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Memor i al i sed


Memor i al i s ed ByHenr i Buf f et aut


Di dac t i cex er c i s e Fal l s emes t er 2010

I nt er i orwor l ds :Memor i al i s ed Mai nedi t or : Gennar oPos t i gl i one Cour s eofi nt er i orar c hi t ec t ur e Fac ul t yofar c hi t et t ur aes oc i et Ă Pol i t ec ni c odi Mi l ano www. l abl og. or g. uk Edi t or : Henr i Buf f et aut

Onl yf orpedagogi cpur pos e notf orc ommer c i al us e


I ndex 00 _Vi l l aCoi l l i ot 01 _Vi c t orHor t amus eum 02 _Thewi l l owt ear ooms 03 _Hi l l Hous e 04 _Cas aBat l l o 05 _Pal ai sSt oc l et 06 _Vi l l aFal l et 07 _Robbi eHous e 08 _Fl eder mausc ol l ec t i on 09 _Gui mar dHot el 10 _St ei nerHous e 11 _Cas aMi l Ă 12 _Vi l l aJ eanner et Per r et 13 _Manwi t hgui t ar 14 _TheMudbat h 15 _Oc ean5 16 _Lej our nal 17 _Redbl uec hai r 18 _Youbor eme 19 _LHOOQ


2 _Tat l i n’ st ower

42 _Rodr i guezHouse

21 _ Hol l yhockHouse

43 _Bar wal oungechai r

22 _AmédéeOzenf anthouse

44 _NogushiC.

23 _Vi l l aNoai l l es

45 _EamesChai r

24 _Vi l l aLaRoche

46 _Kauf manHouse

25 _Vassi l ychai r

47 _Ni ght l and

26 _Rudol phSt ei nerHouse

48 _CasaBar r agan

27 _D42ar mchai r

49 _Gl assHouse

28 _Vi l l aMül l er

50 _Akar il i ght

29 _Bar cel onaPavi l i on

51 _Far nswor t hhouse

30 _Vi l l aTugendhat

52 _Chandi gar hMuseum

31 _Vi l l aSavoye

53 _Mai sonJaoul

32 _Cavr oi shouse

54 _JeanPr ouvéHouse

33 _LemkeHouse

55 _Chapel l edeRonchamp

34 _Zi gzagchai r

56 _Egl i seSai ntJoseph

35 _Vi l l al eSext ant

57 _kr i st i anvodderchai r1957

36 _Ri i hi t i eHouse

58 _Nor manCher nerchai r

37 _Tr ocadér o

59 _Mai sonLoui sCar r é

38 _Gr opi ushouse

60 _Sai nt eMar i edel aTour et t e

39 _Fal l i ngwat er

61 _Capent erCent er

40 _Lef asci nantCypr ès 41 _Vi l l aMaer a

62 _VannaVent ur ihouse


63 _Égl i seSai nt Jul i endeCaen

86 _MountRokkoChapel

64 _LACMA

87 _Ar abWor l dI nst i t ut e

67 _Nor manFi sherhouse

88 _Lat i nAmer i caMemor i al

68 _NeueNat i onalGal l er y

89 _Pyr ami deduLouvr e

69 _Br i onCemet er y

90 _Vi l l ad’ Al lAvas

70 _Cat hedr alofBr asi l i a

91 _Ni t er óiCont empor ar yAr tMuseum

71 _Fr anckGer r yr ocki ngchai r

92 _Kunst hal

72 _Ki mbel lAr tmuseum

93 _Car r éd’ ar t

73 _sydneyoper a

94 _SFMOMA

74 _Jat i yoSangshadBhaban

95 _Cat hédr al eNDdel ar ésur r ect i on

75 _Mi ckJagger1975

96_Bi bl i ot hèqueFr ançoi sMi t t er r and

76 _AzumaHouse

97_ MuseoGuggenhei m Bi l bao

77 _Cent r eGeor gesPompi dou

98_Cent r ecul t ur elTj i baou

78 _Ger hy’ shouse

99 _Townhouse( Pabl oKat z)

79 _Newhar monyat heneum

100_Ci t édel amusi que

80 _Tower 42 81 _Nat i onalpal aceofcul t ur e 82 _Cost eschai r 83 _Eat onCent r e 84 _Gr aceKel l y1984 85 _ Col umbi aCent er


M em orialised ByBar bar aLasi c

Abst r act Thi sessayt r yt oanal i zet het er m «memor i al i sed»t owar dt he20t hcent ur y’ sar chi t ect ur al s,ar t i st i csmovement s.Weshal l t r yt oanal yze t owar ds t hese var i ous cur r ent s of t houghtFr om exampl essovar i edas: -bi gwor ksofar t , -ar chi t ect ur aldepr i vedandpubl i ccommands -r el i gi ousar chi t ect ur e Desi gn I ndeed,i ft hi sconceptof"memor i al i sed"met i nt hebi gcol l ect i onsordur i ngt hebi g depr i vedar chi t ect ur alcommandsdur i ngt hepast , t het went i et hcent ur y,wi t ht hei ndust r i al i zat i on,t hest andar di zat i onsaw t hi soneevol vi ng.Ar t ,Ar chi t ect ur e ar et he r ef l ect i on of soci et i es and t hei revol ut i on t r ansl at e ver y of t enr ealcul t ur al sr evol ut i ons.Thet i meof t hebi gpr i vat ecol l ect i ons,t hecompet i t i ons andt hecompet i t i onbet weenr i chdoesnot exi stal mostany mor e.Pal aces become vi l l as,t hear chi t ect st akeni nt hecur r ent sof t hei rt i mescompet ei nnewi deasandr ei nt er pr etof«memor i al i sed».

Thi s«compet i t i on»changesnat ur e,wi t ht he hi st or i ct ur nover sappr opr i at ef ort he t went i et h cent ur y, nat i ons appr opr i at e t hi s conceptandobser veont hescal eofst at es. I ti sver yi nt er est i ngt oobser vehowmucht he bi g vi l l as depr i ved r i ch i ndust r i al i st s wer e numer ousi nt he20s30sandi nwhi chpoi nt s wer et hi sonei nt heyear s6070suppl ant ed by bi g commands of st at e ( museums, oper as) .Thest andar di zat i onandt hemass pr oduct i onr edef i nednewconcept sandar t i st i cst andar dsadapt edt ot heneedsofmi ddl e cl asses. Anobj ect ,ahouse,anar t wor ki i snotany mor ei nt endedor i gi nalbutacqui r esamar ket val ue gr ace i nt he r epet i t i on oft hi s one accessi bl et ot hel ar gestnumber .Thi ssoci al phenomenoni satt heor i gi noft hechanges whi chweshal lst udyt hr ought hesevar i ous pages. . .


M em orialised ByHenr iBuf f et aut

Abst r act


Paper The i nt er pr et at i on ofdomest i ci nt er i or si s compl ex, and t he r el at i onshi p bet ween obj ect sandt hedomest i cl ocusi sonet hati s subj ect ed t o cont i nuous r edef i ni t i ons and i nt er pr et at i ons.I nt er i or scannotj ustbeseen ast her ef l ect i onofcont empor ar yf ashi onsor t he pr oductofi di osyncr at i c aest het i c pur sui t s.Schol ar s have al r eady demonst r at ed t he non aest het i cf unct i ons per f or med by obj ect s,and,say,t hei rpol i t i cal andeconomi c use. Asel ement alandof t eni nt r i nsi cconst i t uent s ofcul t ur alpr act i ces,t hosegoodspar t i ci pat e i nemul at i vepat t er nsofconsumpt i onandar e empl oyed as mar ker s ofcl ass di st i nct i ons and as i nst r ument si nt he f or gi ng ofbot h soci aland i ndi vi dualsel ves. Thi s paperpr oposes t o exami ne how t he acqui si t i onsofl uxur yobj ect sandt hei ri nt egr at i on i nt ot he domest i c space can be a

pr oductofemul at i on whi ch al l owed i ndi vi dual st o def i ne and const r uctt hei rsoci al i dent i t i es.I naddi t i on,i twi l li nt er r ogat ehow t he need f orsoci al cul t ur aldef i ni t i on coul d i nt er sectwi t ht her ei f i cat i onofanost al gi af or apastt hatcoul dnotber ecl ai med.i not her wor ds,t henot i onofobj ect sasr el i cadt he const r uctoft hei nt er i orasat extandmemor i al i si ngi nst r umentwi l lbeadr essed.Expandi ng f r om t hi si dea,t he pr esentpaperwi l l al so consi derhow t he const r uct i on ofi nt er i or scoul dbeempl oyedasact sofsel fper pet uat i onandi nscr i pt i onwi t hi nwi derbi ogr aphi calandhi st or i calnar r at i ves.

Soci ali dent i t i es ar e dynami c and f l ui d andsoci algr oupsar echar act er i zedby

changi ng i nt er est s and desi r es whi ch ar e const ant l ypr oj ect edont ocul t ur e.Ar i st ocr at i car tcol l ect i ng and pat r onage have been ext ensi vel yanal ysedbyar t ,soci alandeconomi chi st or i ans.


One of t he most r ecur r ent concept st o emer ge f r om t hose st udi es has been one whi chst r essest hei mpor t anceofcompet i t i on i n gr andeur and r i val r yi n conspi cuous consumpt i on and i nvest mentamongstt he ar i st ocr acy.Fori nst ance,t heconsumpt i onof l uxur ygoodsi nt heAnci enRégi memat ched r equi r ement sofr ank,andnobl eswer eent angl edi nasyst em ofconsumpt i ont hatused obj ect st odecl ar et hei rpr eemi nenceanddi f f er encef r om ot hersoci al gr oups.Suchwor ks have demonst r at ed t hatar tcol l ect i ng,l i ke count r yhousebui l di ng,waspar t l yr oot edi n t heneedt oconsumei nor dert okeepone’ s pl acei nsoci et y:hi ghr ankent ai l edt hedut yt o own and di spl aya house whi ch cont ai ned appr opr i at egoodssuchaspai nt i ngsbyt he mostcel ebr at edmast er sandr i char r aysof obj ect smadeofpr eci ousmat er i al s.I nt er i or s wer et husenl i st edasameansofexpr essi ng t he r ank and st at us oft hei rowner s;t hey madeaspl endi ddemonst r at i onofweal t hand power . However ,i twoul dbemi sl eadi ngt oar guet hat acqui si t i onsof ar tand t hei ri ncl usi on i nt he domest i cl ocus spr i ng f r om si mi l ar mot i vat i ons,or ,say,t hatcol l ect or sacqui r eobj ect s f orsi mi l arends.Fi xed and st abl er el at i ons bet ween cul t ur alpr act i ces and gr oups of peopl edonotexi st .I ti scr uci al t ounder st and t hatt hosepur sui t sar eembr acedbyi ndi vi dual st ovar yi ngext ent s,dependi ngont hei r abi l i t i es,needsandi nt er est s. Cl assi dent i t i esar edynami candr el at i onal , andt heconsumpt i onofcul t ur ei saf unct i on of t he changi ng r el at i onshi ps bet ween cl asses.Fori nst ance,l at eni net eent hcent ur y pl ut ocr at seager l yappr opr i at edt hecol l ect i ng habi t sval i dat ed bygener at i onsofpat r i ci an connoi sseur s.Thatper i odoft i mesawi ndeed t he pr ol i f er at i on ofKunst kammer si nt he housesoft heweal t hy,asexempl i f i edbyt he cabi netofcur i osi t y assembl ed by t he di amondmagnat eJul i usWer nheri nhi sLondon r esi dence.Those cabi net sf unct i oned asa

adi spl ayofweal t handst at us,butal soas evi dence oft he br eadt h ofl ear ni ng t hei r owner spossessed si nce t hei rf undament al conceptwast hest r uct ur i ngandi mpar t i ngof knowl edge.I nt er i or scoul dt husbet her ef l ect i onofacompet i t i oni nl uxur ywhi l et hear t col l ect i onst heycont ai ned wer e associ at ed wi t h vi r t ue,l ear ni ng and di scer nmentand mar kedt heboundar i esbet weenpol i t eand vul garsoci et y. However ,t he pr oduct i on oft he domest i c l ocusshoul d notbe excl usi vel yseen asa f unct i on ofemul at i on.AsBer mi ngham has obser ved,model sf ort he consumpt i on of cul t ur emustmovebeyondi deasofemul at i on t oembr acecompl exwor ki ngsofaest het i cs andf ant asy.Fori nst ance,i nni net eent hcent ur yBr i t ai n,ei ght eent hcent ur yFr enchdecor at i vear t swer et hr oughoutt hecent ur yenvi saged as t he t angi bl er emi nder s of t he Fr ench Anci en Régi me, t hey wer e“ t he r ecor dsof( …)apar t i cul arper i od. ”Dr awi ng onEl sner ’ sar gumentt hatcol l ect i ng“ i sacul t off r agment s( …)t hatst and as( …)met a phor sf ort hewor l dt hey( …)r ef ert o” ;onecan ar guet hatt hei ncl usi onoft hoseobj ect si n t hedomest i cr eal mi nt er sect edwi t ha“ besoi n ( …)quiseulnousdér obeauxamer t umeset br ut al i t ésdupr esent . ”I not herwor ds,anost al gi af oravani shedpastt hatcoul dnotbe r ecl ai medunder pi nnedt hef or mat i onofsome col l ect i ons. Thi s aspect was par t i cul ar l y sal i enti nt hedur i ngt her egencyoft hePr i nce ofWal es( l at ert obecomeGeor geI V) ,ast he event sof1789andt heensui ngwar swi t hBr i t ai nmadeFr anceaphysi cal l yi naccessi bl e, i sol at ed r eal m,and t he pol i t i calchanges t hr ewt heAnci enRégi mei nt oshar panddi s t i nctr el i efasadomai ni r r emedi abl ysepar at edanddi st ant . The soci opol i t i cal cont ext i n whi ch t he Regencycol l ect i ngofFr enchdecor at i vear t s was conduct ed t her ef or e had notonl y an i mpacton t he mar ketavai l abi l i t yofgoods, butal so i nvest ed obj ect s wi t h a symbol i c


es onanc e. r Roomsandt heobj ec t st heyens hr i nedt hus pr oduc ed an aes t het i cef f ec tand c ar r i ed a wei ghtofhi s t or i c al af f ec t .Embody i ngmul t i f ac et ednar r at i v es ,i nt er i or si nv ok edandr ec y c l edt heghos t sofhi s t or yands i mul t aneous l y i nt er t wi nedt hem wi t hper s onalhi s t or i esand at av i s t i cpur s ui t s .Farf r om di s r upt i ngt hehi s t or i c alnar r at i v e,I nt er i or swer et her ef or eper f or mat i v el oc iofr ec ons t r uc t i onandr ec ol l ec t i on.I mpl i c i ti nt hi si st hei deat hatt hemat er i alc r eat i on oft hos es pac eswasnotonl y c onf i nedt ot her eal m oft het angi bl e.Equal l y i mpor t anti st he c onc eptoft he i nt er i oras s t agewher e i ndi v i dual sc oul daes t het i c i z e,f i c t i onal i s eand al s o memor i al i s et hei rown l i v es .Fori ns t anc e,t he i nt er i or s ofFont hi l lAbbey ,t he pal at i alabode of t he i nf amous c ol l ec t or Wi l l i am Bec k f or d,c oul dber eadasav i s ual geneal ogi c al nar r at i v e t hat unr emi t t i ngl y al l udedt ohi sbel i ev edr oy aldes c ent .Her al di cs y mbol i s mc ombi nedwi t ht hei ns er t i onof ar mor i als hi el ds i nt he ar c hi t ec t ur alf r ame phy s i c al l yands pat i al l yar t i c ul at edBec k f or d’ s f or geds t or yandf abr i c at edanc es t r i es . Si mi l ar l y ,s ome dec adesl at er ,when Fer di nanddeRot hs c hi l ddepl oy edt hepor t r ai t sof Geor geI V nex tt oamar bl er el i efpor t r ai tof Loui sXI V,hewasos t ens i bl yengagedi nwr i t i ng a v i s ualgeneal ogy oft as t e,and was i mpl i c i t l yweav i nghi sownnamei ni t sf abr i c . And when hi sc ous i n Al f r ed os t ent at i ous l y i nc or por at edhi smonogr am i nt hedec or at i v e s c hemeofhi sc ount r yhous e,hewasi nc l udi ngmor et hanady nas t i cs y mbol :hewas r ec y c l i ng t he ar t i s t i cl egac y of pr ev i ous epoc hsandi ns c r i bi nghi ms el fwi t hi nanex al t edl i neageofr oy alpat r onage.Her ewes ee howt hec r eat i onoft hel i v ed-i ns pac ei sone of i nt er l oc k i ng and c onf l i c t i ng memor i es bet weent her eal andt hei magi ned,t heac t ual andt hedes i r ed.

