foundation for Science and Technology), the economic support of the “La Caixa” foundation and the coordination of the UCCUAM (Unity for Scientific Culture of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid) the CMAM has had the pleasure of hosting one of the activities of the Summer Science Camp (SSC or CCV). The program aims at promoting the interest of 15-17 years old students on science, technology and innovation, offering them, through a national selection, about 1800 places to participate in scientific projects designed by university professors and developed in research departments of 16 campuses of International or Regional Excellence. A fantastic opportunity for the students to experience the research work in a multicultural university, which will help them defining the future projection of their studies but also enjoy cultural scientific complementary activities and entertainment on campus. The CMAM has participated in 2014 and 2015 with the activities “El aire de la ciudad bajo la lupa de un acelerador de iones“ and “Descubriendo falsificaciones de monedas con un acelerador de partículas” respectively and hosting in total 84 students: in groups of 7 for each of the four weeks of the SSC. The idea behind our project was to make the students feel part of the organization and involve them in an experimental activity centered on our accelerator. This was designed in such a way as to be, though in its simplicity, the archetype of a professional research activity: set the problem and review the scientific knowledge on the topic, design and prepare the experiment, run the experiment at the accelerator, analyze the data and comment the results where the fundamental steps. Not an easy task, which we carried on devoting the utmost attention to the programming and organization of each activity so to assure at the same time the easiest students work and the least interference with the CMAM regular research activity. Involving young students in research has been indeed a rewarding experience for the CMAM members who have animated the program: Andrés Redondo Cubero, Arantza Maira Vidal, Diana Bachiller Perea and Marcos Benedicto. Taking advantage of the experience these highly selected students had in the high school, we could jointly develop a unique educational experience in the laboratory. It took indeed very little time to see them fully busy in the activity, eager to raise questions, willing to take the responsibility of tasks, concerned about teamwork and, most important of all, conscious of the difficulties of any research activity and of the satisfaction that a well done work gives at the end. The 2015 SSC was inaugurated, on June 29, by the UAM Chancellor, José M. Sanz, with a visit to CMAM. During the visit the Chancellor has been accompanied by the general secreatary of Universities, Juan María Vázquez, the general director of the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT), José Ignacio Fernández Vera, the sciencie director of “Fundación la Caixa”, Ignasi López Verdeguer, who highlighted the importance of the SSC for the University and for the future of research.

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Four moments of the intense students activity during the Summer Science Campus, supervised by the CMAM members

Authorities and students posing for the official photo at the end of the inauguration ceremony of the 2015 Summer Science Campus

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4.2. OPEN DAYS AT CMAM: Science Week The Science Week is one of the most important events about science in Europe and has the goal of bringing science and technology to the citizens. The Science Week is organized by the General Directorate for Universities and Research of the Community of Madrid, through Madri+d Foundation for Knowledge and its aim is to “encourage the development of harmonious relations between science and society, and contribute to scientists reflect critically with the concerns of society.” Universities, research centers, scientific societies, NGOs, businesses, museums, foundations, scientific associations and governmental agencies will have open days for two weeks, organizing free activities. CMAM has participated in the XIV and XV “Semana de la Ciencia”, organizing the activities “De la electronica a la optoelectrónica: los aceleradores de iones para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales” and “Los aceleradores de iones: un instrumento de experimentación, descubrimiento y conocimiento”. These activities included a conference about the research conducted with the ion accelerator at CMAM and a visit to the CMAM Accelerator.

Colaboran:

Patrocinan:

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Dissemination Activity

organizan:

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Moments of the activity during the Science Week, supervised by the CMAM members

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Physics Degree The CMAM participates with the UAM physics departments in the dissemination sessions of the Physics degree. The students of several secondary schools of Madrid visit the UAM and its different physics departments. In the CMAM, the students see its facility and they carry out an easy experiment in order to understand the work in the centre.

Selfie with the sudents using the thermographic camera

CMAM member explaining the ion beam techniques at the Open days in Physics Degree

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4.3. INFORMAL SEMINARS: Ion accelerators and associated tecniques CMAM scientific division carried out some informal seminars about ion accelerators and their associated techniques during 2014. This program was a scientific division goal of the quality system and the main purpose was to promote the centre.

