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MONTAGE


Montage by Julia Moellmann


Didactic exercise Fall Semester 2010

Interior worlds: “montage” Main Editor Gennaro Postiglione Course of Interior Architecture Faculty of Architettura e Società Politecnico di Milano www.lablog.org.uk Editor Julia Moellmann

only for pedagogic purpose not for commercial use


INDEX 00_Montage by Julia Moellmann 01_Horta House 02_Hill House 03_Postsparkasse 04_Larkin Building 05_Forestry Building 06_Casa Battlò 07_Unity Temple 08_American Bar 09_Glasgow Library 10_Railroad Station 11_Robie House 12_Scenography Orfeo 13_Casa Milá 14_Glass House 15_Palace Hotel 16_Constructed Head No. 22 17_Willow Tea House


18_Interior

36_The Lovers

19_Schauspielhaus

37_Finnish Pavillon

20_Maison La Roche

38_Cadavre Exquis

21_Maison La Roche

39_Guggenheim Museum

22_Atelier Zim 08A

40_Loup Table

23_Cafe l’Aubette

41_Frank House

24_Merzbilder

42_MIles of String

25_Schröder House

43_Art Of This Century

26_Static Dynamics

44_Unite d’Habitation

27_Villa Monzie

45_Saarinen House

28_Barcelona Pavillon

46_Trophy Room

29_Pressa Pavillon

47_Rose Summer House

30_Villa Müller

48_Ford Residence

31_Villa Müller

49_G.M. Technical Center

32_Neutra House

50_Rockefeller Guest House

33_Merzbau

51_Knoll Show Room

34_Villa Savoye

52_Yale Art Gallery

35_Villa Mairea

53_Sake Institute


54_Breda Pavillon

72_Frank Residence

55_Kresge Chapel

73_La Muralla Roja

56_Idlewild Airport

74_Sainsbury Center

57_University School of Chicago

75_Building Cuts

58_Poème électronic

76_Fantasy Landscape

59_Case Study House

77_San Vito d’Altivole

60_Nordic Pavillon

78_Lloyds Biulding

61_Carpenter Center

79_Gehry House

62_Fisher House

80_Aerospace Museum

63_Ford Foundation N.Y.

81_Institute du Monde Arabe

64_San Giovanni Battista

82_Swatch Headquarter

65_Spiegelskulptur

83_Palais des Congres

66_Esherik House

84_Green House

67_House Pescher

85_North York Library

68_Nevigeser Dom

86_Three Linked Cubes

69_Non Petriet Coral

87_Carrè d’Art

70_Live Taped Video Corridor

88_Aronoff Center

71_Irvin Bank Company

89_Vitra Museum


90_Heinz Galinsky School 91_Suit Case Studies 92_Moonsoon Restaurant 93_La Traviata 94_Thermal Bath Vals 95_Stretto House 96_La Fayette Gallery 97_Zamora Museum 98_St. Thomas von Aquin 99_Jewish Museum


Montage by Julia Moellmann

Abstract The Theory of Montage was developed by Sergej Eisenstein, Russian renowed filmmaker. As lm is the aimed montage of images he recognized, that the origin of this method can be found in the Acropolis of Athens, therefore in architecture. Here the ordinance of buildings is staged in a way, that by walking around the Acropolis every building unfolds a monumental appearence. The perception of architecture is steered by the architect, as it is the case in lm. When Le Corbusier met Eisenstein in Moscow he considered his practice converged with that of the Russianlmmaker. Both wanted to avoid their work to be understood from one single point of view. According to Eisenstein an image of a scene or a sequence exists not as something fixed and ready made, but something that arises, unholds and nally assembled in the spectators eye. The same was the intention of Le

Corbusier, when he encouraged to accompany your eye as it moves, using a memorizing eye, that initially absorbs and then renders a montage of the fragmented spatial experience in mind. Therefore the circulation is an important feature in Le Corbusier’s buildings. German philosopher Walter Benjamin defined Montge as a technique of radical juxtapostion of fragments of reality, that could afford new readings inaccesible for everyday perception. Architecture can achieve the same effect as im by showing a phenomenon in its multi-dimensionality. To accomplish this effect the architecture has to offer the option of movement through the space to perceive the fragments of which a spatial sequence is made of. The spector will build up a causal relationship bet ween any successive space. The perception of spatial fragment greatly depends on the perception of its following and preced-


ing spatial fragment. By use of montage space tectonics can be carried out in mind and juxtaposed to disparate space fragments and design a path that binds them. Therefore Montage is a method that stages architectural space so it becomes declarative.


Paper In 1928, Sigfried Giedion expressed in Bauen in Frankreich, Bauen in Eisen, Bauen in Eisenbeton that the simple and isolated “still photography” could not apprehend architecture clearly; only film could “make the new architecture intelligible.” (1) Giedion used the film metaphor in order to refer to the addition of images that a disembodied eye – comparable to a physical viewer – had to necessarily capture when moving through space over time. Giedion relied on Le Corbusier’s Quartiers Modernes Frugès in Pessac to explain the ability of both the experience of the subject and the cinematographic montage to construct space. The same year Le Corbusier traveled for the first time to Moscow and met Sergei Eisenstein, the most renowned filmmaker and theorist of montage of the 20th century. Le Corbusier considered his practice converged with that of the Russian filmmaker, and explained how “in [his] work he [seemed] to think as Eisenstein [did] in his films.” (2) Le Corbusier in fact always tried to avoid his architecture from being understood from a

single point of view. Thus, he always obliged the viewers of his buildings to “accompany the eye as it moves”, to use a “memorizing eye.” (3) In 1937, Eisenstein wrote “Montage and Architecture” and explained how film, montage of images, was not a new phenomenon: its “undoubted ancestor in this capability [was] architecture.” (4) Eisenstein found the clearest example in the Acropolis of Athens where the buildings had been organized in a picturesque way. (5) With this example, literally quoted from Auguste Choisy’s Historie de l’Architecture, Eisenstein explained that the cinematographic montage was the way to link in one plane – the screen – “various fragments of a phenomenon filmed from many different dimensions, sides, and points of view.” (6) Not by chance, this sequence of images was the same that Le Corbusier had previously inserted in Vers une architecture in order to refer to the “great stage director” that had to display the different elements of the plans. (7) In 1934, the German literary critic Walter Benjamin delivered “Der Autor


als Produzent” at the Institute for the Study of Fascism in Paris. (8) Benjamin, who profoundly admired Giedion’s Bauen in Frankreich and had quoted several of his passages in his Passages- Werk, was familiar with both Le Corbusier’s work and the overall advancements of modern architecture. (9) In his interdisciplinary discourse on behalf of technical progress, Benjamin opposed the retrograde and old-fashioned aesthetics of “art for art’s sake” and offered montage as a new aesthetic model of subjectivity endowed with an emancipator role. As Benjamin defined it, montage was a technique of radical juxtaposition of fragments of reality that could afford new readings inaccessible for the everyday perception. Due to its necessity to “fix the total representation of a phenomenon in its full multi-dimensionality”, modern architecture was comparable to film. (10) Une maison sans escaliers In 1933, Le Corbusier presented the first large institutional building he had ever realized in the monographic issue that the French journal L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui devoted to his work and described it as “une maison sans escaliers”, a house without stairs. (11) “e memo that accompanied the publication of the project clearly reinforced this point: ““e staircases are substituted by two ‘gentle slopes’ (…) that will be covered in rubber to avoid possible slips. Besides, the cooperative building will have eight passenger-elevators and two serving-lifts.” (12) Le Corbusier considered that the great number of people that worked in the cooperative offices obliged to classify “the crowds entering and leaving all at the same time.” For him it was necessary to build “a sort of forum (…) for people whose galoshes and furs were full of snow in winter” (13) and to distinguish between two worlds: the one on the top – the offices – and the one below – the halls. (fig.1) “ Thsuch a building [had] two aspects.” The first, which he de-

scribed as “an arrival in disorder on a vast horizontal plane on ground level”, was compared to a lake. The second, which he described as “that of stable, motionless work, sheltered from noise and coming and going”, were the offices. (14) The plans reveal how “a set of pilotis covers the site entirely.The pilotis carry the office building which starts only at the second floor. Under it one circulates freely, outdoors or in rooms opening into a big space, fed by the two entrances and creating the ‘forum’ suggested above. The elevators leave from this forum (…) and immense helicoidal ramps, instead of staircases, allow a more rapid flow.” (15) Le Corbusier thought that the volumes and surfaces had to be clearly legible in order to speed up the interior movement. Not by chance, Le Corbusier thought “circulation” was the most important feature of the building, a corollary of the plan libre he had defined in 1927.(16) And for this reason, he endowed the spiral ramps with a great volumetric presence. Le Corbusier, in fact, created this project relying on the two systems of independent organization that constituted the principle of the plan libre: “Dom-ino” – the columns and the structural elements – and the “Cloison” – everything that surrounds the structural grid, the non-supporting parts. (17) As one of the first schemes of the plan distribution evidences, the way in which the vertical circulations were distributed was completely independent from the structural grid. (fig. 2) !is plan shows how Le Corbusier operated with the principle of “enjambment”, an operative strategy borrowed from poetry, which refers to the rupture of syntax and metrics congruence that happens when the end of a sentence and a line do not coincide physically. (18) In the same sense, for Le Corbusier, the ramps had to be displayed independent to the structural grid, up to the point of invading a space on the following one, which favored a plurality of views, itineraries, and points of view. Keeping attached to the principle of the plan libre, Le Corbusier found it extremely difficult to introduce the ramps or the twisted plans of the