The c ons t r uc toft he i nt er i oras mode of r emembr anc eandmemor i al i s i ngi ns t r ument engagedi nt hes i mul t aneousc ons t r uc t i onof hi s t or i c al and bi ogr aphi c al nar r at i v es bec omespar t i c ul ar l ys al i entwhent hel at t er wast r ans mut edi nt ot ex t .Thi st ex t ual i s at i on, of t eni nt hef or m ofc at al ogues ,c oul dbes y s t emat i corf r agment ar y , under t ak eni nt heowner ’ sl i f et i meorpos t humous l y .Onc ec anar guet hatt hes et ex t ual s t r at egi esdi dnotonl ys er v et os pat i al l y c i r c ums c r i beobj ec t s ,t heyc oul dal s oef f ec t i v el ybl urandev enobl i t er at et hemat er i al i t yof t he ar c hi t ec t ur alf r ame,f ai s ant di s par aî t r e l esf ondat i onsar c hi t ec t ur al esdul i eudansl a s omme de l ac ol l ec t i on. ” They emphas i s ed t he hi s t or i c aldi s pl ac ementi nher enti nt he c ons t r uc t i on of s ome i nt er i or s , and our under s t andi ngoft hem.Butmor ei mpor t ant l y , onc ef r oz enonpaper ,i nt er i or sandt hei rmul t i f ar i ousc omponent sbec amei nt egr alpar t s ofwi derhi s t or i ogr aphi c al nar r at i v es . Thes et ex t sens nar edt hemy r i adofobj ec t s t hati nhabi tt he i nt er i orwi t hi n oc c as i onal l y r i gi dandabs ol ut et ax onomi es ,y etal s oper manent l yi ns c r i bed i t sc r eat or si n dy nami c andev erex pandi ngnet wor k sofex c hanges and c ons umpt i on. For i ns t anc e, Hor ac e Wal pol e’ s publ i c at i on oft he des c r i pt i on of St r awber r yHi l l ,whi c hof f er edades c r i pt i onof t hev i l l aandi nv ent or yoft hec ol l ec t i ons ,par t i c i pat edi nhi ss el f f as hi oni ngasamanoft as t e. Howev er ,i ts i mul t aneous l ypr ov i dedt hev er y i magesWal pol ewi s hedhi sc ont empor ar i es andf ut ur ev i ewer st or emember .Thepubl i c at i onc anbeenv i s agedasWapol e’ sat t empt i ngt or et ai nc ont r ol ov ert hememor i al i s at i on oft hehous eandi t si nt er i or s ,anendeav our whi c hs of arhasl ar gel ypr ov eds uc c es s f ul . Equal l y ,t hei nt er i orc anac tasamet aphor andt ex tf orwhathasper i s hed,butal s owhat i saboutt ov ani s h.I tbec omesa c hamber wher ehi s t or yi sr ei nv ent edandmat er i al i s ed, andas i t ewher et hel i v i ngc anr eenac tt he pas t .Di s c us s i ng hi sc ol l ec t i on,Henr yCl ay


Fr i ckf amousl ynot ed“ Iwantt hi st obemy monument .Thel astconceptt hi spaperwant s t oaddr essi st hatoft hei nt er i orasmausol eum,andi t spost humousf unct i onasbear er ofmemor y. As Car olDuncan est abl i shed,i ndi vi dual s whobequeat hedt hei rcol l ect i onsof t encame t or egar dt hem assur r ogat esel ves,andt hei r assembl yandpr eser vat i onwasnotsi mpl ya mat t erofsoci alambi t i on buta sear ch f or somel ast i ngval uet owhi cht heycoul dat t ach t hei rnames.Suchcol l ect i onsbecamemonument st ot het ast eandcul t ur alpr act i cesof t hei rowner s.WhenRi char dWal l acel ef thi s col l ect i on t ot he Br i t i sh st at ei n 1897,he ensur edt hat ,i nt heabsenceofl egi t i mat eh i s name woul d never t hel esssur vi ve and succeeded i ni nst i t ut i onal i si ng hi s own name. I ndef i ni t el yf r ozenwi t hi nt heconf i nesofhi s i nt er i or s,t he bequestwas ( and st i l li s)a t r i umphantactofencl osur ewi t ht heowner medi at i ng bet ween t he obj ect s and t he vi ewer sanddet er mi ni ngt hewayi twasseen andbywhom i twasseen.Thebequestcan t husbe seen asan actofsel f per pet uat i on and t he Wal l ace Col l ect i on hel dt o be an i mmut abl e and per manent shr i ne t o hi s name. Thesi t esdi scussedabovewer enot j ustaest het i ci zedspacesofcommodi t ydi spl ay,andt hemat er i al( r e) const r uct i onst hey cont ai nedwer eenvi sagedasmemor i al i si ng r i t ual sandact sofengagementwi t ht hepast . The ext er nal i sat i on oft he soci alsel fvi a obj ect sandt hei rdomest i cdepl oymentsi mul t aneousl yconst r uct edper sonalbi ogr aphi es, i nvokedwi derhi st or i calnar r at i vesandf r agment ar i l ymat er i al i sedt heevanescentbeaut y ofi deal i sedhi st or i es.


Ref er ences Appadur ai ,Ar j un.1986.TheSoci alLi vesof Thi ngs:Commodi t i es i n Cul t ur alPer spect i ves. New Yor k: Cambr i dge Uni ver si t y Pr ess.Ber mi ngham,AnnandJohnBr ewer . 1995.The Consumpt i on ofCul t ur e,16001800.London,NewYor k:Rout l edge. Bonnaf f é,Edmond.1873.Les Col l ect i onneur sdel ’ Anci enneFr ance. Bour di eu,Pi er r e.1984.Di st i nct i on.A Soci al Cr i t i queoft heJudgmentofTast e. NewYor k,London: Rout l edge. de Goncour t ,Edmond.2003.La Mai son d’ un Ar t i st e. Di j on: L’ Echel l e de Jacob. Duncan, Car ol . 1995. Ci vi l i zi ng Ri t ual s: I nsi de Publ i c Ar t Museums. London: Rout l edge. El i as,Nor ber t .1983.The Cour tSoci et y. Oxf or d: Oxf or d Uni ver si t y Pr ess. El sner , JohnandRogerCar di nal .1994.Cul t ur esof Col l ect i ng.London:Reakt i onBooks. Har vey,Geor ge.1928.Henr yCl ayFr i ck,t he Man.New Yor k:Char l es Scr i bner ’ s Sons. Hei n,Jør gen.2002.Lear ni ngver susSt at us. Kunst kammerorSchat zkammer ?Jour nalof t heHi st or yofCol l ect i ons14,no.2. JacksonSt ops,Ger vase.1985.The Tr easur eHousesofBr i t ai n:Fi veHundr edYear s ofPr i vat ePat r onageandAr tCol l ect i ng.New Haven,London:Yal eUni ver si t yPr ess. Kl ei n,Lawr enceE.2002.Pol i t enessandt he I nt er pr et at i onoft heBr i t i shEi ght eent hCent ur y.TheHi st or i calJour nal45,no.4. Lasi c,Bar bar a.2009.Spl endi d Pat r i ot i sm: Ri char dWal l aceandt heConst r uct i onoft he Wal l aceCol l ect i on.Jour naloft heHi st or yof Col l ect i ons21,no.2.Mal euvr e,Di di er .1995. Phi l osopherdansl eboudoi r :l ’ i nt ér i eurdans l apr osedudi xneuvi èmesi ècl e,TheFr ench Revi ew 68,no.3.Vebl en,Thor st ei n.1960. TheTheor yoft heLei sur eCl ass:anEconomi cSt udyofI nst i t ut i ons.NewYor k:Random House.


At l as


‘ 00/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aCoi l l i ot

Mai sonCoi l l i otl ooksal i t t l edi f f er entt ot heaver agehousei nLi l l e.Thati sbecausei twasdesi gned byf amousAr t Nouveaudesi gnerHect orGui mar di n1900,bestknownf ort heel abor at emet r o st at i onent r ancesi nPar i s.Thi st ypeofdesi gndoesl ookabi tover bl ownonahousebuti t ’ saf asci nat i ngsi ghtnonet hel ess.Mai sonCoi l l i ot ,apr i vat er esi dence,i sonr ueFl eur us,neart hechur ch ofSt .Mi chel .


‘ 01/Memor i al i sed/Vi ct orHor t amuseum

Thi si snotamuseum i nt het r adi t i onalsense:abui l di ngwher et heobj ect sexposeddr awal lt he at t ent i on.Her ei ti st her ever se:t hebui l di ngi t sel fi st hemuseum.TheHor t aMuseum wasact ual l y t hehouset hatVi ct orHor t abui l tf orhi msel fi nt hebegi ni ng1900.I t ' sat r ueexampl eoft hear chi t ect ur alst yl et hatmadeHor t ai nt ooneoft hemostaccl ai medar chi t ect si nBel gi um. TheAr tNouveaust yl ewaspopul ari nEur ope,andespeci al l yi nBr ussel s,bet ween1893and 1918.Thechar act er i zat i onsar e:t heuseofi ndust r i almat er i al sl i kest eelandi r oni nt hevi si bl e par t sofhouses,new decor at i onsi nspi r edbynat ur e( e. g.t hef amouswhi pl ashmot i ve,whi ch occur sver yof t en i nt he Ar tNouveau st yl e and especi al l yi nt he wor kofHor t a) ,decor at i ve mosai csorsgr af f i t oont hef açadesofhouses,et c. . .Mostoft hesepr i nci pl escanbeseenappl i ed i nt heHor t aMuseum i t sel f .Thi shouseal soshowsoneoft hegr eati nnovat i onsofHor t a:t he r oomsar ebui l tar oundacent r al hal l .Fr om t hebeaut i f ul gl asscei l i ngl i ghtf al l si nt ot hehouseand t her ebycr eat i ngamuchmor enat ur al i l l umi nat i onoft hebui l di ngt hanwast hecasei nt het r adi t i onall at e19t hcent ur yhousesi nBr ussel sandBel gi um.


‘ 02/Memor i al i sed/TheWi l l owt ear ooms

Desi gnedbyChar l esRenni eMacki nt oshf orMi ssCr anst on,t heWi l l ow TeaRoomsoccupya nar r owi nf i l lsl otonSauchi ehal lSt r eet( Scot swor d,whi chmeansal l eyofwi l l ows) .Thef ourst or y bui l di ngf acadesi t scar ef ul l yi ni t sur bancont ext .I t st opcor ni cegener al l yal i gnswi t ht hef ourst or y bui l di ngsoneachsi de.Thepedest r i anandmostpubl i cl evel sar edi st i ngui shedf r om t hemor epr i vat eupperst or i eswi t hani nt er medi at ecor ni ce,andl ar gecent r al wi ndowsoft hesef i r stt wof l oor s cont r astwi t hsmal l erwi ndowsi nt hewal loft heupperst or i es.I ncont r ast ,however ,t ot henei ghbor i ngmasonr yf acades,dar kandheavi l ydet ai l ed,t heTeaRoomsar est uccoedwhi t e,andt he smal lpanedwi ndows,i r onst andar dsandwi ndow br aces,andor nament alt i l ei nser t sgi vei tan el eganceandl i ght nessappr opr i at ef ori t spur pose.


‘ 03/Memor i al i sed/Hi l lHouse

Hi l l Housei st hel ar gestandf i nestChar l esRenni eMacki nt osh' sdomest i cbui l di ngs,...occupi es ahi l l si desi det hatl ooksoutovert heCl ydeest uar y,andi ssur r oundedbygr oundsmet i cul ousl y l andscapedbyMacki nt osh,whowentt ot heext entofi nst r uct i ngt hatt het r eesbecl i ppedaccor di ngt ohi smannerofdr awi ngt hem. " Bui l tf r om l ocal sandst oneandr oughcastr ender ed,t hehousebear st hei mageofScot t i shbar oni al t r adi t i ons.Fort hei nt er i or ,Macki nt oshdesi gnedf i r epl aces,f ur ni shi ngsandf i t t i ngs.Hi sat t ent i onsext endedf r om t hedesi gnofbui l t i nwar dr obesf ort hewhi t ebedr oom t ot hedet ai l i ngi na super bsetofpewt erf i r et ongsandpoker .Wal l si nt hehousewer egener al l ywhi t e,somewi t hdel i cat est enci ldesi gnsi npal egr eens,pi nks,andsi l ver .


‘ 04/Memor i al i sed/CasaBat l l o

CasaBat l l ói sabui l di ngr est or edbyAnt oniGaudíandJosepMar i aJuj ol ,bui l ti nt heyear1877 andr emodel l edi n1904;l ocat edat43,Passei gdeGr àci a( passei gi sCat al anf orpr omenadeor avenue) ,par toft heI l l adel aDi scòr di a( t he" Bl ockofDi scor d" )i nt heEi xampl edi st r i ctofBar cel ona,Spai n.Gaudí ' sassi st ant sDomènecSugr añesiGr as,JosepCanal et ayJoanRubi óal so cont r i but edt ot her enovat i onpr oj ect . Thel ocalnamef ort hebui l di ngi sCasadel sossos( HouseofBones) ,andi ndeedi tdoeshavea vi scer al ,skel et alor gani cqual i t y.I twasor i gi nal l ydesi gnedf orami ddl ecl assf ami l yandsi t uat ed i napr osper ousdi st r i ctofBar cel ona


‘ 05/Memor i al i sed/Pal ai sSt ocl et

TheSt ocl etPal ace( Fr ench:Pal ai sSt ocl et ,Dut ch:St ocl et pal ei s)i sapr i vat emansi onbui l tby ar chi t ectJosefHof f mannbet ween1905and1911i nBr ussel s( Bel gi um)f orbankerandar tl over Adol pheSt ocl et .Consi der edasHof f man' smast er pi ece,t heSt ocl et ' shousei soneoft hemost r ef i nedandl uxur i ouspr i vat ehousesoft het went i et hcent ur y.


‘ 06/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aFal l et

Thef i r sthousebyt hef ut ur ear chi t ectLeCor busi erwor kedon( Ar tNouveaupl aysabi gpar ti nt he st yl eoft hehouse) .Hewas20year sol dandst i l last udentatt heAr tSchooli nLaChauxdeFonds.


‘ 07/Memor i al i sed/Robbi eHouse

Fr eder i ckRobi ei sabi cycl emanuf act ur erandf at heroft wosmal lchi l dr en.Hewant edhi shouse t obesaf ef r om unwant edvi si t or s,andFr anckLl oydWr i ght ’ sdesi gnal l owedf orbot hsaf et yand i nt er act i onwi t ht heout si denei ghbor hood.Thehouse’ s174ar t gl asswi ndowsar eoneexampl e ofhow Wr i ghtsepar at edt heRobi esf r om passer sby:onecannotseet hr ought hewi ndowsf r om t heout si de,butt hoseont hei nsi dehaveaf i nevi ewoft hehouse’ ssur r oundi ngs. I nsever al par t soft het our ,ourgui deexpl ai nedhowt hehouseact ual l yconnect edt hef ami l ywi t h nat ur eevenwhi l epr ot ect i ngt hem f r om peopl eout si de.That ’ spar t i cul ar l ycl eari noneoft he“ pr i vat e”sect i onsoft hehouse,t heupst ai r sbedr ooms,wher et hewi ndowsopenoutont ot hepl ant er s ont hebal conyandt het r eesbeyondt hem.I ’ dbei ncl i nedt ot hi nkoft hemast erbedr oom asat r ee housei fi twer en’ tapi eceofonet hemostar chi t ect ur al l yi nf l uent i alhouses


‘ 08/Memor i al i sed/JosefHof f mannFl eder mausCol l ect i on

Speci al l ydesi gnedi nVi ennai n1908f ort heFl eder mauscabar eti nVi enna,t hi ssui t ewasl at er pr oducedbyt heKohnbent woodf ur ni t ur ecompany.Ther unner sandt hewoodenspher esont he j oi nt sar et ypi calHof f mannst yl eel ement s.


‘ 09/Memor i al i sed/Gui mar dHost el

Atf i r stvi ewonei sst r uckbyt hear chi t ect ' scar ei ndesi gni ngandposi t i oni nghi swi ndowsandbal coni es.Def yi ngr hymeandr eason,t heyar eeachofadi f f er entcut ,eachpl acedwher eonewoul d l eastexpecti t : . . . t hewi ndowont het hi r dst or y,aquar t erofwhi chi ssi t uat edont hepr eci secor ner oft hebui l di ngandwhi chappear st obehaught i l yi ndi f f er entt ot hecl assi cal l yar r angedbayont he st or ybel ow.Ofpar t i cul arnot ei nt hi sr egar di st hel ongf our t hst or ybal conysur mount edbyt wo l ant er nsoft het ypef r equent l yusedbyGui mar d.