List of seminars: 1. Ion matter interaction and ion beam analysis. Aurelio Climent Font 2. Gamma-ray emission as an analytical method. Alessandro Zucchiatti 4. An informal introduction to the glass transition and the physics of glasses. Miguel Ángel Ramos 5. Do glassy anomalies at low temperature persist in highly-stabilized glasses? Miguel Ángel Ramos 6. The relevance of particle accelerators in society. Ángel Muñoz Martín

4.4. COURSE ON IONIZING RADIATIONS In the last years CMAM has been involved in the Curso de radiaciones ionizantes organized by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) and the Colegio Oficial de Físicos (COFIS). This intensive course, with 6 ECTS, is designed for grade students and focused on the fundamentals and applications of the ionizing radiations in the industry and society. The contents of the course comprises the physics of the ionizing radiations, the detection and dosimetry, the radioprotection, the applications, the legal rules and normative for nuclear safety, and the treatment of radioactive waste. Due to the applied character of the course, there are several visits to radiological facilities, and CMAM collaborates to teach the most relevant aspects when working with high energy particle accelerators in the field of material science.

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The researches of CMAM explain the technical aspects concerning the radiation damage and risks, the radioprotection and control of the radiation, the operation of particle accelerators, and the applications in different fields such as material science, cultural heritage, health sciences, nuclear physics, semiconductor industry, etc. A 2 hour guided visit is carried out to show the characteristics of a unique facility based on the 5 MV Cockroft-Walton linear accelerator of CMAM.

4.5. MASTER IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS As part of the teaching activities carried out at CMAM, the centre participated in the Master Interuniversitario de Física Nuclear, organized by the University of Seville. This master, attracting students from different parts of the country, has a strong practical component which requires the use of particle accelerators to understand how to measure the properties of the nuclei. In this regard, CMAM offers the facilities to the students so that they can make a nuclear experiment and understand the processes for generating and detecting ions, as well as the main nuclear techniques.

The practical class is focused on the measurement of the elastic 16O(α,α)16O nuclear reaction, a well-known case of non-Rutherford cross section that is used in the analysis of many compounds. For this purpose the students take advantage of the accurate control of the high voltage obtained with the Cockroft-Walton system of our accelerator and make a complete characterization of the resonance. In addition, they have the opportunity to use the common hardware and software in nuclear physics experiments. This experience will help them to be prepared for their future activities and scientific career.

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4.6. DISSEMINATION AND PUBLICATIONS ON SOCIAL NETWORKS The CMAM has increased the last two years its presence in the social network, creating strategies to communicate more effectively with the society. The main objective of our Facebook page, https://www.facebook.com/cmamuam, is to inform about dissemination, educational and scientific activities carried out at CMAM. The number of users connected to the CMAM Facebook has significantly increased the last year, indicating a greater interest in our centre. CMAM has given the jump into the social network with more impact today, Twitter, sharing the information about the events, the seminars and the projects at the centre. Our presence in Twitter is more limited than in FB, but it is focused to the scientific and technological followers, and it is growing constantly. You can follow us on twitter: https://twitter.com/cmamuam We have also created a YouTube channel to publish all the videos related with CMAM as well as seminars or other important events. Between them, there are two videos created recently with the aim of promote the accelerator. One of them is about a special maintenance carried out by the technical team to repair the voltage generator of the accelerator and another describes the scientific and education activities at the CMAM

QR code to see the corporate video of CMAM

QR code to see the video about accelerator extraordinary maintenance

The CMAM bets on social networks, creating powerful strategies to give greater visibility to our work and allowing us to communicate more effectively with the society.

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4.7. GUIDED VISITS 1. ZARAGOZA UNIVERSITY, Zaragoza. Guided by Miguel Ángel Ramos. 10-04-14 2. ESPACIO ACCIÓN, Madrid. Guided by Arantza Maira Vidal. 10-03-14 3. COURSE OF IONISING RADIATION, UAM, Madrid. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa Alcalá. 28-03-14 4. OPEN DAYS IN PHYSICS DEGREE, UAM, Madrid. Guided by Alessandro Zucchiatti y María Dolores Ynsa. 01-04-14 5. UAM MEDICAL SERVICE, Madrid. Guided by Angel Muñoz Martín. 02-04-14 6. STUDY VISIT. Organized by The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Madrid+d Fundation and UAM International Projects Office, Madrid. Guided by Diana Bachiller Perea. 26-09-14 7. MASTERS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, UPM, Madrid. Guided by Víctor Joco. 15-10-14

13. OPEN DAYS, several IES, Madrid. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa and Andrés Redondo Cubero. 25-03-15 14. OPEN DAYS, several IES, Madrid. Guided by Andrés Redondo Cubero. 24-04-15 15. ERASMUS: INNOVATION, RESEARCH AND SCIENCE SCHOOL, UAM. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa. 14-04-15 16. THEMATIC NETWORK STABLE GLASS. Madrid. Guided by Miguel Ángel Ramos. 17-04-15 17. NATIONAL AGENCY FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROMOTION OF ARGENTINA. PCM, Madrid. Guided by José Emilio Prieto. 14-05-15 18. UCC-UAM, several IES, Madrid. Guided by Miguel Ángel Ramos, José Emilio Prieto, Victor Joco and Alessandro Zucchiatti. 17-06-15. 19. UPM, Madrid. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa Alcalá. 14-10-15