floors in the pilotis forest, as the interior perspectives drawn during the evolution of the project evidence. (fig. 3) As a consequence, the conflicting tension between the pillars, the ramps, and the enclosures impeded the visitors of the Palais du Centrosoyus to navigate through the space in a linear way and led them instead to create a montage of the fragmented spatial experience in their minds. Una casa di vetro In 1936, immediately upon its construction, Terragni published the Casa del Fascio in Como in Quadrante, the most popular Italian architectural journal at the time. Terragni printed the interior view of the Assembly Hall seen from the Executive Board Room and pointed to the “notable effect of mirroring in the glass.” (19) (fig.4) It was a symmetrical photograph that not only avoided showing the side limits of space, but also duplicated its vertical height by means of a material reflection achieved in a transparent horizontal surface. Terragni also introduced planes of transparent glass in the desks of the Federal Secretary’s Office, so that he could both capture the urban space and duplicate its spatial relation with the interior. Following the Mussolinian concept of fascism, Terragni constructed “una casa di vetro in cui tutti possono guardare” (a house of glass into which everyone may look), and endowed the building with an “organic unity, clarity, and honesty” that created “no obstruction, no barrier, no obstacle between political leaders and the people.” (20) Terragni covered the Assembly Hall of the core of the building by means of a membrane composed by two layers which structurally overlapped in two perpendicular directions. !e lower layer, composed by a series of large-side beams, supported the structure of the upper ceiling. !e upper layer, composed by a series of glass-brick walls laid in the opposite direction, was the main source of light for the Assembly Hall below.

(fig. 5) !is horizontally layered membrane was in fact a “plane” of symmetry that sep rated the building into two equivalent halves. Terragni also dematerialized the ceiling of the entrance hall by means of a plane of polished black marble and visually paralleled it with the space of the terrace in the upper floor. (fig. 6) In order to ensure an uninterrupted continuity of space, Terragni extended the pavement of the exterior portico in the interior of the building, and composed the vertical glass surface by means of an array of eighteen glazed doors that could be simultaneously opened. In the ceiling however, Terragni introduced a different kind of polished black marble. In doing so, Terragni constructed a mirror-like horizontal surface in which the architectural objects – the columns, the walls, the stairs and the glazed doors – were reflected, while the subjects entering the building captured. By means of a series of material and spatial horizontal symmetries, Terragni impeded a single and continuous view of the building from the ground up, and emphasized the horizontal relationship of the interior world and the urban realm. The impossibility to experience the two sides of the symmetrical worlds at the same time obliged the visitors of the Casa del Fascio to acquire a critical distance and to create a montage of the fragmented spatial experience in their minds. Montage As these two institutional buildings constructed in different political contexts evidence, montage was a strategy of design that operated in the interior worlds of architecture since the end of the 1920s. Both Le Corbusier and Terragni relied on montage in order to produce new readings of space that were not accesible to conventional perception. However, while Terragni made the supporting structure and the spatial structure of his buildings coincident, Le Corbusier always distinguished between the “Dom-Ino” and the “Cloison. That is why montage operated


quite differently in both the Palais du Centrosoyus in Moscow and the Casa del Fascio in Como. By means of play of opposites, montage invited the modern subjects to solve the conflict between gravity and circulation – structure and enclosure – in the “maison sans escaliers.” By means of geometrical symmetries, montage attempted to conciliate the material and the reflected worlds in the “casa di vetro.” Both Le Corbusier and Terragni avoided their buildings from being understood from a single point of view and relied on montage in order to render the various fragments of the spatial experience into a single narrative. As Giedion, Eisenstein, and Benjamin had already stated, it was only by means of montage that modern architecture could acquire its full meaning.


References Benjamin, Walter. 1934. !e Author as Producer (1978). In Reections: Essays, aphorisms, autobiographical writings, 230- 238. New York: Harcourt BraceJovanovich. 1968. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936). In Illuminations, 217-252. New York:nSchocken. 1999. The Arcades Project (1982). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Blau, Eve. 2005. Under the Sign of Transparency (lecture given at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, February 2005). Choisy, August. 1889. Histoire de l’Architecture. Paris: Gauthier- Villars. Cohen, Jean-Louis. 1992. Le Corbusier and the Mystique of the USSR: Theories and Projects for Moscow, 1928- 1936 (1987). New York: Princeton University Press. Eisenstein, Sergei. 1980. El Greco y el cine (1937). In Cinematisme: Peinture et cinéma, 15104. Ed. Francois Alber Brussels: Editions Complexe. 1989. Montage and Architecture (1938). Assemblage 10: 111-131. Georgiadis, Sokratis 1995. Introduction to Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferro- Concrete, by Sigfried Giedion, 1-78. Los Angeles, California: Getty Center. Giedion,Sigfried1995. Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferro-Concrete (1928). Los Angeles, California: Getty Center. Le Corbusier. 1926. Notes à la suite, Cahiers d’Art 2: 46-52. 1933. Une maison sans escaliers. Le Palais du Centrosoyus en Construction a Moscou. 1928-1933. L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui 10: 105-108. 1990. Precisions on the present state of architecture and city planning (1930). Cambridge, Mass.: the MIT Press. 2007. Towards an Architecture (1923). Los Angeles, Cal.: Getty Research Institute. Terragni, Giuseppe. 1936. La construzione della Casa del Fascio di Como. Quadrante, no. 3536:5-27. 2003. Building the Casa del Fascio in Como(1936). Trans. Diane Ghidardo. In Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques. Ed. Peter Eisenman: 262 -271. NewYork: Monacelli Press.


ATLAS


‘01/montage/Horta House

The Horta House was also the studio of belgian architect Victor Horta. It is located in Saint-Gilles, Belgium.The staircase of the Horta house has a swung shaped mirror below the the curved rooflight. The montage of its mirroring creates a juxtaposition of the space and therefore enlarges it horizontally.


‘02/montage/Hill House

The design for the Hill House interior is a good example for Charles Rennie Mackintosh’s afinity for Arts and Crafts, that just appeared in this time. He considers every detail: furniture, lightning and decoration follow the same motif. The observer doesn’t recognize the single component any more. Instead the interior arrangement becomes a montage of all elements seen in the observers mind and is rendered into one artwork.


‘03/montage/Postsparkasse

The interior space of the Postsparkasse in Vienna is designed as a three-naved system. A high central nave is accompanied by low side-naves. This system is a an aspect of church building in historical architecture and gives the building a sacral touch. At the same time it’s covered with curved glass as an indication of modernity. Also the missing of ornament and decoration let one know that Wagner wanted to leave historism architecture behind. The attentive observer though will notice, that the heater are designed and ordered in a sculptural way as it was Otto Wagner’s intention to give his creation a rational base in order to establish artistic form as the result of functional form. By montage a space is created that features the approach to modernity without dismissing aesthetics.


‘04/montage/Larkin Building

By designing the Larkin Building Frank Lloyd Wright accomplished the first very different office building that affected the office architecture further on. Stairways were grouped in vertical shells at the four corners of the building so it allowed space to have a great hall surrounded by five with horizontal office floors woven around it. It was the first office to have air conditioning system, installed furniture and file cabinets of steel. Piers ran fourteen sets of three inspiration words, such as: GENEROSITY ALTRUISM SACRIFICE, INTELLIGENCE ENTHUSIASM CONTROL, CO-OPERATION ECO- NOMY INDUSTRY. By means of the juxtaposition, therefore montage, of those features Wright made new perceptions of working atmorsphere accesible. It allows the occupants to focus on work.


‘05/montage/Forestry Building

The Forestry Building shown on the Lewis and Clark Exposition, was one of the fairs most popular buildings, that were not built to be permanent and most were demolished within five years. The Building, a giant log cabin built out of huge trunks with the bark still attached, survived however until 1964 when it was destroyed in a massive fire. Leaving the trunks untreated makes the interior literally a montage of forest an architecture. It embraces an atmosphere in close touch with nature. At the same time the structural ordinance of the trunks make their functinal role recognizable.


‘06/montage/Casa Battló

The image shows a staircase in the Batlló house designed by Antoni Gaudí. Here the interior seems to merge in to one another. The floor arises to a staircase while the walls meld with the ceiling. The single components can’t be discerned anymore. Instead the observer perceives a medley of those components and is invited to ‘demontage’ them in mind to detect their function.