‘ 10/Memor i al i sed/St ei nerhouse

TheSt ei nerhousewasdesi gnedbyAdol fLoosi n1910,f ort hepai nt erLi l l ySt ei nerandherhusbandHugo.I ti sl ocat edi naVi ennasubur bwher et hepl anni ngr egul at i onswer est r ongenough t ohaveadi r ecti mpactont hef i naldesi gn.


‘ 11/Memor i al i sed/CasaMi l à

CasaMi l à,bet t erknownasLaPedr er a( Cat al anf or' TheQuar r y' ) ,i sabui l di ngdesi gnedbyt he Cat al anar chi t ectAnt oniGaudíandbui l tdur i ngt heyear s1905–1910,bei ngconsi der edof f i ci al l y compl et edi n1911.I ti sl ocat edat92,Passei gdeGr àci a( passei gi sCat al anf orpr omenade)i n t heEi xempl edi st r i ctofBar cel ona,Cat al oni a,Spai n.


‘ 12/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aJeanner et Per r et

TheVi l l aJeanner et Per r et( al soknownasMai sonbl anche)i st hef i r sti ndependentpr oj ectby Swi ssar chi t ectLeCor busi er .Bui l ti n1912i nLaChauxdeFonds,Char l esEdouar dJeanner et ' s homet own,i twasdesi gnedf orhi spar ent s.Opent ot hepubl i csi nce2005,t hehousei sundert he pat r onageoft heSwi ssNat i onalCommi ssi onf orUNESCO andhasbeenpr oposedbyt heSwi ss Gover nmentf ori nscr i pt i onont heWor l dHer i t ageLi st .


‘ 13/Memor i al i sed/manwi t hgui t ar

Br aquepai nt edManwi t haGui t ari namodet hatcamet obecal l edAnal yt i cCubi sm.I nwor ks cr eat edi nt hi sst yl e,heandPabl oPi cassoexper i ment edwi t hdi f f er entt ypesofr epr esent at i ont o chal l enget heor t hodoxyofi l l usi oni st i cspacei npai nt i ng.Her eBr aquepai r edanaccessi bl e,l i f el i ker ender i ngofanai landr ope,atl ef t ,wi t hanear l yi ndeci pher abl er ender i ngofahumanf i gur e pl ayi ngagui t ar .


‘ 14/Memor i al i sed/Themudbat h

TheVor t i ci sm gr oupbeganwi t ht heRebelAr tCent r ewhi chWyndham Lewi sandot her sest abl i shed af t erdi sagr eei ng wi t h Omega Wor kshopsf ounderRogerFr y,and hasr oot si nt he Bl oomsbur yGr oup,Cubi sm,andFut ur i sm.Lewi shi msel fsawVor t i ci sm asani ndependental t er nat i vet oCubi sm,Fut ur i sm andExpr essi oni sm. TheVor t i ci st spubl i shedt woi ssuesoft hel i t er ar ymagazi neBLAST,i nJune1914andJul y1915 whi chLewi sedi t ed.I tcont ai nedwor kbyEzr aPoundandT.S.El i otaswel lasbyt heVor t i ci st s t hemsel ves.I t st ypogr aphi cal advent ur ousnesswasci t edbyEl Li ssi t zkyasoneoft hemaj orf or er unner soft her evol ut i oni ngr aphi cdesi gni nt he1920sand1930s.


‘ 15/Memor i al i sed/Océan5

Pi ot rMondr i an’ sabst r act edpi erwaspai nt edi n1915,t hever t i call i nesatt hebaseoft heoval st r et chesi nt oanoceanofshor tl i nesandcr ossest hatsuggestf l i cker i ngl i ghtont hesur f aceof wat er .


‘ 16/Memor i al i sed/l ej our nal

JuanGr i swasaqui et i st ,whosel i f ewasost ensi bl ymar kedbyf ew maj ori nci dent s.Thoughnot t hei nvent orofCubi sm,hewasoneofi t smostabl epr act i t i oner sandevol vedaver yper sonal var i et yofi t ,combi ni ngel ement swhi chhehadl ear nedf r om Br aqueandPi cassowi t hot her s whi chwer ehi sownper sonali nvent i on.


‘ 17/Memor i al i sed/Redbl uechai r

TheRedBl ueChai rwasachai rdesi gnedi n1917byGer r i tRi et vel d.I tr epr esent soneoft hef i r st expl or at i onsbyt heDeSt i j lar tmovementi nt hr eedi mensi ons.Theor i gi nalchai rwaspai nt edi n t hef ami l i arDeSt i j l pal et t eofpr i mar ycol our s-t hati s,bl ack,gr ey,andwhi t e.However ,i twasl at er changedt or esembl et hepai nt i ngsofPi etMondr i anaf t erRi et vel dcamei nt ocont actwi t ht hi s ar t i st ' swor ki n1918.Ri et vel dj oi nedt heDeSt i j lmovementi n1919.


‘ 18/Memor i al i sed/Youbor eme

Thear tcol l ect orandeducat orKat her i neDr ei ercommi ssi onedTum' t obehungoverabookcase i nherl i br ar y—hencet heunusualshapeoft hewor k.Execut edi n1918,i ti sMar celDuchamp' s l astpai nt i ngoncanvasandr evi si t shi ghl i ght sofhi scar eer .Rangi ngacr osst hecanvasf r om l ef t t or i ghtar et hecastshadowsofabi cycl ewheel ,acor kscr ew,andahatr ack.


‘ 19/Memor i al i sed/LHOOQ

Aswast hecasewi t hanumberofhi sr eadymades,Duchampmademul t i pl ever si onsof L. H. O. O. Q.ofdi f f er i ngsi zesandi ndi f f er entmedi at hr oughouthi scar eer ,oneofwhi ch,an unmodi f i edbl ackandwhi t er epr oduct i onoft heMonaLi samount edoncar d,i scal l ed L. H. O. O. Q.Shaved. Pr i mar yr esponsest oL. H. O. O. Q.i nt er pr et edi t smeani ngasbei nganat t ackont hei coni cMona Li saandt r adi t i onalar t ,t huspr omot i ngt heDadai sti deal s.Per hapsDuchampdeci dedt ousehi s r eadymadest onotonl ycr i t i queest abl i shedar tconvent i ons,butt oal sof or cet heaudi encet o putasi dewhatt heyhadt houghtbef or eandl ookatsomet hi ngwi t hacompl et el ydi f f er entper spect i ve.Bymaki ngt hegenderoft heMonaLi saambi guous,Duchampcl ai medt opr esenthi s audi encewi t hanewper spect i veatacl assi cwor kofar t .


‘ 20/Memor i al i sed/Tat l i n' sTower

Tat l i n' sConst r uct i vi stt owerwast obebui l tf r om i ndust r i al mat er i al s:i r on,gl assandst eel .I nmat er i al s,shape,andf unct i on,i twasenvi sagedasat ower i ngsymbolofmoder ni t y.I twoul dhave dwar f edt heEi f f el Toweri nPar i s.Thet ower ' smai nf or m wasat wi nhel i xwhi chspi r al edupt o400 mi n hei ght ,whi ch vi si t or swoul d be t r anspor t ed ar ound wi t ht he ai d ofvar i ousmechani cal devi ces. Themai nf r amewor kwoul dcont ai nf ourl ar gesuspendedgeomet r i cst r uct ur es.Thesest r uct ur es woul dr ot at eatdi f f er entr at esofspeed.Att hebaseoft hest r uct ur ewasacubewhi chwasdesi gnedasavenuef orl ect ur es,conf er encesandl egi sl at i vemeet i ngs,andt hi swoul dcompl et ea r ot at i oni nt hespanofoneyear .Abovet hecubewoul dbeasmal l erpyr ami dhousi ngexecut i ve act i vi t i esandcompl et i ngar ot at i ononceamont h.Fur t herupwoul dbeacyl i nder ,whi chwast o houseani nf or mat i oncent r e,i ssui ngnewsbul l et i nsandmani f est osvi at el egr aph,r adi oand l oudspeaker ,andwoul dcompl et ear ot at i ononceaday.Att het op,t her ewoul dbeahemi spher e f orr adi oequi pment .


‘ 21/Memor i al i sed/Hol l yhockHouse

Bui l tbet ween1919and1921f oroi lhei r essAl i neBar nsdal l ,Hol l yhockHousei sFr ankLl oyd Wr i ght ’ sf i r stpr oj ecti nLosAngel es.I t snamesakei sabst r act edandgeomet r i ci zedi nmuchoft he house’ sdesi gn,i ncl udi ngext er i orwal l sandi nt er i orf ur ni t ur e. Hol l yhockHousewast hecent er pi eceofamost l yunr eal i zedWr i ghtmast erpl anf orat heat er communi t ysetonat hi r t ysi xacr esi t e," Ol i veHi l l . "Wr i ghtl ef tmuchoft hesuper vi si onofconst r uct i onofHol l yhockHouset ohi sson,l andscapear chi t ectLl oydWr i ght ,andt oar chi t ectRudol f Schi ndl er ,asWr i ghthi msel fwaswor ki ngont heI mper i alHot eli nTokyo( si ncedest r oyed) . I n1927,Al i neBar nsdal ldonat edt heHol l yhockHouseandel evensur r oundi ngacr est ot heCi t y ofLosAngel esf oruseasapubl i car tpar k.I thasbeenl easedovert heyear st ovar i ousar t sor gani zat i ons,necessi t at i ngacycl eofal t er at i onandr ehabi l i t at i ont hati scul mi nat i ngi nt hel ar gescal e r ehabi l i t at i onwhi chst ar t edi nt hef al lof1998.( Ther ehabi l i t at i oni sbei ngpar t l yf undedbyt he l easeoft hepr oper t yt ot heLosAngel esMassTr ansi tAut hor i t yf orsubwayconst r uct i onadj acent t ot hepar k. )TodayHol l yhockHousei sapar tofBar nsdal l Ar tPar k,wi t hal ocal ar tgal l er y,t heat er , andchi l dr en’ sact i vi t i es. Thehousei sabr eat ht aki ngexampl eofWr i ght ’ sext r aor di nar yabi l i t yt or el at et hehouset oi t ssi t e, of f er i ngal i nkedcont i nuum ofpr i vat eandpubl i cspacesi ncl udi ngagor geousr oof scapet hat over l ookst heci t y.Thi sandar emar kabl yf r i endl yandknowl edgeabl est af fmaket heHol l yhock Houseani mpor t antpl acet ovi si t .


‘ 22/Memor i al i sed/AmédéeOzenf anthouse

Thehouseandst udi oi nPar i sf orLeCor busi er ' sf r i endt hepai nt erOzenf anti sanear l yexampl e of' mi ni mal ' ar chi t ect ur e,apr ot ot ypeoft heDomi nohouseandamani f est at i onofsomeoft hepr i nci pl eswhi chLeCor busi erwast osetouti nhi sf amous' f i vepoi nt s. ' I tpossessedageomet r i cal cl ar i t yi nsi deandoutwhi chhassi ncebeenl ostwi t ht heel i mi nat i onoft henor t hl i ghtr oofandi t s r epl acementbyaf l atone.


‘ 23/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aNoai l l es

TheVi l l aNoai l l esi sanear l ymoder ni sthouse,bui l tbyar chi t ectRober tMal l et St evensf orar t pat r onsAr t hurAnneMar i eChar l esVi comt edeNoai l l esandhi swi f e,Mar i eLaur eBi schof f shei m, bet ween1923and1925.I ti sl ocat edi nt hehi l l saboveHyèr es,i nt heVar ,sout heast er nFr ance.


‘ 24/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aLaRoche

Vi l l aLaRochewasbui l tasahomef orRaoul LaRochet hatamongot hert hi ngswoul dser veasa pr i vat egal l er yt odi spl ayLaRoche' sext ensi vear tcol l ect i on.Bui l ti napr i vat ePar i scour t yar d,t he househadmaj orconst r ai nt si mposedbyt hesi t eandi t szoni ngr est r i ct i ons,i ncl udi nganor t h or i ent at i on,exi st i ngt r eesandhei ghtandboundar yl i mi t at i ons


‘ 25/Memor i al i sed/Vassi l ychai r

TheWassi l yChai r ,al soknownast heModelB3chai r ,wasdesi gnedbyMar celBr eueri n19251926whi l ehewast heheadoft hecabi net maki ngwor kshopatt heBauhaus,i nDessau,Ger many.Despi t epopul arbel i ef ,t hechai rwasnotdesi gnedf ort henonobj ect i vepai nt erWassi l y Kandi nsky,whowasconcur r ent l yont heBauhausf acul t y.However ,Kandi nskyhadadmi r edt he compl et eddesi gn,andBr euerf abr i cat edadupl i cat ef orKandi nsky' sper sonal quar t er s.Thechai r becameknownas" Wassi l y"decadesl at er ,wheni twasr er el easedbyanI t al i anmanuf act ur er namedGavi nawhohadl ear nedoft heanecdot alKandi nskyconnect i oni nt hecour seofi t s r esear chont hechai r ' sor i gi ns. .


‘ 26/Memor i al i sed/Rudol phSt ei nerhouse

Ther ef ur bi shmentoft heRudol fSt ei nerHouse,whi chwasbui l ti n192426byt heScot t i shar chi t ectMont agueWheel er ,r epr esent st heonl yexampl ei nLondon,andpossi bl yt heUK,ofwhathas beencal l ed‘ Ger manExpr essi oni sm’ ,andi sGr adeI Il i st ed. Par tofi t ssi gni f i cancei st hest r uct ur al engi neer i ngofawonder f ul or gani cspi r al st ai r caseofi nsi t u r ei nf or cedconcr et eandear l yhaunchedr ei nf or cedconcr et epor t al swhi chspanovert hemai nl ect ur et heat r e. Gener al l y,t hest r uct ur eoft hemai nbui l di ngi sacasedst eel f r amewi t habr i ckormasonr yf aci ng ski nandbeamandcl aypotf l oor s. Thear chi t ectandst r uct ur al engi neer sempl oyedmoder nt echni quesoft hedayt oexpr esst hephi l osophi cali deasoft heRudol fSt ei nermovementt hr oughor gani ccur vesandi r r egul argeomet r y.


‘ 27/Memor i al i sed/D42chai r

Thi sar mchai rwasesi gnedbyMi esvanDerRohef ort heBauhausi n1927!Thewi cker wor kf or t hechai rwascr eat edbyLi l l yRei ch,assi st antt oMi esVanDerRohe.Oneoft hebet t er ,i fnotbest I consofModer nDesi gn!Thi si st heaut hent i candf ul l yaut hor i zededi t i onbyTect a.Thi schai ri s oneoft hecl assi csi nt hehi st or yoff ur ni t ur e.TheD 42ar mchai rf i t swel li nt hedomest i cset t i ng butcanal sobeusedi nwai t i ngar easorcor por at eenvi r onment s.Bauhausbecameadomi nant f or cei nar chi t ect ur eandt heappl i edar t si nt he20t hcent ur y.Themai nt heor ywast hatal ldesi gn shoul dbef unct i onalaswel lasaest het i cal l ypl easi ng.


‘ 28/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aMül l er

TheVi l l aMül l eri sanar chi t ect ur al st r uct ur edesi gnedi n1928byt hear chi t ectAdol fLoos,bor ni n Br no,Aust r i aHungar y. Thevi l l ai sl ocat edi nPr ague,CzechRepubl i c.Thehousewasdesi gned or i gi nal l yf orMr .Fr ant i šekMül l erandhi swi f e,Mi l adaMül l er ová.