8. MASTER OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HERITAGE, UAM, Madrid. Guided by José Olivares Villegas. 17-12-14

20. MASTER OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HERITAGE, UAM, Madrid. Guided by Alessandro Zucchiatti. 28-10-2015

9. HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM BERLIN FÜR MATERIALEN UND ENERGIE, Berlin. Guided by Aurelio Climent Font. 09-12-14

21. IES Enrique Tierno Galván, Madrid. Guided by Arantza Maira Vidal. 10-12-2015

10. OPEN DAYS IN RESEARCH, IES Marqués de Santillana, 3 Olivos, Ntra Sra. del Pilar, Ramiro de Maeztu y Ramón y Cajal Madrid. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa and Andrés Redondo Cubero. 17-12-14 11. AGRUPACIÓN DE DEPORTES ESPACIO ACCIÓN, Madrid. Guided by Andrés Redondo Cubero. 23-01-15 12. OPEN DAYS IN PHYSICS DEGREE, UAM, Madrid. Guided por MDY. 23-01-15

Activity Report 2014-2015 | Dissemination Activity

22. BIOCATALYSIS & NANOTECHNOLOGY MASTER, UAM, Madrid. Guided by Mª Dolores Ynsa Alcalá. 04-12-2015 23. OPEN DAYS IN RESEARCH, UAM, MADRID. Guided by María Dolores Ynsa and Andrés Redondo Cubero. 16-12-2015 24. PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER MASTER, UAM, Madrid. Guided by José Emilio Prieto. 10-12-2015

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ISO 9001

Support Processes Purchases & Suppliers PG_300_01 Infrastructures, Equipments & Materials PG _200_01

Operative Processes

Communication

Beamtime Assignment PG_400_01

Communication

Delivery Ion Beams PG_200_02

Documents & Registers GC_500_04 Improvement GC_500_02

Follow up PG_500_01 Focus on Users GC_500_12

Internal Auditing GC_500_05

Management Processes

Users

Users

Staff and Training PG_700_02


THREE MORE YEARS FOR THE CMAM’S QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS) In February 2015, we successfully completed the audit for renewing certification and we completed with all the requirements for the ISO 9001:2008 standard. The last three years have been marked by a constant improvement of procedures. It was recognized by the positive outcome of the external audit that concluded with zero non-conformities and that has led to the renewal of our certification until February, 2018. The QMS implanted and maintained at CMAM is built around the “Delivery of ion beams” and has as objectives and principles the constant improvement of our processes and the satisfaction of our users who need an infrastructure at the maximum level of competitiveness to assure success to their research work. Our quality policy is based on these principles and the system is designed so to continually improve performance while addressing the needs of all interested parties (users and CMAM staff).

Backbone of the Quality Management System After a period of internal discussion, external advisory and start-up training, CMAM decided to build a system focused on its main activity, i.e. the “Delivery of ion beams”, which has on one side the enormous advantage of being perceived by the users as a really impacting move towards quality that has positive effects on their own work and on the other one allows a really effective revision of all the accelerator related procedures that need to be used daily, with or without the implantation of a QMS. The QMS excludes the realization of experiments because of their essential uniqueness that would be extremely complex to deal with in a homogeneous and repetitive scheme, as a QMS would require. Of the eight quality management principles, which were obviously followed in implementing the QMS we emphasizes four: a) Process approach The work done to identify and manage interrelated and interacting processes has led to a simple QMS based on 10 processes, divided into operative, support and management processes. The QMS consists of 47 documents and registers in total, managed in a DMS (document managent system) server. The core of the system are the three operative processes under which we run the delivery of ion beams • Beamtime Allocation at CMAM ion Accelerator. This is supported by the user’s portal where we receive and process the beamtime applications. The portal is accessible through our web page and is self-instructing. The access is easy, the procedure of proposals submission has been maintained as simple possible and is conveniently guided. It has proved to be a very efficient and friendly instrument of interaction with our users. • Supply of ion beams to Accelerator users. Once the beamtime is allocated, the work’s plan that establishes the tasks of operators and supervisors is available internally, its execution is controlled by registers that are