‘07/montage/Unity Temple

Frank L. Wright’s Unity Temple introduced new principles to religious architecture at its time by means of the cubistic designed interior. Instead of a steeple expressing the afinity to heaven and god it has a simple at roof. The worship space was planned small enough to have every person sitting not farer than 40m away from the pulpit. The absence of streetlevel windows prevents any noise from interrupting worship. Wright preferred linearity over ornaments and therefore focused on spaces themselves and how their functions were expressed. This programmatic manner is a montage of features, or in this case absence of features, that allows believers to concentrate on worshipping.


‘08/montage/American Bar

The American Bar, also called Kärtner Bar is a still existing location in the city of Vienna. Within a rather small place architect Adolf Loos designed a popular meeting place for everyone who wants to enjoy a drink after a stressful day of work. Transparent elements within the entrance wall filter the sunlight creating a dimmed relaxed illumination. Noble materials are used, such as marble, dark wood, brass, onyx and olive coloured leather seats, that invite to gather with friends. Mirror bands on the wall reflect the interior and effect an enlargement of the space to avoid feeling crowded. All those qualities are a montage to create a comfortable atmosphere in which you can leave the stress behind at the end of the work day.


‘09/montage/Library Glasgow

The library for the Glasgow School of Art was designed by british Arts and Crafts supporter Charles Rennie Mackintosh. The structure and furniture is all made of dark wood. In this photograph you can see how the wooden pillars are accurate work of handicraft. Some sort banister rail seems to adorn the connection between the upper floor and the pillar, although it is not needed at all. The wooden wafle-slab like ceiling could have been replaced by another simpler system. The decorated lights appear in a group to illuminate the workplace below. All the furntiture and interior components are montaged in the spectors perception of an Arts and Crafts masterpiece.


‘10/montage/Railroad station

The Pennsylvania Railroad Station in New York opened in year 1910, in a time when the railroad was the most important transportation system and therefore had a great meaning. This monumental building represents this importance and has to be passed. The act of transition is enhaced by the stairs that descend to the hall of the station no matter if you are coming from outside or just arrived by train. It creates a moment, that after descending you are spatially separated from the entrances and are basically forced to perceive the monumentality. The perception is manipulated with the aim to divide the spaces, that are linked, and montage them again with the awareness of their signicance.


‘11/montage/Robie House

Frank Lloyd Wrights Frederick C. Robie House was constructed in Chicago close to the Hyde Park. On the image you see the dinner table with pillars that circumscribe it. Especially the chairs with a high backrest are closing it like it is a solitary furniture. Therefore it is recognized as a closed spatial element that you have to walk around unless you are having a seat. It impedes to walk in a linear way, but is providing a certain spatial sequence.


‘12/montage/Scenography Orfeo

The scenography for the stage play “Orfeo” was designed by the swiss architect and scene builder Adolphe Appia. He intent to develop a new form of stage performance - the rhythmic space, a scene design that augments senses. For “Orfeo” he built mobile straircases with indirect illumination. The montage of lightning, sound and movement were combined to an overall effect.


‘13/montage/Casa Milá

The Casa Milà was designed by Gaudí. This photograph shows a corridor that is curved. You cannot see the end when you are walking through. This way one single corridor, by means of sight stint, can be divided in spatial parts, that are montaged again after perceiving every part.


‘14/montage/Glass House

The Glass House was presented on the Deutsche Werkbund´ Exposition in Coogne as a promotion pavillon for a glas producing company. It was built with the newest technique at that time. The glass dome was hold by steel frames looking still ligree. The interior featured the companys products arranged by the architect, Bruno Taut, in beautiful compositions of coloured mosaics creating the appeal of a crystal cave. It became a proof that new construction systems can work with dreamy light moving effecting a montage of a new interior experience.


‘15/montage/Palace Hotel

The image shows two identical photographes of the interior in the Palace Hotel arranged next to each other. They were taken by photogrpher Carleton E. Watkins. Although the observer immediatly recognizes that it is the same, nevertheless he will montage those together in mind, like it is one architecture. By doing so the observer reads photography and architecture on a new level.


‘16/montage/Constructed Head

Looking at Naum Gabos work there is no doubt what the sculpture called “Constructed Head No.2” is portraying. In fact it is obviously made of plane surfaces arranged and formed in a way, that you see a woman’s head an upper body with hands folded. This is a good example of how montage is operating in one’s head. It perceives all particular components, like the single surfaces here, montages it in mind a renders it into an new image or perspective by means of association and is therefore ‘constructed’.


‘17/montage/Willow Tea House

This is the concept design for the Willow Tea Rooms by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. It illustrates how interior design can be perceived just by furniture. The linearity he uses in this image stays like a surface on this draft. But transferred in architecture it becomes spatial and is montaged into a three-dimensional space.


‘18/montage/Interior by Man Ray

This painting by artist Man Ray at the time introduced the technique of airbrushing. It shows objects that seem to be just painted next to each other without no relation. Only the name “interior” and the white stripes above suggest that it is representing an interior in fact. A painting does not have to show the three dimensional space in a real way, because the ability of montaging in peoples mind can arrange it in way that it can be suggested very easily.


‘19/montage/Schauspielhaus

The interior of the auditorium in the Schauspielhaus Berlin was designed following the form of a cave. A cave, that naturally doesn’t hew to any rules of composition, was given a strict designed shape here in the auditorium. The architect Hans Poelzig wanted the observer on the one hand to experience the mysterious grotto-like interior, on the other hand to realize the well thought out design done by human. Therefore the perception of the architecture becomes a montage of both aspects.


‘20/montage/Maison La Roche

The Maison La Roche by Le Corbusier was planned with an exhibition room seen here for the art collection of the client. The space features dynamic components such as the blue sipe seen on the right and the red ramp. The curved shape of the space invites to glide through and soaking up the art combined with the interior emphasized by the bright colours. The spector is tempted to recognize every element and renders all into montage of a dynamic, but still harmonic space composition.


‘21/montage/Maison La Roche

Likewise in the Parisian duplex Maison La Roche-Jeanneret the flooring of the staircase is covered with black tiles, like in other parts of the interior, in contrast to the white walls. The horizontal surfaces are painted in a dark brown highlighting the tectonics. The tiles, in this image, seem to build a path, that guides you through the house. You can see the parallels to the image before. The interior design stricty follows one theme. Following the imaginary path you can discover the repetitive elements, intensified by the tectonic accentuation, juxtapose the impressions and montage them to a multidimensional space experience.


‘22/montage/ Atelier Zim 08A

The Atelier Zim 08A was designed by Stephan Zimmerli and Vassily Laffineur within a building by Le Corbusier. The working space is separated by upfolded panels that close the cupboards. At the same time they define an individual working space. The interior besomes a montage of work and living space.


23/montage/Café l’Aubette

In the Café l’Aubette in Strasbourg the architect van Doesburg used ‘De Stijl’ abstract geometric forms to generate a strikingly modern interior. De Stijl was concerned with concepts of pure abstraction in painting and sculpture. Van Doesburg interpreted it in the architectural space and therefore gave it a new dimension, by montaging this new abstract style in the three-dimensional space of the Café.


‘24/montage/Merzbilder

The German artist Kurt Schwitters (1887– 1948) remains one of the most influential figures of the international avant-garde. In the years following the First World War he coined the term “Merz,” in reference to his ambition to make connections between everything in the world. Kurt Schwitters was one of the first to use the method of assemblage in art by collaging heterogenous fragments to relate the different features. It was not only a technique but became the basic principle of his art. By the juxtaposition of features taken at different times his collages created other meanings in the viewers minds.


‘25/montage/Schröder House

The upper level of the Schröder house was fitted with sliding panels that made possible to screen off individual rooms or open up the space as it appears here. The typical De Stijl colour scheme, with white, black, red, and blue, enlivens the rectilinear geometry of space and invites the inhabitant to move panels as it is needed. It invites to ‘montage’ individual spaces, which offer high living comfort and a new appreciating of interior space.


‘26/montage/Static Dynamic

Intellectual montage is creating other meanings in the viewers mind by the juxtapostion of something contradictory. This picture shows something statical and dynamical. The statement that it holds is, that endurance and movement is something that exitst in the people’s minds . Then it is projected onto reality. Also painting can only provide static images of something that illustrates movement. To me this picture shows what montage is able to achieve in architecture: activating movement in something, that will always stay static.


‘27/montage/Villa Monzie

Le Corbusier revealed to the open plan, like in this example of the Villa Stein de Monzie. Great space and long floor are interrupted by a breakout in the ceiling below. The inhabitant navigates through the space in a way he is guided by the architecture. Le Corbusier was a huge supporter of Sergej Eisenstein’s Montage theory. Like Eisenstein he wanted to conduct the audience, the inhabitant in this case, how to perceive the interior.


‘28/montage/Barcelona Pavillon

The interior of Barcelona Pavillon is designed with the open space of the area, which has no identified rooms but screen walls of glass and marble to define spaces. The space is not experienced separatly, but by the inhabitants montage of views from different perspectives and can therefore be percepted as one interior.