‘ 29/Memor i al i sed/Bar cel onaPavi l i on

Mi es' sr esponset ot hepr oposalbyvonSchni t zl erwasr adi cal .Af t err ej ect i ngt heor i gi nalsi t e becauseofaest het i cr easons,Mi esagr eedt oaqui etsi t eatt henar r owsi deofawi de,di agonal axi s,wher et hepavi l i onwoul dst i l lof f ervi ewpoi nt sandar out el eadi ngt ooneoft heexhi bi t i on' s mai nat t r act i ons,t he" Spani shVi l l age" .Thepavi l i onwasgoi ngt obebar ej ustt hest r uct ur e,a si ngl escul pt ur eandpur posedesi gnedf ur ni t ur e. Thi sl ackofaccommodat i onenabl edMi est ot r eatt hePavi l i onasacont i nuousspace;bl ur r i ng i nsi deandout si de.However ,t hest r uct ur ewasmor eofahybr i dst yl e,someoft hesepl anesal so act edassuppor t s.Thef l oorpl ani sver ysi mpl e.Theent i r ebui l di ngr est sonapl i nt hoft r aver t i ne. Asout her nUshapedencl osur e,al sooft r aver t i ne,hel psf or m aser vi ceannexandal ar gewat er basi n.Thef l oorsl absoft hepavi l i onpr oj ectoutandovert hepool —onceagai nconnect i ngi nsi de andout .Anot herUshapedwal l ont heopposi t esi deoft hesi t eal sof or msasmal l erwat erbasi n. Thi si swher et hest at uebyGeor gKol besi t s.Ther oofpl at es,r el at i vel ysmal l ,ar esuppor t edby t hechr omecl ad,cr uci f or m col umns.Thi sgi vest hei mpr essi onofahover i ngr oof . Mi eswant edt hi sbui l di ngt obecome" ani dealzoneoft r anqui l l i t y"f ort hewear yvi si t or ,who shoul dbei nvi t edi nt ot hepavi l i onont hewayt ot henextat t r act i on.Si ncet hepavi l i onl ackedar eal exhi bi t i onspace,t hebui l di ngi t sel fwast obecomet heexhi bi t .Thepavi l i onwasdesi gnedt o " bl ock"anypassaget hr ought hesi t e,r at her ,onewoul dhavet ogot hr ought hebui l di ng.Vi si t or s woul dent erbygoi ngupaf ew st ai r s,andduet ot hesl i ght l ysl opedsi t e,woul dl eaveatgr ound l eveli nt hedi r ect i onoft he" Spani shVi l l age" .Thevi si t or swer enotmeantt obel edi nast r ai ght l i net hr ought hebui l di ng,butt ot akecont i nuoust ur nabout s.Thewal l snotonl ycr eat edspace,but al sodi r ect edvi si t or ' smovement s.Thi swasachi evedbywal lsur f acesbei ngdi spl acedagai nst eachot her ,r unni ngpasteachot her ,andcr eat i ngaspacet hatbecamenar r owerorwi der .


‘ 30/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aTugendhat

Vi l l aTugendhati sconsi der edamast er pi ece,desi gnedbyt heGer manar chi t ectLudwi gMi esvan derRohe.Bui l tbet ween t he year s19281930 i n Br no,i nt oday' sCzech Republ i c,f orFr i t z Tugendhatandhi swi f eGr et a,t hevi l l asoonbecameani conofmoder nar chi t ect ur e. I ti sapar adi gmat i cexampl eoff unct i onal i sm.Mi esusedt her evol ut i onar yi r onf r amewor kwhi ch enabl edhi mt odi spensewi t hsuppor t i ngwal l sandar r anget hei nt er i ori nor dert oachi eveaf eel i ngofspaceandl i ght .Heal sodesi gnedal l f ur ni t ur e( t wot ypesofar mchai rdesi gnedf ort hebui l di ng,t heTugendhatchai randt heBr nochai r ,ar est i l li npr oduct i on) .Ther ewer enopai nt i ngsor decor at i vei t emsi nt hevi l l abutt hei nt er i orwasbynomeansaust er eduet ot heuseofnat ur al l y pat t er nedmat er i al ssuchast hecapt i vat i ngonyxwal landr ar et r opi calwoods.Theonyxwal li s par t i al l yt r ansl ucentandchangesappear ancewhent heeveni ngsuni sl ow.Thear chi t ectal so managedt omaket hemagi f i ci entvi ewf r om t hevi l l aani nt egr alpar toft hei nt er i or . Thecostofbui l di ngt hevi l l awasver yhi ghduet ot heunusual const r uct i onmet hod,t hel uxur i ous mat er i al s,ver ymoder nt echnol ogyofheat i ng,vent i l at i on,et c.I ti sal soqui t el ar gef oraf ami l y house,af actwhi chmayescapecasualvi si t or ssi ncet heel egantsi mpl i ci t yoft her oomsusedby t hef ami l yi scompensat edbyaver yl ar gespaceoccupi edbyvar i ousut i l i t yr ooms.


‘ 31/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aSavoye

Vi l l aSavoyei samoder ni stvi l l ai nPoi ssy,i nt heout ski r t sofPar i s,Fr ance.I twasdesi gnedby Swi ssar chi t ect sLeCor busi erandPi er r eJeanner et ,andbui l tbet ween1928and1931.Amani f est oofLeCor busi er ' s" f i vepoi nt s"ofnewar chi t ect ur e,t hevi l l ai sr epr esent at i veoft hebasesof moder nar chi t ect ur e,andi soneoft hemosteasi l yr ecogni zabl eandr enownedexampl esoft he I nt er nat i onalst yl e. Or i gi nal l ybui l tasacount r yr et r eatonbehestoft heSavoyef ami l y,t hehousef el l i nt odi suseaf t er 1940,andent er edast at eofdi sr epai rdur i ngWor l dWarI I .I tpassedont obepr oper t yoft he Fr enchst at ei n1958,andaf t ersur vi vi ngsever al pl ansofdemol i t i on,i twasdesi gnat edasanof f i ci al Fr enchhi st or i cal monumenti n1965( ar ar eoccur r ence,asLeCor busi erwasst i l l l i vi ngatt he t i me) .I twast hor oughl yr enovat edf r om 1985t o1997,andundert hecar eoft heCent r edesmonument snat i onaux,t her ef ur bi shedhousei snowopent ovi si t or syear r ound.


‘ 32/Memor i al i sed/Cavr oi shouse

Vi l l aCavr oi si sat est i monyt oal i f est yl easi twasconcei vedi nt hel at e1920sbyRobMal l etSt evens.Lumi nosi t y,hygi ene and comf or tar et he keywor dst hatunder l i e such bui l di ngs.Vi l l a Cavr oi si l l ust r at est hi sconceptwi t hsi mpl i ci t yandel egance.Thel ar gemoder nmansi onwas or gani zedt oof f ert hebestpossi bl el i f est yl et ot heni nemember soft hef ami l yandt of aci l i t at et he dai l ywor koft hehousehol dst af f .I t sst yl ewasat ot al br eakf r om t hatofot hernei ghbour i nghouses oft hesameer ai nt hesubur bsofCr oi x.Cl eargui del i nesgover nedt hedesi gnoft hebui l di ng, whi chwascommi ssi onedi n1929:" ai r ,l i ght ,wor k,spor t s,hygi ene,comf or tandef f i ci ency"


‘ 33/Memor i al i sed/LemkeHouse

Ther esi dent i al housewi t hanLshapeddesi gnassumesaspeci al posi t i oni nMi esvanderRohe’ s oeuvr e.Thi si st heonl ybui l di ngi nt hest yl eoft hecour t yar dhouset hatMi eswasabl et or eal i ze i nt he1930s.Thedesi gnwor kwasi nt ensel yi nf l uencedbyt hef i nanci al andf or mal speci f i cat i ons byhomeownerKar lLemkei nhi si nt ent i onofusi ngt hehousebot hasapr i vat er et r eatandf or r epr esent at i onpur poses.Al t hought hebui l di ngwasbui l ti nt hemassi veconst r uct i onst yl eand cont r ar yt ot heopenr oom st r uct ur et hatwasot her wi set ypi cal ofMi es,t hear chi t ecti mpl ement ed hi sconceptof“ f l owi ngspace. ”Fort heLemkeHouse,heappl i edt hi st ot her el at i onshi pbet ween t hei nt er i orandext er i orspace:Thet er r ace,whi chi sl ocat edont hegar densi deandencl osedby t hehouse,canbeaccessedf r om bot hwi ngst hr ought heopenedbankofwi ndowsf r om t hest udy –whi chsi mul t aneousl yser vesast hehal l–ort hel i vi ngr oom ordi ni ngr oom.Thegr oundl evel accessexpandst her oomsi nt ot hel andscape.


‘ 34/Memor i al i sed/Zi gzagchai r

TheZi gZagChai rpr oductbyGer r i tThomasRi et vel d,1934,i saLavi shsol i dwoodenst r uct ur ei n nat ur alorwal nutcol ourashwood.


35/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l al eSext ant

TheSext anthouqzwasdesi gnedbyLeCor busi eri n1935i nLaPal myr e( Fr ance) .I nt endedt ogo homehol i dayi napl acei nt hemount ai nsneart hesea.Thi sal l owsanor gani zat i onopent odi r ect cont actwi t ht het er r i t or y. Thedi st r i but i ont hr ought hepubl i car easandgal l er i esopenover l appi ng.Thehousegui det ot he seaar east ot hewest ,andpr i vat er oomst ot heeast .I ti sanappr oach,i nat hought ,t hepr obl em ofl i vi ngundercer t ai ncondi t i onswi t houtr esor t i ngt oanyr epet i t i onofst er eot ypedpat t er nsof ot her s.


‘ 36/Memor i al i sed/Ri i hi t i eHouse

Al varAal t o' shouseonRi i hi t i ei nHel si nki hasbeenr eopenedt ot hepubl i caf t ert hecompl et i onof t echni calr epai r s. Thehousewasr est or edi nor dert opr eser vet hef eel i ngoft i mesgoneby. I n193536,Al varAal t odesi gnedhi sRi i hi t i ehousei nt heMunkki ni emi ar eaofHel si nki andhadi t const r uct ed.I ti st hef i r stbui l di ngbyAal t oi nHel si nki .TheRi i hi t i ehousei sasmal lar chi t ect ur al gem whosenat ur almoder ni sm f or eseesVi l l aMai r ea.Thehouse' si nt er i orandext er i orf or ma cont i nuum t hati shi ghl i ght edbynat ur almat er i al sandpr oxi mi t yt opl ant s. TheAal t ocoupl edecor at edt hei rhousemai nl ywi t hf ur ni t ur eandl i ght i ngf i xt ur esoft hei rown desi gn.Over60year sofl i f ecanbesensedf r om t het ouchesofdi f f er entdesi gnepochs.Dur i ng r est or at i onwor k,Ar t ekr enovat edsomeoft heol dpi ecesoff ur ni t ur e.Ar t ekal sot ookpar ti nchoosi nguphol st er ymat er i al saswel lascompl ement edt hef ur ni t ur ei nt hebedr ooms.


‘ 37/Memor i al i sed/Tr ocadér o

ThePal ai sdeChai l l ot ,wasdesi gnedbyt hear chi t ect sAzema,Car l uandBoi l eau.I twi l l bebui l tf or t hei nt er nat i onalexhi bi t i onoft hear t sandt het echni quesof1937.I ti st r ai nedbyt wowi ngsi n cur vewhi chcomedownt owar dst heSei ne.Bet weent heset wowi ngst heespl anadeofHuman Ri ght sdomi nat est hevi ewoft heEi f f elTowerandt heChampdeMar s. Si nce2007,t he«ci t édel ’ ar chi t ect ur eetdupat r i moi ne»i sanar chi t ect ur emuseum,combi ni ng exi st i ngandnewcol l ect i ons.I tcont ai nsabout8, 000m²ofper manentexhi bi tspace,wi t haf ur t her 1, 830m²f ort empor ar yexhi bi t s,anda1, 700m²ar chi t ect ur al l i br ar y.I t spr i nci pal per manentexhi bi ti st heMuséedesMonument sFr ançai s( Museum ofFr enchMonument s) ,whi chcont ai nst hr ee gal l er i es: Gal er i edesMoul ages-cast sofFr enchar chi t ect ur ef r om t he12t ht o18t hcent ur i es. Gal er i edesPei nt ur esMur al esetdesVi t r aux( wal lpai nt i ngsandst ai nedgl asswi ndows) ,r epr oduci ngout st andi ngwor ksf r om hi st or i cmonument s. Gal er i eModer neetCont empor ai ne-Fr enchandi nt er nat i onalar chi t ect ur ef r om 1850t ot hepr esent . Themuseum al sohousest heI nst i t utFr ançai sd' Ar chi t ect ur e( Fr enchI nst i t ut eofAr chi t ect ur e) , whi chpr esent st empor ar yexhi bi t si naddi t i ont omai nt ai ni nganext ensi vel i br ar yandar chi ves; andt heÉcol edeChai l l ot( SchoolofChai l l ot ) ,whi chgr ant spost gr aduat edegr eesi nspeci al i zed aspect sofar chi t ect ur esuchasr est or at i onandur bandesi gn.


‘ 38/Memor i al i sed/Gr opi ushouse

Wal t erGr opi us ,f ounderoft heGer mandes i gns c hoolk nownast heBauhaus , wasoneoft hemos ti nf l uent i alar c hi t ec t soft het went i et hc ent ur y .Hedes i gned t heGr opi usHous eashi sf ami l yhomewhenhec amet oMas s ac hus et t st ot eac h ar c hi t ec t ur eatHar v ar d' sGr aduat eSc hool ofDes i gn. Modes ti ns c al e,t hehous ewasr ev ol ut i onar yi ni mpac t .I tc ombi nedt het r adi t i onalel ement sofNew Engl andar c hi t ec t ur e—wood,br i c k ,andf i el ds t one—wi t h i nnov at i v emat er i al sr ar el yus edi ndomes t i cs et t i ngsatt hatt i me,i nc l udi nggl as s bl oc k ,ac ous t i c al pl as t er ,c hr omebani s t er s ,andt hel at es tt ec hnol ogyi nf i x t ur es . I nk eepi ngwi t hBauhausphi l os ophy ,ev er yas pec toft hehous eandi t ss ur r oundi ngl ands c apewaspl annedf ormax i mum ef f i c i enc yands i mpl i c i t yofdes i gn.The hous ec ont ai nsas i gni f i c antc ol l ec t i onoff ur ni t ur edes i gnedbyMar c el Br euerand f abr i c at edi nt heBauhauswor k s hops .Wi t ht hef ami l y ' spos s es s i onss t i l l i npl ac e, t heGr opi usHous ehasas ens eofi mmedi ac yandi nt i mac y .


‘ 39/memor i al i sed/Fal l i ngwat er

Fal l i ngwat eri st henameofaver yspeci al houset hati sbui l toverawat er f al l .Fr anckLl oydWr i ght . Amer i ca’ smostf amousar chi t ect ,desi gnedt hehousef orhi scl i ent s,t heKauf mannf ami l i y.Fal l i ngwat erwasbui l tbet ween1936and1939.I ti nst ant l ybecamef amous,andt odayaNat i onal Hi st or i cLandmar k.


‘ 41/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l aMai r ea

Vi l l aMai r eai savi l l a,guest house,andr ur alr et r eatdesi gnedandbui l tbyt heFi nni shmoder ni st ar chi t ectAl varAal t of orHar r yandMai r eGul l i chseni nNoor mar kku,Fi nl and. TheGul l i chsenswer eaweal t hycoupl eandmember soft heAhl st r Ăśm f ami l y.Theyt ol dAal t ot hat heshoul dr egar di tas' anexper i ment alhouse' .Aal t oseemst ohavet r eat edt hehouseasan oppor t uni t yt obr i ngt oget heral lt het hemest hathadbeenpr eoccupyi nghi mi nhi swor kt ot hat poi ntbuthadnotbeenabl et oi ncl udet hem i nact ualbui l di ngs.


‘ 42/Memor i al i sed/Rodr i guezhouse

TheRodr i guezhousewasbui l tbyRodol fMi chalSChi ndl eri n1942. Theunconvent i onal pl an( bySanFr anci scost andar ds)put st hel i vi ngar eaatt het opoft hehouse t oenj oypanor ami cvi ewsoft heci t y,whi l et hemi ddl ef l oorbecomesaf l exi bl ear r angementof bedr ooms,awr i t i ngst udi o,andgal l er yar r angedar oundsl i di ngcher r ywoodwal l sandagl ass t r eadedst ai r case.Thegr oundf l oorhol dst wogar agesandast udi oaccessedf r om t her earyar d byaspi r alst ai r .


‘ 43/Memor i al i sed/bar wal oungechai r

Bar wa l ounge c hai r swer e des i gned i n 1943 bye.bar t ol uc c i& j .wal dhei m. " bar wai snotac hai r ,notabed,butanew andmoder nmet hodofs ec ur i ngand i ns ur i ngr el ax at i on. "( quot ef r om t hebar wapr omot i onalbr oc hur e) .af t ers t udy i ng att hei ns t i t ut eofdes i gni nc hi c ago,bar t ol uc c iandwal dhei mc r eat edt hei rown des i gns t udi oanddes i gnedt hebar wal ounge,namedaf t erbot ht hedes i gner s .


‘ 44/Memor i al i sed/NOGUCHIC. 1944

Thi st abl ewasdesi gnedbyI samuNoguchi i n1944.Thi scol l ect i onobj ectdesi gnedi nl i mi t edser i e dur i ngt heSecondWor l dWari nt heper f ecteampl eofa«memor i al i sed»obj ect .