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filled as demanded by the involved processes and technical instructions and eventual changes of the working plan are as well registered and fully traceable. The registers that are connected with the accelerator use and must be collected daily from different instruments scattered within the lab, are entered in a fully digital form from a tablet while the data connected with the accelerator control program are registered directly from the accelerator computer. • Monitoring of Beam Supply activities. Besides the users feedback (which we receive continuously through enquiries, complaints and suggestions) the head of the technical division and the quality assurance manager revise every periods the statistics of beam delivery, the occurrence of failures, the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance actions and addresses an activity summary to the CMAM director for his consideration in the annual review. b) Involvement of people People are the essence of our center at all levels. Their full involvement in the implementation of the QMS has been the key of the positive outcome of our work. Thanks to the competence of our staff, we have developed in house the most relevant digital tools (beamtime requests, purchases, databases) and built a very robust QMS that has renewed certification on audit on February 2015 with zero non conformities. The abilities of our staff were really beneficial to the CMAM and their continuous training and involvement in decision making and in quality improvement is one of the targets of the QMS and is supported by a rich training program and by an internal organization fully open to representativeness and individual contributions. c) Focus on users Making effective the CMAM quality policy, implies understanding the current and future user needs as well as meeting and anticipating their requirements. The fundamental interaction with the users takes advantage from a series of tools: • The process for submission and evaluation of beamtime requests (experiment proposals) is through a Beamtime request portal. • The Commitment of CMAM in the delivery of ion beams to users and the responsibilities of CMAM after the delivery. For this reason, there is a methodology for recovery of lost shifts. • The communication with users is through “On line Customer Satisfaction Enquiry” and the e-mail address calidad.cmam@uam.es (complains and suggestions), with the guarantee that his remarks will be registered and the CMAM consequent reply or actions will be fully traceable. d) Continuous improvement The aim of continuous improvement of any QMS is to increase the probability of enhancing the satisfaction of customer and other interested parties. As an actions for improvement principles include in our system the following: • Establishing the objectives for improvement. • Dealing with non-conformities, complains and suggestions by means of internal audit, corrective and preventive actions.

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Aiming at customer satisfaction by interacting with them and considering their perception of the degree to which the user’s requirements have been fulfilled. • Using the internal and external audit findings, observations and evidences to implant preventive actions. • Measuring, verifying and analyzing periodically all the registers (beamtime requests, purchases, training, etc.) and the processes indicators. All indicators have associated a normal, an attention and an alarm condition that help a more efficient follow up of the corresponding processes and a different intervention strategy. • Monitoring, in the annual director’s review, the periodic reports of the technical manager, the quality assurance manager, the head of the administration and human resources division together with the results of audits and all other suggestions. All this results are reviewed, as necessary to determine further opportunities for improvement. In this way, improvement is a continual activity.

How it worked Four years after its implantation some general considerations can be made, about the efficacy of the system and the perception the users have of it. As regards the users satisfaction we have recorded participation between a minimum of 56% and a maximum of 91%, with encouraging results concerning the satisfaction with respect to the beamtime request and project evaluation procedure, the quality of the beam delivery process and of the beam itself with respect to the users need and finally a general satisfaction index. We have seen an improvement of 10% compared to the last years. On the other hand the indexes show that in all occasions we are above the minimum sufficient value of 6 and the average is comfortably around 8. As regards the complaints it is limited to a two cases during the interval 2014 -2015, seeing himself a significant improvement over the interval 2012-2013. Finally the internal control of the registers and the indicators has allowed us to detect nonconformities in a few units along the various periods which were normally corrected.

Fig. 1. The users participation in customer satisfaction results (%) by period for the years 2014 y 2015.

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Fig, 2. The users satisfaction index by period for the years 2014 and 2015. Four topics are evaluated by the user: The beamtime request, the quality of the beam delivery, the quality of the beam itself and the general satisfaction after performing an experiment.

Fig. 2bis. The users satisfaction index average for the years 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The indicators show high level customer satisfaction with our delivery of ion beams.

Fig. 3. The users feedback by period for the years 2014 and 2015. Complaints and suggestions are considered. The little change for the last two years indicated that the users has greatly improved after four years of application of our QMS.

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Fig. 3bis. The users feedback average for the years 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The complaints have decreased enough. We can say that this has been a great improvement.

Fig. 4. The number of no-conformities open per month in the years 2014 and 2015.

Fig. 4bis. Average the number of no-conformities open per year (2012 to 2015).

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© 2016 CENTRO DE MICRO-ANÁLISIS DE MATERIALES. All rights reserved. Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales C/ Faraday nº 3 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, España Tel: (+ 34) 91 497 36 21, Fax (+34) 91 497 36 23 www.cmam.uam.es Editor: Vicente Torres Costa Graphic design: Jorge Álvarez Echenique Layout: Inmaculada Sierra Martos & Jorge Álvarez Echenique


CMAM Activity Report 2014 - 2015  

Biannual report of the activities performed in 2014 and 2015 at the CMAM Accelerator (Spain)

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