‘29/montage/Pressa Pavillon

For the international Press exhibition in Cologne, also called Pressa, in 1928 the russian artist El Lissitzky designed the Soviet Pavillon. It was supposed to represent the achievements of the Soviet press. Kynetic objects were used to display collages of newspaper and photography, which thematized social life and labour in the Soviet Union. By using text and documentation of real life the collages achieved a high grade of authenticity. By using kynetic dynamic components to display, the Soviet everyday life was brought into the exhibition space almost working like propaganda by a montage of photography, text and architecture.


‘30/montage/Villa Müller

Villa Müller by architect Adolf Loos was designed with noble materials such as marble. The thick marble wall in the salon seen here has breakouts that open the sight to the dining room upstairs. It is even shaped like the stair that the wall hides in this perspective at the same time having the view to the wooden staircase above. The dark ceiling reflect the warm light coming from the windows storage. The room above and the staircase are visibly connected by another breakout in the wall that is separating them. From this position the spector is invited to recognize the interiors interaction, how spaces imbue each other. They can’t be apprehended solitary but as a montage of all elements, materials and spaces.


‘31/montage/Villa Müller

This image shows the view from Villa Müller’s entrance corridor to vestibule and stairs to salon. At the wall there are large high glossy green emailed ceramic tiles. The tiles end at the white door frame, at the same time the dark green carpet seems to be an extension of the tiles’ green colour guiding you through the corridor to the stairs. The ceiling, that is white before, in the vestibule becomes glossy, dark blue in contrast to the decent designed space. Alltogether it becomes a sequence of creative linked and at the same time contrasted spaces. Their appearence is carried out by juxtaposition of disparate space fragments and montaged in a path that binds them again.


‘32/montage/Neutra House

The Van der Leeuw Research House was architect Richard Neutra’s own house in Los Angeles was the first building in the United states that was built with steel frames. Furthermore Neutra’s home was meant to demonstrate that a family could live communally, privately, and spaciously in a small area. But by small he did not mean so compact, that it was isolated from its surrounding. He endowed the house with fully glazed windows to open up to the garden. Like in this photo you can see how the interior embraces a montaged feeling of narrowness and at the the time be open to the exterior.


‘33/montage/Merzbau

Hoping to unify life and art by incorporating non-art into his work, this pioneer of install tion art Kurt Schwitters came closest to his ideal with his Merzbau, a roomsize sculpture you could walk in. The Merzbau was also one of his most characteristic works realized in his parents house in Hannover, constructed of randomly found materials. It embodies how he translated the method of assemblage and collage in spatial way. In some parts of it you feel some suggestion to features of a real functional rooms, but in fact it is simply created by montaging dynamic overlayed fragments.


‘34/montage/Villa Savoye

The Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier is counted one of the most important living houses in modern architecture. Here it can be seen how important the aspect of circulation was for the architect. The ramps and a circular stair are features that support the circulation if they are ordered in a way that the linear navigating through the space is impeded, so that a sequence of spatial fragments can be montaged in the inhabitants mind.


‘35/montage/Villa Mairea

The interior belongs to the Villa Mairea designed by Alvar Aalto. Here round wood elements divide the space without taking the sight completely. From some positions of the room, like shown here, those elements overlap a little or that much, that the space in front seems like layered. In any case it makes you curious and encourages to observe them from different positions to witness their optical effect. Doing so a montage is created of various perspectives of the space.


‘36/montage/The Lovers

The picture “Observatory Time–The Lovers” photographed by Man Ray shows the nude body of a woman lying on a couch, but only exhibiting her back. The part below is a painting on the wall dominated by an image of lips, that seem to float in the sky.The two objects first appear unrelated, but thinking in which way they might be related, also to the subtitle “The lovers”, requires the creating of a associative montage in the viewers mind.


‘37/montage/Finnish Pavillon

Alvar Aalto’s Finnish Pavillon at New York World’s Fair was a major success, although designed within a rather small place. It seems like an exiting place from the first minute on you enter the room. The curved wall of undulating wood strips has photographes installed on them, that show typical sceneries of finnish industry and forestry. Aalto accomplished to present the finnish industry in a stimulating setting. The photographs are interrupted by the wood strips, finnish products either, and montaged again creating an unity of image and the product itself that constitutes the screen as a part of the architecture.


‘38/montage/Cadavre Exquis

The surrealistic artists André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy invented a game called “cadavre exquis” (the Exquisite Corpse) named like the first formed sentence after the first game of that kind, which yielded the sentence: ‘Le cadavre | exquis | boira | le vin | nouveau’ (‘The exquisite corpse will drink the young wine’). To play the game, each participant writes a phrase on a sheet of paper, folds the paper to conceal part of it, and forwards it to the next player for his contribution, that is not allowed to see what the previous player wrote. It implies the montage of unrelated objects or thoughts an renders it to one narration. The shown picture is a work done by the three artist mentioned above during a holiday together. It refers to the game they made up, although not using the technique of folding.


‘39/montage/Guggenheim Museum

The Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright set new impulse for the design of exhibition space. It became an architectural icon yet, best known for its round shape. An elevator transports the visitior to the highest part of a ramp from that you can walk down in circle observing the exhibits that are installed on the walls surrounding the ramp. Wright wanted to create the best possible atmosphere in which to show one paintings. He broke a rule to make new readings accessible by creating a montage of the exhibits and the museum space.


‘40/montage/Loup Table

The “Loup Table� is a design by surrealist artist Victor Brauner. The head and tale of a fox are literally montaged to a table, which in fact looks more like a stool. So two aspects are striking: it is not a table, neither a wolf, neither does it make sense to merge those two components. The aim of surrealism was to augument the experiences, that are restricted by human logics, with fantasy and the absurd. In this point it is comparable with montage how Sergej Eisenstein used it in his films; montage of sequences that show unrelated images and that have to be assembled in mind to acquire an individual image of the components.


‘41/montage/Frank House

The Frank House by hungarian architect and product designer Marcel Breuer introduces a new feature: The stair attached to glass. By walking down the stair you have a view to the exterior at the same time, which enables to create a montage of spatial movement and exterior atmosphere.


‘42/montage/Mile Of String

In 1942 the artist Marcel Duchamp arranged this installation for a vernissage. A gigantic web, called Mile of String, strained all over, impeding the visitor to move freely and see the exhibits. The montage by the net forces the visitor to labour to view the paintings and furthermore to appreciate art.


‘43/montage/Art of this Century

The idea for the new ‘Art of this Century’ exhibition in the Peggy Guggenheim’s gallery was an ‘active’ exhibition design. The architect Frederick Kiesler incorporated armatures into his design that literally presented the artwork to the viewer by removing the art from the wall and placing it into free space. It broke the two-dimensionality aspect of the artwork and placed in within a three dimensional space. So as a result the audience was able to conduct how the art was working with the space, creating an individual montage of interior and art.


‘44/montage/Unite d’habitation

This photograph shows the interior of Le Corbusier’s Unite-d’habitation de Marseille. The displaceable wall separates the room, but not entirely. It can be moved as the inhabitant needs to. Therefore he is able to separate the room or montage the space so a full sight to the exterior is offered.


‘45/montage/Saarinen House

The Cranbrook Academy of Art was designed by Eliel Saarinen. Also son Eero grew up on the campus basically and either attended the University later. The part of the Saarinen house presented here shows the entrance to dining room, that is connected with living room. Both rooms in a sequence have a strong symmetry that disembogue in the chimney. You would feel the symmetry, if there was not the dining table that impedes to walk straight. Instead you have to walk around and absorb the space by navigating around furniture. A montage of space can only be created if the possibility of moving is given like in this example.


‘46/montage/Trophy Room

The Trophy Room in the Cranbrook Educational Community Building is more a hallway than a trophy ‘room’. Wooden honour panels are attached to the wall and invite the spector to read or just observe. The perception of the hallway is montaged to the awareness of honourful achievements creating an atmosphere of pride.


‘47/montage/Rose Summer House

The Rose Summer House in Lake Placid, New York was by Robert Allen Jacobs. The porch, that can be seen here is designed in the two colours red and yellow. The exterior wall in vertical and the seats in horizontal. Both features montaged in perception result in a three-dimensional design just by the use of paint and colour.


‘48/montage/Ford Residence

The Ford residence in Illinois was modelled after a traditional Tibetan nomad tent. It embodies a shelter, that at the same time opens up to sun and the sky. You can simultaneous experience in- and outside, therefore create a montage of in- and exterior.


‘49/montage/G.M. Technical Center

The General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan was realized by Eero Saarinen. The circular stair is connecting ground floor with first floor. Because it has no case it seems to float. Walking upstairs the circular shape causes the complete turnaround and enables the spector to observe both floors from almost all respectives and to create a montage of both floors and their connection.


‘50/montage/Rockefeller Guest House

The Rockefeller Guest House, New York was built in 1950 by Philip Johnson. Since it was built later than the building on the right and left the facade looks more modern. In the image it seems like different buildings taken from different times have been montaged in a row. But the spatial perception, since they have their front facade all one line, will recognize them all as one patched facade.