‘ 45/Memor i al i sed/EamesChai r

Chai rShel lEx per i ment s ,wer edes i gnedi n1945byChar l esEames .Mol ded pl y wood,met al ,andr ubber .


‘ 46/Memor i al i sed/Kauf mandeser tHouse

Ri char dNeut r a’ sKauf manHouse( 1946)i npal m spr i ng,Cal i f or ni a,l ocat edat740W.Chi no CanyonRoad,Pal m spr i ngs. Ri char dNeut r adesi gnedt hi shousef ort hekauf manf ami l y.Thehousei sconsi der edapr i me exempl eofmoder ni sm,andwasmadef amousbyt hephot ogr aphbyJul i usShul man.


‘ 47/Memor i al i sed/Ni ghtl and

I samuNoguchi ' s" Ni ghtLand"i soneoft hef i r stpur el andscapesi nscul pt ur e.Cr eat edi n1947,i t i soneoft hebestexampl ef or«memor i al i sed»obj ect .


‘ 48/Memor i al i sed/CasaBar r agan

Thehousei sl ocat edatGener alFr anci scoRamí r ez12i nt heTacubayasubur bofMexi coCi t y. Theext er nal f açadei si nkeepi ngwi t ht hel owcl assnei ghbor hood:i twashi ghl yi mpor t antf orBar r agánnott ochanget heaspectofast r eet .Theent r ancehal l i squi t esmal l ,f or mi ngasi twer ean emot i onal st epbef or ef i nal l yencount er i ngt hehouseasBar r agándesi gnedi t ,whi chi nhi suseof vi vi dcol or( asheal waysdi d)st ar t st oamazeever yvi si t orwi t ht hef i r stcor r i dor ,whi chi saqui t e vi vi dpi nk,wi t hyel l owspaces. Oneoft hemosti mpor t antmat t er si nt hehousei st hel i ght :asBar r agánal wayshat edt heuseof cei l i ngi l l umi nat i on,t hehousei sl i t ,i fnotbynat ur al i l l umi nat i on,t henonl ywi t hsmal l l ampsal ways pl acedont opofasmal lt abl e.


‘ 49/Memor i al i sed/Jonhsongl asshouse

TheGl assHouseorJohnsonhouse,bui l ti n1949i nNewCanaan,Connect i cut ,wasdesi gnedby Phi l i pJohnsonashi sownr esi denceandi samast er pi ecei nt heuseofgl ass.I twasani mpor t ant andi nf l uent i al pr oj ectf orJohnsonandhi sassoci at eRi char dFost er ,andf ormoder nar chi t ect ur e. Thebui l di ngi sanessayi nmi ni malst r uct ur e,geomet r y,pr opor t i on,andt heef f ect soft r anspar encyandr ef l ect i on.Theest at ei ncl udesot herbui l di ngsdesi gnedbyJohnsont hatspanhi s car eer . Thehousei sanexampl eofoneoft heear l i estusesofi ndust r i almat er i al sl i kegl assandst eeli n homedesi gn.Johnsonl i vedatt heweekendr et r eatf or58year s,andsi nce1960wi t hhi sl ongt i me compani on,Davi dWhi t ney,anar tcr i t i candcur at orwhohel peddesi gnt hel andscapi ngandl ar gel ycol l ect edt hear tdi spl ayedt her e


‘ 50/Memor i al i sed/Akar il i ght

ak ar il i ghts c ul pt ur esbyi s amu noguc hiar e c ons i der ed i c onsof1950s moder ndes i gn. noguc his k et c hedt hef i r s tofhi smos twel l k nown wor k soft hi sk i nd-t he mul ber r ypaperandbambool ampsi n1950. handmadef orahal fc ent ur ybyt heor i gi nalmanuf ac t ur eri ngi f u,j apan,t he paperl ant er nsar eahar moni ousbl endofj apanes ehandc r af t ,memor i al i s ed andmoder ni s tf or m.


‘ 51/Memor i al i sed/Far nswor t hhouse

TheFar nswor t hHousei soneoft hemostsi gni f i cantofMi esvanderRohe’ swor ks,equali n i mpor t ancet osuchcanoni calmonument sast heBar cel onaPavi l i on.TheFar nswor t hHouse embodi esacer t ai naest het i ccul mi nat i oni nMi esvanderRohe’ sexper i mentwi t ht hi sbui l di ng t ype.Second,t hehousei sper hapst hef ul l estexpr essi onofmoder ni sti deal st hathadbeguni n Eur ope,butwhi chwer econsummat edi nPl ano,I l l i noi s.


‘ 52/Memor i al i sed/Kauf manDeser tHouse,

Locat edi nSect or10,Museum ofEvol ut i onofLi f ei nChandi gar hi sanawesomemuseum t hat gi vesaf abul ousr ecapoft hehi st or ybegi nni ngf r om t het i meofI ndusval l eyci vi l i zat i ont i l ldat e. Chandi gar hMuseum wasbui l tbyLeCor busi eri n1952.


‘ 53/Memor i al i s ed/Mai s onJ aoul

Mai sonsJaouli sacel ebr at edpai rofhousesi nt heupmar ketPar i ssubur bofNeui l l ysur Sei ne, desi gnedbyLeCor busi erandbui l ti n1953.Thebui l di ngswer edr awni n1937butwer eonl ybui l t post warf orAndr éJaoulandhi ssonMi chel .Thebui l di ngsar eoneoft hemosti mpor t antofhi s post warout putandf eat ur esar uggedaest hest i cofunpai nt edcastconcr et e" bet onbr ut "andr oughl ydet ai l edbr i ckwor k.I twasf orat i meownedbyEngl i shmi l l i onai r eLor dPal umbo.I tnow bel ongst ot wosi st er swhol i vet her ewi t ht hei rf ami l i es.TheMai sonsJaoulhavebeenpr ot ect ed byt heFr enchgover nmentashi st or i calmonument ssi nce1966,att her equestofAndr éMal r aux.


54/Memor i al i sed/JeanPr ouvéHouse

JeanPr ouvéi soneoft hegr eat estFr enchdesi gner soft he20t hcent ur y.Wor ki ngasacr af t sman, desi gner ,manuf act ur er ,ar chi t ect ,t eacherandengi neer ,hi scar eerspannedoversi xt yyear s. Wi t hr emar kabl eel eganceandeconomyofmeans,hedesi gnedpr ef abr i cat edhouses,bui l di ng component sandf açades,aswel lasf ur ni t ur ef ort hehome,of f i ceandschool . Fr om hi sear l ydays,Pr ouvéwasappr ent i cedasanar t i stbl acksmi t h,hammer i ngandshapi ng r edhotwr oughti r on.Hepr ogr essedt or unni ngast udi oandt henest abl i shedhi sownf act or yat Maxévi l l e,j ustout si deNancy,wher ehewor kedunt i l 1954.Dr i venbyt heconst antquestf ori nnovat i oni npr ocessanduseofmat er i al s,hi sbol d,r educedf or mswer ei nspi r edbyt hespar se aest het i cofai r cr af tandaut omobi l edesi gn.Pr ouvébel i evedi nt hepowerofdesi gnt omakea bet t erwor l d.Hef oughtf ort heFr enchRési st ance,r anhi sf act or yonsoci al i stpr i nci pl es,andsaw desi gnasamor ali ssue.


1955/Memor i al i sed/Chapel l edeRonchamp

Not r eDameduHautwast houghtofasamor eext r emedesi gnofLeCor busi er ’ sl at est yl e.The chapeli sasi mpl edesi gnwi t ht woent r ances,amai nal t ar ,andt hr eechapel sbeneat ht ower s. Al t hought hebui l di ngi ssmal l ,i ti spower f ulandcompl ex.Thechapeli st hel at estofchapel sat t hesi t e.Thepr evi ouschapelwascompl et el ydest r oyedt her edur i ngWor l dWarI I .Thepr evi ous bui l di ngwasa4t hcent ur yChr i st i anchapel .But ,att het i met henewbui l di ngwasbei ngconst r uct ed,Cor busi erwasn’ texact l yi nt er est edi n“ Machi neAge”ar chi t ect ur e.Hef el thi sst yl ewasmor e pr i mi t i veandscul pt ur al ,sohedeci dedt obui l dsomet hi ngmor ei nt er est i ng.


1955/Memor i al i sed/Chapel l edeRonchamp

Not r eDameduHautwast houghtofasamor eext r emedesi gnofLeCor busi er ’ sl at est yl e.The chapeli sasi mpl edesi gnwi t ht woent r ances,amai nal t ar ,andt hr eechapel sbeneat ht ower s. Al t hought hebui l di ngi ssmal l ,i ti spower f ulandcompl ex.Thechapeli st hel at estofchapel sat t hesi t e.Thepr evi ouschapelwascompl et el ydest r oyedt her edur i ngWor l dWarI I .Thepr evi ous bui l di ngwasa4t hcent ur yChr i st i anchapel .But ,att het i met henewbui l di ngwasbei ngconst r uct ed,Cor busi erwasn’ texact l yi nt er est edi n“ Machi neAge”ar chi t ect ur e.Hef el thi sst yl ewasmor e pr i mi t i veandscul pt ur al ,sohedeci dedt obui l dsomet hi ngmor ei nt er est i ng.


1956/Memor i al i sed/Egl i seSai ntJoseph

St .Joseph' sChur ch,LeHavr e,i saRomanCat hol i cchur chi nLeHavr e,Fr ance,bui l tbet ween 1951and1956aspar toft her econst r uct i onoft het ownofLeHavr e,whi chwasal mostent i r el y dest r oyeddur i ngWor l dWarI I .I tact sasamemor i al t ot hef i vet housandci vi l i answhodi edi nt he conf l i ct . Thechur chwasdesi gnedbyt hechi efar chi t ectf ort her econst r uct i onofLeHavr e,August e Per r et ,t eacherandment ort ot heSwi ssar chi t ectLeCor busi er .Thesombr ei nt er i ori si nt heNeoGot hi cst yl e.Thet oweri s107met r est al l andact sasabeaconvi si bl ef r om outatsea,especi al l y atni ghtwheni l l umi nat ed.


‘ 57/Memor i al i sed/Chi l d' sChai rKr i st i anVedel

Her ef oraver yni ceandr ar eki dschai r ,desi gnedbyKr i st i anSol merVedel f orOr skow&Ko,Denmar k1957.Thi si sf ort her egul arver si on,i thasani ceseatandnor malt abl epi ece.Al otofdi f f er entvar i et i eswer emadeoft hesechai r s.Thi swasmadeofhi ghqual i t ybeechpl ywoodscal e andhasr edcol or edseatandt op.Aver yni cel ooki ngki dschai randagoodDani shModer ncol l ect i bl e!Woul dl ookver ydecor at i vei nanyhome,eveni fyoudon’ thaveki ds.


1958/Memor i al i sed/Nor manCher nerchai r

The1958mol dedpl ywoodar mchai rbyNor manCher nerami dcent ur yi conf oundi ndesi gncol l ect i onswor l dwi dei snowavai l abl et oanewgener at i onoff ur ni t ur ecol l ect or s.Rei ssuedi nexact i ng det ai lf r om t heor i gi naldr awi ngsandmol ds,t hear mchai rcombi nest hebestofbot hmol ded pl ywoodandsol i dbentwoodconst r uct i on.Li ket heor i gi nal ,madeent i r el yi nt heU. S


1959/Memor i al i sed/Mai sonLoui sCar r é

Mai sonLoui sCar r énearPar i s,desi gnedbyt heFi nni shar chi t ectAl varAal t oatt heendoft he 1950s,i sbei ngof f i ci al l yopenedt ot hepubl i ct oday.Aal t odesi gnedt hehousef ort heFr enchar t deal erandcol l ect orLoui sCar r éandhi swi f eOl ga,andi twascompl et edi n1959.Aal t o’ sspouse El i ssaAal t oal socont r i but edext ensi vel yt ot hedesi gn.Thi smast er pi eceofmoder nar chi t ect ur e i sAal t o’ sonl yr emai ni ngbui l di ngi nFr ance,andoneofhi smostr emar kabl epr i vat evi l l as.” Thi si s ani nt egr at edwor kofar t ,combi ni ngbui l di ngs,gar den,f ur ni t ur e,andi nt er i ordesi gn,al li mpl ement edent i r el yaccor di ngt oAal t o’ sdesi gn” ,ent husedar chi t ectHanni Si ppof r om t heAl varAal t o Museum Ar chi t ect ur al Her i t ageonTuesdaypr i ort ot heof f i ci al openi ngt oFi nni shnewspaperHel si ngi nSanomat .


1960/Memor i al i sed/Sai nt eMar i edel aTour et t e

Undert hei nst i gat i onofMar i eAl ai nCout ur i ert heDomi ni cansofLyonchar gedLeCor busi erwi t h t het askofconst r uct i ngt hemonast er yi nasmal lval l eyatÉveux,nearLyon. Thebui l di ngscont ai nahundr edsl eepi ngr oomsf ort eacher sandst udent s,st udyhal l s,ahal lf or wor kandonef orr ecr eat i on,al i br ar yandar ef ect or y.Ther ei sal soachur ch,wher et hemonks pr act i ce,andt heci r cul at i on,whi chconnect sal l t hepar t s( t heachi evementoft het r adi t i onal cl oi st erf or mi sr ender edi mpossi bl eher ebyt hesl opeoft er r ai n) .Ont wol evel s,t hel oggi ascr owni ng t hebui l di ng( onef oreachacoust i cal l yi sol at edmonk' scel l )f or m br i sessol ei l .Thest udyhal l s, wor kandr ecr eat i onhal l s,aswel last hel i br ar yoccupyt heupper l evel .Bel ow ar et her ef ect or y andt hecl oi st eri nt hef or m ofacr ossl eadi ngt ot hechur ch.Andt hencomet hepi l escar r yi ngt he f ourconventbui l di ngsr i si ngf r om t hesl opeoft het er r ai nl ef ti ni t sor i gi nal condi t i on,wi t houtt er r aci ng. Thest r uct ur al f r amei sofr oughr ei nf or cedconcr et e.Thepanesofgl assl ocat edont het hr eeext er i orf aces,t hesocal l ed" pansdever r eondul at oi r e"( " undul at i nggl asssur f aces" ) ,wer edesi gned byXenaki s,andar esi mi l art ot hoseoft heSecr et ar i atatChandi gar honwhi chXenaki sal so wor ked.Ont heot herhand,i nt hegar dencour toft hecl oi st er ,t hef enest r at i oni scomposedof l ar geconcr et eel ement sr eachi ngf r om f l oort ocei l i ng,per f or at edwi t hgl azedvoi dsandsepar at ed f r om oneanot herby" vent i l at or s" :ver t i calsl i t scover edbymet almosqui t onet t i ngandf ur ni shed wi t hapi vot i ngshut t er .Thecor r i dor sl eadi ngt ot hedwel l i ngcel l sar el i tbyahor i zont alopeni ng l ocat edundert hecei l i ng. Bui l tasaChapel ,r esi denceandpl aceofl ear ni ngf orDomi ni canf r i ar s,t hemonast er ygr oups ar oundacent r alcour t yar daUshapedmass,andt hecour ti scl osedof fbyt hechapelatt heend. AtLaTour et t emanyaspect sofCor busi er ' sdevel opedar chi t ect ur alvocabul ar yar evi si bl e–t he ver t i cal br i sesol ei l susedwi t hef f ecti nI ndi a,l i ght cannonspi er ci ngsol i dmasonr ywal l s,andwi ndowopeni ngssepar at edbyModul or cont r ol l edver t i cal di vi si ons.I ncont r astwi t hRonchamp,t he bui l di ngdoesnotcr ownandcompl ementt hesi t e,buti nst eaddomi nat est hel andscapecomposi t i on. I ft her ei shar mony,i ti si nt hef i ni shest hati nt hei rr oughnessandnear br ut al i t ybet r aysome empat hywi t ht hel i f eofamonk.LaTour et t emakesnocl ai mt ot heef f et ebour geoi sl i f est yl e embodi edatt heVi l l aSavoye;i t sant ecedent s,i fanyt hi ng,ar et heGr eekmonast er i esofMount At hosandanal mostmyt hol ogi calhi st or y.


‘ 61/Memor i al i sed/Car pent erCent er

TheCar pent erCent erf ort heVi sualAr t satHar var dUni ver si t y,i nCambr i dge,Massachuset t si s t heonl ybui l di ngact ual l ybui l tbyLeCor busi eri nt heUni t edSt at es,andoneofonl yt woi nt he Amer i cas( t heot heri st heCur ut chetHousei nLaPl at a,Ar gent i na) .LeCor busi erdesi gnedi twi t h t hecol l abor at i onofChi l eanar chi t ectGui l l er moJul l i andel aFuent e.


1962/Memor i al i sed/VanaVent ur ihouse

Whenar chi t ectRober tVent ur ibui l tt hi shomef orhi smot her ,heshockedt hewor l d.Post moder n i nst yl e,t heVannaVent ur ihousef l ew i nt hef aceofModer ni sm andchangedt hewaywet hi nk aboutar chi t ect ur e. Thedesi gnofVannaVent ur i Houseappear sdecept i vel ysi mpl e.Al i ghtwoodf r amei sdi vi dedby ar i si ngchi mney.Thehousehasasenseofsymmet r y,yett hesymmet r yi sof t endi st or t ed.For exampl e,t hef aรงadei sbal ancedwi t hf i vewi ndowsquar esoneachsi de.Thewayt hewi ndowsar e ar r anged,however ,i snotsymmet r i cal .Consequent l y,t hevi eweri smoment ar i l yst ar t l edand di sor i ent ed.I nsi det hehouse,t hest ai r caseandchi mneycompet ef ort hemai ncent erspace.Bot h unexpect edl ydi vi det of i tar oundeachot her .


‘ 63/Memor i al i sed/Égl i seSai nt Jul i endeCaen

Theol dchur chdest r oyedi n1944,wasr epl acedbyt hi smoder nconst r uct i oni n1963byHenr y Ber nar d.Thesanct uar ywal lwi t hanel l i pt i calpl an,f or msacameswher et hedaysmakeupt he manysi desofani mmensesombr est ai nedgl asswi ndow.


‘ 64/Memor i al i sed/LosAngel esCount yMuseum ofAr t

TheLosAngel esCount yMuseum ofAr t( LACMA)i sanar tmuseum i nLosAngel esbui l ti n1964 by Wi l l i am Per ei r a,Cal i f or ni a.I ti sl ocat edonWi l shi r eBoul evar dal ongMuseum Row i nt he Mi r acl eMi l evi ci ni t yofLosAngel es,adj acentt ot heGeor geC.PageMuseum andLaBr eaTar Pi t s. LACMAi st hel ar gestencycl opedi cmuseum westofChi cagoandat t r act snear l yonemi l l i onvi si t or sannual l y.I t shol di ngsi ncl udemor et han100, 000wor ksspanni ngt hehi st or yofar tf r om anci entt i mest ot hepr esent .I naddi t i ont oar texhi bi t s,t hemuseum f eat ur esf i l m andconcer t ser i est hr oughoutt heyear .


1967/Memor i al i sed/Nor manFi sherhouse

Nor manFi sherHousei sahousedesi gnedbyLoui sI .Kahni n1967.Thehousel ocat edatPhi l adel phi a,Pennsyl vani a.I tusi ngst onemasonr yasbaseandwoodf r ami ngast hewal l s.Buti thas wei r ddesi gn,t woboxconnect edeachot heront hewr ongpl ace,makei tnotsymmet r i cal .Popul ar Desi gn: nor manf i sherhousef i sherhousel oui skahnf i sherhousekahncasanor manf i sher nor man f i sherhousel oui skahnFi sherhousenor man.


1968/Memor i al i sed/NeueNat i onal gal er i e

Bui l ti n1968byLudvi gMi esVanderRohe,t heNeueNat i onal gal er i ewast hef i r stbui l di ngcompl et edasapar tofBer l i n’ sKul t ur f or um,acl ust erofbui l di ngsdedi cat edt ocul t ur eandt hef i near t s. Thear chi t ect ur eoft hemuseum i s,accor di ngt oi t sadmi r er s,apower f ul andexpr essi veobj ecti n i t sel f .Near l yal loft hemuseum' scol l ect i onsar el ocat edwi t hi ni nast onepodi um,sol i dt opr ot ect t hear tf r om damagi ngdayl i ght ,par t i al l yi nt hegr oundoft hesl opi ngsi t e,wi t hwi ndowsonl yon onesi def aci ngawal l edscul pt ur egar den. Ami ni mal i stst eelandgl asspavi l i on,l ocat edont hepavedr oofpl azaabovet hepodi um,ser ves ast heent r ancel obbyandt hespeci alexhi bi tgal l er y.Thepavi l i on,whi l easmal lpar toft he museum,i st hepr i mar yar chi t ect ur alexpr essi on.I t ' sst r uct ur econsi st sofal ar gest eelr oofdeck suppor t edbyei ghtext er i orcol umns,cr eat i nganef f ectofashel t erwi t hasi ngl ef l oat i ngpl ane. Lar gegl asssheet st hatdef i net hei nt er i orspacear esetf arbackf r om t her oofedges,f r amedby del i cat est eelmul l i ons. Thegl asswal l sandt heel i mi nat i onofal l i nt er i orcol umnsemphasi zest hei deaoff r eespaceasa pl acef orar t i st st opr esentt hei rwor k,unencumber edbyt henecessi t yofashel t ert opr ot ectvi si t or sandcont ent sf r om t heel ement s.Nat ur all i ghtt r ansmi t t edt hr ought hesewal l sr ef l ect sof ft he dar k,hi ghl ypol i shedf l oor ,emphasi zi ngt heext ensi onofspacebeyondt heboundar i esoft hei nt er i or ,asymbol i cr emoval ofsol i dwal l sasbar r i er s.Thepodi um r oofpl azai si t sel fanot heropenai r gal l er yf orpubl i cscul pt ur e,ext endi ngt heexhi bi tspaceoft hepavi l i ont ot heout si de.


‘ 69/Memor i al i sed/Fami l y’ sbr i oncemet er y

TheBr i onCemet er yi si nSanVi t od' Al t i vol enearTr evi so,I t al y.Car l oScar pa( 19091978)desi gnedt headdi t i ont oapr evi ouscemet er yi n1969.Thecemet er yi samonument alt ombdesi gned f orBr i onf ami l y,f ounderoft heBr i onvegagr oup.Scar pahi msel fi sbur i edi nt hi scemet er yi nawel l hi ddenspot ,wi t hi nt hei nt er st i t i alspacecr eat edbyt hewal l soft heol dandnewcemet er i es.The si t eal soi ncl udesasmal lchapelwi t haspeci alent r ancef orcasket s.


1970/Memor i al i sed/Cat hedr alofBr así l i a

TheCat hedr alofBr asi l i a,of f i ci al l yt heMet r opol i t anCat hedr alofOurLadyApar eci da( Cat edr al Met r opol i t anaNossaSenhor aApar eci da) ,dedi cat edt ot heBl essedVi r gi nMar yunderhert i t l eof OurLadyofApar eci da,pr ocl ai medbyt heChur chasQueenandPat r onessofBr azi l ,i sanexpr essi onoft hear chi t ectOscarNi emeyer . Thi sconcr et ef r amedhyper bol oi dst r uct ur e,seemswi t hi t sgl assr ooft ober eachi ngup,open,t o heaven.OnMay31,1970,t heCat hedr al ’ sst r uct ur ewasf i ni shed,andonl yt he70m di amet erof t heci r cul arar eawer evi si bl e.Ni emeyer ' spr oj ectofCat hedr al ofBr así l i ai sbasedi nt hehyper bol oi dofr evol ut i onwhi chsect i onsar easymmet r i c.Thehyper bol oi dst r uct ur ei t sel fi sar esul tof16 i dent i calassembl edconcr et ecol umns.Thesecol umns,havi nghyper bol i csect i onandwei ghi ng 90t ,r epr esentt wohandsmovi ngupwar dst oheaven.TheCat hedr alwasdedi cat edonMay31, 1970.Thear chi t ect ur ewasar guabl yi nspi r edbyt hedesi gnofLi ver poolMet r opol i t anCat hedr al .


1971/Memor i al i sed/Fr anckGer hyr ocki ngchai r

Auni queanddi st i nct i veFr ankGehr yr ocki ngchai rwasdesi gnedi n1971.Thi shasbeenowned byoneper sonsi ncei twasmade.Thepi ecei smadeoft hi ckcor r ugat edmat er i alandt hesi des ar emasoni t e.Iwast ol dt hi spi ecei soneofal i mi t ededi t i onof9.


1972/Memor i al i sed/Ki mbel lAr tMuseum

TheKi mbel l Ar tMuseum i nFor tWor t h,Texas,host sasmal l butexcel l entar tcol l ect i onaswel l as t r avel i ngar texhi bi t i ons,educat i onal pr ogr amsandanext ensi ver esear chl i br ar y.I t si ni t i al ar t wor k camef r om t hepr i vat ecol l ect i onofKayandVel maKi mbel l ,whoal sopr ovi dedf undsf oranew bui l di ngt ohousei t . Thebui l di ngwasdesi gnedbyr enownedar chi t ectLoui sI .Kahnandi swi del yr ecogni zedasone oft hemostsi gni f i cantwor ksofar chi t ect ur eofr ecentt i mes.I ti sespeci al l ynot edf ort hewashof si l ver ynat ur all i ghtacr ossi t svaul t edgal l er ycei l i ngs.


‘ 73/Memor i al i sed/SydneyOper aHouse

TheSydneyOper aHousei samul t i venueper f or mi ngar t scent r ei nt heAust r al i anci t yofSydney. I twasconcei vedandl ar gel ybui l tbyDani shar chi t ectJør nUt zon,whor ecei vedt hePr i t zkerPr i ze, ar chi t ect ur e' shi ghesthonour ,i n2003. The SydneyOper a House i sa moder n expr essi oni stdesi gn,wi t h a ser i esofl ar ge pr ecast concr et e" shel l s" , eachcomposedofsect i onsofaspher eof75. 2met r e( 246f t8½ i n)r adi us,f or mi ngt her oof soft hest r uct ur e,setonamonument alpodi um.Thebui l di ngcover s1. 8hect ar es ( 4. 5acr es)ofl andandi s183met r es( 605f t )l ongand120met r es( 388f t )wi deati t swi destpoi nt . I ti ssuppor t edon588concr et epi er ssunkasmuchas25met r esbel owseal evel .


‘ 74/Memor i al i sed/Jat i yoSangshadBhaban

Jat i yoSangsadBhabani st heNat i onalAssembl yBui l di ngofBangl adesh,l ocat edi nt hecapi t al Dhaka.I twascr eat edbyar chi t ectLoui sI .Kahnandi soneoft hel ar gestl egi sl at i vecompl exesi n t hewor l d.I thousesal lpar l i ament ar yact i vi t i esofBangl adesh. Kahn' skeydesi gnphi l osophyopt i mi zest heuseofspacewhi l er epr esent i ngBangl adeshiher i t ageandcul t ur e.Ext er nall i nesar edeepl yr ecessedbypor t i coeswi t hhugeopeni ngsofr egul ar geomet r i cshapesont hei rext er i or ,shapi ngt hebui l di ng' sover al lvi suali mpact .


‘ 75/Memor i al i sed/Mi ckJagger

AndyWar hol-Mi ckJaggersi l kscr eenpr i nt s,si gnedi npenbyAndyWar holbet ween1975and 1976,t hesepr i nt ssol dasl i mi t ededi t i onst opr i vat ecol l ect or s.


‘ 76/Memor i al i sed/Azumahouse

Oneoft heear l i estwor ksoft hesel f t aughtar chi t ectTadaoAndoi st heAzumaHouse( 1976)i n Sumi yoshi ,wher et hehousei sspl i ti nt oaspacesdevot edt odai l yl i f e( composedofanaust er e geomet r y)byt hei nser t i onofanabst r actspacef ort hegamesofwi ndandl i ght .Hi sgoal ,hesays, wast oi nt r oduceaquest i onont hei ner t i at hathasi nvadedhumandwel l i ngs. Ther ei nf or cedconcr et eusedi nt hi shousei spr esent edast heor nament at i onf ort hef acade.


1977/Memor i al i sed/Cent r eGeor gesPompi dou

TheCent r eGeor gesPompi douwasdesi gnedbyt heI t al i anar chi t ectRenzoPi ano,t heBr i t i sh ar chi t ectcoupl eRi char dRoger sandSuRoger s,Gi anf r ancoFr anchi ni ,t heBr i t i shst r uct ur al engi neerEdmundHappol d( whowoul dl at erf oundBur oHappol d) ,andI r i shst r uct ur al engi neerPet er Ri ce.Thepr oj ectwasawar dedt ot hi st eam i nanar chi t ect ur aldesi gncompet i t i on,whoser esul t s wer eannouncedi n1971.Repor t i ngonRoger s' wi nni ngt hePr i t zkerPr i zei n2007,TheNewYor k Ti mesnot edt hatt hedesi gnoft heCent r e" t ur nedt hear chi t ect ur ewor l dupsi dedown"andt hat " Mr .Roger sear nedar eput at i onasahi ght echi conocl astwi t ht hecompl et i onoft he1977Pompi douCent r e,wi t hi t sexposedskel et onofbr i ght l ycol or edt ubesf ormechani cal syst ems.ThePr i t zkerj ur ysai dt hePompi dou" r evol ut i oni zedmuseums,t r ansf or mi ngwhathadoncebeenel i t e monument si nt opopul arpl acesofsoci alandcul t ur alexchange,woveni nt ot hehear toft heci t y. I ni t i al l y,al loft hef unct i onalst r uct ur alel ement soft hebui l di ngwer ecol or coded:gr eenpi pesar e pl umbi ng,bl ueduct sar ef orcl i mat econt r ol ,el ect r i cal wi r esar eencasedi nyel l ow,andci r cul at i on el ement sanddevi cesf orsaf et yar er ed.However ,r ecentvi si t ssuggest st hatt hi scol orcodi ng hasbeenpar t i al l yr emoved,andmanyoft heel ement sar esi mpl ypai nt edwhi t e.


‘ 78/Memor i al i sed/Ger hyhouse

Fr ankGehr y' sownhousei nLosAngel esi sr at heracol l i si onofpar t s,bui l tt ost aybutwi t hadel i ber at el yunf i ni shed,or di nar ybui l der l i kesensi bi l i t yofpar t s.Anexi st i ngandver ypedest r i ant wost or ygambr el r oof edcl apboar dr esi dencehadmuchofi t si nt er i orr emovedandwal l sst r i pped backt ot hei ror i gi nalt woby-f ourst udf r ame,beams,andr af t er s.I twast henexpandedbywr appi ngt heol dhousewi t hamet alsl i pcovercr eat i nganewsetofspacesar oundi t sper i met er . Theant i r ef i nementt ypeencl osur ei sbui l toft hemostmundanemat er i al s,cor r ugat edal umi num met alsi di ng,pl ywood,gl assandchai nl i nkf enci ng,anddel i ber at el yhasr andoml ysl ant edl i nes andangl edpr ot r usi ons


‘ 79/Memor i al i sed/NewHar mony' sAt heneum

New Har mony' sAt heneum i st hevi si t orcent erf orNew Har mony,I ndi ana.I ti snamedf ort he Gr eekAt henai on,whi chwasat empl ededi cat edt oAt henai nanci entGr eece. [ 1]Fundedbyt he I ndi anapol i sLi l l yEndowmenti n1976,wi t ht hehel poft heKr anner tChar i t abl eTr ust ,i twas openedonOct ober10,1979. Thear chi t ectwasRi char dMei er ,whoseot herwor ksi ncl udet heGet t yCent eri nLosAngel es, Cal i f or ni a.Wheni topenedi n1979i twont hePr ogr essi veAr chi t ect ur eAwar d,andi n1982won t heAmer i canI nst i t ut eofAr chi t ect s( AI A)HonorAwar d.I n2008i twont heAI A' spr est i gi ousTwent yf i veYearAwar d,whi chi sgi vent onomor et hanonebui l di ngperyear .Ar chi t ectPet erEi senmannnomi nat edt heAt heneum f ort hi sawar dbecausei twas" awonder f ul l ypur eexampl eoft he r ecur r i ngt hemesamong( Mei er ' s)subst ant i aloeuvr e;i ti sacl assi c' Mei er ' desi gn. "


‘ 80/Memor i al i sed/Tower42

TheNat i onalWest mi nst erTower ' sst at usast hef i r stskyscr aperi nt heCi t ywasacoupf or Nat West ,butwasext r emel ycont r over si alatt het i me,asi twasamaj ordepar t ur ef r om t hepr evi ousr est r i ct i onsont al lbui l di ngsi nLondon. Theor i gi nal conceptdat esbackt ot heear l y1960s,pr edat i ngt hef or mat i onoft heNat i onal West mi nst erBank.Thesi t ewast hent heheadquar t er soft heNat i onalPr ovi nci alBank,wi t hof f i cesi n Ol dBr oadSt r eetbacki ngont oi t sf l agshi pbr anchat15Bi shopsgat e.Ear l ydesi gnsenvi sageda t owerof137m ( 450f t ) ;t hi sdevel opedi nt oadesi gnwi t ha197m ( 647f t )t owerasi t scent r epi ece, pr oposedi n1964byar chi t ectCol onelRi char dSei f er t . Thepl anat t r act edopposi t i on,par t i cul ar l ybecauseoft hepr oposeddemol i t i onoft he19t hcent ur y bankbui l di ngat15Bi shopsgat e,whi chdat edf r om 1865andwasdesi gnedbyar chi t ectJohn Gi bson.Thef i naldesi gnpr eser vedt heGi bsonbanki nghal landt het ower ' shei ghtwasr educed t o183m ( 600f t ) .