‘51/montage/Knoll showroom

In the Knoll Associates showroom of designer Florence Knoll, the interior is pervaded by steel strabs that hold coloured panels. The panels divide the interior into diffrence spatial sequences. By going through every sequence is montaged to another accompanied by its own colour panel.


‘52/montage/Yale Art Gallery

This image shows an exhibition room in the main building of the Yale University Art Gallery. The room is separarted by thin dash panels, which impede to walk in a linear way. Instead the visitor follows an intuitive path and creates a montage of individual spatial sequences.


‘53/montage/Salk Institute

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is a building for the research institute in San Diego, California and was built by Louis Kahn. The entrance part already inroduces the facades. It seems like walking by those buildings you are going through a hallway and every single facade is introducing personally in a metaphorical sense. Montaging them all together in mind the facade become walls that guide you through.


‘54/montage/Breda Pavillon

The image shows the Breda Pavillon was presented on the Milan Fair in 1952. It had an labyrinth-like interior with walls that released from the ground. The visitor was conveyed weightlessness by means of walls that seem to float. By using montage the visitor was invited to define a new relation between gravity and structure.


‘55/montage/Kresge Chapel

The Kresge Chapel is a brick rotunda, designed by Eero Saarinen. From the exterior its seems unapproachable, because of the windowless facade. Daylight only comes in through a round shaped window in the ceiling and goes along with a full-height metal sculpture that accompanies the skylight down to the altar. A very spiritual and meditative atmosphere is created by the glittering of the sculpture, so that after entering the building all the attention is absorbed by that effect. Two rather opposite impressions are provoked by the sensation of exterior and interior. The observer is forced to create a montage of both impressions to comprehend the buildings appeal.


‘56/montage/Idlewild Airport

Before the TWA Terminal in Idlewild was built, airline buildings were streamlined boxes with towers. Eero Saarinen’s airport is an exciting design of four shell-shaped roof parts that balances each other. The interior appears light permeated from every direction and therefore linked with all events happening on the runways. The curved ceiling, walls and staircases allow the travelers to almost float through the building. All architectural impressions are montaged with the wanderlust of the travelers and create a place of movement and transition of travel. It is almost a promise of adventures to be continued.


‘57/montage/University of Chicago

The University building was designed in a time where professors and students understood teaching to be rigid and learning to be a more solitary activity. In this example the design opened up to some strictly programmed spaces for classrooms, faculty offices or library stack space into small and large group collaboration areas. So in contrast of how the professors were practicing, the environment here with informal and interactive spaces for students and faculty can promote a richer, more collaborative experience. Also the columns seem to be not parallel to the walls and therefore being ‘obstructive’. By montage the architecture and programme of rooms admit students to realize that the time of lateral thinking has begun.


‘58/montage/Poème électronic

The Philips Pavillon, designed by Le Corbusier for the Expo 1958 in Brussels is a complete artwork consisting of the elements space, light, image, sound, rhythm and colour. The design of the pavillons shape is based on a composition by the musician Iannis Xenakis, who was also an assistent of Le Corbusier. The art piece presented is called “poème électronic”, a film, with features overlayed by projectors. Coloured lights and various sounds and noises are used to influence the atmosphere and mood. The synergy created by these components and the interior of the pavillon is a montage of various elements taken from dierent contexts effecting a new experience that activats all sences.


‘59/montage/Case Study House

The Stahl House in Los Angeles was built by Pierre Koenig on a ground that before was considered to be irreclaimable. Also called the Case Study House No. 22, it represented the progress in architectural construction. In this photo by renowed photographer Julius Shulman you can see how the structure is almost adventuresomely fixed at the slope. It seems like it is about to tilt forwards. The fully glazed window allows to have an awesome view over the entire city, that is only restricted by the outreaching roof. Koenig did not intent to hide the structural components, by outreaching of the roof he even highlighted it. At the same he endowed this building with stunning spaces and a high quality to be able to recognize both, technical progress and exciting architecture mingled in a montage of spatial perception.


‘60/montage/Nordic Pavillon

Building the Nordic Pavilion for the Biennale in the Venice Gardens Sverre Fehn wanted to create a nordic atmosphere within the exhibition space. To capture the shadowless light conditions from the Nordic countries, he filtered the more glaring venetian sunlight through layers of tree canopy, berglass gutters, and perpendicular concrete fins using also a sandish concrete to induce a greyish light without shadow. The need to navigate around trees the pavilion embraces the nature as a key-element in nordic architecture. A minimalistic interior with a prudent, high grade use of montage is the result of Fehn’s attempt to bring the nordic to Venice.


‘61/montage/Carpenter Center

The Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts of the Harvard University hosts every kind of art studies accessible for every student no matter which faculty he attends. So it was supposed to be a building that allows fluent arriving and leaving. Le Corbusier, the architect, realized that by planning two ramps that lead to another two sub-entrances. By means of ramps and the voluminous concrete stair case Le Corbusier points up the permeation of interior and exterior. The student is invited, not only to apply himself to art studies, but also to experience the architecture by creating a montage of the different ways of entering and leaving.


‘62/montage/Fisher House

This interior belongs to the Fisher house by Louis Kahn. Here you can see the most interesting part. Two fully glazed windows that are framed by smaller frames in the thick of it. Those components also cause that the spector is framing the sight creating a montage of view fragments.


‘63/montage/Ford Foundation N.Y.

The Ford Foundation Quarters in New York had to be a building designed for many employees working for the same organization. The architect Kevin Roche wanted the people to feel content in the environment in which they have to work. So the architect designed a building that allows to be aware of what the organization is and of everyones relation with it. By being able to see what is actually going on, the employee can create montage of the ados happening here and therefore be contagioned of the dynamic of working.


‘64/montage/San Giovanni Battista

The Church San Giovanni Battista all’ Autostrada del Sole built in 1960-64 by Giovanni Michelucci outside of florence. What holds consistent throughout Michelucci‘s architecture that is clear and articulated use of the building’s structure to define the the spatial experience. The tensile roof and it‘s heavy stone base create a strong contrast, an allusion to heaven and earth. By means of the roof shape Michelucchi excites a burdensome atmosphere, creating a tent like interior as the earth is a precarious existence under heaven. It is a montage of interior to achieve a certian emotion.


‘65/montage/Spiegelskulptur

The Mirror sculpture designed by Verner Panton is a Relief-type mirror with sections in squares or triangles. The sculpture reflects the rest of the room from different perspections by means of geometric forms. It results in mirroring a montage of the fragments given in the room.


‘66/montage/Esherik House

The huge glass windows in the House Esherik are framed and therefore divided in different parts. No matter where you are in the room you never have the total sight of the exterior. You are forced to come closer to the window to see. By doing this many spatial experiences can be done from many perspectives and finally montaged into one perception.


‘67/montage/House Pescher

This image shows the interior of the house Pescher in Wuppertal Germany. It was the last realized building by the austrian architect Richard Neutra. First it seems like a photo of a harmonic interior. Then you realize the choice of different materials and different type of woods. The dark wooden, outreaching ceiling, beneath a white ceiling element, that is interrupted by a wooden dash panel. The white element is resting on a glass element, that is installed on the cupboard on the right. All those components seem to be overlayed in dimensional space. They appear as fragments, that are montaged in a tensed patch with another, causing a dynamic interior.


‘68/montage/Nevigeser Dom

The Pilgrimage church of Mary was concepted in 1968 and offered the architect, Gottfried Böhm, to realize a hung up concrete construction, a montage of wall- and ceiling elements that are stabilizing each other. The building represents the comprehension of modern church archicture. A steady castle is replaced by tent-like architecture, representing a shelter of the God’s moving volks. It’s the second biggest archdiocese in Germany after cologne cathedral.


‘69/montage/Non Petried Coral

This work called Nonsite Petried Coral with Mirrors by artist Robert Smithson shows a small heap of coral limestone on a mirror, reflected by two other mirrors from the side. The emerging effect of this is comparable with how montage works in peoples mind. An object is perceived by taking a shot of it. One shot stays two-dimensional and only by observing the object from different perspectives many shots can be montaged in mind to a three-dimensional patch. In this example the mirror represent the human ability of montaging.


‘70/montage/Live Taped Video Corridor

In the installation ÂŤLive-Taped Video CorridorÂť, the artist Bruce Nauman set two monitors above one another at the end of a corridor almost ten meters long and only 50 cm wide. The lower monitor features a videotape of the corridor. The monitor below shows a tape recording of a camera at the entrance to the corridor. The closer you get to the monitor, the further you are from the camera, so your image on the monitor becomes increasingly smaller. Also you see yourself from behind. The feeling of alienation induced by walking away from yourself is intensied by the narrowness of the corridor. In this example space and film are used to induce a montage of both experiences in peoples mind with the result of an insecure sensation.