‘ 81/Memor i al i sed/Nat i onalPal aceofCul t ur e

TheNat i onal Pal aceofCul t ur e,l ocat edi nSof i a,t hecapi t al ofBul gar i a,i st hel ar gestmul t i f unct i onalcongr ess,conf er ence,convent i on and exhi bi t i on cent r ei n Sout heast er n Eur ope.I twas openedi n1981. I nJul y2005,t heNat i onal Pal aceofCul t ur ewaspr ocl ai medt hebestcongr esscent r ei nt hewor l d f ort heyearbyt heI nt er nat i onalOr gani zat i onofCongr essCent r es. Thecongr esscent r ehasawi devar i et yoft echni calequi pmentati t sdi sposali nor dert ohostdi f f er entt ypesofevent s,suchasconcer t s,conf er ences,exhi bi t i onsandshows.I thasanar eaof 123, 000m²onei ghtf l oor sandt hr eeunder gr oundl evel s.TheNat i onalPal aceofCul t ur ehas13 hal l sand15, 000m²ofexhi bi t i onar ea,at r adecent r eandacarpar k.Sof i aFi l m Fest ,anannual f i l mf est i valhel di nt hecapi t alofBul gar i a,Sof i at akespl acei nNDK.


1982/Memor i al i sed/Chai seCost es

Thi sf amouschai rdesi gnedbyPhi l i ppeSt ar ckwasor i gi nal l ydesi gnedi n1982f orCaf ĂŠCost esi n Par i s.I twasdesi gnedwi t ht hr eel egssot hatwai t er satt hecaf ĂŠwoul dnothaveasmanyl egst o t r i pover !Bl ackl acquer edst eel f r amewi t hacur vedbeechl acquer edback.Leat hercover edpol yur et hanef oam cushi on.


‘ 83/Memor i al i sed/Eat onCent er

Eat on' s,whi chwasonceCanada' sl ar gestdepar t mentst or echai n,par t ner edwi t hdevel opment compani est hr oughoutt he1970sand1980st odevel opdownt ownshoppi ngmal l si nci t i esacr oss Canada.Eachmal l cont ai nedanEat on' sst or e,orwasi ncl osepr oxi mi t yt oanEat on' sst or e,and t ypi cal l yt hemal l i t sel fcar r i edt he" Eat onCent r e"name.Thesej oi nt vent ur esr epr esent edasi gni f i cantr et ai ldevel opmentt r endi nCanadadur i ngt hatper i od.


‘ 84/Memor i al i sed/Gr aceKel l y

«Gr aceKel l y1984»wasmadebyAndyWar hol i n1984.I twasexposedi nt heI nst i t ut eofCont empor ar yAr t ,Uni ver si t yofPennsyl vani awi t ht heconsentoft hePr i ncessGr aceFoundat i on( USA) , NewYor k.


‘ 85/Memor i al i sed/Col umbi aCent er

Thebaseoft hebui l di ngi scl adi nRosaPur i noCar nel i angr ani t e.Thebui l di ng' sst r uct ur ei scomposedoft hr eegeomet r i cconcavef acades,causi ngt hebui l di ngt oappearl i ket hr eet ower sst andi ngsi debysi de. Thet owerwasor i gi nal l ydesi gnedt obeabout1, 005f eet( 306. 5met er s)t al l ,butf eder alr egul at i onsbyt heFAAwoul dnotal l owi tt obet hatt al lsocl oset ot henear bySeaTacAi r por t .Pr ol i f i c Seat t l ear eadevel operMar t i nSel i g( b.1936)used" publ i cameni t i es, "suchasr et ai lspaceand publ i car eas,as" bonuses"t ocompl ywi t hl andusecoder equi r ement si ncl udi ngt hoser el at i ngt o hei ght .Ther ei sanobser vat i ondeckont he73r df l oorwhi chof f er svi ewsofSeat t l eandenvi r ons. Thet opt wof l oor soft hebui l di ng( 75t hand76t h)ar eoccupi edbyt hepr i vat eCol umbi aTower Cl ub,whi chhousesar est aur ant ,bar ,l i br ar y,andmeet i ngr ooms.Anunder gr oundconcour se connect st hebui l di ngt ot henear bySeat t l eMuni ci palTowerandBankofAmer i caFi f t hAvenue Pl aza.


1986/Memor i al i sed/MountRokkoChapel

Thi ssmal l weddi ngChapel desi gnedbyTadaoAndoi sl ocat edhi ghaboveKobe,JapanonMount Rokko,di scr et el yt ucked behi nd a nondescr i ptadj acenthot el .Ando usest he mat er i al sof concr et e,gl assandl i ghtt ocr eat eapower f ulspi r i t ualpl acet hr oughar i chspat i alsequenceof l i ghtanddar kness,di r ectandi ndi r ectnat ur all i ght . Thechapel i sanal mostsquar econcr et evol umet hati sf l ankedbyanadj oi ni ngver t i cal bel l t ower andat unneloft r ansl ucentgl ass.Toaccesst hechapeloneent er sf r om abackexi toft hehot el , pastasmal lpondandi nt oal ongt unneloff r ost edgl asswhi chi sf l oodedwi t hami l kywhi t el i ght . Theendoft het unneli sopenwi t havi ewofnat ur e,butnosi gnofachapel . Theal t arspaceseemst obemagi cal l yi l l umi nat edbyl i ghtt hatf al l sf r om anunseensl i ti nt hecei l i ngabovei tandbyal ongandski nnyver t i calwi ndowt ot hesi deofi t .Thel i ght bat hedconcr et e wal l schangef or m overt i me,t hr ought hepassageofl i ght ,const ant l yani mat i ngandr edef i ni ngt he space.Thedi al oguebet weenhar d,di r ectl i ghtf r om t heext er i or‘ r oom’ andt hesof t ,abst r actl i ght cr eat esaspacet hathast hepowert ot r anscendandt r ansf or m andt henbr i ngonebackt ot he physi calwor l d.


‘ 87/Memor i al i sed/Ar abWor l dI nst i t ut e

TheI nst i t utduMondeAr abe( I MA)orAr abWor l dI nst i t ut e( AWI ) ,i nEngl i sh,wasest abl i shedi n 1987i nPar i s,when18Ar abcount r i esconcl udedanagr eementwi t hFr ancet oest abl i sht heI nst i t ut et odi ssemi nat ei nf or mat i onaboutt heAr abwor l dandseti nmot i ondet ai l edr esear cht ocover Ar abi candt heAr abwor l d' scul t ur alandspi r i t ualval ues. TheI nst i t ut eal soai msatpr omot i ngcooper at i onandcul t ur al exchangesbet weenFr anceandt he Ar abwor l d,par t i cul ar l yi nt hear easofsci enceandt echnol ogy,t huscont r i but i ngt odevel opment ofr el at i onsbet weent heAr abwor l dandEur ope.


‘ 88/Memor i al i sed/Lat i nAmer i caMemor i al

TheLat i nAmer i c aMemor i al( i nPor t ugues e,Memor i aldaAmér i c aLat i na)i sa c ul t ur al ,pol i t i c alandl ei s ur ec ompl ex ,bui l ti n1988andi naugur at edi n1989,i n SãoPaul o,Br az i l .Thear c hi t ec t ur als et t i ng,des i gnedbyOs c arNi emey er ,i sa monumentt ot hec ul t ur al ,pol i t i c al ,s oc i al andec onomi ci nt egr at i onofLat i nAmer i c a,s panni nganar eaof84, 482s quar emet er s .I t sc ul t ur alpr oj ec twasdev el opedbyBr az i l i anant hr opol ogi s tDar c yRi bei r o.I ti sapubl i cf oundat i on,f i nanc i al l yandadmi ni s t r at i v el yaut onomous ,mai nt ai nedbyt hes t at egov er nment .


1989/Memor i al i sed/Pyr ami deduLouvr e

TheLouvr ePyr ami d( Pyr ami deduLouvr e)i sal ar gegl assandmet alpyr ami d,sur r oundedby t hr eesmal l erpyr ami ds,i nt hemai ncour t yar d( CourNapol ĂŠon)oft heLouvr ePal ace( Pal ai sdu Louvr e)i nPar i s.Thel ar gepyr ami dser vesast hemai nent r ancet ot heLouvr eMuseum.Desi gnedandCompl et edi n1989byLeoMi ngPei ,i thasbecomeal andmar koft heci t yofPar i s.


1990/Memor i al i sed/Vi l l ad’ Al lavas

Thevi l l abui l tbyRem Khool aasi ssi t uat edonahi l lwhi chsl opesst eepl yt owar dt heSei ne,t he Boi sdeBoul ogne,andt heci t yofPar i s,i nt her esi dent i alar eaofSai ntCl oud-anei ghbour hood char act er i sedby19t hcent ur yhousesi nacl assi cal" Monet "l andscape. Thecl i entwant edagl asshousewi t haswi mmi ngpool ont her oofandt wosepar at e" apar t ment s" -onef ort hepar ent s,t heot herf ort hedaught er .Theyal sowant edapanor ami cvi ew-f r om t hei r swi mmi ngpool-oft hesur r oundi ngl andscapeandt heci t yofPar i s. Thesi t ei sl i keabi gr oom,wi t haboundar ymadeofgr eener y,gar denwal l sandsl opes.I ti scomposedoft hr eepar t s:asl opi nggar den,t hemai nvol umeoft hevi l l a,t hest r eetl evelgar agewi t h accessi nacavi t y. Thehousei sconcei vedasagl asspavi l i oncont ai ni ngl i vi nganddi ni ngar eas,wi t ht wohover i ng, per pendi cul arapar t ment sshi f t edi nopposi t edi r ect i onst oexpl oi tt hevi ew.Theyar ej oi nedbyt he swi mmi ngpoolwhi chr est sont heconcr et est r uct ur eencasedbyt hegl asspavi l i on.


‘ 91/Memor i al i sed/Ni t er óiCont empor ar yAr tMuseum

TheNi t er óiCont empor ar yAr tMuseum ( MuseudeAr t eCont empor âneadeNi t er ói— MAC)i s si t uat edi nt heci t yofNi t er ói ,Ri odeJanei r o,Br azi l ,andi soneoft heci t y’ smai nl andmar ks.I txas desi gnedi n1991andcompl et edi n1996. Desi gnedbyOscarNi emeyerwi t ht heassi st anceofst r uct ur al engi neerBr unoCont ar i ni ,whohad wor kedwi t hNi emeyeronear l i erpr oj ect s,t heMACNi t er ói i s16met er shi gh;i t scupol ahasadi amet erof50met r eswi t ht hr eef l oor s.Themuseum pr oj ect si t sel foverBoaVi agem ( “ BonVoyage, ” “ GoodJour ney” ) ,t he817squar emet r er ef l ect i ngpoolt hatsur r oundst hecyl i ndr i calbase“ l i kea f l ower , ”i nt hewor dsofNi emeyer .


‘ 92/Memor i al i sed/Kunst hal

TheKunst hal i samuseum i nRot t er dam,whi chopenedi t sdoor si n1992.Themuseum i ssi t uat ed i nt heMuseumpar kofRot t er dam nextt ot heNat uur hi st or i schMuseum Rot t er dam,andi nt hevi ci ni t yoft heMuseum Boi j mansVanBeuni ngen.Ent r ancet ot heKunst hali sf r om t heWest zeedi j k. Thebui l di ngwasdesi gnedbyt hear chi t ectRem Kool haas.


1993/Memor i al i sed/Car r éd’ ar t

TheCar r éd' ar tatNî mesi nsout her nFr ancehousesamuseum ofcont empor ar yar tandt heci t y' s l i br ar y.Const r uct edofgl ass,concr et eandst eel ,i tf acest heMai sonCar r ée,aper f ect l ypr eser ved Romant empl et hatdat esf r om t he1stcent ur yBC. Thebui l di ngwasconst r uct edaspar tofapr oj ectt or ef ur bi sht hesquar ei nwhi cht heMai son Car r éest ands,andpr ovi deanewset t i ngf ort heanci entt empl e. I n1984,t wel vear chi t ect s,i ncl udi ngFr ankGehr y,JeanNouvelandCésarPel l iwer ei nvi t edt o submi tpr oposal sf ort hemuseum.Adesi gnbyt heBr i t i shar chi t ectNor manFost erwassel ect ed, andt hebui l di ngwasopenedi nMay1993. Thebui l di ngi sani nest or eyst r uct ur e,hal fofwhi chi ssunkdeepi nt ot hegr ound,keepi ngt hebui l di ng' spr of i l el owi nsympat hywi t ht hescal eoft hesur r oundi ngbui l di ngs.Thel owerl evel shouse ar chi vest or ageandaci nema.


1994/Memor i al i sed/STMOMA

SFMOMAi sacl assi cMar i oBot t abui l di ng:i ti sbi g,br oadchest edandver yst r ong.Locat edi na denseur banenvi r onment ,i t sst r ongsymmet r y,bol dmassi ngandheavymasonr yal l owi tt ohol d i t sownamongt hesur r oundi ngbui l di ngst hatar emanyt i mesi t ssi ze.Just i nHender son,aut horof a bookon t he bui l di ng,wr i t es:“ Bot t a’ sbui l di ng f orSFMOMA der i vesi t spowerf r om many sour ces:t hemast er l yor chest r at i onofpur egeomet r i cf or m onagr andscal e,t hei nt egr at i onof pl ai nmat er i al ssuchasbr i ckandsheet r ockwi t ht her i chert ext ur esofst oneandmar bl e,andt he subt l ewor ki ngsofl i ghti nel egant ,wel l pr opor t i onedgal l er i es. ”Fr om t heext er i or ,t hesi gnat ur e el ementi st het r uncat ed,zebr ast r i pedcyl i ndert hatr i sesoutoft her edbr i ckbase.Thi s“ t ur r et ”i s t oppedwi t hasl opedgl assskyl i ght ,cr eat i ngagl owi ngl ant er natni ghtandpr ovi di ngdayl i ghti nt o t hehear toft hebui l di ngbyday.


1995/Memor i al i sed/Cat hédr al edel ar ésur r ect i ond’ Evr y

Évr yCat hedr al ,t obededi cat edt oSai ntCor bi ni an,wast her ef or especi al l ycommi ssi onedf r om t heSwi ssar chi t ectMar i oBot t a.I ti st heonl ypur posebui l tcat hedr al i nFr anceoft he20t hcent ur y. Const r uct i onbegani n1992andt hebui l di ngwasopenedt ot hepubl i con11Apr i l 1995,dedi cat ed onEast erDay1996,andvi si t edbyPopeJohnPaul I Ion22August1997.I thasnowsuper seded Cor bei lCat hedr al .


1996/Memor i al i sed/Bi bl i ot hèqueFr ançoi sMi t t er r and

On14Jul y1988,Pr esi dentFr ançoi sMi t t er r andannouncedt heconst r uct i onandt heexpansi onof oneoft hel ar gestandmostmoder nl i br ar i esi nt hewor l d,i nt endedt ocoveral l f i el dsofknowl edge, anddesi gnedt obeaccessi bl et oal l ,usi ngt hemostmoder ndat at r ansf ert echnol ogi es,whi ch coul dbeconsul t edf r om adi st ance,andwhi chwoul dcol l abor at ewi t hot herEur opeanl i br ar i es. Sur pr i si ngl y,t hel i br ar ydoesnotmai nt ai nawi r el essnet wor k.I nJul y1989,t heser vi cesoft he ar chi t ect ur alf i r m ofDomi ni quePer r aul twer er et ai ned.Theconst r uct i onwascar r i edoutbyBouygues.Af t ert hemoveoft hemaj orcol l ect i onsf r om t her uedeRi chel i eu,t heNat i onalLi br ar yof Fr anceopenedt ot hepubl i con20December1996.I tcont ai nsmor et hant enmi l l i onvol umes.