‘71/montage/Irvin Bank Company

The Facade of the Irvin Bank Company in Columbus, Indiana, is faced to a garden. A series of metal bars is attached to the building and reflected in the glass facade. The mirroring creates an illusion of an outline of a gabled roof house. Montaged in a sequence of outlines it becomes a pergola, that works like an entrance to the sites. Many single bars turn into a three dimensional construct by mirroring and montaging in peoples mind.


‘72/montage/Frank Residence

The interiors design bases on the intersection of four planes. Following this, archiect Peter Eisenman started manipulating the structures again and again, so the spaces began to emerge. There is a lack of a handrail for the staircase, a column abbutting the kitchen table and glass strip originally divided the bedroom, preventing the installation of a double bed. Those all together, as a montage of situations makes clear that Eisenman focused just on conceptual design and interprets the architecture as strictly plastic without relating to construction techniques.


‘73/montage/La Muralla Roja

The inner courtyard of the housing at the Manzanera complex, also called La Muralla Roja, with its stairs looks picturesque, like it was a scenery for a movie. The stairways are interrupted to change directions and make you pause and take another perspective. Architect Ricardo Bofill created a dreamful, exiting architecture, that can be experienced step by step, literally, by montaging the spatial impressions.


‘74/montage/Sainsbury Center

This exhibiton space in the Sainsbury Center of Visual Arts belongs to the University of East Anglia, Norwich in UK built by Norman Foster. The exhibits are partly mounted on thin walls that keep changing theit direction. It impedes to walk in a linear way. Instead the walls cause a movement through the space, so that spatial fragments can be montaged to a spatial sequence in the visitors mind.


‘75/montage/Building Cut

Gordon Matta Clark, an american artist, died at the young age of 35, but gained a lot of popularity. Espacially his “Building Cuts” attracted much attention. The shown example depicts a round shape cut off a buildings facade like a cylinder pierced through it. By doing this not only the architecture became an art work, but also the pieces that were removed have been exhibited in museums. Also he used a number of media to document his work, including film, video, and photography. The Image shows a collage he did with photos of his “Building Cuts”. By using various media Gordon Matta Clark made sure that his work could not be understood from a single point of view, but a montage of different perspectives, that made the artwork of someone ,labeled himself the “anarchitect” , unique.


‘76/montage/Fantasy Landscape

The “Fantasy Landscape Room” was part of Verner Panton’s projekt called ‘Visiona II’ and was exhibited at the Cologne Furniture Fair in the 70s. The room is made of foam rubber formed as seating furniture that invited to seat or lie on the colourful foam elements. All the elements are strung together and can be experienced solitary by having a seat or all together as a sequence that is creating a space. The interaction with this interior, the colours and the dimmed illumination, all montaged into the sensation of the visitor it seems like a psychedelic trip triggered only by Verner Panton’s interior design.


‘77/montage/San Vito dÀltivole

The small chapel for a graveyard in San Vito d’Altivole was built by Carlo Scarpa. On this image you can see the hall defined by a concrete frame oblique to the wall, which causes a turnaround. After passing the aperture you are confronted with the out door, that seems to be taken from a completly different context. The opposed door frames have a strong effect on the space that they are framing. Therefore it seems like they are montaging unrelated spatial fragments to a sequence of spaces.


‘78/montage/Lloyd’s Building

The Lloyd’s building by Richard Rogers is designed ‘inside out’. All service features are removed from the interior and placed at the exterior of the building. It allows for easy replacement and maintenance on the elevators, plumbing, or electrical facilities and also frees up the interior to create an open plan that allows uninterrupted activity on each floor. The building consists of three main towers. Each attached to their own service tower, which are concentrically oriented around a 60 meter atrium at the heart of the building. Each floor acts as a gallery overlooking the atrium, where are a series of escalators cutting across, creating a montage of interior circulation and dynamism of the space.


‘79/montage/Gehry House

The image shows the interior of the Gehry House in Los Angeles. Here elements appear to have been torn away and then attached to the house interior in arrangement like a montage of collided components. Its architecture is in compliance with Gehry’s deconstructive manner of building design.


‘80/montage/Aerospace Museum

The California Aerospace Museum was designed by Frank Gehry. Bridges and escalators connect the floors of the exhibition space. Huge artworks like the one seen here can be observed from different positions. All observations are montaged into one perception of the art presented, embracing its entire quality.


‘81/montage/Institute du Monde Arabe

The facade of the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris is endowed with metal lenses. The sunlight shines through in cirles. The interior with metal and glass material reflects it, creating an exiting place, since the light effects are montaged in the spatial experience.


‘82/montage/Swatch Headquarter

The interior fo the Swatch Headquarter in Biel, Switzerland is dominated by elements of white bricks and yellow panels. It seems like unusual features, are montaged in the interior design in order to create a sort of exiting space.


‘83/montage/Palais des Congres

The Palais des Congres in Montreal, Canada has a fully glazed facade that illuminates the interior, which is the stairs and escalator in this case. By using windows in different colours the architect Victor Prus designed a space that is dominated by light effects, that change as the sun moves. Therefore it can be experienced in different ways depending on the time you are located here. All impressions together are montaged into a perception of a kaleidoscope-like interior.


‘84/montage/Green House

The Image shows a former green house that was renovated to a dwelling residence. It became a montage of two unrelated functions and makes clear that mankind not only increasingly occupies nature, but already the ‘house’ of nature.


‘85/montage/North York Library

The interior of the North York Central Library, is dominated by the layered staicases, that invite to develop the interior space. Each floor has a round observation balcony. It load in to walk around a have a look at the interior from every position and montage it into the individual architectural experience.


‘86/montage/ Three Linked Cubes

Dan Graham’s interior design for ‘Space Showing Videos’ bases on reflecting panels that are used to stage the video presentation. Like you can see it embraces amazing effects and plays with the visitor’s perception. It divides the space in fragments and montages it again in a new patch of reflection.


‘87/montage/Carrè d’Art

This picture is taken in the Carré d’Art in Nîmes, France, a museum of contemporary art built by Norman Foster. It seems like a snapshot taken from an awkward position, but at the same time it shows so many different spatial impressions. The stairs, the roof lights, the exhibits by artist Pedro Cabrita Reis with their lights, all appear to follow the same dynamic. This photo seems to be the already overlayed montage of the visitors perception.


‘88/montage/Aronoff Center

The Aronoff Center for Design and Art in Cincinnati by Peter Eisenman has many changing levels to give access to various studios and other rooms. The complex planes of the interior suggest a deconstructivist label. It seems to be a montage of different fragments, and as a observer you first have to render all the pieces to recognize the components that amount to the interior.


‘89/montage/Vitra Museum

The architecture of the solitary standing Vitra Design Museum, build by Frank Gehry in Weil am Rhein, Germany. It embodies a collage of cubes, towers and ramps using the basic architectonic forms. On two floors the building is a continuous changing swirl of white forms on the exterior, each seemingly without apparent relationship to the other. With its interiors, a dynamically powerful interplay with visually and acoustically connected spaces, it turn directly expressive of the exterior convolutions.


‘90/montage/Heinz Galinsky School

The Heinz Galinski primary school in Berlin has been designed like a little village with walkways dead end streets and passageways. It is also playful in its design with many corners curves and labyrinth like corridors within which to play and hide. Space, floors and rooms acquire the curious mind of a child to create a montage of their sequence and to experience the interior as an exiting labyrinth.


‘91/montage/SuitCase Studies

The SuitCase Studies showed in the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis were an installation of 50 identical suitcases suspended from the ceiling. Each opened to reveal a shrine to a particular tourist attraction in each of the U.S states, each critically analyzed by using official and unofficial data. Therefor postcards were fixed so on the edge of the suitcase that you couldn’t see both sides of the card at the same time, although both sides were made visible by means of mirrors. The reflected image below hung over an assembly of maps, drawings and models. This allowed the observer to acquire a critical distance towards the information given and to create an own montage of the various fragmental objects showed in every suit case.


‘92/montage/Moonsoon Restaurant

This image shows the Moonsoon Restaurant designed by Zaha Hadid. The interior seems to dissolve in single components. A raised floor level drifts like an iceberg across the space. The ceiling lights open in sharp forms to illuminate the space, that keeps a cold atmosphere by means of material choice. Nothing seems rectangular to any other element. The observer is leaded through the space to explore the exitement it embraces and finally montages the impressions to an entity.


‘93/montage/La Traviata

The scenography for “La Traviata� by Giuseppe Verdi in the Opera di Macerata was based on mirroring panels that reflected a painted carpet on the oor of the stage. The event on stage was also reflected by this mirror from above, so that the actual plot and its virtual image reveal a multidimensional space. The audience is offered a montage of a scene that embraces another dimension just by mirroring itself.


‘94/montage/Thermal Baths Vals

The image shows the outer zone of thermal baths belonging to a Hotel in the swiss village Vals. It seems like a place of intimacy, although it is outdoors. Slablined walls of natural stone feature whole colour scale like they appear in nature. The stone steps that guide one into the water are so low like the have been naturally formed by the ocean. The authentic ground of the therme with the mountain water, that is used for it, allows the visitor, that has an unimpeded view to the sky, to feel like you are bathing in a mountain spring. By Montage a relaxing place of highest authenticity is created.


‘95/montage/Stretto House

The image shows the interior of the Stretto House apartment in Dallas, Texas designed by Steven Holl. It seems like various spatial fragments have been taken from other interiors and juxtaposed, while other parts are still missing. It creates an agitative, multidimensional patch that you want to observe from every perspective. By doing so the single fragments are montaged in mind to an individual dynamic patch.


‘96/montage/Lafayette Gallery

The Lafayette Gallery in Berlin is a shopping mall with a big glass cone pervading the building, creating a sort of atrium. From above shoppers can observe the levels beneath with its colourful interiors, furnitures and lights. This way you can create a montage of all the ados and impressions in the mall happening at the same time.


‘97/montage/Zamora Museum

The Museum for archaeology and art in Zamora, Spain, frontiers huge craig walls, that impede the sight on the building. The architecture refers to exhibits by creating a montage of nature, rocks and a building trapped between those elements, like the exhibits showed here were trapped under the soil for a long time.


‘98/montage/St. Thomas von Aquin

The Church St. Thomas von Aquin in Berlin is a massive structure that seems to dissolve in light. Granite slabs and white glass panels from irregularly layers. The number of glass panels increases as the building rises and ultimately virtually dematerializes into light, like it opens up to heaven. The roof is simple baldachin that stands like an altar between the walls, while at the same time not touching them. These two aspects are a montage of clerical symbolism embodied by the architecure of this interior. The light coming from the ceiling represents the closeness to heaven and therefore to God, but at the same time sheltered by the church by means of the baldachin.


‘99/montage/Jewish Museum Berlin

The architecture of the Jewish Museum Berlin designed by the architect Daniel Libeskind is undoubtedly the cause for its popularity. The main characteristic is linearity. Some spaces are designed very clear, others have interupting features, like in this picture, concrete bars crossing the staircase. They create a montage of space because they encourage your eye to move and render the interior.


‘00/montage/montage

The image shows the exterior shape of the Guggenheim Museum in New York by Frank Lloyd Wright layered with the interior space. A space is experienced in many different ways. But after some time when you try to remember the image in your mind is not a sequence of situations that is played in mind like a film tape. What you remember is a montage of certain spatial experiences that have been rendered into a single image. In this case it is the exterior shape, which is always associated first with the Guggenheim Museum, and an obervation most memorble of the interior. Both visual fragments are montaged into one entity.


REFERENCES

‘01: Horta house and studio, 1898-1901 Victor Horta, ph.:anonymous, in http://harvestheart.tumblr.com ‘02 Draft for Hill House, Helensburgh 1901-1903 Charles Rennie Mackintosh in http://commons.wikimedia.org ’04: Larkin Building Frank Lloyd Wright, 1904-1906 in http://lcaughleydesign.tumblr.com ‘05: Forestry Building, Lewis and Clark Exposition, Portland 1905-1911 A. E. Doyle ph.: Anonymous, in http://www.flickr.com ’06 Casa Batlló, remodelling 1904-1906 Antoni Gaudí ph.: © Brad Fraser, in http://bradfraser-kaleidoscope.blogspot.com ‘07: Unity Temple, Illinois 1905-1908 Frank Lloyd Wright ph.: Philip Turner, in http://commons.wikimedia.org

‘08: American Bar, Vienna/Austria, 1908 Adolf Loos ph.: in http://www.welt.de ‘09: Glasgow School of Art Library, 1896−1909 Charles Rennie Mackintosh ph.: © 2004 Audacity Limited, in www.audacity.org ’10: Pennsylvania Railroad Station, N.Y. 1904-1910 McKim, Mead & White Ph.: Pennsylvania State Archives, in http://daytoninmanhattan.blogspot.com, 09/2010 ‘11: Frederick C. Robie House Chicago/Illinois 1908-1911 Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House Ph.: Ernst Wasmuth, in http://en.wikipedia.org, 02/05/2009 ’12: Scenography for Orfeo by C.W. Gluck, 1912 Adolphe Appia in http://icar.poliba.it ‘13: Casa Milà, Barcelona/Spain, 1906-1911 Antoni Gaudí ph.: Cmpatti, in www.travelpod.com


‘14: Glass House Bruno Taut ph.: in http://www.enotes.com ‘15: Palace Hotel 1829-1916 Carleton E. Watkins ph.: Carleton E. Watkins, in http://commons.wikimedia.org ’16: Naum Gabo and the Quandaries of the Replica by Christina Lodder Constructed Head No.2 1916;1923 Naum Gabo ph.: © Nina Williams, in http://www.tate.org. uk ‘17: Willow Tearooms Interior Study, 1917 Charles Rennie Mackintosh ph.: http://en.wikipedia.org 18: Interior, 1918 Man Ray ph.: in http://accessibleartny.com ‘19: Schauspielhaus Berlin, 1918-’19 Hans Poelzig ph.: ©Österreichische Ludwigsstiftung für Kunst und Wissenschaft im Museum Moderner Kunst, Wien in www.faz.net

‘20: Maison La Roche-Jeanneret, Paris/France 1923-1924 Le Corbusier Ph.: © Andy Marshall, in http://www.flickr.com ‘21: Maison La Roche-Jeanneret, Paris/France 1923-1924 Le Corbusier Ph.: © Catherine Mangosing, in http://myturtleneck.blogspot.com/p/about.html, 15/10/2009 ‘22: Maison Planeix. Boulevard Masséna in Paris, 1924-1927 interior design, Atelier Zim 08A by Stephan Zimmerli / Ueli Frischknecht / Vassily Laffineur ph.: © Stephan Zimmerli, in www.flickr.com ‘23: Cafe l’Aubette, Straßbourg/France, 1927-1928 Theo van Doesburg with Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp ph.: in http://architecture.spsu.edu ‘24: Merzcollage, 1923 Kurt Schwitters ph.: in www.kurtschwitters.org


‘25: Schröder House, Utrecht 1924 Gerrit Rietveld, Truus Schröder-Schräder ph.: Kim Zwarts, www.interior-es.blogspot. com ‘27: Villa Stein die Monzie (Les Terraces), 1927 Le Corbusier ¿Está usted satisfecho con su casa? by Anatxu Zabalbeascoa ph.: Garches/Vaucresson, Francia, in http://blogs.elpais.com, 14/06/2010 ’28: Barcelona Pavillon 1929, 1929 International Exposition, German Pavillon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ph.: ©Kosmograd, in www.flickr.com ‘29: Cut & Paste: European Photomontage (19201945) at The Estorick Collection, www.artknowlegdenews.com photo: www.ibiblio.org ‘30 - ‘31: Villa Müller, Praha, Czech 1928-1930 Adolf Loos Villa Müller(Housing) By Waully E. Ph.: taken from Adolf Loos: Works and Projects, in http://waullye.blogspot.com, 28/12/2009

‘32: Van der Leeuw Research House 1932 Richard Neutra VDL Research House Richard Neutra’s Studio & Residence Ph.: in http://www.planetarchitecture.com ‘33: The Merzbau, Hannover/Germany,1933 Kurt Schwitters ph.: in http://en.wikipedia.org ‘34: Villa Savoye, Paris/France, 1928-1930 Le Corbusier ph.: in http://www.flickr.com ‘35: Villa Mairea, Noormarkku/Finland, 1938 Alvar Aalto http://www.mabeslor.com ‘36: Observatory Time – The Lovers Man Ray’s photograph, 1936 ph.: in www.kyushu-ns.ac ‘37: Finnish Pavillon, New York World’s Fair, 1939 Alvar Aalto ph.: Ezra Stoller, in www.morehousegallery.com


‘38: Cadavre Exquis, 1938 André Breton ph.: in www.nationalgalleries.org ‘39: AD Classics: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum / Frank Lloyd Wright by Adelyn Perez, photo: ©Luis Bastardo, www.archdaily.com, 2010 ‘40: Loup Table, 1939-1947 Victor Brauner ph.: in www.ickr.com ‘41: Haus Frank, Pittsburgh/ Pennsylvania, 1938-40 Marcel Breuer ph: in www.ikg.uni-karlsruhe.de ‘42: Mile of String, 1942 New York: First Papers of Surrealism Andre Breton, Marcel Duchamp Ph.: Anonymous, in www.toutfait.com ‘43: “Art of This Century” Exhibition, 1942 Fredrick Kiesler http://museumdesignlab.wordpress.com

‘44: Unité d’Habitation, Marseille/France, 1946– 1952 Le Corbusier © FLC/DACS, in www.extraextra.org ‘45: Saarinen House, Cranbrook Educational Community in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan/USA, 1942 Eliel Saarinen ph.: Danielcausa, in http://de.wikipedia.org ‘46: Cranbrook Educational Community in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan/USA, 1942 Eliel Saarinen ph.: Danielcausa, in http://de.wikipedia.org ‘47: Rose Summer House, Lake Placid/New York 1947 Robert Allen Jacobs ph.: Robert Damora, 1948 in www.robertdamora.com ‘48: Ford Residence, Aurora/Illinois, 1951 Bruce Goff ph.: Eliot Elisofon, 1951 in www.life.com