1997/Memor i al i sed/MuseoGuggenhei m Bi l bao

TheGuggenhei m Museum Bi l baoi samuseum ofmoder nandcont empor ar yar tdesi gnedby Canadi anAmer i can ar chi t ectFr ankGehr y,bui l tbyFer r ovi aland l ocat ed i n Bi l bao,Basque Count r y,Spai n.I ti sbui l tal ongsi det heNer vi onRi ver ,whi chr unst hr ought heci t yofBi l baot ot he At l ant i cCoast .TheGuggenhei mi soneofsever almuseumsbel ongi ngt ot heSol omonR.Guggenhei m Foundat i on.Themuseum f eat ur esper manentandvi si t i ngexhi bi t sofwor ksbySpani sh andi nt er nat i onalar t i st s. Oneoft hemostadmi r edwor ksofcont empor ar yar chi t ect ur e,t hebui l di nghasbeenhai l edasa " si ngl emomenti nt hear chi t ect ur alcul t ur e"becausei tr epr esent s" oneoft hoser ar emoment s whencr i t i cs,academi cs,andt hegener alpubl i cwer eal lcompl et el yuni t edaboutsomet hi ng. " Themuseum wast hebui l di ngmostf r equent l ynamedasoneoft hemosti mpor t antwor kscompl et edsi nce1980i nt he2010Wor l dAr chi t ect ur eSur veyamongar chi t ect ur eexper t s. Thecur vesont hebui l di ngwer et oappearr andom.Thear chi t ecthasbeenquot ed[ bywhom?]as sayi ngt hat" t her andomnessoft hecur vesar edesi gnedt ocat cht hel i ght " .Wheni twasopened t ot hepubl i ci n1997,i twasi mmedi at el yhai l edasoneoft hewor l d' smostspect acul arbui l di ngs i nt hest yl eofDeconst r uct i vi sm,al t houghGehr ydoesnotassoci at ehi msel fwi t ht hatar chi t ect ur al movement .Ar chi t ectPhi l i pJohnsoncal l edi t" t hegr eat estbui l di ngofourt i me" . Themuseum' sdesi gnandconst r uct i onser veasanobj ectl essoni nGehr y' sst yl eandmet hod. Li kemanyofGehr y' sot herwor ks,i thasast r uct ur et hatconsi st sofr adi cal l yscul pt ed,or gani c cont our s.Si t edasi ti si napor tt own,i ti si nt endedt or esembl eashi p.I t sbr i l l i ant l yr ef l ect i vet i t ani um panel sr esembl ef i shscal es,echoi ngt heot heror gani cl i f e( and,i npar t i cul ar ,f i shl i ke)f or ms t hatr ecurcommonl yi nGehr y' sdesi gns,aswel l ast her i verNer vi 贸nuponwhi cht hemuseum si t s. Al soi nt ypi calGehr yf ashi on,t hebui l di ngi suni quel yapr oductoft heper i od' st echnol ogy.Comput erAi dedThr eeDi mensi onal I nt er act i veAppl i cat i on( CATI A)andvi sual i zat i onswer eusedhea vi l yi nt hest r uct ur e' sdesi gn.


1998/Memor i al i sed/Cent r ecul t ur elTj i baou

TheJeanMar i eTj i baouCul t ur alCent r ei nNoumĂŠawasdesi gnedbyI t al i anar chi t ectRenzo Pi anowi t ht heconceptofcel ebr at i ngt hever nacul arKanak( al so,Canaque)cul t ur eofNewCal edoni a.Thecent r ei scomposedof10uni t scal l ed" cases, "al lofdi f f er entsi zesanddi f f er entf unct i ons,butwi t ht heconsi st entf or m ofver t i cal l yposi t i onedshel l l i kest r uct ur eswhi chr esembl et he t r adi t i onal hut sofaCal edoni anVi l l age.Theywer egi venadel i ber at e" unf i ni shed"appear anceas ar emi ndert hatKanakcul t ur ei sst i l li nt hepr ocessofbecomi ng-abel i efhel dbyt hedeceased Canaquel eader ,andi nspi r at i onf ort hesi t e,JeanMar i eTj i baou.


‘ 99/Memor i al i sed/ur banhouse

Thi shousewasdesi gnedbyPabl oKat zandsi t uat edi nPar i s.Thi sTownHal l pr i vi l egesaboveal l t het r anspar encyandt heser eni t y.Connect i onsi nsi de/out si dear eomni pr esenti nal lt hef l oor s, i npar t i cul arbyt hecr eat i onoft er r acesandvi sualdi l at i ons.Thel andscapedi nt egr at i onandt he per pet ui t yar ef ort hepr ogr am oft hi sver ybeaut i f ulr eal i zat i onwi t hmet al l i cst r uct ur e.


‘ 100/Memor i al i sed/Ci t édel amusi que

TheCi t édel aMusi que( Fr ench:Ci t yofMusi c)i sagr oupofi nst i t ut i onsdedi cat edt omusi cand si t uat edi nt heLaVi l l et t equar t er ,19t har r ondi ssement ,Par i s,Fr ance.I twasdesi gnedbyt he ar chi t ectChr i st i andePor t zampar candopenedi n1995.I tconsi st sofanamphi t heat er ;aconcer t hal lt hatcanaccommodat eanaudi enceof8001, 000;amuseum ofmusi c,cont ai ni ngani mpor t antcol l ect i onofcl assi cal musi ci nst r ument sdat i ngmai nl yf r om t hef i f t eent h-t ot went i et hcent ur y; andexhi bi t i onhal l s,wor kshopsandar chi ves.Par tofFr ançoi sMi t t er r and' sGr andsPr oj et sal ong wi t ht hePar cdel aVi l l et t e,t heCi t édel aMusi quer ei nvent edLaVi l l et t e-t hef or mersl aught er housedi st r i ct .


Ref er ences 00: Vi l l aCoi l l i ot ,14RueFl eur us( Li l l es) Hect oGui mar d hht p: / / 1900. ar t . nouveau. f r ee. f r 01: Vi ct orHor t amuseum,25,r ueAmér i cai ne,1060Br uxel l es( Sai nt Gi l l es) Vi ct orHor t a ht t p: / / www. i r i smonument . be-ht t p: / / www. hor t amuseum. be 02: TheWi l l owt ear ooms,217Sauchi ehal l ,Gl asgow Char l esRenni eMacki nt osh ht t p: / / www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 03: Hi l lHouse,Scot l and Char l esRenni eMacki nt osh ht t p: / / www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 04 CasaBat l l o,43,Passei gdeGr àci a,Bar cel ona,Spai n Ant oni oGaudi ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Casa_Bat l l o 05 Pal ai sSt ocl et ,Br uxel l es,Bel gi um JosefHof f man ht t p: / / www. bozar . be

06: Vi l l aFal l et ,1Chemi ndePoui l l er e,LaChauxdeFonds Char l esEdouar tJeanner et ht t p: / / www. myswi t zer l and. com,en. wi ki ar qui t ect ur a. com


07 Robbi eHouse,5757S.Woodl awnAvenue, Chi cago,I l l i noi s Fr anckLl oydWr i ght ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Robi e_House 08 JosefHof f mannFl eder mausCol l ect i on JosefHof f mann www. bonl uxat . com 09 Gui mar dHot el ,122avenueMozar t ,Par i s Hect orGui mar d ht t p: / / www. f l i ckr . com/ phot os,ht t p: / / beaut i f ul cent ur y. bl ogspot . com/ 10 St ei nerhouse,Vi enna,Aust r i a Adol fLoos www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 11 CasaMi l à,92,Passei gdeGr àci a,Bar cel ona,Cat al oni a,Spai n. Ant oni oGaudi ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Casa_Mi l à 12 Vi l l aJeanner et Per r et ,LaChauxdeFonds,Sui t zer l and LeCor busi er ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Vi l l a_Jeanner et Per r et 13 Manwi t hgui t ar Geor gesBr aque www. MOMA. or g 14 TheMudBat h,PeggyGuggenhei m museum,Veni ce Davi dBomber g ht t p: / / www. guggenhei m. or g


15: Ocean5,Peggyguggenhei m museum ( Veni ce) Pi et rMondr i an www. moma. or g 16: Lej our nal ,Nor t on,museum ar t RuanGr i s ht t p: / / www. ar t chi ve. com 17: r edbl uechai r Ger r i tRi et vel d www. desi gni cons. co. uk 18: Youbor eme,Momamuseum Mar celDuchamp www. under st andi ngduchamp. com 19: LHOOQ Mar celDuchamp MuséeNat i onald' Ar tModer ne 20: Tat l i n’ st ower( pr oj ect ) ,Pet r ogr ad Vl adi mi rTat l i n ht t p: / / www. cca. qc. ca

21: Hol l yhockhouse,LosAngel es,USA Fr ankLl oydWr i ght www. gal i nsky. com 22: AmédéeOzenf antHouse,Par i s,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com


23: Vi l aNoai l l es,Hyèr es,Fr ance Rober tMal l etSt evens www. vi l l anoai l l eshyer es. com 24: Vi l l aLaRoche,Par i s,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. f ondat i onl ecor busi er . f r 25: Wassi l ychai r Mar celBr euer www. desi gnt echnol ogy. or g

26: Rudol phSt ei nerHouse,London,UK Mont agueWheel er www. ant h. or g. uk 27: D42Ar mchai r Ludwi gMi esVanderRohe www. nova68. com 28: vi l l aMül l er ,Pr ague,CzechRepubl i c Adol fLoos ht t p: / / www. gal i nsky. com/ 29: Bar cel onaPavi l l i on,Bar cel ona,Cat al uni a,Spai n Ludwi gMi esvanderRohe ww. mi esbcn. com/ en/ pavi l i on 30: Vi l l aTugendhat ,Br no,CzechRepubl i c Ludwi gMi esvanderRohe www. t ugendhat . eu


31: Vi l l aSavoye,Poi ssy,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com,www. gal i nsky. com 32: Vi l l aCavr oi x,Li l l es,Fr ance Rober tMal l erSt evens www. l emoni t eur . f r 33: LemkeHouse,Ber l i n,Deut chl and Ludwi gMi esVanderRohe www. ger mangal l er i es. com 34: Zi gzagchai r Ger r i tThomasRi et vel d www. moder ncl assi c. cn 35: Vi l l al eSext ant ,l aPal myr e,Fr ance LeCor busi er eng. ar chi nf or m. net 36: Ri i hi t i eHouse,Hel si nki ,Fi nl and Al varAal t o ww. apar t ment t her apy. com 37: Tr ocadér o,Pal ai sChai l l ot ,Par i s,Fr ance LéonAzéma,JacquesCar l uandLoui sHi ppol yt eBoi l eau www. i nsecul a. com 38: Gr opi usHouse,68BakerBr i dgeRoad,Li ncol n,Massachuset t s,USA Wal t erGr opi us www. hi st or i cnewengl and. or g


50: . Akar il i ght I samuNogushi akar i st or e. st or es. yahoo. net 51: Far nswor t hHouse,I l l i noi s,USA Ludwi gMi esVanderRohe www. f ar nswor t hhouse. or g 52: Chandi gar hmuseum,Chandi gar h,I ndi a LeCor busi er chdmuseum. ni c. i n 53: Mai sonJaoul ,Neui l l y,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 54: JeanPr ouvéHouse,Nancy,Fr ance JeanPr ouvé www. j eanpr ouve. com 55: Not r eDamedeRonchamp,Ronchamp,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. r onchamp. f r

56: Egl i seSai ntJoseph,l eHavr e,Fr ance August ePer r et www2. ar chi . f r 57: Chi l dschai rKr i st i anVedel . Kr i st i anVedel ar chi t ect made. com


50: . Akar il i ght I samuNogushi akar i st or e. st or es. yahoo. net 51: Far nswor t hHouse,I l l i noi s,USA Ludwi gMi esVanderRohe www. f ar nswor t hhouse. or g 52: Chandi gar hmuseum,Chandi gar h,I ndi a LeCor busi er chdmuseum. ni c. i n 53: Mai sonJaoul ,Neui l l y,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 54: JeanPr ouvéHouse,Nancy,Fr ance JeanPr ouvé www. j eanpr ouve. com 55: Not r eDamedeRonchamp,Ronchamp,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. r onchamp. f r

56: Egl i seSai ntJoseph,l eHavr e,Fr ance August ePer r et www2. ar chi . f r 57: Chi l dschai rKr i st i anVedel . Kr i st i anVedel ar chi t ect made. com


58: Nor manCher nerChai r Nor manCher ner www. cher ner chai r . com 59: Mai sonLoui sCar r é,Bazochessur Guyonne,Fr ance Al varAal t o www. l i nt er naut e. com,www. t our i sme. yvel i nes. f r 60: Sai nt eMar i edel aTour et t e,Eveux,Fr ance LeCor busi er www. couvent l at our et t e. com 61: Car pent erCent er ,Cambr i dge,Massachuset t s,USA LeCor busi er www. car pent er ar t s. or g 62: VannaVent ur iHouse,Chest nutHi l l ,Phi l adel phi a,Pennsyl vani a,USA Rober tVent ur i www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 63: Égl i seSai nt Jul i endeCaen,Gr ance Henr yBer nar d www. vi ami chel i n. com 71: f r ankgehr yr ocki ngchai r Fr anckGehr y www. l i veauct i oneer s. com,www. moder nchai r desi gn. com 72: ki mbel lar tmuseum,For tWor t h,Texas,USA Loui sKhan www. ki mbel l ar t . or g,www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com


73: SydneyOper aHouse,Sydney,Aust r al i a Jør nUt zon www. cul t ur eandr ecr eat i on. gov. au 74: Jat i yoSangshadBhaban,Bangl adesh Loui sKhan www. bangl adesh. com 75: Mi ckJagger1975 AndyWar hol www. mar t i nl awr ence. com 76: Azumahouse,Osaka,Japan TadaoAndo www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 77: Cent r eGeor gesPompi dou,Par i s,Fr ance Ri char dRoger s,RenzoPi ano www. cent r epompi dou. f r 78: Fr anckGer hy’ shouse,LosAngel es,USA Fr anckGer hy ht t p: / / www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com/ 79: TheAt heneum,NewHar mony,I ndi ana,USA Ri char dMei er www. newhar mony. bi z 80: Tower42,London,UK Ri char dSei f er t www. t ower 42. com


81: Nat i onalPal aceofCul t ur e,Sof i a,Bul gar y At anasAgur a ht t p: / / www. ai pc. or g 82: Cost eschai r Phi l i pSt ar k www. desi gni cons. co. uk 83: Eat onCent er ,Tor ont o,Canada Rudol phAdl af www. t or ont oeat oncent r e. com 84: Gr aceKel l y1984,I nst i t ut eofCont empor ar yAr t ,London,UK AndyWar hol www. coskunf i near t . com 85: Col umbi aCent er ,Seat t l e,Washi ngt on,USA Chest erLi ndseyAr chi t ect s MagnussonKl emenci cAssoci at es www. col umbi acent er . or g 86: MountRokkoChapel ,Kobe,Japan TadaoAndo www. gal i nsky. com 87: Ar abwor l di nst i t ut e,Par i s,Fr ance JeanNouvel www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 88: Lat i nAmer i caMemor i al ,S達oPaul o,Br azi l OscarNi emeyer ar chi t ect . ar chi t ect ur e. sk,www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com


89: Pyr ami deduLouvr e,Par i s,Fr ance I eohMi ngPei www. gr eat bui l di ngs. com 90: Vi l l ad’ al lAvas, Sai ntCl oud,Fr ance Rem Kool haas ht t p: / / ar chi ve. chez. com,www. oma. eu 91: Ni t er óiCont empor ar yAr tMuseum,Ri odeJanei r o,Br azi l OscarNi emeyer ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g,www. moma. or g 92: Kunst hal ,Rot t er dam,Net her l ands Rem Kool haas www. kunst hal . nl 93: Car r éd’ ar t ,16Pl acedel aMai sonCar r ee,Ni mes,Fr ance Si rNor manFost er car r ear t musee. ni mes. f r 94: SFMOMA,SanFr anci sco,USA Mar i oBot t a www. sf moma. or g,www. bot t a. ch 95: Cat hédr al eNot r eDamedel ar ésur r ect i on,Evr y,Fr ance Mar i oBot t a ht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Mar i o_Bot t a,www. bot t a. ch 96: Bi bl i ot hèqueFr ançoi sMi t t er and,QuaiFr ançoi sMaur i ac,Par i s,Fr ance Domi ni quePer r aud ww. bnf . f r ,mul t i medi a. bnf . f r / vi si t ef mi t t er r and


97: MuseoGuggenhei m,Bi l bao,Spai n Fr anckGer r y www. guggenhei mbi l bao. es,www. guggenhei m. or g 98: Cent r ecul t ur elTj i baou,Nouméa,NewCal édoni e,Fr ance RenzoPi ano www. adck. nc,www. gal i nsky. com 99 Ur banhouse,Par i s,Fr ance Pabl oKat z www. st ar pr oper t y. my 100 Ci t édel aMusi que,Par i s,Fr ance Chr i t i andePor t zampar c www. ci t emusi que. f r


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Didactic book about interior architecture during the XX century

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