‘49: General Motors Technical Center, Warren/ Michigan, 1949–1956 Eero Saarinen ph.: Robert Damora, 1956 in www.robertdamora.com ‘50: Rockefeller Guest House New York/N.Y, 1950 Philip Johnson with Landis Gores and Frederick C. Genz, Architects ph.: Robert Damora,1950. ‘51: Knoll Associates showroom, New York/N.Y. 1951 Florence Knoll ph.: Robert Damora, 1951 ‘52: Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut 1951–53 Louis Kahn ph.: in www.greenwichlibrary.org ‘53: Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla,/ Kalifornien (1959–65) Louis Kahn ph.: in http://de.wikipedia.org

‘54: Breda Pavillon, 1952 Luciano Baldessari ph.: http://rebel.net ‘55: Kresge Pavillon, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955 Eero Saarinen ph.: Ezra Stoller. © Ezra Stoller/Esto. in www.flickr.com ’56: TWA-Terminal, John F. Kennedy International Airport 1956-1962 Eero Saarinen ph.: ©Ezra Stoller/Esto. , in http://www.mfa. ‘57: University of Chicago Law School, 1956-1958 Eero Saarinen ph.: ©Scott MacDonald, Hedrich Blessing, in www.contractdesign.com ’58: Philips Pavillon, Expo 58 Brussels Le Corbusier, 1956-1958 Das Poéme èlectronic und der Philips Pavillon, Martin Klemmer, ph.: © www2.ak.tu-berlin.de ‘59: Case Study House 22, Stahl house, 1959 Pierre Koenig ph.: Julius Shulman, in http://www.lushpad.com


‘60: New collaborative structure for The Nordic Pavilion, Moderna Museet Press Stockholm , photo © Feruzzi www.modernamuseet.se, 2010

‘66: House Marget Esherick, Philadelphia/Pennsylvania 1959–61 Louis Kahn ph.: Todd Eberle, in http://www.pushpullbar.com

‘61: Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University Le Corbusier, 1961-64 ph.: in www.ickr.com

‘67: Haus Pescher, Wuppertal/Germany 1968– 1969 Richard Neutra ph.: © Iwan Baan, Amsterdam, in http://kulturonline.net

‘62: Fisher House Hatboro/Pennsylvania,1960–67 Louis Kahn ph.: Karenstock, in http://www.flickr.com ‘63: Ford Foundation Headquarters, New York, 1968 Kevin Roche ph.: in http://www.archinect.com ’64: Church of the Autostrada, Michelucci, outside Florence, by Mark Gerwing, photo: © Mark Gerwing in www.mgerwingarch.com ‘65: Spiegelskulptur, 1965 Verner Panton ph.: www.pleatfarm.com

‘68: AD Classics: Neviges Mariendom / Gottfried Böhm, by Megan Sveiven, photo: © Yuri Palmin www.archdaily.com, 2010 ‘69: Nonsite Petrified Coral with Mirror 1969 Robert Smithson Ph.: in www.christies.com ‘70: Bruce Nauman «Live-Taped Video Corridor», 1970 Dörte Zbikowski ph.:©VG Bild-Kunst 2004 www.medienkunstnetz.de


‘71: Irvin Union Bank Company, Columbus, Indiana, 1966-1972 Roche & Dinkeloo ph.: taken from FUTAGAWA Yukio. Kevin ROCHE John DINKELOO & Associates, Vol. One 1962-1975. Tokyo : A.D.A. EDITA, 1975. in http://www.ajapanesebook.com ’72: House VI, Frank Residence, 1972-1975 Peter Eisenman AD Classics: House VI / Peter Eisenman by Adelyn Perez ph.:© NJIT, in http://www.archdaily.com ‘73: La Muralla Roja, Manzanera complex in Aicante, Spain, 1973 Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura Ph.: in http://picasaweb.google.com, 06/09/2008

‘76: Phantasy Landscape Visiona II,1970 Verner Panton ph.: in www.parisdeuxieme.com ‘77: graveyard chapel in San Vito d’Altivole/Italy 1970-1973 Carlo Scarpa ph.: in http://de.wikipedia.org ’78: Lloyd’s of London Building, Richard Rogers, ph.: © Andrew Kroll, in www.archdaily.com, 2010 ‘79: Frank and Franco in the wardrobe Maria Giulia Zunino Gehry House, Santa Monica , 1978-1988 Frank Gehry ph.: Anonymous, in www.abitare.it

‘74: Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 1974-1978 Norman Foster Ph.: in http://blogginginparis.com, 20/05/2008

‘80: California Aerospace Museum, Santa Monica,/ Kalifornien, 1982–1984 Frank Gehry ph.: in http://www.archinect.com

‘75: Conical Intersect, Paris,1975 Gordon Matta Clark ph.:©Laurie Ann Pearsall,

‘81: Institut du Monde Arabe (IMA or Arab World Institute) Paris/France, 1981-87 Paris, France ph.: Georges Fessy, www. architecturelab.net


‘82: Swatch Headquarter Biel/Switzerland,1987 Klick Interiors ph.: http://www.flickr.com ‘83: Palais des Congres in Montreal/Canada 1983 Victor Prus ph.: in http://reinierdejong.wordpress.com ‘84: Glass house in Lyon,/France 1984 Jourda architects, France ph.: © jourda architects, in www.jourda-architectes.com ‘85: Interior of the North York Central Library, Ontario/Canada 1988 Moriyama & Teshima Architects fonds ph.: Archives of Ontario, in www.archives.gov. on.ca ‘86: Three Linked Cubes-Interior Design for Space Showing Videos, 1986 Interior Design for Space Showing Videos Dan Graham ph.: © Dan Graham in www.medienkunstnetz. de ‘87: Carré d’Art, Nîmes/France 1985-1993 Sir Norman Foster Ph.: © Michel Thomas, in www.flickr.com

’88: Arono Center for Design and Art University of Cincinnati, Ohio Peter Eisenman 1988-1996 ph.:©Larry Speck, in http://larryspeck.com ‘89: Vitra Design Museum in Weil am Rhein/Germany, 1989 Frank Gehry ph.: in www.minimalismic.com ’90: Heinz Galinsky Primary School, 1990-1995 Zvi Hecker ph.: in www.jg-berlin.org ‘91: SuitCase Studies, 1991-1998 Diller&Scodio Bühnen- und Ausstellungsarchitektur, Pedro Azara/Carlos Guri Harth published by Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 2000, p.100 ph.: © Walker Art Center, in www.design. walkerart.org ‘92: Moonsoon Restaurant, Sapporo Japan, 19891990 Zaha Hadid with Patrik Schumacher Ph.: © Paul Warchol, in www.zaha-hadid.com


‘93: Scenography by Joseph Svoboda for La Traviata by Giuseppe Verdi Bühnen- und Ausstellungsarchitektur, Pedro Azara/Carlos Guri Harth published by Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 2000, p. 40 ‘94: Thermal Bath Vals, 1994-1996 Graubünden, Switzerland Peter Zumthor Key projects by Peter Zumthor, April 18th, 2009 By Rose Etherington ph.: © Helene Binet, in www.dezeen.com ‘95: Stretto House, Dallas/Texas 1989-1992 Steven Holl Ph.: in http://ecoarch.tumblr.com ’96: Friedrichstadt Passagen - Block 207, Berlin Jean Nouvel Europas beste Bauten 1997 published by Verlag Anton Pustet, Salzburg, 1997 ph.: © Anna Seltmann, in www.fotoart-anneseltmann.de ‘97: Museum for archaeology and art in Zamora, Spain Luis Moreno Mansilla, Emilio Tunón Alvarez Europas beste Bauten 1997

’98: Kirche St. Thomas von Aquin in Berlin Höger Hare Architekten, Berlin Neue Architektur, Sakralbauten, Till Wöhler, published by Verlagshaus Braun, Salenstein, 2005 ph.: © Thomas Höger, in www.ickr.com ‘99: Jewish Museum Berlin/Germany, 1997-1999 Daniel Libeskind ph.: in www.sacred-destinations.com


The exercise was to edited a book with examples taken from the entire range of the last century. Those examples base on certain word, that was choosed before by the students. The words describe techniques or phenomenons in the world of interior architecture. Each example had to represent how the technique operated in the interior or work. Starting from year 1900 the analyze had to close up with a work drawn up self-acting. The word I worked with was “montage�, a technique that bases on the montage theory by Sergej Eisenstein. Although it arose in the 20s of the last century, montage can be recognized in almost every interior arhcitecture. The origin can be determined in the building for the Acropolis in Athens. Single condition to create montage in ones mind is the ability of aware space perception.



Montage